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Sample records for tolerance similar impairment

  1. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  2. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  3. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was determined in 479 urbanised South African blacks (141 men and 338 women) of Zulu descent selected by cluster sampling in a suburb of Durban. All subjects underwent a modified glucose tolerance test whereby fasting and 2-hour postglucose ...

  4. Impact of renal transplantation on glucose tolerance in Japanese recipients with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Iwami, D; Miyoshi, H; Morita, K; Taguri, M; Terauchi, Y; Shinohara, N; Atsumi, T

    2017-04-01

    To investigate changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Japanese recipients before and 1 year after renal transplantation. We conducted a study of Japanese recipients without diabetes who underwent renal transplantation at Hokkaido University Hospital. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and 1 year after renal transplantation in these recipients. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin secretion was evaluated based on the insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). Of the 62 renal transplant recipients, 31 were diagnosed as having impaired glucose tolerance before transplantation. Among these 31 recipients, after 1 year, four had developed new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and nine had impaired glucose tolerance. Unexpectedly, 18 changed from impaired to normal glucose tolerance. When these recipients with impaired glucose tolerance were classified into a non-amelioration group and an amelioration group, the ISSI-2 was significantly reduced, with no significant changes in the Matsuda index or HOMA-IR, in the non-amelioration group 1 year after renal transplantation. By contrast, ISSI-2 and Matsuda index values were significantly increased, with no significant changes in HOMA-IR values in the amelioration group. More than half of Japanese renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance had normal glucose tolerance 1 year after renal transplantation. These results suggest that an increase in insulin secretion and whole insulin sensitivity was associated with improvement in glucose tolerance in these recipients. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  5. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

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    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of cediranib, a potent VEGF signalling inhibitor, in cancer patients with hepatic impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Herpen, Carla M L; Lassen, Ulrik; Desar, Ingrid M E

    2013-01-01

    levels of hepatic impairment classified according to the bilirubin level. Safety, tolerability, multiple-dose PK and PK stratified according to the Child-Pugh criteria were also assessed. Thirty patients received cediranib: 18 with normal-mild hepatic impairment and 12 with moderate hepatic impairment...... not influence PK results in multiple dosing. After continuous once-daily dosing, the geometric least square means ratio was 0.72 (90% CI 0.51-1.03) for AUCSS and 0.67 (90% CI 0.47-0.94) for CSS,max. Similar results were obtained when patients were classified for hepatic impairment according to the Child...

  7. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, A.; Challet, Etienne

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h

  8. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  9. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  10. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

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    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  12. Spontaneous hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in athymic nude BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, A; Tosco, C; Kumar, D; Slavin, B; Parker, J

    1982-09-01

    Basal plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were investigated in young and mature athymic nude BALB/c mice and in age-matched controls. Basal plasma glucose levels in male athymic nude mice were similar to those of controls at 1, 3, and 4 wk of age. At 6, 8, and 12 wk of age, male athymic nudes had significantly higher basal plasma glucose levels when compared with controls (P less than 0.01). Plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were similar in athymic nudes and controls at 1 wk of age, but at 3 wk of age and subsequently at 6, 8, and 12 wk athymic nude mice had significantly decreased insulin levels when compared with their age-matched controls (P less than 0.05). We found impaired glucose tolerance in male athymic nude mice at all age groups when compared with both female athymic nudes and control BALB/c mice. The discovery of a spontaneous diabetic syndrome (hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased insulin secretion) in a colony of athymic nude mice may provide an excellent model for studying the genetics and interactions between the immune and endocrine systems.

  13. Nitrate tolerance impairs nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jørn Bech; Boesgaard, Søren; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized......Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized...

  14. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  15. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

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    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  16. The prevalence ofdiabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adjusted body mass indices (BMIs) of diabetic (31,3 ± 1,9) and. IGT (29,7 ± 1,9) subjects were significantly higher than those ofthe group with normal glucose toler- ance (28 ± 0,5). Female subjects with all types of glucose tolerance had significantly ...

  17. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  18. Parathyroid hormone impairs extrarenal potassium tolerance in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, A.; Kahn, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the extrarenal disposition of an acute potassium load was examined in acutely nephrectomized rats infused with KCl alone or in combination with PTH, with serial monitoring of plasma potassium every 10 min. The rise in plasma potassium concentration (ΔPK) in the PTH group was higher than control. PTH was then administered along with KCl to two groups of nephrectomized and acutely thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats in doses of 1 and 0.25 U · kg -1 · min -1 for 90 min. ΔPK with PTH in both groups was higher than TPTX control. The two higher doses of PTH resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure from their respective controls. A similar reduction in arterial pressure in three groups of nephrectomized rats by administration of hydralazine or nitroprusside or by acute blood loss did not change ΔPK subsequent to potassium infusion from that in control rats. Furthermore, the lowest dose of PTH did not lower arterial pressure from its respective control. Therefore, hypotension is not a cause for the PTH-induced potassium intolerance. Serum levels of insulin, aldosterone, catecholamines, calcium, plasma HCO 3 concentration, and pH were not different in PTH-infused vs. respective control rats. These data suggest that PTH impairs extrarenal potassium disposal in the rat. The effect of PTH may relate to enhanced calcium entry into cells

  19. Age-related impairment on a forced-choice version of the Mnemonic Similarity Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek J; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies from our lab have indicated that healthy older adults are impaired in their ability to mnemonically discriminate between previously viewed objects and similar lure objects in the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). These studies have used either old/similar/new or old/new test formats. The forced-choice test format (e.g., "Did you see object A or object A' during the encoding phase?") relies on different assumptions than the old/new test format (e.g., "Did you see this object during the encoding phase?"); hence, converging evidence from these approaches would bolster the conclusion that healthy aging is accompanied by impaired performance on the MST. Consistent with our hypothesis, healthy older adults exhibited impaired performance on a forced-choice test format that required discriminating between a target and a similar lure. We also tested the hypothesis that age-related impairments on the MST could be modeled within a global matching computational framework. We found that decreasing the probability of successful feature encoding in the models caused changes that were similar to the empirical data in healthy older adults. Collectively, our behavioral results using the forced-choice format extend the finding that healthy aging is accompanied by an impaired ability to discriminate between targets and similar lures, and our modeling results suggest that a diminished probability of encoding stimulus features is a candidate mechanism for memory changes in healthy aging. We also discuss the ability of global matching models to account for findings in other studies that have used variants on mnemonic similarity tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  1. Tolerability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in cognitively impaired elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Nicola; Pieraccioli, Mariachiara; Mossello, Enrico; Sgrilli, Federica; Bulgaresi, Matteo; Crescioli, Elena; Biagini, Francesco; Caleri, Veronica; Tonon, Elisabetta; Cantini, Claudia; Biagini, Carlo A; Marchionni, Niccolò; Ungar, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Recent guidelines have widened clinical indications for out-of-office blood pressure measurement, including home blood pressure monitoring and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), suggesting the latter as recommended method in cognitively impaired patients. There is, however, a widespread belief that ABPM could be poorly tolerated in dementia, often leading to withdraw from its use in these patients. To assess the actual tolerability of ABPM in a group of cognitively impaired elderly, affected by dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 176 patients aged 65 + years, recruited in two different memory clinics, with a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) between 10 and 27. Behavioral and psychological symptoms were assessed with Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). A patient was considered tolerant if able to keep the device on continuously for 24 h. The minimum number of correct measurements required was 70% of the predicted total number. 16% of patients wore the device for less than 24 h. Dividing the study population in tertiles of MMSE performance, 29% failed to tolerate the device in the lowest, 12% in the middle and 7% in the highest tertile (p ABPM proved a generally well-tolerated technique even in cognitively impaired elderly. Only a minority of subjects with poorer cognitive performances and greater behavioral symptoms did not tolerate the monitoring. Among most patients who failed to achieve the minimum number of measurements needed, the number of valid measurements was very close to the minimum required.

  2. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  3. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  5. Skin Autofluorescence Based Decision Tree in Detection of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Smit, Jitske M.; Botterblom, Gijs J.; Mulder, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We

  6. IL-33 dysregulates regulatory T cells and impairs established immunologic tolerance in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Kobayashi, Takao; Iijima, Koji; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Kita, Hirohito

    2017-11-01

    Airway exposure to environmental antigens generally leads to immunologic tolerance. A fundamental question remains: Why is airway tolerance compromised in patients with allergic airway diseases? IL-33 promotes innate and adaptive type 2 immunity and might provide the answer to this question. The goal of this study was to investigate the roles played by IL-33 in altering regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs and in affecting previously established airway immunologic tolerance. We analyzed CD4 + forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) + Treg cells that were isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice and those treated with IL-33. Airway tolerance and allergen-induced airway inflammation models in mice were used to investigate how IL-33 affects established immunologic tolerance in vivo. CD4 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in the lungs expressed the IL-33 receptor ST2. When exposed to IL-33, Treg cells upregulated their expression of the canonical T H 2 transcription factor GATA3, as well as ST2, and produced type 2 cytokines. Treg cells lost their ability to suppress effector T cells in the presence of IL-33. Airway administration of IL-33 with an antigen impaired immunologic tolerance in the lungs that had been established by prior exposure to the antigen. Dysregulated Foxp3 + Treg cells with distinct characteristics of T H 2 cells increased in the lungs of mice undergoing IL-33-dependent allergen-driven airway inflammation. IL-33 dysregulated lung Treg cells and impaired immunologic tolerance to inhaled antigens. Established airway tolerance might not be sustained in the presence of an innate immunologic stimulus, such as IL-33. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Absence of an acute insulin response predicts onset of type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population with impaired glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijpels, G.; Boorsma, W.; Dekker, J.M.; Hoeksema, F.; Kostense, P.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: In persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), both impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few studies have used criterion standard measures to asses the predictive value of impaired insulin secretion

  8. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is well tolerated in people with Alzheimer-related cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Sandra A; Vidoni, Eric D; Greer, Colby S; Graves, Rasinio S; Mattlage, Anna E; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2014-09-01

    To retrospectively assess whether cardiopulmonary exercise testing would be well tolerated in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with a nondemented peer group. We retrospectively reviewed 575 cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) in individuals with and without cognitive impairment caused by AD. University medical center. Exercise tests (N=575) were reviewed for nondemented individuals (n=340) and those with AD-related cognitive impairment (n=235). Not applicable. The main outcome measure for this study was reporting the reason for CPET termination. The hypothesis reported was formulated after data collection. We found that in cognitively impaired individuals, CPETs were terminated because of fall risk more often, but that overall test termination was infrequent-5.5% versus 2.1% (P=.04) in peers without cognitive impairment. We recorded 6 cardiovascular and 7 fall risk events in those with AD, compared with 7 cardiovascular and 0 fall risk events in those without cognitive impairment. Our findings support using CPETs to assess peak oxygen consumption in older adults with cognitive impairment caused by AD. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Duration, Lifestyle Intervention, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Peltonen, Markku; Partinen, Markku; Lavigne, Gilles; Eriksson, Johan G.; Herder, Christian; Aunola, Sirkka; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lindström, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both short and long sleep duration have frequently been found to be associated with an increased risk for diabetes. The aim of the present exploratory analysis was to examine the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes after lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance in a 7-year prospective follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 522 individuals (aged 40–64 years) were randomly allocated either to an intensive diet-exercise counseling group or to a control group. Diabetes incidence during follow-up was calculated according to sleep duration at baseline. Sleep duration was obtained for a 24-h period. Physical activity, dietary intakes, body weight, and immune mediators (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured. RESULTS Interaction between sleep duration and treatment group was statistically significant (P = 0.003). In the control group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for diabetes were 2.29 (1.38–3.80) and 2.74 (1.67–4.50) in the sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, respectively, compared with for that of the 7–8.5 h group. In contrast, sleep duration did not influence the incidence of diabetes in the intervention group; for sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.60–2.01) and 0.73 (0.34–1.56), respectively, compared with that in the reference group (7–8.5 h sleep). Lifestyle intervention resulted in similar improvement in body weight, insulin sensitivity, and immune mediator levels regardless of sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Long sleep duration is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Lifestyle intervention with the aim of weight reduction, healthy diet, and increased physical activity may ameliorate some of this excess risk. PMID:19651919

  10. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  11. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  12. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in obese Argentinean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Carmen S; Ozuna, Blanca; Krochik, Andrea Gabriela; Araujo, María Beatriz

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in obese children and adolescents and to examine insulin resistance and insulin secretion. We studied 427 asymptomatic obese patients. DM2 and IGT were diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance and P-cell function were assessed by using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), insulin/glucose index (I/GI), fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity index (ISI-composite). Thirty patients showed IGT (7%) and seven had DM2 (1.6%). The mean age was 10.7 +/- 3.5 years, the diabetic group being significantly older than the normal group (p < 0.01). The mean body mass index was 30 +/- 5.3 kg/m2 without significant differences between groups. beta-Cell function declined significantly in the patients with IGT and DM2, and insulin resistance increased significantly. Given the rather high prevalence of glucose metabolism impairment, children with obesity should undergo glucose tolerance testing for appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  13. Relative efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine versus selected antidepressants by indirect comparisons of similar clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Brignone, Mélanie; Rive, Benoît; Salah, Samir; Ereshefsky, Larry; Francois, Clément

    2014-12-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multimodal activity which has shown efficacy in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in six of ten short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (completed end 2012). We performed meta-regression analyses to indirectly compare vortioxetine to seven marketed antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. To ensure study comparability, only experimental drug and placebo arms from placebo-controlled registration studies were included in primary analyses. The main outcomes were efficacy (standardized mean difference in change from baseline to 2 months on primary endpoint [MADRS/HAM-D]), and tolerability (withdrawal rate due to adverse events). For efficacy, estimates of treatment effect (negative estimates favor vortioxetine) for vortioxetine versus comparators were: agomelatine, -0.16 (p = 0.11); desvenlafaxine, 0.03 (p = 0.80); duloxetine, 0.09 (p = 0.42); escitalopram, -0.05 (p = 0.70); sertraline, -0.04 (p = 0.83); venlafaxine IR/XR, 0.12 (p = 0.33); and vilazodone, -0.25 (p = 0.11). For tolerability, all but one combination was numerically in favor of vortioxetine (odds ratio antidepressant effect estimates or relative ranking. These meta-regression data show that vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD. Alternative methods like mixed-treatment comparison and inclusion of all randomized studies and active reference arms may provide complementary information to this analysis (more evidence but also more heterogeneity). Key messages: Indirect comparisons based on registration studies allow a useful comparison between a recently approved antidepressant and an approved drug. Vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D assessments) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to

  14. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  15. Effect of the selective NMDA NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, on acute tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent rats have been observed to be less sensitive than adults to a number of acute ethanol effects, including ethanol-induced motor impairment. These adolescent insensitivities may be related in part to the more rapid emergence of within session (acute) tolerance in adolescents than adults. Adolescent-related alterations in neural systems that serve as ethanol target sites, including changes in NMDA receptor subunit expression, may influence the responsiveness of adolescents to acute ethanol effects. This study explored the role of NMDA NR2B receptors in the development of acute tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment in male adolescent [postnatal day (P)28-30] and adult (P68-70) Sprague-Dawley rats. Motor-impairing effects of ethanol on the stationary inclined plane and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were examined following challenge at each age with a functionally equivalent ethanol dose (adolescents: 2.25 g/kg; adults: 1.5 g/kg). Data were collected at two postinjection intervals (10 or 60 minutes) to compare rate of recovery from ethanol intoxication with BEC declines using the Radlow approach (Radlow, 1994) and changes in motor impairment/BEC ratios over time for assessing acute tolerance. Both vehicle-treated adolescent and adult animals showed similar acute tolerance development to the motor-impairing effects of ethanol at these functionally equivalent doses on the stationary inclined plane, as indexed by an increasing time-dependent dissociation between BECs and ethanol-induced motor impairment, with motor impairment declining faster than BECs, as well as by significant declines in motor impairment/BEC ratios over time. Acute tolerance development was reliably blocked by administration of the NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, (5.0 mg/kg), in adult rats, whereas adolescents were affected by a higher dose (10.0 mg/kg). These data support the suggestion that alterations in NMDA receptor systems occurring during adolescence may contribute to

  16. Steady-state pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of donepezil hydrochloride in hepatically impaired patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Josephine F; Vargas, Ramon; Kumar, Dinesh; Cullen, Edward I; Perdomo, Carlos A; Pratt, Raymond D

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), tolerability and safety of donepezil HCl 5 mg following oral doses for 1 and 24 days in hepatically impaired patients compared with healthy controls under steady-state, multiple-dose conditions. Methods In this single-centre, multiple-dose, open-label study, patients with impaired hepatic function (Child–Pugh grade A or B) and healthy controls (matched by gender, age and weight to the hepatically impaired patients) received a single 5 mg dose of donepezil on day 1 and then donepezil HCl 5 mg once daily from days 6 to 29. PK and PD (determination of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition) parameters were evaluated on days 1 and 29. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examination and clinical laboratory test parameters were monitored throughout the study. Results A total of 35 subjects (18 patients with hepatic impairment and 17 healthy controls) were enrolled and 32 subjects (16 in each group) completed the study. On day 1 (following a single dose) hepatically impaired patients showed a significant decrease in Tmax, while t½ and AUC0–∞ were significantly increased compared with the healthy controls. On day 29 (following multiple doses), AUC0–24 h, Cmax, t½, CSS, and RA were significantly increased in hepatically impaired patients compared with healthy controls. AUC0–24 h increased by 47.6% in the patients with hepatic impairment compared with the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in PD between the groups, although at steady state, the mean AChE inhibition was 16.2% higher in the hepatically impaired patients. No serious AEs were reported and no subject withdrew from the study due to AEs. The most common AEs in both groups were headache and diarrhoea. No clinically significant changes from baseline were observed in vital signs, physical examination findings or electrocardiograms. There was a significant difference in the number of

  17. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects....... RESULTS: GIP and GLP-1 levels increased significantly in both experiments (P response was exaggerated compared with control subjects after mixed meal (P ...OBJECTIVE: Defects in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion have been reported in some patients with type 2 diabetes after meal ingestion. We addressed the following questions: 1) Is the quantitative impairment in GLP-1 levels different after mixed meal or isolated glucose ingestion? 2) Which...

  18. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  19. A personality and impairment approach to examine the similarities and differences between avoidant personality disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Kieran L C; Sellbom, Martin; Liggett, Jacqueline; Smith, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined whether avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) should be considered distinct disorder constructs, which is a persistent and controversial issue in the clinical literature. We examined whether relative scores on SAD and AvPD were associated with the same personality profile and severity of impairment. The current research used a cross-sectional design and self-report inventories, including multiple measures of personality, impairment and psychopathology. Results from a mixed sample of 402 university and community participants found that scores on AvPD and SAD were similarly associated with personality traits and impairment indices. Moreover, a latent construct accounting for the shared variance for AvPD and SAD was associated with personality traits and impairment, whereas the residuals representing the uniquenesses of these disorder constructs were not. These findings support the view that AvPD and SAD are similar disorders from a phenotypic personality trait and impairment perspective. These findings are contrary to a prevalent view in the literature, known as severity continuum hypothesis, because the two disorders could not be meaningfully differentiated based on severity of impairment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs H. Goossens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acids (FFA, whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG, FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018 and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064 in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043, higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025, higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004, lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017 and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073 and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059 versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.

  1. Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Vankan, D; Anderson, S T; Marshall, R; Morton, J M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18-24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, S; Rose, P; Mattheus, M; Cinca, R; Pinnetti, S; Broedl, U C; Woerle, H J

    2014-02-01

    This open-label, parallel-group study investigated the effect of various degrees of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin. Thirty-six subjects [8 each with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classification), and 12 matched controls with normal hepatic function] received a single 50 mg dose of empagliflozin. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed. After reaching peak levels, plasma drug concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion. Compared with subjects with normal hepatic function, geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of AUC(0-∞) and C(max) were 123.15% (98.89-153.36) and 103.81% (82.29-130.95), respectively, in patients with mild hepatic impairment, 146.97% (118.02-183.02) and 123.31% (97.74-155.55), respectively, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and 174.70% (140.29-217.55) and 148.41% (117.65-187.23), respectively, in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Adverse events, all mild or moderate in intensity, were reported in three subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, two subjects with severe hepatic impairment and six subjects with normal hepatic function. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in subjects with hepatic impairment. Increases in empagliflozin exposure were less than twofold in patients with hepatic impairment; therefore no dose adjustment of empagliflozin is required in patients with hepatic impairment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Precision grip in congenital and acquired hemiparesis: similarities in impairments and implications for neurorehabilitation - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eBleyenheuft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitationObjective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, pubmed and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital or acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other.

  4. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  5. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  6. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  7. Serum Galanin Concentration is Increased in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yan; Li, Yin; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Gu, Xuewen; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Although extensive data have shown that galanin can regulate the food intake and glucose metabolism of animals, little is known regarding the galanin concentration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether serum galanin levels and other metabolic parameters are changed in patients with IGT compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Data regarding serum galanin levels and relative metabolic parameters were collected in 12 patients with IGT and 12 healthy patients with NGT. At 1 hour and 2 hours after dinner, serum galanin, insulin and glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with IGT than in controls with NGT. Additionally, the body weights of patients with IGT was higher than those of the controls. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose concentrations (r=-0.580; p=0.048) in patients with IGT. The higher serum galanin levels as well as the negative correlation between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose content in patients with IGT may result from the interaction between insulin and galanin in differing conditions, suggesting that the galanin level may be used as a potential biomarker for the prediction of IGT in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Grammatical morphology in children learning English as a second language: implications of similarities with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the expressive language characteristics of typically developing (TD) children learning English as a second language (ESL) have similarities to the characteristics of the English that is spoken by monolingual children with specific language impairment (SLI), and whether this could result in the erroneous assessment of TD English-language learners (ELLs) as language impaired. Twenty-four TD language-minority children who had been learning ESL for an average of 9.5 months participated in the study. The children's accuracy and error types in production of the following grammatical morphemes were examined in spontaneous and elicited speech: third person singular [-s], past tense [-ed], irregular past tense, BE as a copula and auxiliary verb, DO as an auxiliary verb, progressive [-ing], prepositions in and on, plural [-s], and determiners a and the. The elicitation probes were part of a recently developed standardized test for identifying language impairment, the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI; M. Rice & K. Wexler, 2001). The ELLs' accuracy rates and error patterns with the grammatical morphemes were similar to those that have been reported for same-age monolingual children with SLI, in both spontaneous and elicited speech. In addition, the ELL's elicitation probe scores were compared to the criterion scores and group means from the sample of monolingual children used to develop the TEGI and their performance on the TEGI was in the range of the clinical population even though there is no reason to suspect that any of these children is language impaired. Both analyses point to the possibility that TD ELLs could be mistaken as language impaired. The results provide information that can be used to set appropriate expectations of error patterns and rate of grammatical development in the early stages of ESL learning. The results also emphasize how the use of English standardized tests with nonnative English-speakers is

  9. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2015-09-28

    We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared from milk collected from cows fed a high fermentable carbohydrate diet to create subacute rumen acidosis (SARA); control (non-SARA) butter was collected from cows fed a low grain diet. Female fatty Zucker rats (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments: i) low fat (10 % kcal), ii) 45 % kcal lard, iii) 45 % kcal SARA butter, or iv) 45 % kcal non-SARA butter. A low fat fed lean Zucker group was used as a control group. After 8 weeks, i) glucose and insulin tolerance tests, ii) insulin signaling in muscle, adipose and liver, and iii) metabolic caging measurements were performed. Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly impaired in all fatty Zucker groups, but to the greatest extent in the LARD and SARA conditions. Insulin signaling (AKT phosphorylation) was impaired in muscle, visceral (perigonadal) adipose tissue and liver in fatty Zucker rats, but was generally similar across dietary groups. Physical activity, oxygen consumption, food intake and weight gain were also similar amongst the various fatty Zucker groups. Increasing the consumption of a food naturally enriched with CLAt10,c12 significantly worsens glucose and insulin tolerance in a diabetes-prone rodent model. This outcome is not explained by changes in tissue insulin signaling, physical activity, energy expenditure, food intake or body mass.

  10. High-functioning autism patients share similar but more severe impairments in verbal theory of mind than schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, L N W; Lui, S S Y; Ho, K K Y; Hung, K S Y; Wang, Y; Yeung, H K H; Wong, T Y; Lam, S M; Chan, R C K; Cheung, E F C

    2017-09-18

    Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM. The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients. The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism-schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.

  11. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  12. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons.Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE.218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%.SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  13. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Maekawa,1 Tetsuya Kawahara,2 Ryosuke Nomura,1 Takayuki Murase,1 Yasuyoshi Ann,1 Masayuki Oeholm,1 Masaru Harada31Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization, Niigata Rosai Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan; 3Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: In recent years, the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT has increased steadily worldwide. It is clear that the prevention of diabetes is important from the perspective of public health, medical care, and economics. It was recently reported that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is useful for achieving weight loss and glycemic control, but there is no information about the effects of the LCD on IGT. We designed a 7-day in-hospital educational program focused on the LCD for IGT.Methods: The subjects were 72 patients with IGT (36 in the LCD group and 36 in the control group who were enrolled from April 2007–March 2012 and followed for 12 months. We retrospectively compared the LCD group with the control group.Results: In 69.4% of the LCD group, blood glucose was normalized at 12 months and the 2-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reduced by 33 mg/dL. In addition, the incidence of diabetes was significantly lower in the LCD group than in the control group at 12 months (0% versus 13.9%, P=0.02. The LCD group showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance value, body weight and serum triglycerides (TGs at 12 months, while there was a significant increase of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level.Conclusion: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type 2 diabetes in

  14. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  15. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in men with impaired glucose tolerance : impact of insulin stimulation and weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.; Corpeleijn, E.; Bouwman, F.G.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) state is characterized by insulin resistance. Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may underlie this reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prediabetic state is accompanied by changes in the expression

  16. Postprandial interleukin-6 release from skeletal muscle in men with impaired glucose tolerance can be reduced by weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Saris, W.H.; Jansen, E.H.; Roekaerts, P.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Objective: This study addressed the question of whether IL-6 was released from skeletal muscle after a high-fat meal in men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a prediabetic

  17. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2014-03-15

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36h of: (1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and (2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  20. Similar clinical features among patients with severe adult growth hormone deficiency diagnosed with insulin tolerance test or arginine or glucagon stimulation tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toogood, Andrew; Brabant, Georg; Maiter, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used.......To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used....

  1. Epinephrine impairs insulin release by a mechanism distal to calcium mobilization. Similarity to lipoxygenase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms that enable epinephrine (EPI) and lipoxygenase inhibitors to impede insulin secretion are unknown. We examined the possibility that EPI inhibits Ca 2+ fluxes as its major mechanism by studying 45 Ca efflux from prelabeled, intact rat islets. EPI (2.5 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-5) M) inhibited insulin release induced by the influx of extracellular Ca 2+ (46 mM K+) or the mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ stores (2 mM Ba 2+ ), but it did not reduce the 45 Ca efflux stimulated by either agonist. EPI also nullified insulin release induced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP, with minimal or no effects on 45 Ca efflux, and blocked the insulinotropic effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (a direct activator of protein kinase C), which is believed primarily to sensitize the exocytotic apparatus to Ca 2+ without mobilizing additional Ca 2+ . Previously we reported that similar effects were induced by inhibitors of pancreatic islet lipoxygenase. In this study, however, pretreatment with either the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine or pertussis toxin did not block the effects of lipoxygenase inhibitors, although either agent did block the effects of EPI. Thus, EPI, via an alpha 2-receptor mechanism, is able to reduce exocytosis largely distal to, or independent of, changes in Ca 2+ flux, cAMP formation or its Ca 2+ -mobilizing action, or generation of protein kinase C activators. Therefore, EPI may reduce the sensitivity of the exocytotic apparatus to Ca 2+ . Inhibition of islet lipoxygenase may have a similar effect; however, in this case, the effect would have to be unrelated, or distal, to stimulation of alpha 2-receptors

  2. Evaluation of Total Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Hypertension and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Cherniavska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Timely reveal of the patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases for whom earlier intervention for cardiovascular risk correction is the most effective. Materials and methods. Seventy patients aged 30–55 years old with stage 2 hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high cardiovascular risk were examined according to Framingham criteria. Cardiovascular risk was compared by SCORE and PROCAM results. Results. Percentage ratio of males with high cardiovascular risk was higher by 52.3 % in comparison to females by SCORE and by 2.3 % in comparison to females by PROCAM. Males did not present any significant discrepancy by evaluation of cardiovascular risk by both scores unlike females. Obtained results showed that total cardiovascular risk in females was twofold higher by PROCAM compared to SCORE scale. Conclusions. Total cardiovascular risk level in patients with stage 2 hypertension and IGT is influenced by age, systolic blood pressure level, smoking, lipid storage disease and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. When we evaluate total cardiovascular risk, we should not be limited only by determination of factors determined in SCORE. It is reasonable to evaluate risk factors by PROCAM, too, especially for females.

  3. Weight Cycling Increases T-Cell Accumulation in Adipose Tissue and Impairs Systemic Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily K.; Gutierrez, Dario A.; Kennedy, Arion; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the U.S. Accumulation of proinflammatory immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) contributes to the development of obesity-associated disorders. Weight loss is the ideal method to counteract the negative consequences of obesity; however, losses are rarely maintained, leading to bouts of weight cycling. Fluctuations in weight have been associated with worsened metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes; yet, the mechanisms explaining this potential correlation are not known. For determination of whether weight cycling modulates AT immune cell populations, inflammation, and insulin resistance, mice were subjected to a diet-switch protocol designed to induce weight cycling. Weight-cycled mice displayed decreased systemic glucose tolerance and impaired AT insulin sensitivity when compared with mice that gained weight but did not cycle. AT macrophage number and polarization were not modulated by weight cycling. However, weight cycling did increase the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in AT. Expression of multiple T helper 1–associated cytokines was also elevated subsequent to weight cycling. Additionally, CD8+ effector memory T cells were present in AT of both obese and weight-cycled mice. These studies indicate that an exaggerated adaptive immune response in AT may contribute to metabolic dysfunction during weight cycling. PMID:23733197

  4. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  5. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  6. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... with IGT and we also examined this interrelation in relation to the 2 main incretins, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). To that end, 13 women with IGT and 17 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements...... of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean...

  7. Study of impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in a south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic disease and leads to an important cardiovascular and global mortality rate, either directly or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors. Aim: We sought to study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MS, and cardiovascular risk (CVR in a south Indian population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in a cohort of 96 healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, total lipid profiles, fating plasma glucose (FPG, post lunch plasma glucose (PLPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine and insulin were measured by standard methods. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used to determine differences between mean and frequency values of continuous and categorical variables. Results: Significant differences were observed in the means of BMI (28.89 kg/m 2 (P<0.0001, FPG (102.41 mg/dL (P<0.0001, insulin (18.1 μU/L (P<0.0001, PLPG (149.05 mg/dL (P<0.0001, diastolic BP (84.41 mmHg (P<0.01, total cholesterol (166.72 mg/dL (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (90.65 mg/dL (P<0.0001 in overweight subjects when compared to normal subjects . The prevalence of dyslipidemia, IGT, MS and CVR was significantly higher in younger (<45years than middle-aged (46-55years subjects. Conclusions: The condition of being overweight, expressed as BMI, appears to be a good indicator of risk for IGT, MS, and CVR, particularly in young non-obese subjects (BMI<30.

  8. High Fat Diet Inhibits Dendritic Cell and T Cell Response to Allergens but Does Not Impair Inhalational Respiratory Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pizzolla

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has risen to epidemic proportions in recent decades, most commonly attributed to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a 'western' diet high in fat and low in fibre. Although non-allergic asthma is a well-established co-morbidity of obesity, the influence of obesity on allergic asthma is still under debate. Allergic asthma is thought to result from impaired tolerance to airborne antigens, so-called respiratory tolerance. We sought to investigate whether a diet high in fats affects the development of respiratory tolerance. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks showed weight gain, metabolic disease, and alteration in gut microbiota, metabolites and glucose metabolism compared to age-matched mice fed normal chow diet (ND. Respiratory tolerance was induced by repeated intranasal (i.n. administration of ovalbumin (OVA, prior to induction of allergic airway inflammation (AAI by sensitization with OVA in alum i.p. and subsequent i.n. OVA challenge. Surprisingly, respiratory tolerance was induced equally well in HFD and ND mice, as evidenced by decreased lung eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE production. However, in a pilot study, HFD mice showed a tendency for impaired activation of airway dendritic cells and regulatory T cells compared with ND mice after induction of respiratory tolerance. Moreover, the capacity of lymph node cells to produce IL-5 and IL-13 after AAI was drastically diminished in HFD mice compared to ND mice. These results indicate that HFD does not affect the inflammatory or B cell response to an allergen, but inhibits priming of Th2 cells and possibly dendritic cell and regulatory T cell activation.

  9. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    partially explain these discrepancies. Basal and post-load glucagon levels were significantly increased in both i-IFG and i-IGT individuals (p initiatives in prediabetic individuals should be tested, targeting......-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured. A euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp with [3-3H]glucose preceded by an IVGTT was performed. RESULTS: Absolute first-phase insulin secretion during IVGTT was decreased in i-IFG (p = 0.026), but not in i-IGT (p = 0...... in both i-IFG and i-IGT (p levels of GIP in i-IGT (p = 0.045 vs NGT) vs increased levels of GLP-1 in i-IFG (p = 0.013 vs NGT) during the OGTT may...

  10. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  11. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

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    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  12. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

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    Hiroko Katayama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM using a retrospective design. Patients and Methods Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG. We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. Results Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. Conclusions Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves.

  13. Dual specificity phosphatase 6 deficiency is associated with impaired systemic glucose tolerance and reversible weight retardation in mice.

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    Katrin Pfuhlmann

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT, compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic

  14. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with decompensated cirrhosis being evaluated for liver transplantation: the utility of oral glucose tolerance test

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    Ana Carolina Costa Bragança

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and protein calorie malnutrition are important issues in cirrhotic patients because they can increase the progression of liver disease and worsen its prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation and their impacts on a 3-month follow-up, and to compare fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutively included adult patients. Diabetes mellitus was established through fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosing diabetes mellitus in this population. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes were calculated, and nutritional assessment was performed by subjective global assessment, anthropometry and handgrip strength through dynamometry. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 40 patients (64.5%, 9 (22.5% of them by fasting glycemia and 31 (77.5% of them by oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance was found in 40 (69% of the patients. There was no relationship between diabetes mellitus and the etiology of cirrhosis. Protein calorie malnutrition was diagnosed in a range from 3.22% to 45.2% by anthropometry, 58.1% by subjective global assessment and 88.7% by handgrip strength. Diabetes mellitus identified by oral glucose tolerance test was related significantly to a higher prevalence of infectious complications and deaths in a 3-month period (P = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and protein calorie malnutrition is high in cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. There were more infectious complications and/or deaths in a 3-month follow-up period in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test seems to be

  15. Pioglitazone Improves In Vitro Viability and Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigoni, Valentina; Picconi, Angela; Cito, Monia; Ridolfi, Valentina; Bonomini, Sabrina; Casali, Chiara; Zavaroni, Ivana; Gnudi, Luigi; Metra, Marco; Dei Cas, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the PPARγ-agonist insulin sensitizer pioglitazone, may provide potential beneficial cardiovascular (CV) effects beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic function. A reduced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes, conditions characterised by increased CV risk. Aim To evaluate whether pioglitazone can provide benefit in vitro in EPCs obtained from IGT subjects. Materials and Methods Early and late-outgrowth EPCs were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 14 IGT subjects. The in vitro effect of pioglitazone (10 µM) with/without PPARγ-antagonist GW9662 (1 µM) was assessed on EPC viability, apoptosis, ability to form tubular-like structures and pro-inflammatory molecule expression. Results Pioglitazone increased early and late-outgrowth EPC viability, with negligible effects on apoptosis. The capacity of EPCs to form tubular-like structures was improved by pioglitazone in early (mean increase 28%; p = 0.005) and late-outgrowth (mean increase 30%; p = 0.037) EPCs. Pioglitazone reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecule expression in both early (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012 respectively) and late-outgrowth (p = 0.047 and p = 0.048, respectively) EPCs. Similarly, pioglitazone reduced TNFα gene and protein expression in both early (p = 0.034;p = 0.022) and late-outgrowth (p = 0.026;p = 0.017) EPCs compared to control. These effects were prevented by incubation with the PPARγ-antagonist GW9662. Conclusion Pioglitazone exerts beneficial effects in vitro on EPCs isolated from IGT subjects, supporting the potential implication of pioglitazone as a CV protective agents. PMID:23139771

  16. Xenin-25 amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in humans with normal and impaired glucose tolerance but not type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wice, Burton M; Reeds, Dominic N; Tran, Hung D; Crimmins, Dan L; Patterson, Bruce W; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J; Ladenson, Jack H; Villareal, Dennis T; Polonsky, Kenneth S

    2012-07-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This response is blunted in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Xenin-25 is a 25-amino acid neurotensin-related peptide that amplifies GIP-mediated GSIS in hyperglycemic mice. This study determines if xenin-25 amplifies GIP-mediated GSIS in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or T2DM. Each fasting subject received graded glucose infusions to progressively raise plasma glucose concentrations, along with vehicle alone, GIP, xenin-25, or GIP plus xenin-25. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon levels and insulin secretion rates (ISRs) were determined. GIP amplified GSIS in all groups. Initially, this response was rapid, profound, transient, and essentially glucose independent. Thereafter, ISRs increased as a function of plasma glucose. Although magnitudes of insulin secretory responses to GIP were similar in all groups, ISRs were not restored to normal in subjects with IGT and T2DM. Xenin-25 alone had no effect on ISRs or plasma glucagon levels, but the combination of GIP plus xenin-25 transiently increased ISR and plasma glucagon levels in subjects with NGT and IGT but not T2DM. Since xenin-25 signaling to islets is mediated by a cholinergic relay, impaired islet responses in T2DM may reflect defective neuronal, rather than GIP, signaling.

  17. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  18. Elevated 1 Hour Glucose During Oral Glucose Tolerance Test- A New Parameter of Impaired Metabolism

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    Diugan Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently, large scale studies emphasized the idea of an excess of metabolic and cardiovascular risk in patients currently considered to have normal glucose tolerance but showing an elevated 1 hour glucose (≥155mg/dl during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT.

  19. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  20. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  1. C-Reactive Protein Impairs Dendritic Cell Development, Maturation, and Function: Implications for Peripheral Tolerance

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    Rachel V. Jimenez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is the prototypical acute phase reactant, increasing in blood concentration rapidly and several-fold in response to inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that CRP has an important physiological role even at low, baseline levels, or in the absence of overt inflammation. For example, we have shown that human CRP inhibits the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in CRP transgenic mice by shifting CD4+ T cells away from the TH1 and toward the TH2 subset. Notably, this action required the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB, but did not require high levels of human CRP. Herein, we sought to determine if CRP’s influence in EAE might be explained by CRP acting on dendritic cells (DC; antigen presenting cells known to express FcγRIIB. We found that CRP (50 µg/ml reduced the yield of CD11c+ bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs and CRP (≥5 μg/ml prevented their full expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40. CRP also decreased the ability of BMDCs to stimulate antigen-driven proliferation of T cells in vitro. Importantly, if the BMDCs were genetically deficient in mouse FcγRIIB then (i the ability of CRP to alter BMDC surface phenotype and impair T cell proliferation was ablated and (ii CD11c-driven expression of a human FCGR2B transgene rescued the CRP effect. Lastly, the protective influence of CRP in EAE was fully restored in mice with CD11c-driven human FcγRIIB expression. These findings add to the growing evidence that CRP has important biological effects even in the absence of an acute phase response, i.e., CRP acts as a tonic suppressor of the adaptive immune system. The ability of CRP to suppress development, maturation, and function of DCs implicates CRP in the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance.

  2. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C......-peptide deconvolution to calculate insulin secretion rates and mathematical modeling to quantitate beta-cell function. The incretin effect was taken to be the ratio of oral to IV responses. In NGT, incretin-mediated insulin release [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)/IV ratio = 1.59 +/- 0.18, P = 0.004] amounted to 18......, with a predominance of glucose-induced vs. incretin-mediated stimulation. We conclude that, under physiological circumstances, incretin-mediated stimulation of insulin secretion results from an enhancement of all dynamic aspects of beta-cell function, particularly beta-cell glucose sensitivity. In IGT, beta...

  3. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati...

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors prior to the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in persons with impaired glucose tolerance: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Kostense, P.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiovascular risk factors as predictors for developing noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in people with impaired glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional survey of glucose tolerance was conducted in people, aged 50-74, who were randomly selected from

  5. MDP-Induced selective tolerance to TLR4 ligands: impairment in NOD2 mutant Crohn's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Elisabet; Moga, Esther; Ricart, Elena; Garcia-Bosch, Orlando; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Juarez, Candido; Vidal, Silvia

    2009-11-01

    Pathogen infection is a complex process in which several pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR) pathways are activated to induce proinflammatory mediators. The activation of multiple PRRs suggests an interaction between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD) signaling pathways. To understand the modulation induced by NOD2 signals on successive responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we examined how muramyl dipeptide (MDP) pretreatment reprograms the MDP+LPS (lipopolysaccharide) response of monocytes from human peripheral blood. Preexposure to bacterial MDP components induced selective tolerance to a subsequent NOD2+TLR4 stimulation. MDP pretreatment inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleuken 10 (IL10), whereas IL6 and IL8 remained unaffected. MDP-induced tolerance was independent of receptor downregulation but was associated with reduced levels of phosphorylated TAK1 and abrogated phosphorylation of the downstream MAPK.Since Nod2 mutations have been associated with susceptibility to develop Crohn's disease (CD), we compared the MDP-induced tolerance in healthy donors and CD patients with compound heterozygous Nod2 mutations (Mut-Nod2) expressing variant NOD2 proteins. MDP-induced tolerance in Mut-Nod2 patients reduced IL10 but not TNFalpha production. In contrast with healthy donors, a p38-independent TNFalpha production was observed during the kinetics of the MDP+LPS response in Mut-Nod2 patients. Our findings suggest that the selective tolerance induced by MDP in healthy donors was related to the modulation of a convergent nub of NOD2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. This MDP-induced tolerance was impaired in Mut-Nod2 CD patients, resulting in a p38-independent TNFalpha production and an imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines that could be partly responsible for the pathogenesis of CD.

  6. BCL9L Dysfunction Impairs Caspase-2 Expression Permitting Aneuploidy Tolerance in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-García, Carlos; Sansregret, Laurent; Domingo, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) contributes to cancer evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and drug resistance. CIN is driven by chromosome segregation errors and a tolerance phenotype that permits the propagation of aneuploid genomes. Through genomic analysis of colorectal cancers and cell lines, ...

  7. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  8. Four Saccharomyces species differ in their tolerance to various stresses though they have similar basic physiological parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemančíková, Jana; Kodedová, Marie; Papoušková, Klára; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2018), s. 217-227 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03708S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : saccharomyces * stress tolerance * intracellular pH * membrane potential Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  9. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar se tolerância diminuída à glicose (TDG está associada a neuropatia vegetativa realizamos estudo transversal de que participaram 44 pacientes com intolerância a glicose (Grupo 1 os quais foram comparados com 43 indivíduos controles apresentando teste de tolerância à glicose normal (Grupo 2. Os pacientes de ambos os grupos, após aceitarem participar da pesquisa, eram submetidos a anamnese, exames clínico e laboratoriais e estudo da função vegetativa (intervalo QT, prova da arritmia sinusal, manobra de Valsalva e teste postural. Os pacientes com TDG apresentaram mais hipertensão arterial sistêmica, obesidade centrípeta, hiperglicemas de jejum e pós-prandiais e dislipidemias que os controles. O teste de arritmia sinusal estava alterado em 54,5% dos grupo 1 e em 32,5% do grupo 2. A manobra de Valsalva foi anormal em 34,1% no grupo 1 e em 7% dos controles (p=0,004. A prova postural não foi diferente nos dois grupos. O comprometimento do sistema neurovegetativo foi mais freqüente nos pacientes com TDG que nos controles. A maior freqüência de fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica cardiovascular e o concomitante comprometimento do sistema nervoso vegetativo nos pacientes com TDG podem ser os responsáveis pelas elevadas taxas de letalidade devida a vasculopatias observadas nessa população.Impaired glucose tolerance (1GT is a clinical situation characterized by mild hyperglicemia, which is estimated to afflict 7.8% of the Brazilian population. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common: complication in diabetes mellitus and it is related to morbidity and lethality in this disease. The associatior between IGT and peripheral neuropathy is still a matter of great concern. PURPOSE AND METHOD: In order to determine if IGT is associated with autonomic neuropathy a cross-sectional study in 44 patients with impaired glucose tolerance test (Group 1 was performed. The patients were compared to 43 control

  10. Long-term influences of body-weight changes, independent of the attained weight, on risk of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, E; Holst, C; Astrup, A

    2005-01-01

    , but not by more recent weight gain in the later periods, probably because of the development of Type 2 diabetes leading to weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of attained level of body weight in middle-aged men, weight gain is associated with increased risk of IGT, and is greater in those not overweight......AIM: To investigate if weight gain during adulthood has effects on the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or Type 2 diabetes beyond effect of attained weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of two cohorts: one of juvenile-onset obese (n...... = 0.004), and weight gain during both the early and later ages contributed to the increased risk. Obese men, maintaining weight since age 20, had lower risk of IGT than non-obese men who became similarly obese by age 51. The risk of Type 2 diabetes increased by weight gain in early adult life...

  11. Decreased capacity for sodium export out of Arabidopsis chloroplasts impairs salt tolerance, photosynthesis and plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maria; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schroeder, Julian I; Kemp, Grant; Young, Howard S; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2014-05-01

    Salt stress is a widespread phenomenon, limiting plant performance in large areas around the world. Although various types of plant sodium/proton antiporters have been characterized, the physiological function of NHD1 from Arabidopsis thaliana has not been elucidated in detail so far. Here we report that the NHD1-GFP fusion protein localizes to the chloroplast envelope. Heterologous expression of AtNHD1 was sufficient to complement a salt-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant lacking its endogenous sodium/proton exchangers. Transport competence of NHD1 was confirmed using recombinant, highly purified carrier protein reconstituted into proteoliposomes, proving Na(+) /H(+) antiport. In planta NHD1 expression was found to be highest in mature and senescent leaves but was not induced by sodium chloride application. When compared to wild-type controls, nhd1 T-DNA insertion mutants showed decreased biomasses and lower chlorophyll levels after sodium feeding. Interestingly, if grown on sand and supplemented with high sodium chloride, nhd1 mutants exhibited leaf tissue Na(+) levels similar to those of wild-type plants, but the Na(+) content of chloroplasts increased significantly. These high sodium levels in mutant chloroplasts resulted in markedly impaired photosynthetic performance as revealed by a lower quantum yield of photosystem II and increased non-photochemical quenching. Moreover, high Na(+) levels might hamper activity of the plastidic bile acid/sodium symporter family protein 2 (BASS2). The resulting pyruvate deficiency might cause the observed decreased phenylalanine levels in the nhd1 mutants due to lack of precursors. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  13. Korean red ginseng improves glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. After the intervention, the test group showed a significant decrease in serum levels of glucose at 30 min (-22.24±10.77 mg/dL) and whole blood levels of glucose at 30 min (-17.52±5.22 mg/dL). In addition, the test group tended to have lower whole blood levels of glucose at 0 min and glucose area under curve (AUC). However, the placebo group did not show any changes in blood glucose-related indices. The changes (difference from baseline) in serum glucose levels at 30 min, whole blood glucose levels at 60 min, and glucose AUC during OGTTs in the test group exhibited a tendency toward a decrease from those in the placebo group. There were significant decreases or trends toward a decrease in both serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations at most time intervals in the test group. In conclusion, KRG supplementation (5 g/day) may be beneficial for controlling serum and whole blood glucose levels compared with placebo among patients with IFG, IGT, or T2DM.

  14. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Truncated HSPB1 causes axonal neuropathy and impairs tolerance to unfolded protein stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Ylikallio

    2015-06-01

    General significance: sHSPs have important roles in prevention of protein aggregates that induce toxicity. We showed that C-terminal part of HSPB1 is critical for tolerance of unfolded protein stress, and when lacking causes axonal neuropathy in patients.

  16. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  17. A cross-sectional study of impaired glucose tolerance amongst undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kavisha Singh; Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar; Dinesh R. Samel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an important chronic disease both in terms of prevalence and associated morbidity and early mortality. Mortality rates in diabetics are two- to threefold higher than those without diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is preceded by a period of abnormal glucose homeostasis and hence early diagnosis is important in decreasing this morbidity and mortality. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. Methods: This c...

  18. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, C

    1996-01-01

    euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. All women were lean and had normal oral glucose tolerance test results. Activities of glycogen synthase, phosphofructokinase, and hexokinase were measured in vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens obtained in the basal state and after insulin stimulation....... RESULTS: Women with previous gestational diabetes had a decreased glucose disposal rate (pmetabolism (6.63 +/- 0.47 vs 9.04 +/- 0.57 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, p

  19. Deletion of CGLD1 Impairs PSII and Increases Singlet Oxygen Tolerance of Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1 in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS stress treatments, i.e., decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR and rose bengal (RB that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that the increased singlet-oxygen tolerance of x32 was largely correlated with up-regulated gene expression of glutathione-S-transferases (GST. The phenotypical and physiological implications revealed from our experiments highlight the important roles of CGLD1 in maintaining structure and function of PSII as well as in protection of Chlamydomonas under photo-oxidative stress conditions.

  20. Age-related macular degeneration and cognitive impairment show similarities in changes of neutral lipids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Enrico; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Vinci, Michela; Piludu, Stefania; Casu, Maura; Caminiti, Giulia; Dessì, Sandra; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    Starting from previous studies showing that patients with cognitive deficit present neutral lipids (NLs) accumulation in cytoplasm of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and considering that there is epidemiological evidence linking age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to cognitive deficit, the first purpose of this study was to test whether neutral lipids also accumulated in PBMCs from AMD subjects. Moreover, the impact of statin use on AMD was explored and whether such use in AMD subjects was associated with NLs accumulation in PBMCs. The study was conducted on 222 subjects: 136 AMD (36 of which - 26.5% - using statins], 48 cognitive deficit (20 of which - 41.7% - using statins) and 38 healthy controls (4 of which -10.1% - using statins), AMD lesions were assessed from color fundus photographs. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), demographics, lifestyle factors and medical history were collected at interview. MMSE score was categorized as normal (24-30), and impaired (<24), NLs content was evaluated by oil red 0 (ORO) staining method. ORO determination showed that neutral lipids were generally absent or very low (score between 0 and 1) in healthy controls while most of PBMCs from cognitive deficit and AMD had ORO staining levels scoring 2-4. Post hoc analysis (Bonferroni) in a one-way ANOVA revealed that ORO score was significantly higher in cognitive deficit and AMD subjects compared to healthy controls and in cognitive deficit compared to AMD. Bonferroni-test also showed that AMD subjects had significantly lower total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to healthy controls while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) did not reach statistical significance. The results also revealed a significant higher number of statin-users in AMD compared to healthy controls. Likewise when cognitive deficit vs healthy controls was analyzed, the number of statin users were found to be significant higher in cognitive deficit than in healthy controls. There

  1. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  2. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition

  3. [Effect of renshen jianxin capsule for alleviating insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease and glucose tolerance impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2009-09-01

    To explore the effect of Renshen Jianxin Capsule (RJC) on insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and glucose tolerance impairment (GTI). Eighty patients with CHD-GTI of qi-deficiency blood-stasis syndrome were randomly assigned to 2 groups equally, the treated group was treated by RJC and the control group by metformin, based on the conventional Western medical treatment with nitric esters for 20 weeks. Changes before and after treatment in clinical symptoms and levels of blood glucose insulin, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were observed. The scores of clinical symptoms of Chinese medicine decreased in both groups, which showed statistical significances compared with those before treatment (P 0.05). RJC was effective in improving insulin resistant, which may be one of the mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on CHD.

  4. Renal Operational Tolerance Is Associated With a Defect of Blood Tfh Cells That Exhibit Impaired B Cell Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenouard, A; Chesneau, M; Bui Nguyen, L; Le Bot, S; Cadoux, M; Dugast, E; Paul, C; Malard-Castagnet, S; Ville, S; Guérif, P; Soulillou, J-P; Degauque, N; Danger, R; Giral, M; Brouard, S

    2017-06-01

    Renal operationally tolerant patients (TOL) display a defect in B cell differentiation, with a deficiency in plasma cells. Recently described, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a critical role in B cell differentiation. We analyzed blood Tfh subsets in TOL and transplanted patients with stable graft function under immunosuppression (STA). We observed a reduced proportion of blood activated and highly functional Tfh subsets in TOL, without affecting Tfh absolute numbers. Functionally, Tfh cells from TOL displayed a modified gene expression profile, failed to produce interleukin-21, and were unable to induce IgG production by naive B cells. This Tfh defect is linked to a low incidence of postgraft de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) immunization, suggesting that the lack of Tfh cells in TOL may induce a protolerogenic environment with reduced risk of developing dnDSA. Finally, we showed that elevated Tfh in STA precedes the occurrence of dnDSA during an alloresponse. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of antibody response in operational tolerance. Disrupted homeostasis and impaired Tfh function in TOL could lead to a reduced risk of developing dnDSA and suggest a predictive role of blood Tfh cells on the occurrence of dnDSA in transplant recipients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  6. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study compa...

  7. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  8. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  9. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  10. Differential Development of Acute Tolerance May Explain Heightened Rates of Impaired Driving After Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drinks Versus Alcohol Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-15

    Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. The development of acute tolerance to alcohol was assessed for several objective (a computerized cued go/no-go reaction time task) and subjective measures at matched breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) for the ascending and descending limbs of the BrAC curve. The results indicated that alcohol administration decreased willingness to drive ratings. Acute tolerance was observed in the AmED dose condition for only the willingness to drive ratings that were significantly higher on the descending versus ascending test. Alcohol-induced impairments of the computer task performance did not exhibit any acute tolerance. Therefore, the differential development of acute tolerance may explain why many studies observe higher rates of impaired driving for AmED consumers compared to alcohol alone consumers. Because drunk driving is a major public health concern, alcohol consumers should be warned that the use of energy drink mixers with alcohol could lead to a false sense of security in one's ability to drive after drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Gestational diabetes and gestational impaired glucose tolerance in 1653 teenage pregnancies: prevalence, risk factors and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Buyukkaragoz, Bahar; Kandemir, Omer; Yalvac, Serdar; Kıykac-Altınbaş, Sadiman; Haberal, Ali

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) in adolescent pregnancies, associated risk factors, and pregnancy complications. Retrospective study. Community-based teaching hospital. Results of 1653 pregnant women age ≤ 19 years in 2005-2007 were reviewed. All pregnant women screened with 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) and patients with a GCT result ≥ 140 mg/dl underwent a 3-hour 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed with at least two abnormal results and GIGT was diagnosed with one abnormal result. GDM and GIGT cases were evaluated for the presence of any associated risk factors and effects of presence of risk factors on pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of GDM was 0.85% (95% CI, 0.41-1.29), GIGT was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.15-0.81) and GDM+GIGT was 1.35% (95% CI, 0.78-1.88) by Carpenter and Coustan criteria. 68% of patients had at least one of the risk factors including body mass index ≥ 25, family history of diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Only 9.1% (n = 2) of them required insulin for glucose regulation during pregnancy with 9.1% (n = 2) macrosomia rate. All patients were primiparous and cesarean delivery rate was 27.3% (n = 6). We could not find any effect of presence of risk factors on pregnancy outcomes in GDM and GIGT cases. We demonstrated that GDM and GIGT are strongly associated with high BMI before pregnancy, PCOS, and family history of diabetes. Since GDM is a state of prediabetes, it is important to diagnose in adolescent pregnancies considering their life expectancy to take preventive measures to avoid diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse translation of the rodent 5C-CPT reveals that the impaired attention of people with schizophrenia is similar to scopolamine-induced deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J W; Geyer, M A; Rissling, A J; Sharp, R F; Eyler, L T; Asgaard, G L; Light, G A

    2013-11-12

    Attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ) is a core deficit that contributes to multiple cognitive deficits and the resulting functional disability. However, developing procognitive therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders have been limited by a 'translational gap'--a lack of cognitive paradigms having cross-species translational validity and relevance. The present study was designed to perform an initial validation of the cross-species homology of the 5-choice Continuous Performance Test (5C-CPT) in healthy nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS), SZ patients and mice under pharmacologic challenge. The 5C-CPT performance in SZ patients (n=20) was compared with age-matched NCS (n=23). The effects of the general muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine on mice (n=21) performing the 5C-CPT were also assessed. SZ subjects exhibited significantly impaired attention in the 5C-CPT, driven by reduced target detection over time and nonsignificantly increased impulsive responding. Similarly, scopolamine significantly impaired attention in mice, driven by reduced target detection and nonsignificantly increased impulsive responding. Scopolamine also negatively affected accuracy and speed of responding in mice, although these measures failed to differentiate SZ vs. NCS. Thus, mice treated with scopolamine exhibited similar impairments in vigilance as seen in SZ, although the differences between the behavioral profiles warrant further study. The availability of rodent and human versions of this paradigm provides an opportunity to: (1) investigate the neuroanatomic, neurochemical and genomic architecture of abnormalities in attention observed in clinical populations such as SZ; (2) develop and refine animal models of cognitive impairments; and (3) improve cross-species translational testing for the development of treatments for these impairments.

  13. Microbial-Host Co-metabolites Are Prodromal Markers Predicting Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Behavior, Obesity, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Emmanuel Dumas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the gut microbiome on metabolic and behavioral traits is widely accepted, though the microbiome-derived metabolites involved remain unclear. We carried out untargeted urine 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping in an isogenic C57BL/6J mouse population (n = 50 and show that microbial-host co-metabolites are prodromal (i.e., early markers predicting future divergence in metabolic (obesity and glucose homeostasis and behavioral (anxiety and activity outcomes with 94%–100% accuracy. Some of these metabolites also modulate disease phenotypes, best illustrated by trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO, a product of microbial-host co-metabolism predicting future obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and behavior while reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chronic in vivo TMAO treatment limits IGT in HFD-fed mice and isolated pancreatic islets by increasing insulin secretion. We highlight the prodromal potential of microbial metabolites to predict disease outcomes and their potential in shaping mammalian phenotypic heterogeneity.

  14. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  15. Exercise or physical activity and cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ren Ru; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Although some studies suggest that physical exercise can minimize age-related cognitive declines or improve brain morphology or function, benefits in diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of exercise or physical activity on cognition in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. An electronic search for studies published from the earliest record until February 2017 was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Any experimental or observational study designs were included, as long as they were conducted in individuals of any age with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance, and they directly examined exercise/physical activity effects on cognitive outcomes or the relationship between changes in cognition and changes in either insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Study quality was assessed using the PEDro scale; data on participant and intervention characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Six studies enrolling 2289 participants met the eligibility criteria. Quality was modest and effect sizes variable and mostly small or negligible. Overall, four of the six studies (67%) reported significant benefits of greater exercise/physical activity participation for some aspects of cognition, but only 26% of cognitive outcomes were significant across all trials. Clinical improvements in insulin resistance/glucose homeostasis were related to improvements in cognitive function in three studies. Overall results were inconsistent, with benefits varying across exercise types and cognitive domains. Literature does not provide evidence that physical activity or exercise interventions contribute to a better cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Large-scale, long-term, robust randomized controlled trials are required to

  16. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity.

  17. Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Misso, Marie L; Wild, Robert A; Norman, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS A literature search was conducted (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, clinical trial registries and hand-searching) identifying studies reporting prevalence or incidence of IGT, DM2 or metabolic syndrome in women with and without PCOS. Data were presented as odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] with fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis by Mantel-Haenszel methods. Quality testing was based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scaling and The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. Literature searching, data abstraction and quality appraisal were performed by two investigators. RESULTS A total of 2192 studies were reviewed and 35 were selected for final analysis. Women with PCOS had increased prevalence of IGT (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.63, 3.77; BMI-matched studies OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.44, 4.47), DM2 (OR 4.43, 95% CI 4.06, 4.82; BMI-matched studies OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.97, 8.10) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.40, 3.45; BMI-matched studies OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36, 3.56). One study assessed IGT/DM2 incidence and reported no significant differences in DM2 incidence (OR 2.07, 95% CI 0.68, 6.30). One study assessed conversion from normal glucose tolerance to IGT/DM2 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.7, 8.0). No studies reported metabolic syndrome incidence. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS had an elevated prevalence of IGT, DM2 and metabolic syndrome in both BMI and non-BMI-matched studies. Few studies have determined IGT/DM2 or metabolic syndrome incidence in women with and without PCOS and further research is required.

  18. Impact of adolescent alcohol use across the lifespan: Long-lasting tolerance to high-dose alcohol coupled with potentiated spatial memory impairments to moderate-dose alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Van Skike, Candice E; Ornelas, Laura; Mittleman, G

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how alcohol exposure during adolescence affects aging is a critical but understudied area. In the present study, male rats were exposed to either alcohol or saline during adolescence, then tested every 4 months following either an ethanol or saline challenge; animals were tested until postnatal day (PD) 532. It was found that long-lasting tolerance to high-dose ethanol exists through the test period, as measured by loss of righting reflex, while tolerance to lower doses of ethanol is not found. In addition, alcohol exposure during adolescence facilitated spatial memory impairments to acute ethanol challenges later in life. The current work demonstrates that exposure to ethanol during adolescent development can produce long-lasting detrimental impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal markers of glycaemic variability and oxidative stress in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-09-01

    We measured the effects of a single bout of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal oxidative stress and glycaemic variability in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance versus obese healthy controls. Subjects (in random order) performed either a single 30-min bout of moderate-intensity exercise or remained sedentary for 30 min at two separate visits. To quantify glycaemic variability, standard deviation of glucose (measured by continuous glucose monitoring system) and continuous overlapping net glycaemic action of 1-h intervals (CONGA-1) were calculated for three 12-h intervals during each visit. Oxidative stress was measured by 15-isoprostane F(2t) levels in urine collections for matching 12-h intervals. Exercise reduced daytime glycaemic variability (ΔCONGA-1 = -12.62 ± 5.31 mg/dL, p = 0.04) and urinary isoprostanes (ΔCONGA-1 = -0.26 ± 0.12 ng/mg, p = 0.04) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Daytime exercise-induced change in urinary 15-isoprostane F(2t) was significantly correlated with both daytime standard deviation (r = 0.68, p = 0.03) and with subsequent overnight standard deviation (r = 0.73, p = 0.027) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Exercise significantly impacts the relationship between diurnal oxidative stress and nocturnal glycaemic variability in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  1. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Secretion, and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; Aceves-de la Mora, Martha C Aceves-de; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Ramos-Núñez, Julia L; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-12-20

    Chlorogenic acid has been described as a novel polyphenol with metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid administration on glycemic control, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 30 patients with IGT; 15 patients randomly assigned to oral chlorogenic acid received 400 mg three times per day for 12 weeks, and the other 15 patients received placebo in the same way. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic measurements, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c, and a lipid profile, were performed. Area under the curve of glucose and insulin as well as the insulinogenic, Stumvoll, and Matsuda indices were calculated. Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were performed, and P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant decreases in FPG (5.7 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), insulinogenic index (0.71 ± 0.25 vs. 0.63 ± 0.25, P = .028), body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein levels in the chlorogenic acid group, with an increment in the Matsuda index (1.98 ± 0.88 vs. 2.30 ± 1.23, P = .002). There were no significant differences in the placebo group. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid administration in patients with IGT decreased FPG and insulin secretion, while increasing insulin sensitivity and improving both anthropometric evaluations and the lipid profile.

  2. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Freire Rezende; Ailton Melo; Judith Pousada; Zulmira Freire Rezende; Norma Lúcia Santos; Irenio Gomes

    1997-01-01

    Com o objetivo de determinar se tolerância diminuída à glicose (TDG) está associada a neuropatia vegetativa realizamos estudo transversal de que participaram 44 pacientes com intolerância a glicose (Grupo 1) os quais foram comparados com 43 indivíduos controles apresentando teste de tolerância à glicose normal (Grupo 2). Os pacientes de ambos os grupos, após aceitarem participar da pesquisa, eram submetidos a anamnese, exames clínico e laboratoriais e estudo da função vegetativa (intervalo QT...

  3. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose to tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Wilks, R.; Gaskin, P.; Luke, A.; Jahoor, F.; Adeyemo, A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)

  4. A1C predicts type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in a population at risk: the community diabetes prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Silmara AO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims In a population at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we assessed early physical and metabolic markers that predict progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. Methods A total of 388 individuals (22% male, age 46 + 11 years at risk for T2DM were randomized to Standard (n = 182 or Intervention (n = 206 care and evaluated at baseline and 5 annual follow-up visits, including blood pressure, BMI, A1C, lipids, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, VO2max, fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide. The Standard group received results of annual lab tests and quarterly newsletters, while the Intervention group received quarterly newsletters and detailed discussions of lab results, routine self-directed activities, semi-annual group meetings and monthly telephone calls for ongoing support. Results Overall, 359 (93% returned for at least one follow-up visit and 272 (70% completed the final 5-year assessment. Return rates, changes in measures and incidence of IGT/T2DM were similar between groups. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was the most prevalent baseline abnormality. A1C and BMI were significant predictors of IGT/T2DM after controlling for other factors. The risk of IGT/T2DM within 5 years was 17.16 (95% CL: 6.169, 47.736 times greater for those with baseline A1C>=5.8% as compared to those Conclusion Baseline A1C>=5.8% was a significant predictor of IGT/T2DM within 5 years in a population at high risk for T2DM. A1C is routinely performed among patients with diabetes, however these data and other evidence suggest that it may also be a useful tool for risk assessment and screening.

  5. Role of diuretics, β blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: reanalysis of data from the NAVIGATOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Shah, Bimal R; Reyes, Eric M; Thomas, Laine; Wojdyla, Daniel; Diem, Peter; Leiter, Lawrence A; Charbonnel, Bernard; Mareev, Viacheslav; Horton, Edward S; Haffner, Steven M; Soska, Vladimir; Holman, Rury; Bethel, M Angelyn; Schaper, Frank; Sun, Jie-Lena; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Krum, Henry

    2013-12-09

    To examine the degree to which use of β blockers, statins, and diuretics in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors is associated with new onset diabetes. Reanalysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial. NAVIGATOR trial. Patients who at baseline (enrolment) were treatment naïve to β blockers (n=5640), diuretics (n=6346), statins (n=6146), and calcium channel blockers (n=6294). Use of calcium channel blocker was used as a metabolically neutral control. Development of new onset diabetes diagnosed by standard plasma glucose level in all participants and confirmed with glucose tolerance testing within 12 weeks after the increased glucose value was recorded. The relation between each treatment and new onset diabetes was evaluated using marginal structural models for causal inference, to account for time dependent confounding in treatment assignment. During the median five years of follow-up, β blockers were started in 915 (16.2%) patients, diuretics in 1316 (20.7%), statins in 1353 (22.0%), and calcium channel blockers in 1171 (18.6%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and time varying confounders, diuretics and statins were both associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.44, and 1.32, 1.14 to 1.48, respectively), whereas β blockers and calcium channel blockers were not associated with new onset diabetes (1.10, 0.92 to 1.31, and 0.95, 0.79 to 1.13, respectively). Among people with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors and with serial glucose measurements, diuretics and statins were associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes, whereas the effect of β blockers was non-significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097786.

  6. Extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine exhibit similar central nervous system tolerability profiles: a subanalysis of data from the OPERA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Franklin M; Dmochowski, Roger R; Lama, Daniel J; Anderson, Rodney U; Sand, Peter K

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the central nervous system (CNS) tolerability profiles of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in the treatment of women with overactive bladder (OAB), as observed in the OPERA (Overactive bladder: Performance of Extended Release Agents) trial. The OPERA trial was a randomized, double-blind, active-control comparison of the efficacy and safety of extended-release oxybutynin (10 mg/d) and extended-release tolterodine (4 mg/d) given to 790 women with OAB for 12 weeks. The incidence of reported CNS events was compared between the treatment groups by using the Fisher exact test. The incidence of CNS adverse events was 9% and 8% for the oxybutynin and tolterodine treatment groups, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant. All reported CNS adverse events were rated as mild or moderate in severity. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events in either group, and discontinuation because of a CNS adverse event was infrequent. The extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine were observed to be associated with a similar low incidence of CNS adverse events, which were mostly mild or moderate in severity.

  7. Increased Short-Term Beat-to-Beat QT Interval Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.

  8. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Osei; S. Fonville (Susanne); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Brouwers (Paul); L.J.M.M. Mulder (Laus); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility,

  9. Effect of Exercise Training on Red Blood Cell Distribution Width as a Marker of Impaired Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Niiyama, Hiroshi; Harada, Haruhito; Katou, Atsushi; Yoshida, Noriko; Ikeda, Hisao

    2016-09-28

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) can predict mortality in cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial prognostic marker remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the RDW is related to impaired exercise tolerance and exercise training (ET) effect on RDW in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Seventy-eight patients who underwent ET by supervised bicycle ergometer during 3 weeks served as the ET group whereas 30 patients who did not undergo ET were the control group. Exercise stress test with cardiopulmonary analysis was performed in the ET group. Peak oxygen uptake (from 14.1 ± 4.0 to 15.1 ± 3.8 mL/kg/minute, P exercise tolerance and decreases RDW in association with increased oxygen uptake in patients with CAD.

  10. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Michelle Y; Yada, Takashi; Matey, Victoria; McCormick, Stephen D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 micrpg l(-1) Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 microg l(-1) Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 microg l(-1) Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 microg l(-1) Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl(-) channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al

  11. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, M.Y.; Yada, T.; Matey, V.; McCormick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4??gl-1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11??gl-1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42??gl-1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56??gl-1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl- channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose that when smolts are

  12. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, Michelle Y.; Yada, Takashi; Matey, Victoria; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 μg l -1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 μg l -1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 μg l -1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 μg l -1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24 h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl - channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose

  13. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanson, Amanda; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; Ritchie, Ian R; MacDonald, Tara; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2014-06-23

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow's milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 -enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.

  14. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C

    2009-01-01

    -up period (maximum 13.8 years), of 294 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 69 experienced a CHD event (13.8 years), as did 42 of 141 with IGT and 32 of 74 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DeltaGLP-1 did not predict CHD (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.52-2.28). The prevalence of IGT was associated with Delta...... = 0.10, p = 0.16) groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Impaired GLP-1 secretion is associated with IGT, but not with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This finding in the latter group might be confounded by oral glucose-lowering treatment. GLP-1 does not predict CHD. Although DeltaGLP-1 was associated...... stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow...

  15. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prevalência de diabetes melito e tolerância à glicose diminuída nos indígenas da Aldeia Jaguapiru, Brasil Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in indigenous people from Aldeia Jaguapiru, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Ferreira de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    houses were picked from among the total 1 255 houses in the village. Pregnant women, nonindigenous individuals, and their descendents, and those using glucocorticoids were excluded from the sample. Six hundred and six people were studied (268 men and 338 women. Capillary glucose was measured with a glucose meter, and the oral glucose tolerance test was performed as necessary. RESULTS: A 4.5% prevalence was observed for DM and 2.2% for impaired glucose tolerance, with higher frequency among women. Among diabetics, 44.4% had not been previously diagnosed. Obesity was present in 14.2% of men and 30.8% of women. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.7% for the overall group and 67.5% in diabetics and individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. There was no statistical relationship between smoking and the presence of DM and impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM and impaired glucose tolerance was lower in this sample compared to the Brazilian population. However, the prevalence of obesity was higher, and that of hypertension was similar. Nutritional guidance and encouragement of physical activity are recommended in Jaguapiru as preventive measures for DM.

  17. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To estimate the 1-year progression rates from both IFG and IGT to diabetes in individuals identified in a pragmatic diabetes screening programme in general practice (the ADDITION Study, Denmark [Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes...... in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  19. Circulating soluble RAGE isoforms are attenuated in obese, impaired-glucose-tolerant individuals and are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Edwin R; Somal, Vikram S; Mey, Jacob T; Blackburn, Brian K; Wang, Edward; Farabi, Sarah; Karstoft, Kristian; Fealy, Ciaran E; Kashyap, Sangeeta; Kirwan, John P; Quinn, Laurie; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M

    2017-12-01

    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA, and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Group differences were probed by ANOVA, and multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to test the association between sRAGE isoform concentrations and the proportional odds of developing diabetes, vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). When stratified by GTS, total sRAGE, cRAGE, and esRAGE were all lower with IGT and T2DM, while the ratio of cRAGE to esRAGE (cRAGE:esRAGE) was only lower ( P < 0.01) with T2DM compared with NGT. When stratified by GTS and obesity, cRAGE:esRAGE was higher with obesity and lower with IGT ( P < 0.0001) compared with lean, NGT. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater total sRAGE (odds ratio, 0.91; P < 0.01) and cRAGE (odds ratio, 0.84; P < 0.01) were associated with lower proportional odds of developing T2DM. Reduced values of sRAGE isoforms observed with both obesity and IGT are independently associated with greater proportional odds of developing T2DM. The mechanisms by which each respective isoform contributes to obesity and insulin resistance may reveal novel treatment strategies for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Deficiency of autoimmune regulator impairs the immune tolerance effect of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Li, Dongbei; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yadong; Zhao, Bingjie; Zou, Xueyang; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    As a transcription factor, autoimmune regulator (Aire) participates in thymic negative selection and maintains immune tolerance mainly by regulating the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that affect the differentiation of T cells toward distinct subpopulations and participate in the immune response and tolerance, thereby playing an important role in maintaining homeostasis. To determine the role of Aire in maintaining immune tolerance by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), in the present study we utilized Aire-knockout mice to examine the changes of maturation status and TRAs expression on BMDCs, additionally investigate the differentiation of CD4 + T cells. The results showed that expression of costimulatory molecule and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule was increased and expression of various TRAs was decreased in BMDCs from Aire-knockout mice. Aire deficiency reduced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into type 2T helper (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) but enhanced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into Th1 cells, Th17 cells, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. The results demonstrate that Aire expressed by BMDCs plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating TRA expression and the differentiation of T cell subsets.

  1. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  2. Oral anti-diabetic agents for women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance or previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Joanna; Coat, Suzette; Hague, William; Middleton, Philippa

    2010-10-06

    While most guidelines recommend the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral agents have obvious benefits for patient acceptability and adherence. It is necessary, however, to assess the effects of these anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes. Additionally, women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are increasingly found to be predisposed to impaired glucose tolerance and, despite the potential need for intervention for these women, there has been little evidence about the use of oral anti-diabetic agents by these women pre-conceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. To investigate the effect of oral anti-diabetic agents in women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance or previous gestational diabetes planning a pregnancy or pregnant women with diabetes mellitus on maternal and infant health.The use of oral antidiabetic agents for management of gestational diabetes in a current pregnancy is evaluated in a separate Cochrane review. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2010). We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility for inclusion. We identified 13 trials published as 25 papers using the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth group literature search, and an additional ongoing trial. We have not included any trials in the review. One trial is awaiting assessment and we have excluded twelve trials because they evaluated treatment of women with gestational diabetes or women with polycystic ovary syndrome, were not randomised controlled trials or data were not available. Little randomised evidence is available evaluating the use of oral anti-diabetic agents in women with diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, previous gestational diabetes mellitus planning a pregnancy or pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus. Large trials comparing any

  3. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, Michelle Y., E-mail: michelle.monette@yale.edu [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States); Yada, Takashi [Freshwater Fisheries Research Department, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Nikko (Japan); Matey, Victoria [Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D. [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24 h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl{sup -} channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time

  4. Loss of high-frequency glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic islets correlates with impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsoul, Barbara; Schraenen, Anica; Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Segal, Andrei; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Margolskee, Robert F; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Gilon, Patrick; Nilius, Bernd; Schuit, Frans C; Vennekens, Rudi

    2010-03-16

    Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (V(m)) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca(2+)](cyt)). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like properties is significantly reduced in Trpm5(-/-) cells. Ca(2+)-imaging and electrophysiological analysis show that glucose-induced oscillations of V(m) and [Ca(2+)](cyt) have on average a reduced frequency in Trpm5(-/-) islets, specifically due to a lack of fast oscillations. As a consequence, glucose-induced insulin release from Trpm5(-/-) pancreatic islets is significantly reduced, resulting in an impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5(-/-) mice.

  5. Loss of high-frequency glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic islets correlates with impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsoul, Barbara; Schraenen, Anica; Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Segal, Andrei; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Margolskee, Robert F.; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Gilon, Patrick; Nilius, Bernd; Schuit, Frans C.; Vennekens, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (Vm) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca2+]cyt). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca2+-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like properties is significantly reduced in Trpm5−/− cells. Ca2+-imaging and electrophysiological analysis show that glucose-induced oscillations of Vm and [Ca2+]cyt have on average a reduced frequency in Trpm5−/− islets, specifically due to a lack of fast oscillations. As a consequence, glucose-induced insulin release from Trpm5−/− pancreatic islets is significantly reduced, resulting in an impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5−/− mice. PMID:20194741

  6. Similar Comparative Low and High Doses of Deltamethrin and Acetamiprid Differently Impair the Retrieval of the Proboscis Extension Reflex in the Forager Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H.; Bourdin, Céline M.; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D.; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of low (10 ng/bee) and high (100 ng/bee) doses of acetamiprid and deltamethrin insecticides on multi-trial learning and retrieval were evaluated in the honey bee Apis mellifera. After oral application, acetamiprid and deltamethrin at the concentrations used were not able to impair learning sessions. When the retention tests were performed 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h after learning, we found a significant difference between bees after learning sessions when drugs were applied 24 h before learning. Deltamethrin-treated bees were found to be more sensitive at 10 ng/bee and 100 ng/bee doses compared to acetamiprid-treated bees, only with amounts of 100 ng/bee and at 6 h and 24 h delays. When insecticides were applied during learning sessions, none of the tested insecticides was able to impair learning performance at 10 ng/bee or 100 ng/bee but retention performance was altered 24 h after learning sessions. Acetamiprid was the only one to impair retrieval at 10 ng/bee, whereas at 100 ng/bee an impairment of retrieval was found with both insecticides. The present results therefore suggest that acetamiprid and deltamethrin are able to impair retrieval performance in the honey bee Apis mellifera. PMID:26466901

  7. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  8. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  9. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Prabu

    Full Text Available Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  10. Propranolol–induced Impairment of Contextual Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Rats: A Similar Effect on Weak and Strong Recent and Remote Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taherian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that the &beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs fear memory reconsolidation in experimental animals. There are experimental parameters such as the age and the strength of memory that can interact with pharmacological manipulations of memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the ability of the age and the strength of memory to influence the disrupting effects of propranolol on fear memory reconsolidation in rats. Methods: The rats were trained in a contextual fear conditioning using two (weak training or five (strong training footshocks (1mA. Propranolol (10mg/kg injection was immediately followed retrieval of either a one-day recent (weak or strong or 36-day remote (weak or strong contextual fear memories. Results: We found that propranolol induced a long-lasting impairment of subsequent expression of recent and remote memories with either weak or strong strength. We also found no memory recovery after a weak reminder shock. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on the amount of memory deficit induced by propranolol among memories with different age and strength. Discussion: Our data suggest that the efficacy of propranolol in impairing fear memory reconsolidation is not limited to the age or strength of the memory.

  11. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) deficiency causes impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance coincident with an attenuation of mitochondrial function in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Shinichi; Okano, Satoshi; Nohara, Hidekazu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Naito, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kelly, Vincent P; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nakajima, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    In vertebrates, the initial step in heme biosynthesis is the production of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by ALA synthase (ALAS). ALA formation is believed to be the rate-limiting step for cellular heme production. Recently, several cohort studies have demonstrated the potential of ALA as a treatment for individuals with prediabetes and type-2 diabetes mellitus. These studies imply that a mechanism exists by which ALA or heme can control glucose metabolism. The ALAS1 gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed isozyme. Mice heterozygous null for ALAS1 (A1+/-s) experience impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance (IR) beyond 20-weeks of age (aged A1+/-s). IGT and IR were remedied in aged A1+/-s by the oral administration of ALA for 1 week. However, the positive effect of ALA proved to be reversible and was lost upon termination of ALA administration. In the skeletal muscle of aged A1+/-s an attenuation of mitochondrial function is observed, coinciding with IGT and IR. Oral administration of ALA for 1-week brought about only a partial improvement in mitochondrial activity however, a 6-week period of ALA treatment was sufficient to remedy mitochondrial function. Studies on differentiated C2C12 myocytes indicate that the impairment of glucose metabolism is a cell autonomous effect and that ALA deficiency ultimately leads to heme depletion. This sequela is evidenced by a reduction of glucose uptake in C2C12 cells following the knockdown of ALAS1 or the inhibition of heme biosynthesis by succinylacetone. Our data provide in vivo proof that ALA deficiency attenuates mitochondrial function, and causes IGT and IR in an age-dependent manner. The data reveals an unexpected metabolic link between heme and glucose that is relevant to the pathogenesis of IGT/IR.

  12. Effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on postprandial lipid responses and lipid metabolism in a high-sucrose-diet-impaired glucose-tolerant rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; He, Sih-Pin; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2012-05-02

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on postprandial lipid response and lipid metabolism in a high-sucrose (HS)-diet-impaired glucose-tolerant rat model. As the results, HS-diet-fed rats supplemented with 5 and 7% chitosan in diets for 9 weeks had lower postprandial plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels, but 7% chitosan in the diet had higher postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoprotein TG levels. Supplementation of chitosan significantly decreased the postprandial ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB)48/apoB100 in TG-rich lipoprotein fractions of HS-diet-fed rats. Long-term supplementation of 5 and 7% chitosan in diets for 16 weeks had lower plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) + very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) ratio, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in HS-diet-fed rats. Moreover, it was noticed that the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) protein expression in skeletal muscles of HS-diet-fed rats was significantly decreased, which could be significantly reversed by supplementation of 5 and 7% chitosan. Rats supplemented with 7% chitosan in the diet significantly elevated the lipolysis rate and decreased the accumulation of TG in epididymal fat pads of HS-diet-fed rats. The plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected in HS-diet-fed rats, but it was significantly increased in 7% chitosan-supplemented HS-diet-fed rats. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of chitosan in the diet can improve the impairment of lipid metabolism in a HS-diet-fed rat model, but long-term high-dose chitosan feeding may enhance postprandial plasma TG and TG-rich lipoprotein TG levels in HS-diet-fed rats through an ANGPTL4-regulated pathway.

  13. Patients Diagnosed With Severe Adult GH Deficiency Using The Insulin Tolerance Test, Arginine Or Glucagon Stimulation Tests Share Similar Clinical Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toogood, Andy; Brabant, Georg; Maiter, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the ITT, arginine (AST) and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar features of GH deficiency using a diagnostic threshold of 3 µg/l.Patients and Methods: 5453 tests were available from 4,867 patients registered in the KIMS database (49........9% females, ITT = 3111, AST = 1390, GST = 952). Comparisons were made for GH peak, BMI, lipids, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and quality of life (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire).Results. There were significant (p...

  14. Low-dose oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone for chronic pain in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: an efficacy–tolerability pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrò E

    2016-03-01

    (mean Neuropsychiatric Inventory, 25.5±27.3 vs 8.8±9.0, P<0.0001 were also reported. OXN-PR was well tolerated and did not worsen bowel function.Conclusion: In this pilot study, OXN-PR was effective in improving pain and other symptoms associated with dementia, with a favorable safety and tolerability profile. Large-scale trials in people with dementia are needed to improve clinical guidance for the assessment and treatment of pain in these fragile individuals.Keywords: dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, oxycodone/naloxone, elderly, cognitive impairment

  15. The similar to RCD-one 1 protein SRO1 interacts with GPX3 and functions in plant tolerance of mercury stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Gao, Lijie; Jin, Pingning; Cui, Liusu

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metals in the environment are one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, the mechanisms of the heavy metal-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we explored that SRO1 can physically interact with Glutathione Peroxidase 3 (GPX3) in Arabidopsis. Under Hg treatment, similar to the sro1, the growth of the gpx3/sro1 was repressed more seriously and the number of true leaves was more reduced and etiolated than that of the wild type and gpx3 plants. The electrolyte leakage rates showed that cell membrane integrity in gpx3/sro1 was damaged more severely than in the wild type and gpx3 mutant. The Real-time PCR results have shown that the expression of the APX1 and CAT3 was reduced under mercury stress in the sro1 and sro1/gpx3. Our results suggested that the combination of the SRO1 and GPX3 may be contributed to plant response to mercury stress by regulating ROS intracellular oxidative homeostasis.

  16. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  17. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

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    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  18. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

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    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H. [Health Care Discovery, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nauck, M.A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of xenin-25 on secretion of pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin or glucagon in humans with impaired glucose tolerance.

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    Songyan Wang

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP on insulin secretion rates (ISRs and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice. Fasted subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied. On eight separate occasions, each person underwent a single graded glucose infusion- two each with infusion of albumin, Xen, GIP, and GIP plus Xen. Each infusate was administered ± atropine. Heart rate and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP levels were measured. ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. All peptides profoundly increased PP responses. From 0 to 40 min, peptide(s infusions had little effect on plasma glucose concentrations. However, GIP, but not Xen, rapidly and transiently increased ISRs and glucagon levels. Both responses were further amplified when Xen was co-administered with GIP. From 40 to 240 min, glucose levels and ISRs continually increased while glucagon concentrations declined, regardless of infusate. Atropine increased resting heart rate and blocked all PP responses but did not affect ISRs or plasma glucagon levels during any of the peptide infusions. Thus, cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in mice but not humans.

  20. Cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of xenin-25 on secretion of pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin or glucagon in humans with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyan; Oestricker, Lauren Z; Wallendorf, Michael J; Sterl, Karin; Dunai, Judit; Kilpatrick, C Rachel; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Wice, Burton M

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen) amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice. Fasted subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied. On eight separate occasions, each person underwent a single graded glucose infusion- two each with infusion of albumin, Xen, GIP, and GIP plus Xen. Each infusate was administered ± atropine. Heart rate and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were measured. ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. All peptides profoundly increased PP responses. From 0 to 40 min, peptide(s) infusions had little effect on plasma glucose concentrations. However, GIP, but not Xen, rapidly and transiently increased ISRs and glucagon levels. Both responses were further amplified when Xen was co-administered with GIP. From 40 to 240 min, glucose levels and ISRs continually increased while glucagon concentrations declined, regardless of infusate. Atropine increased resting heart rate and blocked all PP responses but did not affect ISRs or plasma glucagon levels during any of the peptide infusions. Thus, cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in mice but not humans.

  1. Identification of β Clamp-DNA Interaction Regions That Impair the Ability of E. coli to Tolerate Specific Classes of DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanfara, Michael T; Babu, Vignesh M P; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sutton, Mark D

    The E. coli dnaN-encoded β sliding clamp protein plays a pivotal role in managing the actions on DNA of the 5 bacterial DNA polymerases, proteins involved in mismatch repair, as well as several additional proteins involved in DNA replication. Results of in vitro experiments indicate that the loading of β clamp onto DNA relies on both the DnaX clamp loader complex as well as several discrete sliding clamp-DNA interactions. However, the importance of these DNA interactions to E. coli viability, as well as the ability of the β clamp to support the actions of its numerous partner proteins, have not yet been examined. To determine the contribution of β clamp-DNA interactions to the ability of E. coli to cope with different classes of DNA damage, we used alanine scanning to mutate 22 separate residues mapping to 3 distinct β clamp surfaces known or nearby those known to contact the DNA template, including residues P20-L27 (referred to here as loop I), H148-Y154 (loop II) and 7 different residues lining the central pore of the β clamp through which the DNA template threads. Twenty of these 22 dnaN mutants supported bacterial growth. While none of these 20 conferred sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide or ultra violet light, 12 were sensitized to NFZ, 5 were sensitized to MMS, 8 displayed modestly altered frequencies of DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and 2 may be impaired for supporting hda function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that discrete β clamp-DNA interaction regions contribute to the ability of E. coli to tolerate specific classes of DNA damage.

  2. ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS WITH ELEVATED HEPATIC ENZYME AND LIVER FAT IN JAPANESE PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Mayumi Nagano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects

  3. The modified 2VO ischemia protocol causes cognitive impairment similar to that induced by the standard method, but with a better survival rate

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    F. Cechetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO in the rat has been established as a valid experimental model to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function and neurodegenerative processes. Our aim was to compare the cognitive and morphological outcomes following the standard 2VO procedure, in which there is concomitant artery ligation, with those of a modified protocol, with a 1-week interval between artery occlusions to avoid an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow, as assessed by animal performance in the water maze and damage extension to the hippocampus and striatum. Male Wistar rats (N = 47 aged 3 months were subjected to chronic hypoperfusion by permanent bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries using either the standard or the modified protocol, with the right carotid being the first to be occluded. Three months after the surgical procedure, rat performance in the water maze was assessed to investigate long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and their brains were processed in order to estimate hippocampal volume and striatal area. Both groups of hypoperfused rats showed deficits in reference (F(8,172 = 7.0951, P < 0.00001 and working spatial memory [2nd (F(2,44 = 7.6884, P < 0.001, 3rd (F(2,44 = 21.481, P < 0.00001 and 4th trials (F(2,44 = 28.620, P < 0.0001]; however, no evidence of tissue atrophy was found in the brain structures studied. Despite similar behavioral and morphological outcomes, the rats submitted to the modified protocol showed a significant increase in survival rate, during the 3 months of the experiment (P < 0.02.

  4. Effects of 6 vs 3 eucaloric meal patterns on glycaemic control and satiety in people with impaired glucose tolerance or overt type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, E; Kontogianni, M D; Mitrou, P; Magriplis, E; Vassiliadi, D; Nomikos, T; Lambadiari, V; Georgousopoulou, E; Dimitriadis, G

    2018-04-06

    The study aimed to compare the effects of two eucaloric meal patterns (3 vs 6 meals/day) on glycaemic control and satiety in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose (PG) levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min (IGT-A) or PG levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min and >200mg/dL at 30/60/90min post-oral glucose load on 75-g OGTT (IGT-B), or overt treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this randomized crossover study, subjects with IGT-A (n=15, BMI: 32.4±5.2kg/m 2 ), IGT-B (n=20, BMI: 32.5±5kg/m 2 ) or T2D (n=12, BMI: 32.2±5.2kg/m 2 ) followed a weight-maintenance diet (45% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 35% fats) in 3 or 6 meals/day (each intervention lasting 12 weeks). Anthropometrics, diet compliance and subjective appetite were assessed every 2 weeks. OGTT and measurements of HbA1c and plasma lipids were performed at the beginning and end of each intervention period. Body weight and physical activity levels remained stable throughout the study. In T2D, HbA1c and PG at 120min post-OGTT decreased with 6 vs 3 meals (Pmeal intervention also improved post-OGTT hyperinsulinaemia in IGT-A subjects and hyperglycaemia in IGT-B subjects. In all three groups, subjective hunger and desire to eat were reduced with 6 vs 3 meals/day (Pweight loss remains the key strategy in hyperglycaemia management, dietary measures such as more frequent and smaller meals may be helpful for those not sufficiently motivated to adhere to calorie-restricted diets. Our study shows that 6 vs 3 meals a day can increase glycaemic control in obese patients with early-stage T2D, and may perhaps improve and/or stabilize postprandial glucose regulation in prediabetes subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance) and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Kazutoshi; Gunji, Toshiaki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Naito, Toshio; Sasabe, Noriko; Okumura, Mitsue; Iijima, Kimiko; Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance) and hepatic steatosis (HS) or visceral fat accumulation (VFA) have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA. The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups. Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-)/VFA(-), HS(-)/VFA(+), HS(+)/VFA(-), and HS(+)/VFA(+), respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05). On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01). It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies are

  6. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  7. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  8. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemo, A.A.; Omotade, O.O.; Forrester, T.E.; Luke, A.; Rotimi, C.; Owoaje, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. In this project, we seek to measure the energy expenditure on activity, the rate of weight gain and changes in body composition in a free-living population, and to relate these variables to changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We have enrolled a cohort of 280 adults in Idikan, a poor urban community in lbadan, Nigeria, selected by simple random sampling from a population database. In this communication, we report characteristics of the study cohort, findings on evaluation of a physical activity questionnaire and changes in body size, body composition and measures of insulin resistance over a one-year period. Mean age of the men is 49.7 (SD 12.7) years and of the women 44.7 (SD 10.7) years. Mean fasting blood glucose was 4.57 (SD 4.75) mmol/L among men and 3.54 (SD 1.02) mmol/L among women. The modified HIP physical activity (PA) questionnaire was evaluated in a subset of participants for whom scale reliability coefficients of 0.57 and 0.33 were obtained for the occupational and leisure scales of HIP respectively. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.53. On validation against doubly-labelled water measurements, the HIP occupational score showed a positive correlation (r=0.37, p=0.01) with activity energy expenditure per kg body weight (AEE per kg) and a similar correlation of 0. 37 with physical activity level (PAL). Thus, the HIP occupational scale showed adequate consistency, good test-retest reliability and good correlations with measures of physical activity by doubly-labelled water. Over a one-year follow-up period, the participants showed increases in weight, BMI, waist circumferences, fat mass, fasting insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio. However, HOMA-IR did not significantly change. Overweight increased from 21.3% to 23.9% while

  9. Preserving Duodenal-Jejunal (Foregut) Transit Does Not Impair Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Remission Following Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Sprague-Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, Ponnie R; Yao, Libin; Li, Chao; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Shi, Linsen; Widjaja, Jason

    2017-11-02

    Possible mechanisms underlying diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) include eradication of putative factor(s) with duodenal-jejunal bypass. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass rat model. In order to verify the effect of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass, 22 type 2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat models established through high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) administered intraperitoneally were assigned to one of three groups: gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT n = 8), gastric bypass without duodenal-jejunal transit (RYGB n = 8), and sham (n = 6). Body weight, food intake, blood glucose, as well as meal-stimulated insulin, and incretin hormone responses were assessed to ascertain the effect of surgery in all groups. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted three and 7 weeks after surgery. Comparing our GB-DJT to the RYGB group, we saw no differences in the mean decline in body weight, food intake, and blood glucose 8 weeks after surgery. GB-DJT group exhibited immediate and sustained glucose control throughout the study. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were also significantly increased from preoperative level in the GB-DJT group (p transit does not impede glucose tolerance and diabetes remission after gastric bypass in type-2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat model.

  10. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with word memory source monitoring recollection deficits but not simple recognition familiarity deficits following water, low glycaemic load, and high glycaemic load breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Moulin, Chris A J; Dye, Louise

    2014-01-30

    It has been established that type 2 diabetes, and to some extent, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are associated with general neuropsychological impairments in episodic memory. However, the effect of abnormalities in glucose metabolism on specific retrieval processes such as source monitoring has not been investigated. The primary aim was to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes and IGT on simple word recognition (familiarity) and complex source monitoring (recollection). A secondary aim was to examine the effect of acute breakfast glycaemic load manipulations on episodic memory. Data are presented from two separate studies; (i) 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 12 controls aged 45-75years, (ii) 18 females with IGT and 47 female controls aged 30-50years. Controls were matched for age, IQ, BMI, waist circumference, and depression. Recognition of previously learned words and memory for specifically which list a previously learned word had appeared in (source monitoring) was examined at two test sessions during the morning after consumption of low glycaemic load, high glycaemic load and water breakfasts according to a counterbalanced, crossover design. Type 2 diabetes (pmemory processes. This enhances our understanding of how metabolic disorders are associated with memory impairments. © 2013.

  11. Circulating soluble RAGE isoforms are attenuated in obese, impaired-glucose-tolerant individuals and are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Edwin R; Somal, Vikram S; Mey, Jacob T

    2017-01-01

    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM...... development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA, and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Group......RAGE, and esRAGE were all lower with IGT and T2DM, while the ratio of cRAGE to esRAGE (cRAGE:esRAGE) was only lower (P obesity, cRAGE:esRAGE was higher with obesity and lower with IGT (P

  12. The effect of fasting and body reserves on cold tolerance in 2 pit-building insect predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Daniel, Alma; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Katz, Noa

    2017-06-01

    Pit-building antlions and wormlions are 2 distantly-related insect species, whose larvae construct pits in loose soil to trap small arthropod prey. This convergent evolution of natural histories has led to additional similarities in their natural history and ecology, and thus, these 2 species encounter similar abiotic stress (such as periodic starvation) in their natural habitat. Here, we measured the cold tolerance of the 2 species and examined whether recent feeding or food deprivation, as well as body composition (body mass and lipid content) and condition (quantified as mass-to-size residuals) affect their cold tolerance. In contrast to other insects, in which food deprivation either enhanced or impaired cold tolerance, prolonged fasting had no effect on the cold tolerance of either species, which had similar cold tolerance. The 2 species differed, however, in how cold tolerance related to body mass and lipid content: although body mass was positively correlated with the wormlion cold tolerance, lipid content was a more reliable predictor of cold tolerance in the antlions. Cold tolerance also underwent greater change with ontogeny in wormlions than in antlions. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of effect of food deprivation on both species' cold tolerance, such as their high starvation tolerance (being sit-and-wait predators).

  13. The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Højberg, Patricia V

    2007-01-01

    differences in patients with CP and DM. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of GIP amplification of the late insulin response to iv glucose develops alongside the deterioration of glucose tolerance in patients with CP, suggesting that the same may be true for the loss of the GIP effect in patients with T2DM.......BACKGROUND: The incretin effect is reduced and the insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is abolished in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To evaluate the causality of this deficiency we investigated 8...... patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 5.5 (4.5-6.0) mM (mean (range); HbA(1c): 5.8 (5.4-6.3) %) and 8 patients with CP and secondary diabetes not requiring insulin (FPG: 7.1 (6.0-8.8) mM; HbA(1c): 7.0 (5.8-10.0) %) during three 15-m...

  14. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in liver cancer patients: A hospital based study of 4610 patients with benign tumors or specific cancers [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Roujun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and impaired fasting glucose (IFG were hypothesised to be different among different tumor patients. This study aimed to study the association between the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG and liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and benign tumor. Methods:  A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on 4610 patients admitted to the Internal Medical Department of the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between gender, age group, ethnicity , cancer types or benign tumors and prevalence of DM, IFG, IGT. Results: Among 4610 patients, there were 1000 liver cancer patients, 373 breast cancer patients, 415 nasopharyngeal cancer patients, 230 cervical cancer patients, 405 colorectal cancer patients, and 2187 benign tumor patients. The prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients was 14.7% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.8% and 20%, respectively, in colorectal cancer patients, significantly higher than that of benign cancers. After adjusting for gender, age group, and ethnicity, the prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancers patients was 1.29 times (CI :1.12-1.66 and 1.49 times (CI :1.20-1.86 higher than that of benign tumors, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients.

  15. Factores clínicos relacionados con la hipertensión arterial en pacientes con trastornos de tolerancia a los carbohidratos Clinical factors related to arterial hypertension in patients with impaired carbohydrate tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelys Yanes Quesada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial constituye una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en el momento actual. Su asociación con trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa, acelera el grado de intolerancia y de sus complicaciones. Con el objetivo de identificar algunos factores clínicos asociados a ella en pacientes con trastornos de la tolerancia a la glucosa, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, con 329 pacientes con antecedentes de una hiperglucemia previa, a los que se les realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa para medir glucemia. Se les recogieron los datos siguientes: edad, sexo, peso, talla, se calculó el índice de masa corporal y tensión arterial. Se encontró una asociación significativa de la hipertensión arterial con el incremento de la edad, el sexo masculino y un mayor índice de masa corporal. La frecuencia de hipertensión arterial fue de un 59,9 %, y se incrementó hasta un 76,2 % en los pacientes con mayor número de factores de riesgo. La hipertensión arterial tiene una elevada prevalencia en pacientes con trastornos de tolerancia a la glucosa, la edad avanzada, el sexo masculino y el índice de masa corporal elevado, que a su vez se relacionan con su incremento, y cuando los sujetos presentan varios factores de riesgo asciende la frecuencia de hipertensión arterial.Arterial hypertension is one of the most common diseases at present. Its association with glucose metabolism disorders speeds up the intolerance degree and its complications. In order to identify some clinical factors associated with it in patients with impaired glucose tolerance, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 329 patients with previous history of hyperglycemia. A glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glycemia. The following data were collected: age, sex, weight and height. The body mass index and the arterial hypertension were calculated. The arterial hypertension frequency had an elevated prevalence of patients

  16. Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes-resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presa, Maximiliano; Ortiz, Angela Zarama; Garabatos, Nahir; Izquierdo, Cristina; Rivas, Elisa I; Teyton, Luc; Mora, Conchi; Serreze, David; Stratmann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been used as adjuvant to improve oral vaccine delivery in type 1 diabetes. The effect of CTB/peptide formulations on Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells has remained largely unexplored. Here, using tetramer analysis, we investigated how oral delivery of CTB fused to two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, the BDC-2.5 T-cell 2.5 mi mimotope and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 286-300, affected diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When administered i.p., CTB-2.5 mi activated 2.5 mi(+) T cells and following intragastric delivery generated Ag-specific Foxp3(+) Treg and Th2 cells. While 2.5 mi(+) and GAD-specific T cells were tolerized in diabetes-resistant NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 and nonobese resistant (NOR) mice, this did not occur in NOD mice. This indicated that NOD mice had a recessive genetic resistance to induce oral tolerance to both CTB-fused epitopes. In contrast to NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 mice, oral treatment in NOD mice lead to strong 2.5 mi(+) T-cell activation and the sequestration of these cells to the effector-memory pool. Oral treatment of NOD mice with CTB-2.5 mi failed to prevent diabetes. These findings underline the importance of investigating the effect of oral vaccine formulations on diabetogenic T cells as in selected cases they may have counterproductive consequences in human patients. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Age, BMI, and race are less important than random plasma glucose in identifying risk of glucose intolerance: the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Caudle, Jane M; Irving, Jade M; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m(2) provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility.

  18. The MerR-Like Regulator BrlR Impairs Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Tolerance to Colistin by Repressing PhoPQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jacob R.

    2013-01-01

    While the MerR-like transcriptional regulator BrlR has been demonstrated to contribute to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm tolerance to antimicrobial agents known as multidrug efflux pump substrates, the role of BrlR in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAP), which is based on reduced outer membrane susceptibility, is not known. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of brlR coincided with increased resistance of P. aeruginosa to colistin, while overexpression of brlR resulted in increased susceptibility. brlR expression correlated with reduced transcript abundances of phoP, phoQ, pmrA, pmrB, and arnC. Inactivation of pmrA and pmrB had no effect on the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms to colistin, while inactivation of phoP and phoQ rendered biofilms more susceptible than the wild type. The susceptibility phenotype of ΔphoP biofilms to colistin was comparable to that of P. aeruginosa biofilms overexpressing brlR. BrlR was found to directly bind to oprH promoter DNA of the oprH-phoPQ operon. BrlR reciprocally contributed to colistin and tobramycin resistance in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and CF clinical isolates, with overexpression of brlR resulting in increased tobramycin MICs and increased tobramycin resistance but decreased colistin MICs and increased colistin susceptibility. The opposite trend was observed upon brlR inactivation. The difference in susceptibility to colistin and tobramycin was eliminated by combination treatment of biofilms with both antibiotics. Our findings establish BrlR as an unusual member of the MerR family, as it not only functions as a multidrug transport activator, but also acts as a repressor of phoPQ expression, thus suppressing colistin resistance. PMID:23935054

  19. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  20. Glucosamine enhances body weight gain and reduces insulin response in mice fed chow diet but mitigates obesity, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Nam, Moon-Suk; Cho, Hyeongjin; Han, Inn-Oc

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting. GlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58±0.82 g vs. 11.1±0.42 g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7±0.32 g vs. 5.61±0.34 g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02±0.66 g vs. 16.22±0.96 g) and liver weight (2.27±0.1 vs. 1.85±0.12 g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5 mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25 mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative

  1. Hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor and IL-6 levels in obese children and adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance and their association with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalitin, S; Deutsch, V; Tauman, R

    2018-01-05

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Iron metabolism is linked with insulin-resistant states and with OSA in adults. The association of body iron status with T2DM in children remains undefined. We aimed to evaluate plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in obese patients with T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and in those without, and the contribution of OSA to their levels. In this cross-sectional study, obese children and adolescents with and without T2DM/IGT underwent overnight polysomnography. Fasting plasma concentrations of IL-6, hepcidin, and sTfR were measured and evaluated according to glycemic status (T2DM/IGT and normal glucose tolerance) and the presence of OSA. Ten patients with T2DM (age 15.9 ± 3.6 years), 8 with IGT (age 13.1 ± 2.5 years) and 20 subjects with normal glucose tolerance matched for body mass index standard deviation score (age 12.6 ± 3.3 years) were studied. Sleep measures or IL-6, hepcidin, and sTfR levels were not significantly different between the group with T2DM/IGT vs. the control group. No significant differences were found in hepcidin or sTfR levels between patients with OSA and those without. However, patients with OSA showed higher plasma IL-6 values compared with those without (4.56 ± 2.92 vs. 2.83 ± 1.54 pg/ml, P = 0.025), and the highest values were evident in patients affected by both T2DM/IGT and OSA. Higher IL-6 levels were associated with both glycemic status and OSA. No differences in body iron regulator levels were found in obese patients with T2DM/IGT compared to those without or in those with OSA compared to those without. Further longitudinal studies in larger population samples are warranted.

  2. Impact of screening and early detection of impaired fasting glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in Canada: a Markov model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawi A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soroush Mortaz*, Christine Wessman*, Ross Duncan, Rachel Gray, Alaa Badawi Office of Biotechnology Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada*Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major global health problem. An estimated 20%–50% of diabetic subjects in Canada are currently undiagnosed, and around 20%–30% have already developed complications. Screening for high blood glucose levels can identify people with prediabetic conditions and permit introduction of timely and effective prevention. This study examines the benefit of screening for impaired fasting glucose (IFG and T2DM. If intervention is introduced at this prediabetic stage, it can be most effective in delaying the onset and complications of T2DM.Methods: Using a Markov model simulation, we compare the cost-effectiveness of screening for prediabetes (IFG and T2DM with the strategy of no screening. An initial cohort of normoglycemic, prediabetic, or undiagnosed diabetic adults with one or more T2DM risk factors was used to model the strategies mentioned over a 10-year period. Subjects without known prediabetes or diabetes are screened every 3 years and persons with prediabetes were tested for diabetes on an annual basis. The model weighs the increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with early detection of prediabetes and earlier diagnosis of T2DM due to lifestyle intervention and early treatment in asymptomatic subjects.Results: Costs for each QALY gained were $2281 for conventional screening compared with $2890 for no screening. Thus, in this base-case analysis, conventional screening with a frequency of once every 3 years was favored over no screening. Furthermore, conventional screening was more favorable compared with no screening over a wide range of willingness-to-pay thresholds. Changing the frequency of screening did not affect the overall results. Screening

  3. Diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose são subdiagnosticados nas unidades de terapia intensiva Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are underdiagnosed in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diabetes mellitus e a intolerância à glicose em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes clínicos, em pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência, e excluídos aqueles com história de diabetes mellitus. Para o diagnóstico de alterações prévias da glicemia, utilizou-se a dosagem da hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c na admissão do paciente, sendo classificado em normal (6,4%. Durante os 3 primeiros dias da internação, foram avaliados o controle glicêmico e as complicações clínicas. A evolução para óbito foi acompanhada por 28 dias. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizaram-se testes do qui-quadrado, ANOVA, teste t de Student, Kruskall-Wallis ou Mann Whitney. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 30 pacientes, 53% do gênero feminino, idade de 53,4±19,7 anos e APACHE II de 13,6±6,6. A maioria dos pacientes foi admitida por sepse grave ou choque séptico, seguido por pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas, oncológicas, politraumatismo e cirurgia de urgência. Ao classificar esses pacientes segundo a HbA1c, apesar da ausência prévia de história de diabetes mellitus, apenas 13,3% tinham HbA1c normal, 23,3% tinham níveis compatíveis com o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus e 63,3% eram compatíveis com intolerância à glicose. Houve associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus ou intolerância a glicose e o uso de droga vasoativa (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose, sem diagnóstico prévio, em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in intensive care unit inpatients. METHODS: The study included patients in post-surgical care for elective and emergency surgery and excluded those patients with known diabetes mellitus. To diagnose prior serum glucose

  4. Effect of lifestyle interventions on glucose regulation among adults without impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanping; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Thomas, William; Cheng, Yiling J; Lobelo, Felipe; Norris, Keri; Devlin, Heather M; Ali, Mohammed K; Gruss, Stephanie; Bardenheier, Barbara; Cho, Pyone; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Mudaliar, Uma; Saaddine, Jinan; Geiss, Linda S; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically assessed the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on glycemic indicators among adults (⩾18years) without IGT or diabetes. Randomized controlled trials using physical activity (PA), diet (D), or their combined strategies (PA+D) with follow-up ⩾12months were systematically searched from multiple electronic-databases between inception and May 4, 2016. Outcome measures included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and bodyweight. Included studies were divided into low-range (FPG HOMA-IR (%change: -22.82% [-29.14, -16.51]), and bodyweight (%change: -3.99% [-4.69, -3.29]). The same effect sizes in FPG reduction (0.07) appeared among both low-range and high-range groups. Similar effects were observed among all groups regardless of lengths of follow-up. D and PA+D interventions had larger effects on glucose reduction than PA alone. Lifestyle interventions significantly improved FPG, HbA1c, FI, HOMA-IR, and bodyweight among adults without IGT or diabetes, and might reduce progression of hyperglycemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Desarrollo de diabetes mellitus en pacientes con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada: Seguimiento de 18 años Development of diabetes mellitus in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: An 18-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Perich Amador

    2002-08-01

    part of the initial group, 25 (22 % had died. Their clinical characteristics were reviewed and it was found that they had an average of 10 years of age more that those who had not died and a significantly higher frequency of electrocardiographic signs of ischaemic heart disease, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking habit. In the 84 individuals among whom the metabolic evolution was studied, more than half (53.6 % evolved to DM, 23.8 % maintained with IGT and the other 22.6 % had normal glucose tolerance. There was no relationship between the clinical characteristics in the initial study and the type of evolution. Those subjects that at the beginning had disorders of glycaemia regulation during fasting (figures ³ 6.1 mmol/L presented a higher frequency of manifest diabetes than the rest 18 years later, a difference that is not statistically significant. It was concluded that the impaired glucose tolerance is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and that the disorders of glycaemia regulation during fasting are an advance stage of this risk situation. Therefore, clinical and metabolic indicators associated with the unfavorable evolution are needed to establish early the risk level of the individuals with IGT.

  6. Factores metabólicos asociados con la progresión hacia la diabetes mellitus en sujetos con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada Metabolic factors associated with the progression of diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. González Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 84 pacientes con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, diagnosticada 18 años antes, para identificar factores metabólicos identificados en el estudio inicial, que pudieran estar asociados a la progresión hacia la diabetes mellitus (DM detectada en el estudio evolutivo. Como factores de riesgo metabólicos se consideraron la gravedad del trastorno de la tolerancia a la glucosa, la disminución o incremento de la secreción de insulina en ayunas y durante una PTG oral, así como la resistencia a la insulina detectada en ayunas o durante la PTG, todos ellos determinados con métodos y criterios de interpretación previamente establecidos y validados. Se encontró que la presencia de una baja respuesta insulínica inicial (II0-30 disminuido se asocia significativamente con la progresión hacia la diabetes en el grupo de sujetos con TGA estudiados. Este hallazgo es consistente en todos los aspectos del fenómeno evaluado (valores absolutos de las variables en los grupos de sujetos clasificados de acuerdo con su evolución, riesgo de evolución hacia la DM y tiempo hasta el diagnóstico de DM y está de acuerdo con el criterio de que el factor genéticamente determinado que condiciona el desarrollo de la DM es un defecto de la capacidad inicial de respuesta insulinosecretora a los cambios de la glicemia.A prospective study was conducted in 84 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT diagnosed 18 years before to identify metabolic factors found in the initial study that could be associated with the progression to diabetes mellitus (DM detected in the evolutive study. The severity of the glucose tolerance disorder, the reduction or increase of insulin secretion on fasting or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, as well as the resistance to insulin detected on fasting or during the OGTT, were considered as risk factors. All of them were determined by methods and criteria of interpretation that were

  7. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  8. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005...... results show that specific institutional qualities, which reduce status anxiety, such as inclusiveness, universality, and fairness, prevail over traditional socio-economic, societal, cultural, and democratic explanations....

  9. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of tedizolid in subjects with renal or hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S; Minassian, S L; Morris, D; Ponnuraj, R; Marbury, T C; Alcorn, H W; Fang, E; Prokocimer, P

    2014-11-01

    Two open-label, single-dose, parallel-group studies were conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the novel antibacterial tedizolid and the safety of tedizolid phosphate, its prodrug, in renally or hepatically impaired subjects. Tedizolid pharmacokinetics in subjects with severe renal impairment without dialysis support was compared with that of matched control subjects with normal renal function. Effects of hemodialysis on tedizolid pharmacokinetics were determined in a separate cohort of subjects undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Effects of hepatic impairment on tedizolid pharmacokinetics were determined in subjects with moderate or severe hepatic impairment and compared with those of matched control subjects with normal hepatic function. Each participant received a single oral (hepatic impairment) or intravenous (renal impairment) dose of tedizolid phosphate at 200 mg; hemodialysis subjects received two doses (separated by 7 days), before and after dialysis, in a crossover fashion. The pharmacokinetics of tedizolid was similar in subjects with severe renal impairment and controls (∼8% lower area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], with a nearly identical peak concentration) and in subjects undergoing hemodialysis before and after tedizolid phosphate administration (∼9% lower AUC, with a 15% higher peak concentration); Tedizolid pharmacokinetics was only minimally altered in subjects with moderate or severe hepatic impairment; the AUC was increased approximately 22% and 34%, respectively, compared with that of subjects in the control group. Tedizolid phosphate was generally well tolerated in all participants. These results suggest that tedizolid phosphate dose adjustments are not necessary in patients with any degree of renal or hepatic impairment. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration numbers NCT01452828 [renal study] and NCT01431833 [hepatic study].). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology

  11. The Influence of Hepatic and Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of a Treatment for Herpes Zoster, Amenamevir (ASP2151): Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Parallel-Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusawake, Tomohiro; Kowalski, Donna; Takada, Akitsugu; Kato, Kota; Katashima, Masataka; Keirns, James J; Lewand, Michaelene; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Marbury, Thomas C; Preston, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir. These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment. In the hepatic impairment study, the pharmacokinetic profile of amenamevir in participants with moderate hepatic impairment was generally similar to that of participants with normal hepatic function. In the renal impairment study, the area under the amenamevir concentration versus time curve from the time of dosing up to the time of the last sample with extrapolation to infinity of the terminal phase was increased by 78.1% in participants with severe renal impairment. There was a positive relationship between creatinine clearance and oral and renal clearance for amenamevir in the renal impairment study. In both studies, amenamevir was safe and well tolerated. The findings of the hepatic impairment study indicate that no dosing adjustment is required in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. In the renal impairment study, systemic amenamevir exposure was increased by renal impairment. However, it is unlikely that renal impairment will have a significant effect on the safety of amenamevir given that in previous pharmacokinetic and safety studies in healthy individuals amenamevir was safe and well tolerated after a single dose (5-2400 mg, fasted condition) and repeated doses for 7 days (300 or 600 mg, fed condition), and the amount of amenamevir exposure in the renal impairment study was covered by those studies. These findings suggest that amenamevir does not

  12. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  13. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  14. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  15. Elastin Insufficiency Predisposes Mice to Impaired Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarsilis, Antea J; Walji, Tezin A; Maedeker, Justine A; Stoka, Kellie V; Kozel, Beth A; Mecham, Robert P; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Craft, Clarissa S

    2014-10-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is the consequence of a large contiguous-gene deletion on the seventh human chromosome that includes the elastin gene. Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein responsible for the cardiovascular abnormalities associated with Williams's syndrome, including hypertension and aortic stenosis. A high percentage of individuals with Williams's syndrome also have impaired glucose tolerance, independent of traditional risk factors for diabetes. Here, we show that murine adipose tissue does assemble elastic fibers; however, isolated elastin insufficiency ( Eln +/- ) in mice does not independently influence glucose metabolism or tissue lipid accumulation. Similarly, isolated ApoE deficiency ( ApoE -/- ), a model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, does not impair insulin sensitivity. However, Eln +/- ; ApoE -/- double mutant mice exhibit notable hyperglycemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation of adipose tissue, and ectopic lipid accumulation in liver tissue. Further, Eln +/- ; ApoE -/- mutants have significant impairment of insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance testing, independent of body weight or diet, suggesting that elastin insufficiency predisposes to metabolic disease in susceptible individuals.

  16. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  17. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  18. Similarity after Goodman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.

    2011-01-01

    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky's influential set-theoretic

  19. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  20. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  1. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity. In this p......While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field...... of action. It is theorized that to meet this challenge organizations may substitute increased similarity on one core dimension for increased idiosyncrasy on another, but only after a certain level of isomorphism is reached. Results of quantitative analyses support this theory and show that an inverse U...

  2. The Influence of Similarity on Visual Working Memory Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Po-Han; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In verbal memory, similarity between items in memory often leads to interference and impaired memory performance. The present study sought to determine whether analogous interference effects would be observed in visual working memory by varying the similarity of the to-be-remembered objects in a color change-detection task. Instead of leading to interference and impaired performance, increased similarity among the items being held in memory led to improved performance. Moreover, when two simi...

  3. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  4. Similarity and denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitányi, Paul M B

    2013-02-13

    We can discover the effective similarity among pairs of finite objects and denoise a finite object using the Kolmogorov complexity of these objects. The drawback is that the Kolmogorov complexity is not computable. If we approximate it, using a good real-world compressor, then it turns out that on natural data the processes give adequate results in practice. The methodology is parameter-free, alignment-free and works on individual data. We illustrate both methods with examples.

  5. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2018-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  6. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Solithromycin in Subjects with Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Brian D; Ciric, Sabrina; Fernandes, Prabhavathi

    2015-08-01

    Solithromycin, a new macrolide and the first fluoroketolide, is in late-stage clinical development and, like older macrolides, is primarily metabolized and excreted through liver-dependent mechanisms. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of solithromycin in patients with chronic liver disease. This open-label, multiple-dose study in subjects with hepatic impairment and in healthy control subjects (matched for age, weight, and sex) enrolled 8 Child-Pugh class A (mild), 8 class B (moderate), and 8 class C (severe) patients and 9 healthy controls. Subjects (n = 33) received one 800-mg dose on day 1 followed by once-daily doses of 400 mg on days 2 through 5. The most commonly reported adverse events were mild diarrhea and mild headache, and no significant differences were noted between hepatically impaired subjects and healthy controls. The pharmacokinetics of plasma solithromycin in subjects with mild and moderate impairment was similar to that in control subjects. In subjects with severe impairment, total exposure to solithromycin at steady state (area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC0-tau]) was decreased compared to that in control subjects, which may have been related to the higher body mass index of individuals in this group. No greater accumulation was noted in any hepatically impaired cohort on day 5 compared to that in control subjects. No decrease in dosage is therefore needed when administering solithromycin to patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment. Solithromycin was well tolerated in this patient population, and no significant differences in safety, compared to healthy controls, were noted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Visually impaired (VI) education in Romania and the United Kingdom: special education in Romania since 1990 for blind and partially sighted children and young people, with comparisons drawn from similar experiences of legislative and educational changes in England and Wales since 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Verginia; Popovici, Doru Vlad; Sainsbury, Wendy; Corley, Gianetta

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the educational facilities available in the last decades of the 20th century for blind and partially sighted children and young people in Romania and the UK. A turning point in England and Wales came with the Education (Special Educational Needs) Act 1981. For Romania, the turning point came in 1990 with the overthrow of the Ceaucescu regime in late 1989. Romania is seeking entry to the European Union in 2007. This has provided an incentive to bring special educational philosophy and facilities quickly into line with other countries in the European Union. Similar problems regarding inclusion are encountered in both countries. Differentiating features are their different demographic characteristics and the educational resources and assets available at the time of the major changes. Finally, there is a brief review of the number of people with sight loss in paid employment as the next logical focal point for a national inclusion strategy. The UK has been able to develop and advance further than Romania in this sphere, but the legal framework is in place in Romania. The generic terms visually impaired (VI) and sight loss are both used throughout when referring to blind and partially sighted people.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Rolapitant in Patients With Mild to Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Arora, Sujata; Lu, Sharon; Kansra, Vikram

    2018-01-12

    Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. This was a phase 1 open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study of a single oral dose of 180 mg of rolapitant and its major active metabolite, M19, in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetics were assessed by a mixed-model analysis of variance of log-transformed values for maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ), observed time at C max (t max ), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-t ), and AUC from time 0 to 120 hours (AUC 0-120 ), with hepatic group as a fixed effect. Mean rolapitant C max , AUC 0-t , and AUC 0-120 were similar in the mild hepatic impairment and healthy control groups. In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, AUC 0-t was similar and C max was 25% lower than in healthy controls. Mean M19 C max and AUC 0-t were similar in the mild hepatic impairment group and healthy controls, but impairment versus healthy controls. Fraction of unbound rolapitant was comparable in all groups for rolapitant and M19. Rolapitant was well tolerated in all groups, without serious adverse events. Pharmacokinetic differences between healthy subjects and those with mild or moderate hepatic impairment are unlikely to pose a safety risk and do not warrant predefined dosage adjustment in the presence of hepatic impairment. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Teaching Tolerance? Associational Diversity and Tolerance Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance is a basic democratic principle that helps civil societies cope with rising levels of diversity stemming from increased immigration and individualism. During the last decade the question of how tolerance may be fostered has dominated debates in public and academic spheres. In this article...

  10. Enhancing drought tolerance in C(4) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta S; Araus, Jose Luis; van Heerden, Philippus D R; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-05-01

    Adaptation to abiotic stresses is a quantitative trait controlled by many different genes. Enhancing the tolerance of crop plants to abiotic stresses such as drought has therefore proved to be somewhat elusive in terms of plant breeding. While many C(4) species have significant agronomic importance, most of the research effort on improving drought tolerance has focused on maize. Ideally, drought tolerance has to be achieved without penalties in yield potential. Possibilities for success in this regard are highlighted by studies on maize hybrids performed over the last 70 years that have demonstrated that yield potential and enhanced stress tolerance are associated traits. However, while our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that enable plants to tolerate drought has increased considerably in recent years, there have been relatively few applications of DNA marker technologies in practical C(4) breeding programmes for improved stress tolerance. Moreover, until recently, targeted approaches to drought tolerance have concentrated largely on shoot parameters, particularly those associated with photosynthesis and stay green phenotypes, rather than on root traits such as soil moisture capture for transpiration, root architecture, and improvement of effective use of water. These root traits are now increasingly considered as important targets for yield improvement in C(4) plants under drought stress. Similarly, the molecular mechanisms underpinning heterosis have considerable potential for exploitation in enhancing drought stress tolerance. While current evidence points to the crucial importance of root traits in drought tolerance in C(4) plants, shoot traits may also be important in maintaining high yields during drought.

  11. Mutational tolerance to carbendazim in Botrytis cinerea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    No spontaneous mutation for tolerance to the fungicide carbendazim was detected in c. 10 8 conidia from each of eight carbendazim-sensitive field isolates of Botrytis cinerea. Conidia of B. cinerea were highly insensitive to u.v.-irradiation, although after severe irradiation treatments mutant strains showing the same levels of tolerance as two groups of carbendazim-tolerant field isolates were selected at frequencies of between 10 -9 and 10 -6 of survivors. Mutants with low levels of tolerance (EDsub(50)( -1 carbendazim, 'partially-tolerant') were selected from irradiated conidia obtained from sensitive field isolates and a further series of mutants capable of growth on 10,000 μg ml -1 carbendazim ('fully-tolerant') were selected from irradiated conidia from either partially-tolerant mutants or from partially tolerant field isolates. Both mutation steps were confirmed in similar experiments in which tolerance to an unrelated fungicide, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline (DCNA), was incorporated as a genetic marker in the parent strains. (author)

  12. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both

  13. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  14. Metabolic features involved in drought stress tolerance mechanisms in peanut nodules and their contribution to biological nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Ana Laura; Bianucci, Eliana; Castro, Stella; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2017-10-01

    Legumes belong to the most important crops worldwide. They increase soil fertility due their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil microorganisms, known as rhizobia, capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, they are frequently exposed to abiotic stress conditions in particular drought. Such adverse conditions impair the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and depend largely on the legume. Therefore, two peanut cultivars with contrasting tolerance to drought, namely the more tolerant EC-98 and the sensitive Granoleico, were investigated to elucidate the relative contribution of BNF to the tolerance to drought. The tolerant cultivar EC-98 sustained growth and BNF similar to the control condition despite the reduced water potential and photosynthesis, suggesting the functioning of distinct metabolic pathways that contributed to enhance the tolerance. The biochemical and metabolomics approaches revealed that nodules from the tolerant cultivar accumulated trehalose, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), metabolites with known function in protecting against drought stress. The amide metabolism was severely affected in nodules from the sensitive cultivar Granoleico as revealed by the low content of asparagine and glutamine in the drought stressed plants. The sensitive cultivar upon rehydration was unable to re-establish a metabolism similar to well-watered plants. This was evidenced by the low level of metabolites and, transcripts and specific activities of enzymes from the carbon (sucrose synthase) and nitrogen (glutamine synthetase) metabolism which decreased below the values of control plants. Therefore, the increased content of metabolites with protective functions under drought stress likely is crucial for the full restoration upon rehydration. Smaller changes of drought stress-related metabolites in nodule are another trait that contributes to the effective control of BNF in the tolerant peanut cultivar (EC-98). Copyright © 2017

  15. Algorithms for worst-case tolerance optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Madsen, Kaj

    1979-01-01

    New algorithms are presented for the solution of optimum tolerance assignment problems. The problems considered are defined mathematically as a worst-case problem (WCP), a fixed tolerance problem (FTP), and a variable tolerance problem (VTP). The basic optimization problem without tolerances...... is denoted the zero tolerance problem (ZTP). For solution of the WCP we suggest application of interval arithmetic and also alternative methods. For solution of the FTP an algorithm is suggested which is conceptually similar to algorithms previously developed by the authors for the ZTP. Finally, the VTP...... is solved by a double-iterative algorithm in which the inner iteration is performed by the FTP- algorithm. The application of the algorithm is demonstrated by means of relatively simple numerical examples. Basic properties, such as convergence properties, are displayed based on the examples....

  16. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  17. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...

  18. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L.; Metz, Ryan A. E.; Kamber, Rinya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  19. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  20. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...

  1. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  2. A methodology for testing fault-tolerant software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for testing fault tolerant software is presented. There are problems associated with testing fault tolerant software because many errors are masked or corrected by voters, limiter, or automatic channel synchronization. This methodology illustrates how the same strategies used for testing fault tolerant hardware can be applied to testing fault tolerant software. For example, one strategy used in testing fault tolerant hardware is to disable the redundancy during testing. A similar testing strategy is proposed for software, namely, to move the major emphasis on testing earlier in the development cycle (before the redundancy is in place) thus reducing the possibility that undetected errors will be masked when limiters and voters are added.

  3. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substrat...

  4. Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica: who should have the oral glucose tolerance test? Alteraciones del control de la glucemia: ¿a quiénes se les debe hacer la prueba de tolerancia a una dosis oral de glucosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln A. Sargeant

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO fasting plasma glucose (FPG criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated. METHODS: A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG. RESULTS: The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28- 0.34, indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG. In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of nondetection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG > 7.8 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.OBJETIVO: Comparar los criterios publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS en 1999

  5. Chronic administration of the HNO donor Angeli's salt does not lead to tolerance, cross-tolerance, or endothelial dysfunction: comparison with GTN and DEA/NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Jennifer C; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Widdop, Robert E

    2011-05-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) displays distinct pharmacology to its redox congener nitric oxide (NO(•)) with therapeutic potential in the treatment of heart failure. It remains unknown if HNO donors are resistant to tolerance development following chronic in vivo administration. Wistar-Kyoto rats received a 3-day subcutaneous infusion of one of the NO(•) donors, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) or diethylamine/NONOate (DEA/NO), or the HNO donor Angeli's salt (AS). GTN infusion (10 μg/kg/min) resulted in significantly blunted depressor responses to intravenous bolus doses of GTN, demonstrating tolerance development. By contrast, infusion with AS (20 μg/kg/min) or DEA/NO (2 μg/kg/min) did not alter their subsequent depressor responses. Similarly, ex vivo vasorelaxation responses in isolated aortae revealed that GTN infusion elicited a significant 6-fold decrease in the sensitivity to GTN and reduction in the maximum response to acetylcholine (ACh). Chronic infusion of AS or DEA/NO had no effect on subsequent vasorelaxation responses to themselves or to ACh. No functional cross-tolerance between nitrovasodilators was evident, either in vivo or ex vivo, although an impaired ability of a nitrovasodilator to increase tissue cGMP content was not necessarily indicative of a reduced functional response. In conclusion, HNO donors may represent novel therapies for cardiovascular disease with therapeutic potential over clinically used organic nitrates.

  6. Changes in Reactivity In Vitro of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T Cell Subsets in Transplant Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M. Hall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplant tolerance induced in adult animals is mediated by alloantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells, yet in many models, proliferation of CD4+ T cells from hosts tolerant to specific-alloantigen in vitro is not impaired. To identify changes that may diagnose tolerance, changes in the patterns of proliferation of CD4+, CD4+CD25+, and CD4+CD25− T cells from DA rats tolerant to Piebald Virol Glaxo rat strain (PVG cardiac allografts and from naïve DA rats were examined. Proliferation of CD4+ T cells from both naïve and tolerant hosts was similar to both PVG and Lewis stimulator cells. In mixed lymphocyte culture to PVG, proliferation of naïve CD4+CD25− T cells was greater than naïve CD4+ T cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD4+CD25− T cells from tolerant hosts to specific-donor PVG was not greater than CD4+ T cells, whereas their response to Lewis and self-DA was greater than CD4+ T cells. Paradoxically, CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant hosts did not proliferate to PVG, but did to Lewis, whereas naïve CD4+CD25+ T cells proliferate to both PVG and Lewis but not to self-DA. CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant, but not naïve hosts, expressed receptors for interferon (IFN-γ and IL-5 and these cytokines promoted their proliferation to specific-alloantigen PVG but not to Lewis or self-DA. We identified several differences in the patterns of proliferation to specific-donor alloantigen between cells from tolerant and naïve hosts. Most relevant is that CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant hosts failed to proliferate or suppress to specific donor in the absence of either IFN-γ or IL-5. The proliferation to third-party and self of each cell population from tolerant and naïve hosts was similar and not affected by IFN-γ or IL-5. Our findings suggest CD4+CD25+ T cells that mediate transplant tolerance depend on IFN−γ or IL-5 from alloactivated Th1 and Th2 cells.

  7. Reference values for glucose tolerance and glucose tolerance status in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, K R; Rand, J S

    1998-08-15

    To determine the reference range for glucose tolerance, using a simplified glucose tolerance test (GTT), and to evaluate glucose tolerance status in cats. Prospective study. 57 clinically normal cats. 2 catheters were placed in the cephalic veins of nonsedated cats at least 3 hours before the test. Blood samples were obtained before (0 minutes) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after glucose (0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb] of body weight) was injected i.v. Blood glucose concentration was measured by a glucose meter. Glucose half-life (t1/2) and disappearance of glucose (Kglucose) were calculated. Glucose tolerance in cats was considered normal when upper limits for glucose concentration were glucose t1/2 was or = 0.41%/min. Impaired glucose tolerance in cats was defined as a glucose concentration > or = 160 mg/dl at 0 minutes, > or = 323 mg/dl at 60 minutes, > or = 239 mg/dl at 90 minutes, or > or = 172 mg/dl at 120 minutes. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance was 2%. Five cats had stress-affected GTT. Significant differences in glucose t1/2 or Kglucose between cats or = 7 years old were not found. The simplified GTT and measurement of glucose concentration by a glucose meter provides a simple and low-cost method of assessing glucose tolerance status in cats that are normoglycemic after food is withheld. Use of absolute glucose concentrations overcomes the need to calculate glucose t1/2 values. The high glucose concentration at 0 minutes found in this study may reflect a more realistic concentration to use in assessing client-owned cats in a hospital environment.

  8. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  9. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  10. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment ...

  11. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  12. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...

  13. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails....... The justification of compromise goes beyond, even if it includes, respect for each individual's right to determine her own conception of the good to an idea of respect for citizens as co-legislators. Second, the limits of compromise are not the same as the limits of toleration. The conditions for being included...

  14. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  15. The Paradoxes of Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasamonik, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who endeavor to build tolerant attitudes in their students often fall into the trap of political correctness. Political correctness can suspend free reflection on the differences inherent in otherness, which is the subject of tolerance, and creates an ideology of the generalized, abstract Other. As a result, teachers prefer to talk about…

  16. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv...

  17. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satin, Leslie S; Butler, Peter C; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern, has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satin, Leslie S.; Butler, Peter C.; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. PMID:25637831

  19. Targeted Approach to Identify Genetic Loci Associated with Evolved Dioxin Tolerance in Atlantic Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme tolerance to highly toxic dioxin-like contaminants (DLCs) has evolved independently and contemporaneously in (at least) four populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Surprisingly, the magnitude and phenotype of DLC tolerance is similar among these killi...

  20. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  1. Down-regulating alpha-galactosidase enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycooke, Joyce C; Jones, Michelle L; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-10-01

    Alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal; EC 3.2.1.22) is involved in many aspects of plant metabolism, including hydrolysis of the alpha-1,6 linkage of raffinose oligosaccharides during deacclimation. To examine the relationship between endogenous sugars and freezing stress, the expression of alpha-Gal was modified in transgenic petunia (Petunia x hybrida cv Mitchell). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Lea-Gal gene under the control of the Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter was introduced into petunia in the sense and antisense orientations using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. RNA gel blots confirmed that alpha-Gal transcripts were reduced in antisense lines compared with wild type, whereas sense plants had increased accumulation of alpha-Gal mRNAs. alpha-Gal activity followed a similar trend, with reduced activity in antisense lines and increased activity in all sense lines evaluated. Raffinose content of nonacclimated antisense plants increased 12- to 22-fold compared with wild type, and 22- to 53-fold after cold acclimation. Based upon electrolyte leakage tests, freezing tolerance of the antisense lines increased from -4 degrees C for cold-acclimated wild-type plants to -8 degrees C for the most tolerant antisense line. Down-regulating alpha-Gal in petunia results in an increase in freezing tolerance at the whole-plant level in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants, whereas overexpression of the alpha-Gal gene caused a decrease in endogenous raffinose and impaired freezing tolerance. These results suggest that engineering raffinose metabolism by transformation with alpha-Gal provides an additional method for improving the freezing tolerance of plants.

  2. Down-Regulating α-Galactosidase Enhances Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Petunia1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycooke, Joyce C.; Jones, Michelle L.; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    α-Galactosidase (α-Gal; EC 3.2.1.22) is involved in many aspects of plant metabolism, including hydrolysis of the α-1,6 linkage of raffinose oligosaccharides during deacclimation. To examine the relationship between endogenous sugars and freezing stress, the expression of α-Gal was modified in transgenic petunia (Petunia × hybrida cv Mitchell). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Lea-Gal gene under the control of the Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter was introduced into petunia in the sense and antisense orientations using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. RNA gel blots confirmed that α-Gal transcripts were reduced in antisense lines compared with wild type, whereas sense plants had increased accumulation of α-Gal mRNAs. α-Gal activity followed a similar trend, with reduced activity in antisense lines and increased activity in all sense lines evaluated. Raffinose content of nonacclimated antisense plants increased 12- to 22-fold compared with wild type, and 22- to 53-fold after cold acclimation. Based upon electrolyte leakage tests, freezing tolerance of the antisense lines increased from –4°C for cold-acclimated wild-type plants to –8°C for the most tolerant antisense line. Down-regulating α-Gal in petunia results in an increase in freezing tolerance at the whole-plant level in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants, whereas overexpression of the α-Gal gene caused a decrease in endogenous raffinose and impaired freezing tolerance. These results suggest that engineering raffinose metabolism by transformation with α-Gal provides an additional method for improving the freezing tolerance of plants. PMID:14500789

  3. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  4. GTB - an online genome tolerance browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, Hashem A; Rogers, Mark F; Ferlaino, Michael; Campbell, Colin; Gaunt, Tom R

    2017-01-06

    Accurate methods capable of predicting the impact of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are assuming ever increasing importance. There exists a plethora of in silico algorithms designed to help identify and prioritize SNVs across the human genome for further investigation. However, no tool exists to visualize the predicted tolerance of the genome to mutation, or the similarities between these methods. We present the Genome Tolerance Browser (GTB, http://gtb.biocompute.org.uk ): an online genome browser for visualizing the predicted tolerance of the genome to mutation. The server summarizes several in silico prediction algorithms and conservation scores: including 13 genome-wide prediction algorithms and conservation scores, 12 non-synonymous prediction algorithms and four cancer-specific algorithms. The GTB enables users to visualize the similarities and differences between several prediction algorithms and to upload their own data as additional tracks; thereby facilitating the rapid identification of potential regions of interest.

  5. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  6. CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Januzzi, Amanda Barba; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163. We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry. No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells. The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falc?o, Andr? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  8. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  9. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Afatinib: An Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sabrina; Schnell, David; Külzer, Raimund; Gansser, Dietmar; Weber, Anne; Wallenstein, Gudrun; Halabi, Atef; Conrad, Anja; Wind, Sven

    2017-06-01

    Afatinib is an oral irreversible ErbB-Family Blocker indicated for treatment of patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This trial assessed whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics and safety of afatinib. This was an open-label, single-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters after afatinib 40 mg were investigated in subjects with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 8) renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively) and healthy matched controls (n = 14). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and up to 14 days after dosing for pharmacokinetic and plasma protein-binding assessment. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC last ) and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) between subjects with renal impairment and healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetic profiles and plasma protein binding were similar in all groups. The extent of exposure, as indicated by AUC last and C max , was generally similar between the matched treatment groups, with the exception of the geometric mean ratio of AUC last for subjects with severe renal impairment, which showed a trend towards a higher value compared with matched healthy subjects (150.0 % [90 % CI 105.3-213.7]) Inter-individual variability was moderate (geometric mean coefficient of variation 28-39 % for moderate impairment, 34-42 % for severe impairment). Afatinib was well tolerated and urinary excretion was minimal. Moderate-to-severe renal impairment had a minor influence on the pharmacokinetics of afatinib that was within the observed inter-individual variability, suggesting that afatinib treatment can be considered in this patient population. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02096718.

  10. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects...

  11. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  12. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  13. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  14. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism....... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  15. Role of cortisol in the deterioration of glucose tolerance in Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Thirty pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) and thirty pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance(1GT) were compared with thirty control pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Results: The GDM and the IGT groups were found to have significantly higher levels of serum cortisol ...

  16. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance.

  17. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism....

  18. Dynamics in cardiometabolic risk among Turkish adults: Similarities to that in Iranians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Onat

    2011-01-01

    The author strongly suspects that such dynamics in the development of diabetes and CHD exist in Western adults prone to impaired glucose tolerance, and evidence is accumulating regarding general Iranian adults. These issues posing a vast threat on public cardiometabolic health will have to be recognized with the purpose of not delaying implementation of measures for the modification of cardiometabolic risk, especially in women.

  19. Fault-tolerant design

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This textbook serves as an introduction to fault-tolerance, intended for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate-level students and practicing engineers in need of an overview of the field.  Readers will develop skills in modeling and evaluating fault-tolerant architectures in terms of reliability, availability and safety.  They will gain a thorough understanding of fault tolerant computers, including both the theory of how to design and evaluate them and the practical knowledge of achieving fault-tolerance in electronic, communication and software systems.  Coverage includes fault-tolerance techniques through hardware, software, information and time redundancy.  The content is designed to be highly accessible, including numerous examples and exercises.  Solutions and powerpoint slides are available for instructors.   ·         Provides textbook coverage of the fundamental concepts of fault-tolerance; ·         Describes a variety of basic techniques for achieving fault-toleran...

  20. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  1. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  2. Method of similarity for cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espanet, L.; Tekatlian, A.; Barbier, D. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gouin, H. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique et Thermodynamique

    1998-07-01

    The knowledge of possible cavitation in subassembly nozzles of the fast reactor core implies the realization of a fluid dynamic model test. We propose a method of similarity based on the non-dimensionalization of the equation of motion for viscous capillarity fluid issued from the Cahn and Hilliard model. Taking into account the dissolved gas effect, a condition of compatibility is determined. This condition must be respected by the fluid in experiment, along with the scaling between the two similar flows. (author)

  3. Method of similarity for cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espanet, L.; Tekatlian, A.; Barbier, D.; Gouin, H.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of possible cavitation in subassembly nozzles of the fast reactor core implies the realization of a fluid dynamic model test. We propose a method of similarity based on the non-dimensionalization of the equation of motion for viscous capillarity fluid issued from the Cahn and Hilliard model. Taking into account the dissolved gas effect, a condition of compatibility is determined. This condition must be respected by the fluid in experiment, along with the scaling between the two similar flows. (author)

  4. The impact of low and no-caloric sweeteners on glucose absorption, incretin secretion, and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine B; Hashemi, Zohre; Subhan, Fatheema B

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of non-nutritive, low, or no-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is increasing globally. Previously thought to be physiologically inert, there is a growing body of evidence that LCS not only provide a sweet taste but may also elicit metabolic effects in the gastrointestinal tract. This review provides a brief overview of the chemical and receptor-binding properties and effects on chemosensation of different LCS but focuses on the extent to which LCS stimulates glucose transport, incretin and insulin secretion, and effects on glucose tolerance. Aspartame and sucralose both bind to a similar region of the sweet receptor. For sucralose, the data are contradictory regarding effects on glucose tolerance in humans and may depend on the food or beverage matrix and the duration of administration, as suggested by longer term rodent studies. For aspartame, there are fewer data. On the other hand, acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K) and saccharin have similar binding characteristics to each other but, while Ace-K may increase incretin secretion and glucose responses in humans, there are no data on saccharin except in rats, which show impaired glucose tolerance after chronic administration. Additional research, particularly of the effects of chronic consumption, is needed to provide concrete evidence for beneficial or detrimental effects of LCS on blood glucose regulation in humans.

  5. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  6. Defect-Tolerant Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Kuhar, Korina

    2016-01-01

    -principles investigation of defect tolerance in 29 monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) of interest for nanoscale optoelectronics. We find that the TMDs based on group VI and X metals form deep gap states upon creation of a chalcogen (S, Se, Te) vacancy, while the TMDs based on group IV metals form only...... shallow defect levels and are thus predicted to be defect-tolerant. Interestingly, all the defect sensitive TMDs have valence and conduction bands with a very similar orbital composition. This indicates a bonding/antibonding nature of the gap, which in turn suggests that dangling bonds will fall inside...

  7. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  8. Similarities and Differences in Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Similar symptomatology manifestations and high co-morbidity in substance and non-substance addictions suggest that there may be a common pathogenesis between them. Associated with impulse control and emotional processing, the monoamine neurotransmitter system genes are suggested to be related to both substance and non-substance addictions, such as dopamine (DA) system, 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) system, the endogenous opioid system and so on. Here we reviewed the similarities and differences in genetics between classic substance addiction and common types of non-substance addiction, e.g. pathological gambling, Internet addiction, binge-eating disorder etc. It is necessary to systematically compare genetic mechanisms of non-substance addiction and substance addiction, which could reveal similarities and differences of substance addiction and non-addictive substances essentially, enhance our understanding of addiction theory and improve clinical practice with research results.

  9. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  12. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  13. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... for physiological traits that may confer better adaptation to changing climatic conditions. Eventually, combining all the identified “good genes” may aid in developing stress tolerant cultivars to overcome environmental constraints and thereby, meet the increasing demand of future food security....

  14. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  15. Changes in bacillus thuringiensis tolerance levels due to hybridization of Bt-tolerant and susceptible silkworm populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begumad, H.A.; Hassana, E.; Dingleb, J.; Alshehic, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Males and females of a Bt-tolerant mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) population were crossed with females and males of a Bt-susceptible population, to produce Bt-tolerant silkworm hybrids, and to determine the expression of the Bt-tolerance pattern in the F 1 hybrids. It was observed that when a Bt-tolerant (42% larval mortality) female (BtT ) silkworm was crossed with a Bt-susceptible (85% larval mortality) male (BtS ), the resultant F 1 offspring showed lower levels of Bt-tolerance (87% larval mortality). On the other hand, when a Bt-tolerant male (BtT ) was crossed with a Bt-susceptible female (BtS ), the F 1 hybrid showed higher levels of Bt-tolerance (35% larval mortality) characteristic. The probit statistics showed that both hybrids expressed Bt-tolerance or susceptible levels similar to their male parents. These different patterns of Bt-tolerance in F 1 hybrids might be due to the transferring of a Bt-tolerant gene, from the parents to offspring, through the homozygotic male (ZZ) silkworm. (author)

  16. Salinity tolerance of Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Polle, A

    2010-03-01

    The genus Populus has a wide distribution in different climatic zones. Besides its economic and ecological relevance, Populus also serves as a model for elucidating physiological and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in tree species. In this review, adaptation strategies of poplars to excess soil salinity are addressed at different scales, from the cellular to the whole-plant level. Striking differences in salt tolerance exist among different poplar species and ecotypes, with Populus euphratica being outstanding in this respect. Key mechanisms identified in this species to mediate salt tolerance are compartmentalisation of Cl(-) in the vacuoles of the root cortex cells, diminished xylem loading of NaCl, activation of Na(+) extrusion into the soil solution under stress, together with simultaneously avoiding excessive K(+) loss by regulation of depolarisation-activated cation channels. This leads to improved maintenance of the K(+)/Na(+) balance, a crucial precondition for survival under salt stress. Leaf cells of this species are able to compartmentalise Na(+) preferentially in the apoplast, whereas in susceptible poplar species, as well as in crop plants, vacuolar Na(+) deposition precedes apoplastic transport. ABA, Ca(2+)and ROS are involved in stress sensing, with higher or faster activation of defences in tolerant than in susceptible poplar species. P. euphratica develops leaf succulence after prolonged salt exposure as a plastic morphological adaptation that leads to salt dilution. Transgenic approaches to improve salt tolerance by transformation of candidate genes have had limited success, since salt tolerance is a multigenic trait. In future attempts towards increased salt resistance, barriers between different poplar sections must be overcome and application of novel biotechnological tools, such as gene stacking, are recommended.

  17. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin...... sensitivity and -cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWith validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT......), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs...

  18. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequali...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  19. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequali...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  20. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  1. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  2. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity......, or having impaired glucose tolerance). High-risk individuals (57.1%) were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test at 1- and 3-year, and all the participants were re-examined at 5-year follow-up. Person-years at risk were calculated. Progression rates to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes were...

  3. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  4. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H

    2013-03-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fungal pathogen, Colletoricum higginsianum. Consistent with changes in the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, the expression of marker genes for these stresses is significantly altered compared with those of the wild-type plant. These results indicate that a overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but impairs abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

  5. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this controlled study was to investigate the effect of high-load strength training on glucose tolerance in patients undergoing dialysis. Methods: 23 patients treated by dialysis underwent a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of strength training three times....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...... glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...

  6. Arthritis and cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Zack, Matthew; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-06-01

    Adults aged 65 or older with arthritis may be at increased risk for cognitive impairment [cognitive impairment but not dementia (CIND) or dementia]. Studies have found associations between arthritis and cognition impairments; however, none have examined whether persons with arthritis develop cognitive impairments at higher rates than those without arthritis. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older adults with and without arthritis, and examined associations between arthritis status and cognitive impairments. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between arthritis and cognitive impairments adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, depression, obesity, smoking, the number of chronic conditions, physical activity, and birth cohort. The prevalence of CIND and dementia did not significantly differ between those with and without arthritis (CIND: 20.8%, 95% CI 19.7-21.9 vs. 18.3%, 95% CI 16.8-19.8; dementia: 5.2% 95% CI 4.6-5.8 vs. 5.1% 95% CI 4.3-5.9). After covariate control, older adults with arthritis did not differ significantly from those without arthritis for either cognitive outcome (CIND IDR: 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9-2.9; dementia IDR: 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-3.3) and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate to those without arthritis. Older adults with arthritis were not significantly more at risk to develop cognitive impairments and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate as older adults without arthritis over 6 years.

  7. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  8. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogate Parikshit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  9. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...

  10. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    is routinely defined as involving an objection component, a power requirement and an acceptance component. The objection and acceptance components refer to reasons or dispositions of the subjects of toleration, e.g. public authorities deciding how to act in relation to groups. The power condition refers...

  11. 3HP tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Cells and cell cultures are provided that have improved tolerance to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). Genetic modifications to provide a mutated or overexpressed SFA1 gene or other enhancement of 3HP detoxification via a glutathione- dependent dehydrogenase reaction, including medium supplementation...

  12. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  13. "Tolerating" Adolescent Needs: Moving beyond Zero Tolerance Policies in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey

    2009-01-01

    The authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished from authoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritative discipline can guide…

  14. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p impairments in all models). Participants with a sensory impairment took on average from 2 to 10 seconds longer than participants without the corresponding sensory impairment to complete these tests. Results were similar in models that included adjustment for hearing aid use. Hearing, visual and olfactory impairment were associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging.

  15. Frequency of Gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3.9 ± 2.1 respectively , p<0.001]. Conclusion: The frequency of GDM and IGT in Sudanese pregnant women is within the universal estimates and parity is an important risk factor that affects impaired glucose tolerance incidence in pregnancy. Keywords: microvascular, chemical diabetes, carbohydrate intolerance.

  16. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  17. Clinical safety and tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardalo, Cathy; Lodise, Thomas P; Bidell, Monique; Flanagan, Shawn; De Anda, Carisa; Anuskiewicz, Steven; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2018-03-12

    We evaluated safety and tolerability of tedizolid phosphate at the 200-mg once-daily dose approved for 6-day treatment of skin and skin-structure infections. Clinical adverse event (AE) and laboratory data were pooled across completed clinical studies (13 phase 1, two phase 2, and two phase 3), for all participants who received ≥1 dose of tedizolid 200 mg, linezolid 600 mg (phase 3 only), or placebo (phase 1 only). 1280 participants received tedizolid (phase 1: n = 355; phase 2/3: n = 925). In total, 13% received >6 doses of tedizolid (range: 7-21); in phase 2/3, 94% of participants received ≥5 doses (range: 5-10). Drug-related AEs occurred in 27% of participants (most commonly gastrointestinal reactions in 13% of participants and headache in 4%). Most AEs were mild-moderate in severity; Tedizolid and linezolid had similar frequency, severity, and types of drug-related AEs. Tolerability in clinically important subpopulations (obese, n = 346; elderly, n = 99; renal impairment, n = 40; hepatic disease/impairment, n = 294) appeared comparable to the overall population. Tedizolid, given orally or intravenously at 200 mg, has a favorable safety profile. Clinical trial and postmarketing experience with treatment ≥7 days is limited.

  18. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  19. Effects of Starvation and Thermal Stress on the Thermal Tolerance of Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Existence of Trade-offs and Cross-Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, A H; Qamar, A

    2017-09-27

    Organisms, in nature, are often subjected to multiple stressors, both biotic and abiotic. Temperature and starvation are among the main stressors experienced by organisms in their developmental cycle and the responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways, which affects the way these responses are manifested. Temperature is a major factor governing the performance of ectothermic organisms in ecosystems worldwide and, therefore, the thermal tolerance is a central issue in the thermobiology of these organisms. Here, we investigated the effects of starvation as well as mild heat and cold shocks on the thermal tolerance of the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus). Starvation acted as a meaningful or positive stressor as it improved cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time (CCRT), but, at the same time, it acted as a negative stressor and impaired the heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time (HKT). In the case of heat tolerance, starvation negated the positive effects of both mild cold as well as mild heat shocks and thus indicated the existence of trade-off between these stressors. Both mild heat and cold shocks improved the thermal tolerance, but the effects were more prominent when the indices were measured in response to a stressor of same type, i.e., a mild cold shock improved the cold tolerance more than the heat tolerance and vice versa. This improvement in thermal tolerance by both mild heat as well as cold shocks indicated the possibility of cross-tolerance between these stressors.

  20. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  1. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  2. Hypertension and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-hang SHANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004

  3. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  4. Helminths and immunological tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunolo...

  5. Toleration, Liberty and Privileges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Guilds are usually seen as the epitome of economic regulation and organization in early modern European towns. As organisations closely tied to the nominal male lifecycle, historians of women have tended to be chary of them and identified guilds as a key mechanism for restricting women’s access t...... to trade could depend on gaining tolerations, earning the liberty of the trade and using the liberties associated with it....

  6. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  7. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  8. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONKALA, SANNA M.; MOTIANI, KUMAIL K.; ESKELINEN, JARI-JOONAS; SAVOLAINEN, ANNA; SAUNAVAARA, VIRVA; VIRTANEN, KIRSI A.; LÖYTTYNIEMI, ELIISA; KAPANEN, JUKKA; KNUUTI, JUHANI; KALLIOKOSKI, KARI K.; HANNUKAINEN, JARNA C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). Methods A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7–30.0 kg·m−2, age = 40–55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8–33.5 kg·m−2, age = 43–53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by 1H-MRS. Results At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = −42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (−5%) and PAT (−6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Conclusion Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC. PMID:28628064

  9. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  10. Mathematical analysis of clinical data reveals a homunculus of bacterial mimotopes protecting from autoimmunity via oral tolerance in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Katalin; Madách, Krisztina; Czaller, Ibolya; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Oral tolerance (OT) means systemic immunological unresponsiveness to harmless antigens present in the gastrointestinal tract. We presumed that tolerance to these antigens may also protect self-proteins that show immunological similarity to the intestinal normal flora. To investigate the existence and in vivo relevance of such a tolerogenic molecular mimicry, we focused our attention to Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome type 1 (APS1) and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. APS1 is a human form of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) dysfunction with severely impaired central immunotolerance to a specific set of autoantigens, allowing investigation of tolerogenic mimicry by itself, without a disturbing background. HELLP syndrome is a mediocre manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathy, complicating pregnancy, with platelet-fibrin deposits in small blood vessels and transient development of autoantibodies. Impaired microcirculation in the liver is well described, while intestinal ischemia is possible but has not yet been studied. As the harmless nature of an antigen is essential for OT, ischemia-induced bacterial microinvasion represses this process. In case that oral tolerance to a bacterial homunculus is an existing way of self-protection and has an in vivo relevance when central tolerance is intact, significant intestinal ischemia--if present--is expected to promote autoimmunity in HELLP syndrome. We used an experimentally validated, highly reliable mathematical algorithm to predict the extent of immunological similarity between a certain autoantigen and intestinal bacteria. We found a strong negative correlation between the similarity of autoantigens to intestinal bacteria and the production of specific autoantibodies in APS1 (R=-0.70, P=0.002), while a positive correlation was observed in patients with predominantly the severe/moderately severe form of HELLP syndrome according to Mississippi classification (R=0.94, P=0

  11. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    GREENWALD, SAMANTHA; SEGER, EDWARD; NICHOLS, DAVID; RAY, ANDREW D.; RIDEOUT, TODD C.; GOSSELIN, LUC E.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercis...

  12. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  13. Attitudinal Analyses of Toleration and Respect and the Problem of Institutional Applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    of institutional application is that institutions in general and the state in particular arguably cannot have attitudes of the required kind. This problem is distinct from, and broader than, well-known problems about whether political toleration is normatively legitimate. To make sense of political toleration......Toleration and respect are types of relations between different agents. The standard analyses of toleration and respect are attitudinal; toleration and respect require subjects to have appropriate types of attitudes towards the objects of toleration or respect. The paper investigates whether states...... can sensibly be described as tolerant or respectful in ways theoretically relevantly similar to the standard analyses. This is a descriptive question about the applicability of concepts rather than a normative question about whether, when and why states should be tolerant or respectful. The problem...

  14. Allergen Immunotherapy and Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Matsuoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT is associated with a marked decrease in symptoms on allergen exposure, a reduced requirement for 'rescue' anti-allergic drugs and improvement in patients' quality of life. These benefits persist for at least several years following discontinuation of immunotherapy - the hallmark of clinical and immunological tolerance. AIT has been shown to modulate both innate and adaptive immunological responses. Early suppression of innate effector cells of allergic inflammation (mast cells, basophils, regulation of pro-allergic T helper 2 type (Th 2 responses and IgE+ B cell responses have been shown to occur both in the tissue and in the peripheral blood during AIT. The allergen-tolerant state is associated with local and systemic induction of distinct populations of allergen-specific T regulatory cells including IL-10+ Tregs (Tr1 cells, TGF-P+ Tregs and FoxP3+ memory T regs. B cells are switched in favour of producing IgG (particularly IgG4 antibodies and associated blocking activity for IgE-dependent events, including basophil activation and IgE-facilitated allergen binding to B cells. An induction of IL-10+ B regulatory cells and alterations in dendritic cell subsets have also recently been described. These events are followed by the induction of T regulatory cells, suppression of allergen-specific T cell proliferation and immune deviation from Th2 in favour of Th1 responses. Alternative mechanisms of tolerance include apoptosis/deletion of antigen-specific memory Th2 cells and/or a failure of co-stimulation leading to T cell anergy.

  15. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...... to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations...

  16. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  17. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Mauraine; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV), a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive) distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  18. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one’s tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV), a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as “somewhat difficult” on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive) distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time. PMID:28248980

  19. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauraine Carlier

    Full Text Available Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV, a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  20. A survey of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to gynaecology clinics of Shiraz university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.

  1. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  2. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the "slick" prolactin receptor variant into dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Spelman, R J; Littlejohn, M D

    2017-04-01

    Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. Crossbreeding is undertaken to combine the heat tolerance and tick resistance of zebu with the productivity of temperate dairy breeds. In the absence of improved heat tolerance, milk production and fertility of temperate cattle is severely impaired. We have recently identified a key role for the prolactin pathway in regulating heat tolerance. A de novo mutation in prolactin that impairs prolactin activity was discovered in hairy and heat intolerant, New Zealand dairy cattle. The phenotypes produced were remarkably similar to those seen in fescue toxicosis, a syndrome seen in grazing cattle in the U.S. where ingestion of ergovaline, a fungal toxin from infected pasture, inhibits prolactin secretion. Recognition of the role of prolactin in hairy cattle led us to identify a deletion in exon 10 of the long-form of the prolactin receptor in Senepol cattle that causes truncation of the protein and determines the slick coat and heat tolerance traits found in this , beef breed. The short form of the prolactin receptor is predicted to be unaffected by the deletion. Knowledge of this dominant mutation has provided the impetus to begin a crossbreeding program to investigate performance and heat tolerance of temperate dairy cattle carrying the slick, prolactin receptor variant. The perceived opportunity is to introgress this variant into temperate dairy cattle to enable performance and welfare improvement in hot climates. Heat tolerance of cattle with slick coats appears to be mostly associated with coat type although sweating ability

  3. Impairment due to alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and benzodiazepines in impaired drivers compared to experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Berg-Hansen, Grim Otto; Øiestad, Åse Marit L; Bachs, Liliana; Mørland, Jørg

    2017-04-03

    In some countries, per se laws for other drugs than alcohol are used to judge drunk and drugged drivers. These blood concentration limits are often derived from experimental studies on traffic relevant behavior of healthy volunteers. Knowledge about how results from experimental studies could be transferred to a real-life setting is missing. The aim of this study was to compare impairment seen in experimental studies to the impairment seen at equivalent concentrations in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers. Results from previously performed meta-analyses of experimental studies regarding impairment from alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and benzodiazepines were compared to impairment in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers as judged by a clinical test of impairment. Both experimental studies and real-life cases were divided into 4 groups according to increasing blood drug concentration intervals. The percentage of impaired test results in experimental studies was compared to the percentage of impaired subjects among drivers within the same blood drug concentration window. For ethanol, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 1,223) increased from 59% in the lowest drug concentration group to 95% in the highest drug concentration group, compared to 7 and 72% in the respective groups in experimental studies. For THC, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 950) increased from 42 to 58%, the corresponding numbers being 11 and 42% for experimental studies. For benzodiazepines, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 245) increased from 46 to 76%, the corresponding numbers being 16 and 60% for experimental studies. The increased odds ratio for impairment between 2 concentration groups was comparable for experimental studies and impaired drivers. Fewer test results indicated impairment in experimental studies compared to impaired drivers in real life when influenced by similar blood concentrations of either ethanol, THC, or benzodiazepines. In addition, a comparable

  4. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  5. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  6. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Análisis de la relación coste-efectividad de la acarbosa en el tratamiento de pacientes con intolerancia a la glucosa Cost-effectiveness analysis of acarbose in the treatment of patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Sabés

    2004-12-01

    comparado y el horizonte temporal del estudio y utilizar alguna medida de resultados en salud que tenga en cuenta los efectos del tratamiento.Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with acarbose in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in comparison with conventional treatment (based on medical counseling on diet and health and without drug treatment from the perspective of the public payer. Material and method: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data on efficacy, the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 and cardiovascular events from the STOP-NIDDM clinical trial of acarbose treatment vs. placebo. The study used a decision tree analysis to estimate the health and economic impact of the two alternative treatments in a population of 1,000 patients over a period of 40 months. Resource use and cost data refer to the Spanish health care system. Results: In the base case, acarbose treatment was slightly dominant over conventional treatment since it achieved improved outcomes at an even lower cost. Sensitivity analysis revealed that acarbose treatment lost dominance due to a moderately positive cost-effectiveness ratio for avoided progression to DM2 in some scenarios. The cost-effectiveness ratio was particularly sensitive to the cost of cardiovascular treatments, the risk of progression to DM2, the daily doses of acarbose, and the publicly funded share of the cost of this drug. Conclusions: Acarbose treatment in patients diagnosed with IGT appeared to be the dominant alternative compared with conventional treatment. The cost per avoided progression to DM2 and per additional individual free of a cardiovascular event was moderately low in some of the scenarios included in the sensitivity analysis. For a more comprehensive evaluation of the possible treatment of patients with IGT, the alternatives under comparison and the time horizon of the study would need to be increased and more refined health outcome measures, comprising

  8. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A case of impaired shape integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Habekost, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...

  10. Congenital hearing impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Caroline D.

    2006-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  11. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, V., E-mail: vhernandezmasgrau@gmail.com; Abella, R. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Calvo, J. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona 08023 (Spain); Jurado-Bruggemann, D. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Girona 17007 (Spain); Sancho, I. [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908 (Spain); Carrasco, P. [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona 08041 (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  12. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, V; Abella, R; Calvo, J F; Jurado-Bruggemann, D; Sancho, I; Carrasco, P

    2015-04-01

    Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100,000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  13. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  14. Age-associated epigenetic upregulation of the FKBP5 gene selectively impairs stress resiliency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5 gene combine with traumatic events to increase risk for post-traumatic stress and major depressive disorders (PTSD and MDD. These SNPs increase FKBP51 protein expression through a mechanism involving demethylation of the gene and altered glucocorticoid signaling. Aged animals also display elevated FKBP51 levels, which contribute to impaired resiliency to depressive-like behaviors through impaired glucocorticoid signaling, a phenotype that is abrogated in FKBP5-/- mice. But the age of onset and progressive stability of these phenotypes remain unknown. Moreover, it is unclear how FKBP5 deletion affects other glucocorticoid-dependent processes or if age-associated increases in FKBP51 expression are mediated through a similar epigenetic process caused by SNPs in the FKBP5 gene. Here, we show that FKBP51-mediated impairment in stress resiliency and glucocorticoid signaling occurs by 10 months of age and this increased over their lifespan. Surprisingly, despite these progressive changes in glucocorticoid responsiveness, FKBP5-/- mice displayed normal longevity, glucose tolerance, blood composition and cytokine profiles across lifespan, phenotypes normally associated with glucocorticoid signaling. We also found that methylation of Fkbp5 decreased with age in mice, a process that likely explains the age-associated increases in FKBP51 levels. Thus, epigenetic upregulation of FKBP51 with age can selectively impair psychological stress-resiliency, but does not affect other glucocorticoid-mediated physiological processes. This makes FKBP51 a unique and attractive therapeutic target to treat PTSD and MDD. In addition, aged wild-type mice may be a useful model for investigating the mechanisms of FKBP5 SNPs associated with these disorders.

  15. The myth of secular tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coffey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of religious violence at the start of the twenty-first century has reinforced the myth of secular tolerance – the notion that whereas religious believers are instinctively intolerant, tolerance comes naturally to the secular mind. This article challenges the myth. It suggests that secular people are not immune from the temptation to persecute and vilify others, and argues that the Christian Gospel fostered the rise of religious toleration. Facing the rise ‘new secularism’ since 2008 it is important to go to the roots of the myth of secular tolerance.

  16. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  17. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  18. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  19. Sexual orientation, handedness, sex ratio and fetomaternal tolerance-rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraternal birth order (FBO appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1 androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2 non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3 non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4 mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR of older and younger siblings show: (1 a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2 lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3 siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh, where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.

  20. Sexual orientation, handedness, sex ratio and fetomaternal tolerance-rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2010-01-01

    Fraternal birth order (FBO) appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays) through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1) androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2) non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3) non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4) mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR) of older and younger siblings show: (1) a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2) lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3) siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh), where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.

  1. Tolerance Issue in Kazakh Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Saltanat S.; Ismagambetova, Zukhra N.; Karabayeva, Aliya G.; Rysbekova, Shamshiya S.; Mirzabekova, Alma Sh.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors reveal the basic cultural mechanisms that influence the formation of the tolerance strategy in Kazakh and Kazakhstan society, show its basic directions, as well as its importance for the modern Kazakhstan society and the formation of intercultural communication with foreign countries. Tolerance is a necessary element of…

  2. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided that one views them...

  3. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  4. Attenuation of morphine tolerance and dependence by thymoquinone in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dependence and tolerance are major restricting factors in the clinical use of opioid analgesics. In the present study, the effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on morphine dependence and tolerance were investigated in mice. Materials and Methods: Male adult NMRI mice were made tolerant and dependent by repeated injections of morphine (50, 50, and 75 mg/kg, i.p. on 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 5 p.m., respectively during a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test was used to assess tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. was injected to precipitate withdrawal syndrome in order to assess the morphine dependence. To evaluate the effects of thymoquinone on tolerance and dependence to morphine, different single or repeated doses of thymoquinone were administered in mice. Rotarod was used to assess the motor coordination. Results: Administration of single or repeated doses of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Repeated administration of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, for 3 days and also single injection of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg, on the fourth day attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. None of the thymoquinone doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg produced any antinociceptive effects on their own. Motor coordination of animals was impaired by the high dose of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that thymoquinone prevents the development of tolerance and dependence to morphine.

  5. Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired during exercise in glycogen storage disease type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2015-01-01

    in the patients on another day. RESULTS: Total fatty acid oxidation rates during exercise were higher in patients than controls, 32.1 (SE 1.2) vs 20.7 (SE 0.5; range 15.8-29.3) μmol/kg/min (p = 0.048), and oxidation of carbohydrates was lower in patients, 1.0 (SE 5.4) vs 38.4 (SE 8.0; range 23.0-77.1) μmol....../kg/min (p = 0.024). Fructose ingestion improved exercise tolerance in the patients. CONCLUSION: Similar to patients with McArdle disease, in whom muscle glycogenolysis is also impaired, GSDIIIa is associated with a reduced skeletal muscle oxidation of carbohydrates and a compensatory increase in fatty acid...... myopathy. METHODS: We challenged metabolism with cycle-ergometer exercise and measured substrate turnover and oxidation rates using stable isotope methodology and indirect calorimetry in 3 patients and 6 age-matched controls on 1 day, and examined the effect of fructose ingestion on exercise tolerance...

  6. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  7. Induction of bacterial lipoprotein tolerance is associated with suppression of toll-like receptor 2 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    Tolerance to bacterial cell wall components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may represent an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Two members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR2 and TLR4, recognize the specific pattern of bacterial cell wall components. TLR4 has been found to be responsible for LPS tolerance. However, the role of TLR2 in bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) tolerance and LPS tolerance is unclear. Pretreatment of human THP-1 monocytic cells with a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide induced tolerance to a second BLP challenge with diminished tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, termed BLP tolerance. Furthermore, BLP-tolerized THP-1 cells no longer responded to LPS stimulation, indicating a cross-tolerance to LPS. Induction of BLP tolerance was CD14-independent, as THP-1 cells that lack membrane-bound CD14 developed tolerance both in serum-free conditions and in the presence of a specific CD14 blocking monoclonal antibody (MEM-18). Pre-exposure of THP-1 cells to BLP suppressed mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in response to subsequent BLP and LPS stimulation, which is comparable with that found in LPS-tolerized cells, indicating that BLP tolerance and LPS tolerance may share similar intracellular pathways. However, BLP strongly enhanced TLR2 expression in non-tolerized THP-1 cells, whereas LPS stimulation had no effect. Furthermore, a specific TLR2 blocking monoclonal antibody (2392) attenuated BLP-induced, but not LPS-induced, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, indicating BLP rather than LPS as a ligand for TLR2 engagement and activation. More importantly, pretreatment of THP-1 cells with BLP strongly inhibited TLR2 activation in response to subsequent BLP stimulation. In contrast, LPS tolerance did not prevent BLP-induced TLR2 overexpression. These results demonstrate that BLP tolerance develops through down-regulation of TLR2

  8. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutations and osteoporosis, impaired glucose metabolism and hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Anne; Saukkonen, Tero; Kivelä, Tero; Lahtinen, Ulla; Laine, Christine; Somer, Mirja; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Cole, William G; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Mäkitie, Outi

    2010-04-01

    Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) underlie osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. Animal models implicate a role for LRP5 in lipid and glucose homeostasis. The objective was to evaluate metabolic consequences of LRP5 mutations in humans. Thirteen Finnish individuals with homozygous or heterozygous LRP5 mutations were assessed for bone health, glucose and lipid metabolism, and for serum serotonin concentration. Results were compared with findings in family members without mutations. Bone mineral density (BMD), vertebral morphology, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, lipid profile and serum serotonin concentrations. Two individuals were homozygous for R570W, one compound heterozygous for R570W and R1036Q, and 10 were heterozygous (six for R570W, three for R1036Q and one for R925C). Subjects with two LRP5 mutations had multiple spinal fractures and low BMD. Subjects with one mutation had significantly lower median lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and femoral neck (P = 0.005) BMD Z-scores, and more often vertebral fractures than the 18 individuals without mutations. Of the 12 subjects with LRP5 mutation six had diabetes and one had impaired glucose tolerance. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests suggested impaired beta-cell function; no insulin resistance was observed. Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia was similar in mutation positive and negative subjects. Serum serotonin concentrations showed a trend towards higher concentrations in subjects with LRP5 mutation. We found high prevalence of osteoporosis and abnormal glucose metabolism in subjects with LRP5 mutation(s). Further studies are needed to establish the role of LRP5 in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  9. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  10. Unique roles of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits in distress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W

    2011-11-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.

  11. Unique Roles of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Traits in Distress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Curtin, John J.; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis. PMID:21668082

  12. TOLERANCE OF REGIONAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Kalachinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation is to define the quality and tolerance level among students; and generalize pedagogical experience of intercultural tolerance formation (as exemplified in Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service.Methods. Theoretical methods of research involve analysis of approaches and results of tolerance among young people; Practical methods – content analysis of the essay content on a given topic, questioning. An empirical case study, described in this article, was carried out by questionnaire survey of 200 VSUES (Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service students from 2–3 courses of various undergraduate training areas.Scientific novelty. The level of students’ tolerant attitude to a series of countries and their residents is specified; combined with the respondents’ knowledge on these countries. Most distinctive students’ views on the «tolerance» concept and reasons for their intolerant behavior are analyzed and presented in this article. Pedagogical and educational technologies used by University for the youth tolerance formation are summarized.Results. Based on the survey, the issues such as limits of applicability of “tolerance” concept in students’ perception, declarative and real tolerance level, and tolerance level to certain countries, as well as in business are investigated. According to the survey, the author makes the conclusion of correlation existence between level of tolerance towards country (nation and level of awareness of it. The author has analysed the students’ essays on tolerance problems; and it was found out that international relations are the most relevant aspect to respondents of tolerant or intolerant behavior. Results of students’ sociological research are compared with results of surveys on similar topics made by All-Russia Public Opinion Research Center and other researchers. Implemented VSUES projects aimed at creating and promoting tolerance

  13. Development and implementation of setpoint tolerances for special safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.F.; Balog, G.; Parkinson, D.G.; Archinoff, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of tolerances and impairment limits for special safety system setpoints is part of the process whereby the plant operator demonstrates to the regulatory authority that the plant operates safely and within the defined plant licensing envelope. The licensing envelope represents the set of limits and plant operating state and for which acceptably safe plant operation has been demonstrated by the safety analysis. By definition, operation beyond this envelope contributes to overall safety system unavailability. Definition of the licensing envelope is provided in a wide range of documents including the plant operating licence, the safety report, and the plant operating policies and principles documents. As part of the safety analysis, limits are derived for each special safety system initiating parameter such that the relevant safety design objectives are achieved for all design basis events. If initiation on a given parameter occurs at a level beyond its limit, there is a potential reduction in safety system effectiveness relative to the performance credited in the plant safety analysis. These safety system parameter limits, when corrected for random and systematic instrument errors and other errors inherent in the process of periodic testing or calibration, are then used to derive parameter impairment levels and setpoint tolerances. This paper describes the methodology that has evolved at Ontario Hydro for developing and implementing tolerances for special safety system parameters (i.e., the shutdown systems, emergency coolant injection system and containment system). Tolerances for special safety system initiation setpoints are addressed specifically, although many of the considerations discussed here will apply to performance limits for other safety system components. The first part of the paper deals with the approach that has been adopted for defining and establishing setpoint limits and tolerances. The remainder of the paper addresses operational

  14. Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population: The Hoorn Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, F. de; Dekker, J.; Jager, A.; Hienkens, E.; Kostense, P.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Nijpels, G.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT: Persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are known to have an elevated risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Less is known about diabetes risk among persons with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or with normal glucose levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of diabetes in relation

  15. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  16. Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine Administration Impairs Contextual Fear Conditioning in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer A.; James, John R.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acute nicotine administration (0.09 mg/kg nicotine), chronic nicotine administration (6.3 mg/kg/d nicotine for 14 d), and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. Mice were trained using two coterminating conditioned stimulus (30 s; 85 dB white noise)– unconditioned stimulus (2 s; 0.57 mA foot shock) pairings and tested 24 h later for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Acute nicotine administration enhanced contextual fear conditioning, chronic nicotine administration had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration impaired contextual fear conditioning. Plasma nicotine concentrations were similar after acute and chronic treatment and were within the range reported for smokers. During withdrawal, concentrations of nicotine were undetectable. An acute dose of nicotine (0.09 mg/kg) during withdrawal from chronic nicotine treatment reversed withdrawal-associated deficits in contextual fear conditioning. The results suggest that tolerance to the effects of nicotine on contextual fear conditioning develops with chronic nicotine treatment at a physiologically relevant dose, and withdrawal from this chronic nicotine treatment is associated with impairments in contextual fear conditioning. These findings provide a model of how the effects of nicotine on learning may contribute to the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. PMID:16177040

  17. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  18. Molecular Similarity Concepts for Informatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of small molecule similarity is a central task in chemoinformatics and medicinal chemistry. A variety of molecular representations and metrics are applied to computationally evaluate and quantify molecular similarity. A critically important aspect of molecular similarity analysis in chemoinformatics and pharmaceutical research is that one is typically not interested in quantifying the degree of structural or chemical similarity between compounds per se, but rather in extrapolating from molecular similarity to property similarity. In other words, one assumes that there is a correlation between calculated similarity and specific properties of small molecules including, first and foremost, biological activities. Although similarity is a priori a subjective concept, and difficult to quantify, it must computationally be assessed in a formally consistent manner. Otherwise, there is little utility of similarity calculations. Consistent treatment requires approximations to be made and the consideration of alternative computational similarity concepts, as discussed herein.

  19. Inside the 'Hurt Locker': The Combined Effects of Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Chemical Protective Clothing on Physiological Tolerance Time in Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Stewart, Kelly L; Stewart, Ian B

    2015-08-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are often required to wear specialized clothing combinations that not only protect against the risk of explosion but also potential chemical contamination. This heavy (>35kg) and encapsulating ensemble is likely to increase physiological strain by increasing metabolic heat production and impairing heat dissipation. This study investigated the physiological tolerance times of two different chemical protective undergarments, commonly worn with EOD personal protective clothing, in a range of simulated environmental extremes and work intensities Seven males performed 18 trials wearing 2 ensembles. The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km h(-1) at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39°C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60min or due to volitional fatigue. Physiological tolerance times ranged from 8 to 60min and the duration (mean difference: 2.78min, P > 0.05) were similar in both ensembles. A significant effect for environment (21 > 30 > 37°C wet bulb globe temperature, P 4 > 5.5 km h(-1), P < 0.05) was observed in tolerance time. The majority of trials across both ensembles (101/126; 80.1%) were terminated due to participants achieving a heart rate equivalent to greater than 90% of their maximum. Physiological tolerance times wearing these two chemical protective undergarments, worn underneath EOD personal protective clothing, were similar and predominantly limited by cardiovascular strain. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  1. Tolerance of monocytes and macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Wiśnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes belong to myeloid effector cells, which constitute the first line of defense against pathogens, also called the nonspecific immune system and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In response to stimulation, monocytes differentiate into macrophages capable of microorganism phagocytosis and secrete factors that play a key role in the regulation of immune responses. However excessive exposure of monocytes/macrophages to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram negative bacteria leads to the acquisition of immune tolerance by these cells. Such state results from disruption of different biological processes, for example intracellular signaling pathways and is accompanied by a number of disease states (immune, inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Regulation of monocytes/macrophages activity is controlled by miRNAs, which are involved in the modulation of immune tolerance acquired by these cells. Moreover, the tolerance to endotoxin is conditioned by the posttranscriptional processes and posttranslational epigenetic modifications leading to the impairment of normal immune response for example by alterations in the expression of many genes encoding immune signaling mediators. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview existing knowledge on the modulation of activity of monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin and impaired immune responses.

  2. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  3. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam; Pisani, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth...... Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors...

  4. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Use Tolerance Analysis Techniques to Avoid Design, Quality, and Manufacturing Problems Before They Happen Often overlooked and misunderstood, tolerance analysis is a critical part of improving products and their design processes. Because all manufactured products are subject to variation, it is crucial that designers predict and understand how these changes can affect form, fit, and function of parts and assemblies--and then communicate their findings effectively. Written by one of the developers of ASME Y14.5 and other geometric dimension and tolerancing (GD&T) standards, Mechanical Tolerance

  5. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  6. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  7. The culture of tolerance in diverse societies: Reasonable toleration

    OpenAIRE

    Mckinnon, Catriona; Castiglione, Dario

    2003-01-01

    The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates on toleration have when compared with those at its origins in the early modern period and with subsequent discussions about pluralism and freedom of expression. This collection starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate. It ...

  8. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  9. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  10. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    -system 2 (PS2)(. Fv/Fm), which led to the accumulation of AOS and decrease of Chl content. Interestingly, the ratios of. ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG showed similar changes as those with the performance of chilling tolerance,.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  12. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life.

  13. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  14. Lack of tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Hays, Lon R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol tolerance is observed as a diminished response to a given dose as a function of repeated administrations of the drug. Research has consistently shown that heavier drinkers display reduced reactions to alcohol (i.e., tolerance) compared with lighter drinkers. However, the majority of this work has focused primarily on measures of motor performance, whereas the development of tolerance to alcohol's impairing effects on cognitive processes, such as inhibitory mechanisms of behavioral control, remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between drinking habits and the degree to which alcohol affects drinkers' inhibitory control and motor coordination. Fifty-two non-dependent drinkers reported their recent drinking patterns. Their inhibitory control and motor coordination were measured in response to placebo and 0.65 g/kg alcohol. Alcohol significantly impaired inhibitory control and motor coordination compared with placebo. Moreover, greater quantity and frequency of recent consumption predicted less alcohol impairment of motor coordination. However, there was no relationship between recent drinking habits and the degree of impairment of inhibitory control. These findings suggest that tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol might not readily develop as a result of recent, heavy drinking.

  15. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  16. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  17. Biomarkers of food intake and nutrient status are associated with glucose tolerance status and development of type 2 diabetes in older Swedish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Otto; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Bergström, Göran

    2017-01-01

    multiple dietary biomarkers.Design: Dietary biomarkers were measured in plasma from 64-y-old Swedish women with different GTS [normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 190), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 209), and diabetes (n = 230)]. The same subjects were followed up after 5 y to determine changes...

  18. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  19. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  20. Shaping tolerant attitudes towards immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    civil societies cope with rising levels of diversity stemming from increased immigration and individualism. Within the tolerance literature, it is commonly agreed upon that a comprehensive welfare state is capable of bridging class divides and overcoming social categorization. However, over the past...... decades, European welfare states experienced an ongoing influx of immigrants, challenging their general purpose and increasing notions of ‘welfare chauvinism’. Drawing on insights from both tolerance and welfare state solidarity literature, we implement hierarchical analyses based on Eurobarometer data...

  1. NF-κB2 is required for the establishment of central tolerance through an Aire-dependent pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Chin, Robert K.; Christiansen, Peter A.; Lo, James C.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ware, Carl; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2006-01-01

    NF-κB2–deficient mice have impaired T and B cell responses. We found, however, that in these mice there was severe infiltration of lymphocytes into multiple organs and increased activity of autoantibodies to peripheral tissue antigens in a manner similar to that of autoimmune regulator–deficient (Aire-deficient) mice. We further demonstrated that NF-κB2 was required for thymic Aire gene transcriptional regulation. The Nfkb2–/– thymus had distinct cortical and medullar structures, but reduced Aire and target gene expression of peripheral tissue antigens. Engraftment of Nfkb2–/– thymic stroma to nude mice recapitulated the autoimmune phenotype of the native Nfkb2–/– mice, confirming a key defect in central tolerance. Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) ligation–induced Aire gene expression was also largely abolished in the absence of NF-κB2. Thus NF-κB2 downstream of LTβR plays an important role in the regulation of central tolerance in an Aire-dependent manner. PMID:17039258

  2. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  3. Similarity based approximate reasoning: fuzzy control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raha, S.; Hossain, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to similarity based approximate reasoning that elucidates the connection between similarity and existing approaches to inference in approximate reasoning methodology. A set of axioms is proposed to get a reasonable measure of similarity between two fuzzy sets. The

  4. Tolerable pain reduces gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects: a crossover ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Kanbara, Kenji; Abe, Tetsuya; Yunoki, Naoko; Haruma, Ken; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-01-01

    Obstacles to pain management include patients' reluctance to inform healthcare provides about their pain, and differences in the pain management aims between patients and healthcare providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether tolerable pain influences gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects. We undertook a crossover comparison study to evaluate gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in 74 healthy subjects in the presence or absence of tolerable pain. The intensity of tolerable pain was defined as the upper limit of pain compatible with comfortable daily life. Pain was generated by clipping a clothes pin to the ear lobe, and the intensity of pain was adjusted by inserting the gauze between the ear lobe and the pin. Gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility were assessed by external ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area of the proximal stomach was measured after subjects had taken 100 mL-liquid meals four times, then the amplitude and frequency of antral contractions were measured. The median numerical rating scale of tolerable pain was 3 (interquartile rang 2-4). Gastric fundal accommodation, gastric motility and gastric emptying were all significantly impaired by tolerable pain ( P  < 0.001 for all comparisons). Even tolerable pain can reduce gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility, which could result in anorexia or decreased quality of life. Our findings provide important insights into pain management education for patients tolerating pain and healthcare providers encouraging patients to tolerate pain. This study was registered retrospectively.

  5. Muscle glycogen synthesis and breakdown are both impaired in glycogenin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemmerik, Mads Godtfeldt; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Laforêt, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in patients with glycogenin-1 (GYG1) deficiency, and to study whether IV glucose supplementation can alleviate exercise intolerance in these patients. METHODS: This is a case-control study with 4 patients with GYG1 deficiency and...... not only have abnormal formation of glycogen, but also have impaired muscle glycogenolysis, as suggested by impaired lactate production during exercise and improved exercise tolerance with glucose infusion....

  6. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed...... and the significance of similarity in the evolution of a collapsing wave packet is investigated. Numerical solutions in radial symmetry demonstrate that the similarity behaviour is local in space and time, and that some similarity solutions must be classified as improper solutions. The nature of the collapsing...

  7. An Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Communication Scheme for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichuan Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A high degree of reliability for critical data transmission is required in body sensor networks (BSNs. However, BSNs are usually vulnerable to channel impairments due to body fading effect and RF interference, which may potentially cause data transmission to be unreliable. In this paper, an adaptive and flexible fault-tolerant communication scheme for BSNs, namely AFTCS, is proposed. AFTCS adopts a channel bandwidth reservation strategy to provide reliable data transmission when channel impairments occur. In order to fulfill the reliability requirements of critical sensors, fault-tolerant priority and queue are employed to adaptively adjust the channel bandwidth allocation. Simulation results show that AFTCS can alleviate the effect of channel impairments, while yielding lower packet loss rate and latency for critical sensors at runtime.

  8. COMPUTATION OF IMAGE SIMILARITY WITH TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Searching for similar sequence in large database is an important task in temporal data mining. Similarity search is concerned with efficiently locating subsequences or whole sequences in large archives of sequences. It is useful in typical data mining applications and it can be easily extended to image retrieval. In this work, time series similarity analysis that involves dimensionality reduction and clustering is adapted on digital images to find similarity between them. The dimensionality reduced time series is represented as clusters by the use of K-Means clustering and the similarity distance between two images is found by finding the distance between the signatures of their clusters. To quantify the extent of similarity between two sequences, Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD is used. From the experiments on different sets of images, it is found that this technique is well suited for measuring the subjective similarity between two images.

  9. Oral characteristics of children with visual or auditory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, Enrique; Jerrell, Roy G; Weaver, James P; Dailey, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the demographics and oral characteristics of deaf or blind children and adolescents receiving dental treatment at an institution for the deaf and blind (DBC); (2) compare this information to children and adolescents with no systemic disease or impairments attending a dental university clinic (UC); and (3) compare the oral characteristics between visually or auditorily impaired children and adolescents. The demographics and oral characteristics of 120 DBC patients and 119 UC patients and between 35 visually impaired and 85 auditorily impaired were compared using analysis of variance, chi-square, Fisher's exact, and multiple regression analyses. When controlling for age, there was no statistically significant difference between the UC and the DBC patients regarding caries prevalence. A significantly higher proportion of DBC children had gingival inflammation. Visually impaired patients had a statistically higher level of dependence on caretakers and higher gingivitis and plaque scores than the auditorily impaired. Under oral health supervision, children and adolescents with or without hearing or visual impairment develop similar dental caries prevalence. Oral hygiene and resulting gingival inflammation are a challenge for the visually impaired and, to a lesser degree, the auditorily impaired.

  10. Identification for Heat Tolerance in Backcross Recombinant Lines and Screening of Backcross Introgression Lines with Heat Tolerance at Milky Stage in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-lin LIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at breeding new rice germplasms with similar genome but significantly differed in heat tolerance during the grain filling stage. A total of 791 BC1F8 backcross recombinant lines, derived from the cross of Xieqingzao B / N22 // Xieqingzao B, were used as materials. Each rice line was separated evenly into two groups, and the heat tolerance of all rice lines were evaluated at natural high temperature in fields. The rice lines with heat tolerant index higher than 90% or lower than 40% were selected to compare the phenotypic characters and further identify heat tolerance at the early milky stage in a phytotron. Rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were analyzed by 887 simple sequence repeat markers that were evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes. In the result, 12 (6 pairs rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were obtained. Molecular marker analysis indicated that the genomic polymorphism between 703T and 704S was the smallest in the 6 pairs of rice lines, with only 16 polymorphic sites, including 22 different alleles. The application of these two backcross introgression rice lines for future study on the mechanisms of heat tolerance in rice at the milky stage will be theoretically beneficial in reducing the interference caused by genetic differences from experimental materials.

  11. Tolerance and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Småland Goth

    2014-12-01

    study shows a varied pattern of use of GP services among the diverse groups of foreign-born residents. Results suggest that immigrants are more likely to use emergency-room services during the first few years after arrival. Results also indicate that information about the patient-list system does not always reach newly arrived immigrants. Contrary to general understanding, non-visible immigrants (when considering factors such as skin color and clothing diverge the most from the pattern of the majority. Immigrants originating from European countries, such as Sweden and Poland, use the emergency room most frequently. From the qualitative aspects of the study, we have also found that primary health care services are not perceived as equitable.Conclusion: Recently arrived immigrants’ utilization of primary health care services shows an unfavorable pattern. The choice of primary health care service providers is dependent on the individual’s preferences, expectations, experiences and/or actual obstacles. The observed utilization of services provided at emergency rooms is one more reason for monitoring and increasing tolerance and cultural sensitivity in primary health care.

  12. Impaired Consciousness in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—maintains alertness, attention and awareness. Recent advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology and prospective behavioral testing have shed new light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types including absence, generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impaired consciousness and improve quality of life in people with epilepsy. PMID:22898735

  13. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845

  14. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. General community. EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age 66.7) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Hearing impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of >25 dB hearing level in either ear, visual impairment was a Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk (hearing: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-3.26; vision: HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.24-3.38; olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.45-6.26)). Nevertheless, 85% of participants with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system, suggesting that sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate.......9% in the third screening with 41 selected cultivars. The Fv/Fm was influenced by heat stress and the difference between the cultivars appeared only during the heat stress. Further analysis of other chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed similar or higher GD, but they did not reveal the genetic difference....... The correlation of the cultivar response in intact plant versus detached leaf was low. Overall, the result suggests that selection of cultivars by detached leaves may operate for different genetic factors than in intact plants. In the third study, the previously selected high and low groups of cultivars (from...

  16. Voice impairment and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; van Trotsenburg, Michael; Hanke, Gunda; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Huber, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Menopause rating scales still do not regard voice impairment as a genuine climacteric symptom, although voice changes are frequently reported. The purpose of this study was both to register and differentiate voice alterations and disorders in menopausal women. A total of 107 women between 37 and 71 years of age who were rated as postmenopausal according to their hormonal status answered a questionnaire on voice changes and vocal discomfort. Of this group, 49 women mentioned voices changes, and 35 of those women associated these changes with subjective discomfort, whereas 58 women mentioned neither voice changes nor discomfort. Sixteen of the women who mentioned voice changes and eight who did not participated in a comprehensive investigation, which included completion of the Klimax questionnaire, a head and neck examination, videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation of voice sound, voice range profile measurements, and voice dysfunction index determination. Voice changes during menopause might be a common problem seen in clinical practice. Therefore, an additional systematic registration of voice impairment in future menopause rating scales should be considered if further studies confirm our findings of a high prevalence of voice complaints associated with menopause. Severe menopausal voice impairments, even without other climacteric symptoms, should be regarded as an indication for phoniatric examination.

  17. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  18. Multiperspective analysis of erosion tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparovek Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion tolerance is the most multidisciplinary field of soil erosion research. Scientists have shown lack in ability to adequately analyze the huge list of variables that influence soil loss tolerance definitions. For these the perspectives of erosion made by farmers, environmentalists, society and politicians have to be considered simultaneously. Partial and biased definitions of erosion tolerance may explain not only the polemic nature of the currently suggested values but also, in part, the nonadoption of the desired levels of erosion control. To move towards a solution, considerable changes would have to occur on how this topic is investigated, especially among scientists, who would have to change methods and strategies and extend the perspective of research out of the boundaries of the physical processes and the frontiers of the academy. A more effective integration and communication with the society and farmers, to learn about their perspective of erosion and a multidisciplinary approach, integrating soil, social, economic and environmental sciences are essential for improved erosion tolerance definitions. In the opinion of the authors, soil erosion research is not moving in this direction and a better understanding of erosion tolerance is not to be expected in the near future.

  19. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  20. Thermal tolerance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, N; Collins, M T

    1998-03-01

    D values (decimal reduction time; the time required to kill 1 log concentration of bacteria) were determined for both human and bovine strains (Dominic, Ben, BO45, and ATCC 19698) of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in 50 mM lactate solution (pH 6.8) and in milk at four temperatures (62, 65, 68, and 71 degrees C). Viable M. paratuberculosis organisms were quantified by a radiometric culture method (BACTEC). Thermal death curves for the M. paratuberculosis strains tested were generally linear, with R2 of > or = 0.90, but a few curves (R2, 0.80 to 0.90) were better described by a quadratic equation. The human strains (Dominic and Ben) had similar D values in milk and in lactate solution. However, D values for the bovine strains (BO45 and ATCC 19698) were significantly different depending on the menstruum. D values for low-passage clinical strains (Dominic, Ben, and BO45) were lower than those of the high-passage laboratory strain (ATCC 19698). The D value based on pooled data for clinical strains of M. paratuberculosis in milk at 71 degrees C (D71 degrees C) was 11.67 s. Pooled D62 degrees C, D65 degrees C, and D68 degrees C of clinical M. paratuberculosis strains in milk were 228.8, 47.8, and 21.8 s, respectively. The Z value (the temperature required for the decimal reduction time to traverse 1 log cycle) of clinical strains in milk was 7.11 degrees C. The D values of clumped and single M. paratuberculosis cells were not significantly different. The D values of all M. paratuberculosis strains tested were considerably higher than those published for Listeria, Salmonella, and Coxiella spp. and estimated for Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that M. paratuberculosis is more thermally tolerant. This study supports the premise that M. paratuberculosis may survive high-temperature, short-time pasteurization when the initial organism concentration is greater than 10(1) cells/ml.

  1. Bridging Database Applications and Declarative Similarity Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Ribeiro, Leonardo; Schneider, Natália Cristina; de Souza Inácio, Andrei; Wagner, Harley Michel; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Effective manipulation of string data is of fundamental importance to modern database applications. Very often, textual inconsistencies render equality comparisons meaningless and strings have to be matched in terms of their similarity. Previous work has proposed techniques to express similarity operations using declarative SQL statements. However, the non-trivial issue of embedding similarity support into object-oriented applications has received little attention. Particularly, declarative s...

  2. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  3. B cells in operational tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, M; Danger, R; Soulillou, J-P; Brouard, S

    2018-02-16

    Transplantation is currently the therapy of choice for endstage organ failure even though it requires long-term immunosuppresive therapy, with its numerous side effects, for acceptance of the transplanted organ. In rare cases however, patients develop operational tolerance, that is, graft survival without immunosuppression. Studies conducted on these patients reveal genetic, phenotypic, and functional signatures. They provide a better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in operational tolerance and define biomarkers that could be used to adapt immunosuppressive treatment to the individual, safely reduce immunosuppression doses, and ideally and safely guide immunosuppression withdrawal. This review summarizes studies that suggest a role for B cells as biomarkers of operational tolerance and discusses the use of B cells as a predictive tool for immunologic risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  5. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  6. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...

  7. Tolerating extremism : to what extent should intolerance be tolerated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiora, Amos Neuser

    2013-01-01

    In discussing extremism, the key questions are: to whom is a duty owed and what are the limits of intolerance that are to be tolerated? Answering these questions requires examining limits and rights; analyzing them in the context of extremism is the ‘core’ of this book. While freedom of speech and

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, María Celina; Gómez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  10. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape ... Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; Institute of Computational Chemistry, University of ...

  11. Learning deep similarity in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Caliva, Francesco; Ometto, Giovanni; Hunter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Similarity learning is one of the most fundamental tasks in image analysis. The ability to extract similar images in the medical domain as part of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems has been researched for many years. The vast majority of methods used in CBIR systems are based on hand-crafted feature descriptors. The approximation of a similarity mapping for medical images is difficult due to the big variety of pixel-level structures of interest. In fundus photography (FP) analysis, a subtle difference in e.g. lesions and vessels shape and size can result in a different diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrated how to learn a similarity function for image patches derived directly from FP image data without the need of manually designed feature descriptors. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a novel architecture adapted for similarity learning to accomplish this task. Furthermore, we explored and studied multiple CNN architectures. We show that our method can approximate the similarity between FP patches more efficiently and accurately than the state-of- the-art feature descriptors, including SIFT and SURF using a publicly available dataset. Finally, we observe that our approach, which is purely data-driven, learns that features such as vessels calibre and orientation are important discriminative factors, which resembles the way how humans reason about similarity. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to approximate a visual similarity mapping in FP.

  12. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  13. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  14. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  15. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  16. Similarity measure computation of convex polyhedra revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Bekker, Henk

    2001-01-01

    We study the computation of rotation-invariant similarity measures of convex polyhedra, based on Minkowski’s theory of mixed volumes. To compute the similarity measure, a (mixed) volume functional has to be minimized over a number of critical orientations of these polyhedra. These critical

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  18. Hearing impairment in genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Bruno, Rocco; Eller, Philipp; Barrett, Timothy G; Vialettes, Bernard; Paquis-Fluklinger, Veronique; Lombardo, Fortunato; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2008-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the features "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). We sought to study the audiometric data of genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients with sensorineural hearing impairment. Pure tone threshold data of 23 Wolfram syndrome patients were used for cross-sectional analysis in subgroups (age less than 16 years or between 19 and 25 years, gender, and origin). All subgroups, with 1 exception, showed a fairly similar type of hearing impairment with, on average, thresholds of about 25 dB (range, 0 to 65 dB) at 0.25 to 1 kHz, gently sloping downward to about 60 dB (range, 25 to 95 dB) at 8 kHz. The subgroup of Dutch women, which was excluded from the calculations of the average hearing thresholds, showed a higher degree of hearing impairment. Only the latter subgroup showed progression; however, contrary to the previous longitudinal analysis, progression was not significant in the present cross-sectional analysis, presumably because of the high degree of cross-subject variability. This unique collection of audiometric data from genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients shows no substantial progression in sensorineural hearing impairment with advancing age, no relation to the types of WFS1 mutations identified, and, with exclusion of the subgroup of Dutch female patients, no significant sex-related differences.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.

  20. Microbial Biofilms: Persisters, Tolerance and Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2005-03-01

    Almost all moist surfaces are colonized by microbial biofilms. Biofilms are implicated in cross-contamination of food products, biofouling, medical implants and various human infections such as dental cavities, ulcerative colitis and chronic respiratory infections. Much of current research is focused on the recalcitrance of biofilms to typical antibiotic and antimicrobial treatments. Although the polymer component of biofilms impedes the penetration of antimicrobials through reaction-diffusion limitation, this does not explain the observed tolerance, it merely delays the action of the agent. Heterogeneities in growth-rate also slow the eradication of the bacteria since most antimicrobials are far less effective for non-growing, or slowly growing bacteria. This also does not fully describe biofilm tolerance, since heterogeneities arr primairly a result of nutrient consumption. In this investigation, we describe the formation of `persister' cells which neither grow nor die in the presence of antibiotics. We propose that the cells are of a different phenotype than typical bacterial cells and the expression of the phenotype is regulated by the growth rate and the antibiotic concentration. We describe several experiments which describe the dynamics of persister cells and which motivate a dosing protocol that calls for periodic dosing of the population. We then introduce a mathematical model, which describes the effect of such a dosing regiment and indicates that the relative dose/withdrawal times are important in determining the effectiveness of such a treatment. A reduced model is introduced and the similar behavior is demonstrated analytically.

  1. ATP requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, J S; Peinado, J M

    2005-01-01

    To calculate the energetic requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii in chemostat experiments. A 5.6-l stirred-tank chemostat was used. The yield of ATP (Y(ATP)) was calculated under nitrogen atmosphere, assuming equimolar ATP and ethanol production. Under these conditions Y(ATP), equal to 20 g mol(-1) of ATP, was not affected by the acid, whereas the maintenance coefficient (m(ATP)) increased from 1.0 mmol of ATP g(-1) h(-1) in the absence of the acid to 4.8 in the presence of 0.67 mmol l(-1) undissociated benzoic acid. These ATP requirements were similar to those found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other weak acids. No significant differences have been found in the energy expended to cope with the acid between sensitive and tolerant species. Therefore, the main difference between tolerant and sensitive species could rely on cellular features that would not need extra energy in terms of ATP. The potential mechanisms involved in the tolerance to weak acids in yeasts have been extensively studied but their actual relevance has not been assessed. Our results suggest that future efforts should concentrate on nonexpending energy features as membrane permeability and metabolic tolerance in the cytoplasm.

  2. Evolutionary Genetics of Hypoxia Tolerance in Cetaceans during Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Niu, Xu; Zhou, Kaiya; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia was a major challenge faced by cetaceans during the course of secondary aquatic adaptation. Although physiological traits of hypoxia tolerance in cetaceans have been well characterized, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the sequences of 17 hypoxia-tolerance-related genes in representative cetaceans to provide a comprehensive insight into the genetic basis of hypoxia tolerance in these animals. Genes involved in carrying and transporting oxygen in the blood and muscle (hemoglobin-α and β, myoglobin), and genes involved in the regulation of vasoconstriction (endothelin-1, -2, and -3; endothelin receptor type A and B; adrenergic receptor α-1D; and arginine vasopressin) appear to have undergone adaptive evolution, evidence for positive selection on their particular sites, and radical physiochemical property changes of selected condons. Interestingly, “long-diving” cetaceans had relatively higher ω (dN/dS) values than “short-diving” cetaceans for the hemoglobin β gene, indicating divergent selective pressure presented in cetacean lineages with different diving abilities. Additionally, parallel positive selection or amino acid changes (ADRA1D: P50A, A53G, AVPR1B: I/V270T) among animals exposed to different hypoxia habitats reflect functional convergence or similar genetic mechanisms of hypoxia tolerance. In summary, positive selection, divergent selective pressures, and parallel evolution at the molecular level provided some new insights into the genetic adaptation of hypoxia tolerance. PMID:26912402

  3. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  4. Cognitive impairment and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rexach, Javier; Schatz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important ingredients of felicitous conversation exchanges is the adequate expression of illocutionary force and the achievement of perlocutionary effects, which can be considered essential to the functioning of pragmatic competence. The breakdown of illocutionary and perlocutionary functions is one of the most prominent external features of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease, with devastating psychological and social consequences for patients, their family and caregivers. The study of pragmatic functions is essential for a proper understanding of the linguistic and communicative aspects of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Skin tolerance of a new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, J; Huyke, C; Scheuvens, H; Ploch, M; Neumann, K; Jakob, T; Schempp, C M

    2008-01-01

    Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective study, 3 bath oils together with positive and negative controls were applied under occlusion on test areas on the volar forearms of 18 volunteers (visit 1). After 24 h, the tapes were removed, and the test areas were evaluated by a visual score and the instrumental measurement of skin erythema and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using a Mexameter and a Tewameter (visit 2). The test substances were applied a second time, and the measurements were performed after another 24 h (visit 3). The positive control, 1% vol/vol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), caused a significant increase in skin erythema and TEWL. In contrast, distilled water as a negative control did not influence these parameters. The new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract and 1 of the other 2 commercial products were not different from the water control. The third bath oil displayed a skin-irritating effect similar to SLS. The results of this study confirm the different skin-irritating potential of bath oils and demonstrate good skin tolerance of the new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Infants and Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaling; Norris, Andrew W; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xingshen; Uc, Aliye; Moran, Antoinette; Engelhardt, John F; Ode, Katie Larson

    2016-10-15

    In cystic fibrosis, abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with decreased lung function and worsened outcomes. Translational evidence indicates that abnormal glucose tolerance may begin in early life. To determine whether very young children with cystic fibrosis have increased abnormal glucose tolerance prevalence compared with control subjects. The secondary objective was to compare area under the curve for glucose and insulin in children with cystic fibrosis with control subjects. This is a prospective multicenter study in children ages 3 months to 5 years with and without cystic fibrosis. Oral glucose tolerance testing with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide was sampled at 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Twenty-three children with cystic fibrosis and nine control subjects had complete data. All control subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Nine of 23 subjects with cystic fibrosis had abnormal glucose tolerance (39%; P = 0.03). Of those, two met criteria for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, two indeterminate glycemia, and six impaired glucose tolerance. Children with cystic fibrosis failed to exhibit the normal increase in area under the curve insulin with age observed in control subjects (P children with cystic fibrosis. Children with cystic fibrosis lack the normal increase in insulin secretion that occurs in early childhood despite increased glucose. These findings demonstrate that glycemic abnormalities begin very early in cystic fibrosis, possibly because of insufficient insulin secretion.

  7. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  8. Dissociating the Effects of Angular Disparity and Image Similarity in Mental Rotation and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Hayward, William G.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Performance is often impaired linearly with increasing angular disparity between two objects in tasks that measure mental rotation or object recognition. But increased angular disparity is often accompanied by changes in the similarity between views of an object, confounding the impact of the two factors in these tasks. We examined separately the…

  9. Impaired fasting glucose individuals: their response to oral glucose challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.A.; Dilawar, M.; Khan, F.A.; Sultana, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) individuals in symptom free adults and their 2-h PG (two-hour plasma glucose) concentrations in standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) with 75-g glucose. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 859 symptom free adults was checked. Of them, 344(40%) were found to have IFG, who were subjected to standard OGTT with 75-g glucose and their 2-h PG results were recorded. Frequency distribution of FPG of 859 symptom free adults showed, 455(53%) were Normal Fasting Glucose (NFG 7.0 mmol/l). The difference in frequency of three groups of FPG was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Of 344 IFG individuals, who were subjected to standard OGTT, 182(53%) had Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), 127(37%) were Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and 35(10%) were diabetics. The difference in frequency of the three groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001). A significantly large number of asymptomatic adults are suffering from IFG in our set up. When IFG individuals are subjected to 75-g OGTT, their 2-h PG results showed about one third have IGT and also a significant number of IFG individuals are found to be patients of diabetes. (author)

  10. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  11. Similarities and differences in borderline and organic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik; Soegaard, Ulf; Kvist, Kajsa

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that brain injury patients with Organic Personality Disorder (OPD) may display "borderline" traits due to prefrontal damage, and their personality structure may be unstable and close to a borderline personality organisation. They may have few general neuropsychological dysfunctions but specific executive deficits. Similar deficits have been found in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study was to identify differences and similarities between the neuropsychological and personality profiles of BPD and OPD patients. Twenty BPD patients and 24 OPD patients were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP), and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Very few neuropsychological differences were found between the two patient groups. However, the verbal fluency, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, and immediate auditory memory/attention of the BPD patients were significantly poorer than the OPD patients'. The KAPP profiles of the BPD patients showed significantly poorer functioning in three areas: frustration tolerance, the body as a factor of self-esteem, and overall personality organisation. These results support our clinical experience and expectations concerning the severity of symptoms of both patient groups. We suggest considering in depth assessments of both neuropsychological and personality-related problems for each of these patients in order to inform treatment.

  12. Multimodal Similarity Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guoli; Wang, Shuhui; Huang, Qingming; Tian, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Data from real applications involve multiple modalities representing content with the same semantics from complementary aspects. However, relations among heterogeneous modalities are simply treated as observation-to-fit by existing work, and the parameterized modality specific mapping functions lack flexibility in directly adapting to the content divergence and semantic complicacy in multimodal data. In this paper, we build our work based on the Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM) to learn the non-parametric mapping functions and transform heterogeneous modalities into a shared latent space. We propose multimodal Similarity Gaussian Process latent variable model (m-SimGP), which learns the mapping functions between the intra-modal similarities and latent representation. We further propose multimodal distance-preserved similarity GPLVM (m-DSimGP) to preserve the intra-modal global similarity structure, and multimodal regularized similarity GPLVM (m-RSimGP) by encouraging similar/dissimilar points to be similar/dissimilar in the latent space. We propose m-DRSimGP, which combines the distance preservation in m-DSimGP and semantic preservation in m-RSimGP to learn the latent representation. The overall objective functions of the four models are solved by simple and scalable gradient decent techniques. They can be applied to various tasks to discover the nonlinear correlations and to obtain the comparable low-dimensional representation for heterogeneous modalities. On five widely used real-world data sets, our approaches outperform existing models on cross-modal content retrieval and multimodal classification.

  13. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  14. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  15. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  16. When Should Sects be Tolerated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Jehovas vidners kontroverser med majoritetssamfundet gør dem til et godt test-case for tolerance. I artiklen bruges udviklingen af bevægelsens syn på blodstransfusioner til at diskutere, hvordan institutionaliseringen af en minoritetsbevægelse får kontroversernes styrke til at mindskes, men også ...

  17. Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Dianis, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

  18. Natural cohorts: family similarity in adult cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaie, K W; Plomin, R; Willis, S L; Gruber-Baldini, A; Dutta, R

    1991-01-01

    We now return to the sets of hypotheses formulated in the introductory section to explore how the findings reported above bear on these propositions. Our first hypothesis dealt with whether family similarity could be observed in adulthood and whether there were differing ability patterns in such similarity. Significant family similarities were observed for our total sample for all ability measures, except Perceptual Speed, and for the cognitive style measures. The magnitude of correlations for the ability measures are comparable for those found between young adults and their children (DeFries et al., 1976). Similar to the DeFries study, we also found differences in resemblance across subsets. For example, same gender pairs showed higher correlations on Verbal Meaning, Number, and Word Fluency but opposite-gender pairs on Spatial Orientation, Inductive Reasoning, and Motor-Cognitive Flexibility. Also, greater similarity was found between mother-offspring pairs than father-offspring pairs on Inductive Reasoning and Psychomotor Speed. Moreover, higher parent-offspring correlations were found for daughters than for sons, suggesting at least the possibility that females may experience greater shared environmental influences than males. Our first hypothesis also argued for the possible effect of early shared environment upon offspring performance on Verbal Meaning and Word Fluency. After age adjustment, these were indeed the abilities that showed the highest parent-offspring similarity. Our second hypothesis proposed that if shared environmental influences are relatively unimportant in adulthood, then similarity within parent-offspring pairs should remain reasonably constant in adulthood across time and age. Our examination of this issue with a longitudinal sample ranging over a 21-year period strongly supports this proposition for all of those variables that displayed significant parent-offspring correlations. Indeed, parent-offspring correlations measured at

  19. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  20. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  1. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), early-phase insulin release (EPIR), and insulin secretion relative to insulin action (disposition index) were estimated. RESULTS: Five years before the pre-diabetes diagnoses (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG/IGT), ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index were lower than...... in individuals who maintained NGT. During the 5-year follow-up, individuals developing i-IFG experienced a significant decline only in HOMA-IS, whereas individuals developing i-IGT experienced significant declines in ISI, EPIR, and disposition index. Individuals with IFG/IGT exhibited pronounced declines in ISI......, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index during the 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A stationary reduced insulin secretion followed by a decline in primarily hepatic insulin sensitivity characterizes the transition from NGT to i-IFG. In contrast, low whole-body insulin sensitivity with a secondary lack...

  2. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  3. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  4. Salinity tolerance of marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax f. virginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe comprises a significant part of the native ranges for indigenous crayfish species (ICS belonging to the genus Astacus. This region has been largely overlooked by astacologists and considered relatively immune to the impacts of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS. The recent discovery of two marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax f. virginalis populations in Ukraine has changed this view. Increased propagule pressure (mainly due to pet trade has raised concerns of NICS which may negatively impair the ecosystems of Azov, Black and Caspian Seas and their tributaries inhabited by ICS. In this study, we provide the first insight into salinity tolerance of marbled crayfish. We performed a 155-day experiment using 5 different salinities (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 ppt and a freshwater control. Evaluation of survival, growth and reproduction suggests that marbled crayfish have a lower salinity tolerance than other crayfish species, which may limit their invasive potential in brackish environments. However, its ability to survive for more than 80 days at 18 ppt opens up the possibility of gradual dispersion and adaptation to brackish conditions. Our study highlights the need for further studies elucidating the potential for marbled crayfish to negatively impair these ecosystems.

  5. Determinants of the impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Damholt, M B; Madsbad, Sten

    2001-01-01

    peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucose during a 4-h mixed meal test in 54 heterogeneous type 2 diabetic patients, 33 matched control subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and 15 unmatched subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The glucagon-like peptide-1 response in terms of area under......-like peptide-1 response. The impaired glucose tolerance subjects were hyperinsulinemic and generally showed the same abnormalities as the diabetic patients, but to a lesser degree. We conclude that the meal-related glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes is decreased, which may contribute......To elucidate the causes of the diminished incretin effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus we investigated the secretion of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and measured nonesterified fatty acids, and plasma concentrations of insulin, C...

  6. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Media segmentation using self-similarity decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jonathan T.; Cooper, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework for analyzing the structure of digital media streams. Though our methods work for video, text, and audio, we concentrate on detecting the structure of digital music files. In the first step, spectral data is used to construct a similarity matrix calculated from inter-frame spectral similarity.The digital audio can be robustly segmented by correlating a kernel along the diagonal of the similarity matrix. Once segmented, spectral statistics of each segment are computed. In the second step,segments are clustered based on the self-similarity of their statistics. This reveals the structure of the digital music in a set of segment boundaries and labels. Finally, the music is summarized by selecting clusters with repeated segments throughout the piece. The summaries can be customized for various applications based on the structure of the original music.

  8. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  9. Similarities in Becoming: Transsexuals and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael; Feinbloom, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the diagnosis of transsexual in terms of its similarities with adolescence. In considering the extreme example of the transsexual, normal adolescent development emerges as more purposive and integrative in the establishment of gender identity. (JAC)

  10. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...

  11. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  12. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  13. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

    Full Text Available Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  14. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  15. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  16. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  17. Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jones, R. J. A.; Rickson, R. J.; Smith, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Erosion is a major threat to soil resources in Europe, and may impair their ability to deliver a range of ecosystem goods and services. This is reflected by the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which recommends an indicator-based approach for monitoring soil erosion. Defined baseline and threshold values are essential for the evaluation of soil monitoring data. Therefore, accurate spatial data on both soil loss and soil genesis are required, especially in the light of predicted changes in climate patterns, notably frequency, seasonal distribution and intensity of precipitation. Rates of soil loss are reported that have been measured, modelled or inferred for most types of soil erosion in a variety of landscapes, by studies across the spectrum of the Earth sciences. Natural rates of soil formation can be used as a basis for setting tolerable soil erosion rates, with soil formation consisting of mineral weathering as well as dust deposition. This paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil erosion and summarises current knowledge on rates of soil formation, which are then compared to rates of soil erosion by known erosion types, for assessment of soil erosion monitoring at the European scale. A modified definition of tolerable soil erosion is proposed as 'any actual soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur,' actual soil erosion being 'the total amount of soil lost by all recognised erosion types.' Even when including dust deposition in soil formation rates, the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion, as equal to soil formation, is ca. 1.4 t ha - 1 yr - 1 while the lower limit is ca. 0.3 t ha - 1 yr - 1 , for conditions prevalent in Europe. Scope for spatio-temporal differentiation of tolerable soil erosion rates below this upper limit is suggested by considering (components of) relevant soil functions. Reported rates of actual soil erosion vary much more than those for soil formation

  18. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  20. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  1. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  3. Similarity Analysis for Reactor Flow Distribution Test and Its Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Ha, Jung Hui; Lee, Taehoo; Han, Ji Woong

    2015-01-01

    The newly derived dimensionless groups are slightly different from Hetsroni's. Reynolds number, relative wall roughness, and Euler don't appear, instead, friction factor appears newly. In order to conserve friction factor Reynolds number and relative wall roughness should be conserved. Since the effect of Reynolds number in high range is small, and since the scaled model is far smaller than prototype the conservation of friction factor is easily obtained by making the model wall just smooth. It is much easier to implement the test design than Hetsroni's because the Reynolds number and relative wall roughness do not appear explicitly. In case that there is no free surface within the interested domain of the reactor, the gravity is of second importance, and in this case the pressure drops should be compensated for in order to compare them between prototype and model. The gravity head compensated pressure drop is directly same to the measured value by a differential pressure transmitter. In order to conserve the gravity effect Froude number should be conserved. In pool type SFR (Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor) there exists liquid level difference, and if the level difference is desired to be conserved, the Froude number should be conserved. Euler number, which represents pressure terms in momentum equation, should be well conserved according to Hetsroni's approach. It is not a wrong statement, but it should be noted that Euler number is NOT an independent variable BUT a dependent variable according to Hong et al. It means that if all the geometrical similarity and the dimensionless numbers are conserved, Euler number is automatically conserved. So Euler number need not be considered in case that the perfect geometrical similarity is kept. However, even in case that the geometrical similarity is not conserved, it possible to conserved the velocity field similarity by just conserve Euler number. It gives tolerance to the engineer who designs the test

  4. Randomized trial of pramipexole for patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and RLS-related impairment of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Pasquale; Hornyak, Magdolna; Ulfberg, Jan; Hong, Seung Bong; Koester, Juergen; Crespi, Giovanna; Albrecht, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have an elevated prevalence of mood disorders compared with the general population. We investigated the change of RLS-related mood impairment during treatment of RLS with pramipexole, a dopamine D(3)/D(2) agonist. Adults with moderate to very severe RLS were enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IV pramipexole trial. A moderate to very severe RLS-related mood disturbance at baseline (score ≥2 on Item 10 of the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale [IRLS]) was also required. Pramipexole (0.125 to 0.75 mg once daily) was flexibly titrated over the first 4 weeks. The intent-to-treat population comprised 199 patients on placebo and 203 on pramipexole. At week 12, adjusted mean total-score changes on IRLS were -14.2±0.7 for pramipexole and -8.1±0.7 for placebo (pRLS-related mood disturbance, pramipexole improved RLS while also improving RLS-related mood impairment. Tolerability of pramipexole was similar to that in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  7. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M; Bagley, E E; Chieng, B C; Christie, M J

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to the behavioural effects of morphine is blunted in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, but opioid withdrawal is largely unaffected. The cellular mechanisms of tolerance have been studied in some neurons from β-arrestin-2 knockouts, but tolerance and withdrawal mechanisms have not been examined at the cellular level in periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons, which are crucial for central tolerance and withdrawal phenomena. μ-Opioid receptor (MOPr) inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa ) was examined by patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated PAG neurons from wild-type and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice treated chronically with morphine (CMT) or vehicle. Opioid withdrawal-induced activation of GABA transporter type 1 (GAT-1) currents was determined using perforated patch recordings from PAG neurons in brain slices. MOPr inhibition of ICa in PAG neurons was unaffected by β-arrestin-2 deletion. CMT impaired coupling of MOPrs to ICa in PAG neurons from wild-type mice, but this cellular tolerance was not observed in neurons from CMT β-arrestin-2 knockouts. However, β-arrestin-2 knockouts displayed similar opioid-withdrawal-induced activation of GAT-1 currents as wild-type PAG neurons. In β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, the central neurons involved in the anti-nociceptive actions of opioids also fail to develop cellular tolerance to opioids following chronic morphine. The results also provide the first cellular physiological evidence that opioid withdrawal is not disrupted by β-arrestin-2 deletion. However, the unaffected basal sensitivity to opioids in PAG neurons provides further evidence that changes in basal MOPr sensitivity cannot account for the enhanced acute nociceptive response to morphine reported in β-arrestin-2 knockouts. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British

  8. Urbanism, Migration, and Tolerance: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Urbanism's impact on the personality may be stronger than previously thought. Finds that urban residence has a strong positive effect on tolerance. Migration also promotes tolerance, regardless of the size of the destination community. (DM)

  9. 77 FR 46304 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch...

  10. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir; Ronald, Pamela

    2017-11-14

    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  11. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  12. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  14. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, David L.; Little, Edward E.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medakaOryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  15. Coffee consumption and incidence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Coffee contains several substances that may affect glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and the incidence of IFG, IGT and type 2 diabetes. Methods. We used cross-sectional and prospective data from the

  16. Visual perception and appraisal of persons with impairments: a randomised controlled field experiment using photo elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Ballert, Carolina Saskia; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Lötscher, Alexander; Gradinger, Felix; Hilfiker, Roger; Graf, Sibylle; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Visual cues from persons with impairments may trigger stereotypical generalisations that lead to prejudice and discrimination. The main objective of this pilot study is to examine whether visual stimuli of impairment activate latent prejudice against disability and whether this connection can be counteracted with priming strategies. In a field experiment, participants were asked to rate photographs showing models with mental impairments, wheelchair users with paraplegia, and persons without any visible impairment. Participants should appraise the models with regard to several features (e.g. communicativeness, intelligence). One hundred participants rated 12 photo models yielding a total of 1183 observations. One group of participants was primed with a cover story introducing visual perception of impairment as the study's gist, while controls received neutral information. Photo models with mental impairments were rated lowest and models without visible impairment highest. In participants who did not have prior contacts with persons with impairments, priming led to a levelling of scores of models with and without impairment. Prior contacts with persons with impairments created similar effects as the priming. Unexpectedly, a pattern of converse double discrimination to the disadvantage of men with mental impairments was revealed. Signs of stereotypical processing of visual cues of impairment have been found in participants of the Swiss general population. Personal contact with persons with impairments as well as priming participants seems to reduce stereotyping.

  17. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  18. Inferring gene ontologies from pairwise similarity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Dutkowski, Janusz; Yu, Michael; Bafna, Vineet; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: While the manually curated Gene Ontology (GO) is widely used, inferring a GO directly from -omics data is a compelling new problem. Recognizing that ontologies are a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of terms and hierarchical relations, algorithms are needed that: analyze a full matrix of gene–gene pairwise similarities from -omics data;infer true hierarchical structure in these data rather than enforcing hierarchy as a computational artifact; andrespect biological pleiotropy, by which a term in the hierarchy can relate to multiple higher level terms. Methods addressing these requirements are just beginning to emerge—none has been evaluated for GO inference. Methods: We consider two algorithms [Clique Extracted Ontology (CliXO), LocalFitness] that uniquely satisfy these requirements, compared with methods including standard clustering. CliXO is a new approach that finds maximal cliques in a network induced by progressive thresholding of a similarity matrix. We evaluate each method’s ability to reconstruct the GO biological process ontology from a similarity matrix based on (a) semantic similarities for GO itself or (b) three -omics datasets for yeast. Results: For task (a) using semantic similarity, CliXO accurately reconstructs GO (>99% precision, recall) and outperforms other approaches (Ontology) and better than LocalFitness or standard clustering (20–25% precision, recall). Conclusion: This study provides algorithmic foundation for building gene ontologies by capturing hierarchical and pleiotropic structure embedded in biomolecular data. Contact: tideker@ucsd.edu PMID:24932003

  19. Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian; Staib, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions ...

  20. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection.

  1. Testosterone is protective against impaired glucose metabolism in male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapad, Suttira; Dasinger, John Henry; Fahling, Joel M; Backstrom, Miles A; Alexander, Barbara T

    2017-01-01

    Placental insufficiency alters the intrauterine environment leading to increased risk for chronic disease including impaired glucose metabolism in low birth weight infants. Using a rat model of low birth weight, we previously reported that placental insufficiency induces a significant increase in circulating testosterone in male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring (mIUGR) in early adulthood that is lost by 12 months of age. Numerous studies indicate testosterone has a positive effect on glucose metabolism in men. Female growth-restricted littermates exhibit glucose intolerance at 6 months of age. Thus, the aim of this paper was to determine whether mIUGR develop impaired glucose metabolism, and whether a decrease in elevated testosterone levels plays a role in its onset. Male growth-restricted offspring were studied at 6 and 12 months of age. No impairment in glucose tolerance was observed at 6 months of age when mIUGR exhibited a 2-fold higher testosterone level compared to age-matched control. Fasting blood glucose was significantly higher and glucose tolerance was impaired with a significant decrease in circulating testosterone in mIUGR at 12 compared with 6 months of age. Castration did not additionally impair fasting blood glucose or glucose tolerance in mIUGR at 12 months of age, but fasting blood glucose was significantly elevated in castrated controls. Restoration of elevated testosterone levels significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance in mIUGR. Thus, our findings suggest that the endogenous increase in circulating testosterone in mIUGR is protective against impaired glucose homeostasis.

  2. Cognition in males and females with autism: similarities and differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available The male bias in autism spectrum conditions (ASC has led to females with ASC being under-researched. This lack of attention to females could hide variability due to sex that may explain some of the heterogeneity within ASC. In this study we investigate four key cognitive domains (mentalizing and emotion perception, executive function, perceptual attention to detail, and motor function in ASC, to test for similarities and differences between males and females with and without ASC (n = 128 adults; n = 32 per group. In the mentalizing and facial emotion perception domain, males and females with ASC showed similar deficits compared to neurotypical controls. However, in attention to detail and dexterity involving executive function, although males with ASC showed poorer performance relative to neurotypical males, females with ASC performed comparably to neurotypical females. We conclude that performance in the social-cognitive domain is equally impaired in male and female adults with ASC. However, in specific non-social cognitive domains, performance within ASC depends on sex. This suggests that in specific domains, cognitive profiles in ASC are modulated by sex.

  3. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  4. Fast similarity search for learned metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Brian; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a method that enables scalable similarity search for learned metrics. Given pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints between some examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance function that captures the examples' underlying relationships well. To allow sublinear time similarity search under the learned metric, we show how to encode the learned metric parameterization into randomized locality-sensitive hash functions. We further formulate an indirect solution that enables metric learning and hashing for vector spaces whose high dimensionality makes it infeasible to learn an explicit transformation over the feature dimensions. We demonstrate the approach applied to a variety of image data sets, as well as a systems data set. The learned metrics improve accuracy relative to commonly used metric baselines, while our hashing construction enables efficient indexing with learned distances and very large databases.

  5. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  6. Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Schnall, Simone; White, Mathew P

    2013-08-01

    People often prefer inferior options in the present even when options in the future are more lucrative. Five studies investigated whether decision making could be improved by manipulating construal level and psychological distance. In Studies 1a, 1b, and 2, temporal discounting was reduced when future rewards (trips to Paris) were construed at a relatively concrete level, thus inducing a similar level of construal to present rewards. By contrast, Studies 3 and 4 reduced temporal discounting by making present financial rewards more psychologically distant via a social proximity manipulation, and thus linked to a similar high level of construal as future rewards. These results suggest that people prefer the more lucrative option when comparing two intertemporal choices that are construed on a similar level instead of on a different level. Thus, changes in construal level and mental representations can be used to promote more desirable choices in economic decision making.

  7. Immune tolerance and immunosuppression in solid organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as operational tolerance and is defined as a well-functioning graft lacking histological signs of acute or chronic ... operational tolerance include paediatric transplantation and living- related liver transplantation.[6,7]. Operationally tolerant .... of memory T cells, increased B-cell activating factor and alloantibody production and.

  8. Fault tolerant software modules for SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M.; Hecht, H.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of software fault tolerance is investigated for critical modules of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) operating system to support the computational and reliability requirements of advanced fly by wire transport aircraft. Fault tolerant designs generated for the error reported and global executive are examined. A description of the alternate routines, implementation requirements, and software validation are included.

  9. Tolerance to insect defoliation: biocenotic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey A. Pleshanov; Victor I. Voronin; Elena S. Khlimankova; Valentina I. Epova

    1991-01-01

    Woody plant resistance to insect damage is of great importance in forest protection, and tree tolerance is an important element of this resistance. The compensating mechanisms responsible for tolerance are nonspecific as a rule and develop after damage has been caused by phytophagous animals or other unfavorable effects. Beyond that, plant tolerance depends on duration...

  10. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group...), announcing the Agency's proposal to amend the propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  11. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... definition for several commodities. The Agency has also removed the established tolerance on canola, meal, as... 2.0 ppm, and EPA is revising the commodity definition for canola, meal to rapeseed, meal in order to... established tolerances on canola seed and canola meal, as they will be superseded by new tolerances. Finally...

  12. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  13. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  14. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  15. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified......Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...

  16. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  17. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  18. The similarity principle - on using models correctly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.; Mortensen, N.G.; Rathmann, O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present some guiding principles on the most accurate use of the WAsP program in particular, but the principle can be applied to the use of any linear model which predicts some quantity at one location based on another. We have felt a need to lay out these principles out explicitly......, due to the many, many users and the uses (and misuses) of the WAsP program. Put simply, the similarity principle states that one should chose a predictor site which – in as many ways as possible – is similar to the predicted site....

  19. Related herbivore species show similar temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, F G; Roslin, T; Kimura, M T; Huotari, T; Kaartinen, R; Gripenberg, S; Tack, A J M

    2018-02-08

    1.Within natural communities, different taxa display different dynamics in time. Why this is the case we do not fully know. This thwarts our ability to predict changes in community structure, which is important for both the conservation of rare species in natural communities and for the prediction of pest outbreaks in agriculture. 2.Species sharing phylogeny, natural enemies and/or life history traits have been hypothesized to share similar temporal dynamics. We operationalized these concepts into testing whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among herbivorous community members. 3.Focusing on two similar data sets from different geographical regions (Finland and Japan), we used asymmetric eigenvector maps as temporal variables to characterize species- and community-level dynamics of specialist insect herbivores on oak (Quercus). We then assessed whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among taxa. 4.Species-specific temporal dynamics varied widely, ranging from directional decline or increase to more complex patterns. Phylogeny was a clear predictor of similarity in temporal dynamics at the Finnish site, whereas for the Japanese site, the data were uninformative regarding a phylogenetic imprint. Voltinism, feeding guild and parasitoid overlap explained little variation at either location. Despite the rapid temporal dynamics observed at the level of individual species, these changes did not translate into any consistent temporal changes at the community level in either Finland or Japan. 5.Overall, our findings offer no direct support for the notion that species sharing natural enemies and/or life history traits would be characterised by similar temporal dynamics, but reveal a strong imprint of phylogenetic relatedness. As this phylogenetic signal cannot be

  20. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Felix H.; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. Elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolster these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607