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Sample records for tokyo bay estuary

  1. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  2. Spatiotemporal distribution of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Ryota; Ishida, Masanobu; Baba, Daisuke; Tanimoto, Satomi; Okamoto, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the Tokyo Bay sediments were investigated. The total radioactivity of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs detected in the Tokyo Bay sediment ranged from 240 to 870 Bq/kg-dry in the estuary of Arakawa River, but the activities detected in other sites were about 90 Bq/kg-dry or less. These results suggested that radioactive cesium, which precipitated to the ground, was carried to the river along with clay particles by rainfall and transported to the estuary. The vertical distribution of radioactive cesium showed that it invaded deeper than estimated based on the accumulation rate of the sediment. It was described that the vertical distribution of radioactive cesium was affected by physical mixing of sediments by tidal current, flood, and bioturbation of benthos. (author)

  3. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  4. Temporal changes in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of macrozoobenthos on an artificial tidal flat facing a hypertrophic canal, inner Tokyo Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Gen; Nakamura, Yasuo; Koizumi, Tomoyoshi; Yamada, Katsumasa; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Kohzu, Ayato; Maki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal changes in food web structure were analyzed in a tidal flat in a hypertrophic coastal bay. • Microphytobenthos mainly supported the benthic food web throughout seasons. • Phytoplankton and terrestrial detritus were utilized after red tides and urban runoffs. • Seasonal changes in consumer-δ 15 N was much larger in inner Tokyo Bay than in other estuaries. • This study showed specific characteristics of benthic food web in highly urbanized estuaries. -- Abstract: Temporal changes in benthic food web structure were analyzed in an artificial tidal flat in inner Tokyo Bay, Japan, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N). Microphytobenthos were the most important food sources of macrozoobenthos, due to high microphytobenthic biomass on the tidal flat, while phytoplankton in canal water (canal POM PP ), terrestrial materials from urban surface runoff (canal POM TM ), and marsh plants were less important. Dietary contribution of microphytobenthos was highest in April to June, while decreased towards December owing to the supply of canal POM PP and canal POM TM following red tides and heavy rainfall events in summer to fall. Temporal changes in δ 15 N (Δδ 15 N) of consumer corresponded well to the 15 N-enrichment in canal POM PP in summer. A meta-analysis showed that the consumer-Δδ 15 N was considerably larger in inner Tokyo Bay than those in other estuaries, which may be a specific characteristic of benthic food web in highly urbanized estuaries

  5. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  6. Seasonal variations and sources of sedimentary organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a] sed ) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOC sed ) and TN (TN sed ) contents, and the sedimentary δ 13 C and δ 15 N (δ 13 C sed and δ 15 N sed ) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer. The fraction of terrestrial and marine derived organic matter was estimated by Bayesian mixing model using stable isotope data and TOC/TN ratio. Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay are dominated by marine derived organic matter, which accounts for about 69 ± 5% of TOC sed . - Highlights: • High values of sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen were observed in summer. • Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay were dominated by marine derived organic matter which was estimated by Bayesian mixing model. • The most amount of terrestrial POC was deposited and degraded in Tokyo Bay before being discharged to the open ocean.

  7. Three-dimensional distributions of sewage markers in Tokyo Bay water-fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige; Kim, Dong-Myung; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional distributions of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs: more specifically, DSBP and DAS1), which are sewage-derived water-soluble markers, were observed in Tokyo Bay water through multi-layer sampling of water at 20 locations. In summer, FWAs predominated in the surface layers, with trace but significant concentration of FWAs in bottom water due to stratification of seawater. In winter, on the other hand, FWAs were extensively mixed into the bottom layers because of the vertical mixing of seawater. In the surface layer, FWA concentrations and the DSBP/DAS1 ratio (the concentration ratio of DSBP to DAS1) were lower in summer than in winter, suggesting more efficient photodegradation of FWAs in euphotic zones during the summer due to stronger solar radiation. Horizontally, FWAs were widely distributed over the surface layer of Tokyo Bay. Surface water with DSBP concentrations above 50 ng/L, corresponding to <200 times dilution of sewage effluent, was found to have spread up to 10 km from the coastline. In addition, an offshore decline in FWA concentrations was observed, showing a half-distance of 10-20 km. The decrease was caused by dilution by seawater of fresh water containing FWAs. The eastern part of the bay was different with respect to surface layers, with higher concentrations seen in northeastern parts. Furthermore, dispersion of combined sewer overflow (CSO)-derived water mass was observed in Tokyo Bay after heavy rain

  8. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  9. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary AGENCY... the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary) in California. EPA is... programs to address recent significant declines in multiple aquatic species in the Bay Delta Estuary. EPA...

  10. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend. - This study reports the time trends of the concentrations of 24 species of PFCs, including FTCA, FTUCA and FOSAA, in a sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  11. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1190 - Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. 165.1190 Section 165.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1190 Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All navigable waters of the Oakland Estuary, California, from the surface to...

  13. How many people use the Three Bays estuary system for recreation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about recreational use on estuaries like Three Bays, MA. We are testing a practical approach to quantify recreational use of the Three Bays estuary system so we can better understand how many people are affected by changes in environmental quality. This involves c...

  14. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro [Department of Life Environment Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kotaro [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige, E-mail: shige@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems. Highlights: ► PBDEs were less biomagnified than PCBs in low-trophic-level organisms in Tokyo Bay. ► Depletion of PBDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. ► BDE99 and 153 were debrominated in in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of fish. ► BDE47, 100, and 154 as well as PCB congeners were not transformed in vitro. ► Both in vitro and field results suggested selective meta-protonation of PBDEs.

  15. Modern sedimentary environments in a large tidal estuary, Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from an extensive grid of sidescan-sonar records reveal the distribution of sedimentary environments in the large, tidally dominated Delaware Bay estuary. Bathymetric features of the estuary include large tidal channels under the relatively deep (> 10 m water depth) central part of the bay, linear sand shoals (2-8 m relief) that parallel the sides of the tidal channels, and broad, low-relief plains that form the shallow bay margins. The two sedimentary environments that were identified are characterized by either (1) bedload transport and/or erosion or (2) sediment reworking and/or deposition. Sand waves and sand ribbons, composed of medium to coarse sands, define sites of active bedload transport within the tidal channels and in gaps between the linear shoals. The sand waves have spacings that vary from 1 to 70 m, amplitudes of 2 m or less, and crestlines that are usually straight. The orientations of the sand waves and ribbons indicate that bottom sediment movement may be toward either the northwest or southeast along the trends of the tidal channels, although sand-wave asymmetry indicates that the net bottom transport is directed northwestward toward the head of the bay. Gravelly, coarse-grained sediments, which appear as strongly reflective patterns on the sonographs, are also present along the axes and flanks of the tidal channels. These coarse sediments are lag deposits that have developed primarily where older strata were eroded at the bay floor. Conversely, fine sands that compose the linear shoals and muddy sands that cover the shallow bay margins appear mainly on the sonographs either as smooth featureless beds that have uniform light to moderate shading or as mosaics of light and dark patches produced by variations in grain size. These acoustic and textural characteristics are the result of sediment deposition and reworking. Data from this study (1) support the hypothesis that bed configurations under deep tidal flows are functions of current

  16. Toxic evaluations of sediments in Tokyo Bay, Japan, using Japanese medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Kawano, Machi; McElroy, Anne E; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-12-01

    Toxic risks of sediments collected from seven sites in Tokyo Bay were evaluated using Japanese medaka embryos. Those sediments with slight pore water were placed in grass petri dishes without overlying water. The most remarkable effect in the field sediment was to cause hatching delay in embryos, and the longest time until hatching took was 12.5 ± 1.6 days post-fertilization (dpf), although that in control group was 10.1 ± 0.7 dpf. A significant delay in hatching was observed at four sites. Because total carbon concentrations were relatively high in sediments at three of these four sites, several chemicals were expected to be residues in these sites and could cause their delay. Although extreme mortality was not observed at all sites, sediments collected from the site close to Kawasaki city induced 10 % mortality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were remarkably high at this site compared with other sites, and thus PAH toxicities could be causing the mortality. Concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in sediments were also determined, but no clear relationship was found between toxicities to embryos and the distribution of their concentrations.

  17. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  18. Effect of water temperature on survival of early-life stages of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2017-07-01

    We investigated factors that might have disturbed the stock recovery of marbled flounder in Tokyo Bay by focusing on the early life stages. Field surveys in Tokyo Bay from 2006 to 2011 revealed that mature adult biomass increased from 2006 to 2008 and decreased thereafter. Meanwhile, larval and juvenile densities were high in 2006 and 2008 but low in other years. Discrepancies in the yearly trends of these parameters suggest that mortality during life stages between spawning and early larval phases might have affected the abundance of the subsequent life stages. Monthly mean water temperature between January and February, in which hatching and pelagic larvae occur in the bay, was lower in 2006 (8.6 °C) and 2008 (9.6 °C) than was observed in other years (10.4-11.4 °C). Significant negative correlation between water temperature and larval density implies that mortality during pre- and post-larval stages would be higher in warmer winter years (>10 °C). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of water temperature on mortality and development in egg and larval stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Hatching rate was high in a water temperature range of 9.2-12.7 °C (66.6-82.5%), whereas it decreased in cooler (3.7% at 5.9 °C) or warmer (33.9% at 14.8 °C) conditions. Meanwhile, days from fertilization to hatching, size of larvae at hatching and survival rate of larvae after 18 d from hatching were monotonically and significantly decreased as water temperature was elevated. Combined evidence of the field and laboratory studies suggests that a warmer reproductive season (>10 °C) might induce mortalities of marbled flounder larvae in Tokyo Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing the Organic Matter in Surface Sediments from the San Juan Bay Estuary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) is located on the north coast of Puerto Rico and includes the San Juan Bay, San José Lagoon, La Torrecilla Lagoon and Piñones Lagoon, as well as the Martín Peña and the Suárez Canals. The SJBE watershed has the highest...

  20. DNA Barcoding of Ichthyoplankton in Hampton Roads Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, N.; Rodríguez, Á. E.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton is composed of animals that drift within the water column. The study of zooplankton biodiversity and distribution is crucial to understand oceanic ecosystems and anticipate the effects of climate change. In this study our focus is on ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae). Our aim is to employ molecular genetic techniques such as DNA barcoding to begin a detailed characterization of ichthyoplankton diversity, abundance and community structure in the Hampton Roads Bay Estuary (HRBE). A sampling of zooplankton was performed on June 19, 2015. Samples were taken with a 0.5m, 200 µm mesh net in triplicates at two stations: inner shore in the mouth of Jones Creek and 5 miles off Hampton in the lower part of Chesapeake Bay. Physical parameters (dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature and water transparency) were measured simultaneously. Species were identified by DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Cytochrome Oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. Fish eggs were identified from Opistonema oglinum (Atlantic Thread Herring) at the offshore stations while, Anchoa mitchilli was found at both stations. These species are common to the area and as observed, differences in species between stations were found. O. oglinum eggs were found in the offshore stations, which is their reported habitat. A. mitchilli eggs were found in both stations; both known to exhibit a wider salinity tolerance. This work indicates that using mtDNA-CO1 barcoding is suitable to identify ichthyoplankton to the species level and helped validate DNA barcoding as a faster taxonomic approach. The long term objective of this project is to provide taxonomic composition and biodiversity assessment of ichthyoplankton in HRBE. This data will be a reference for broad monitoring programs; for a better understanding and management of ecologically and commercially important species in the HRBE. Monthly samplings will be performed for a year beginning September 2015.

  1. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  2. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  3. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water quality dynamics in an urbanizing subtropical estuary(Oso Bay, Texas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetz, Michael S; Hayes, Kenneth C; Fisher, Kelsey V B; Price, Lynn; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair

    2016-03-15

    Results are presented from a study of water quality dynamics in a shallow subtropical estuary, Oso Bay, Texas, which has a watershed that has undergone extensive urbanization in recent decades. High inorganic nutrient, dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll concentrations, as well as low pH (Oso Bay that receives wastewater effluent. Despite being shallow (Oso Bay, suggesting that it may be exported to adjacent Corpus Christi Bay and contribute to seasonal hypoxia development in that system as well. These results argue for wastewater nutrient input reductions in order to alleviate the symptoms of eutrophication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geophysical mapping of oyster habitats in a shallow estuary; Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Edmiston, H. Lee; Stevenson, William R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents high-resolution geophysical data, interpretive maps, and a preliminary discussion about the oyster habitat and estuary-floor geology within Apalachicola Bay, Florida (fig. 1). During two research cruises, conducted in 2005 and 2006, approximately 230 km² of the bay floor were surveyed using interferometric-bathymetry, sidescan-sonar, and chirp seismic-reflection techniques. The research was conducted as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was established in 1979 to provide opportunities for long-term monitoring and research to provide a basis for more informed coastal management decisions for this estuary. Apalachicola Bay is the largest oyster fishery in Florida (Whitfield and Beaumariage, 1977), and the primary objective of this program is to develop a suite of maps that define oyster habitat distribution and estuary-floor geology within the bay. The resulting maps will assist in effective management of oyster resources and provide a reference geologic framework for future scientific and applied research.

  6. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 1. Publication No. 93-108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Judy

    Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Washington is managed by the Washington State Department of Ecology, Shorelands and Coastal Zone management Program. This guide is designed for primary teachers to complement a visit to the reserve and is a useful resource to teach about estuaries, shorelands, and coastal resources. Activities are…

  7. Numerical Analysis of Storm Surge and Seiche at Tokyo Bay caused by the 2 Similar Typhoons, Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, T.; Takagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A long period damped oscillation, or seiche, sometimes happens inside a harbor after passing typhoon. For some cases, a maximum sea level is observed due to the superposition of astronomical tide and seiche rather than a peak of storm surge. Hence to clarify seiche factors for reducing disaster potential is important, a long-period seiche with a fundamental period of 5.46 hours in Tokyo Bay (Konishi, 2008) was investigated through numerical simulations and analyses. We examined the case of Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014 (Hereafter Case P and V). The intensity and moving velocity were similar and the best-tracks were an arc-shaped, typical one approaching to Tokyo Bay. The track of Case V was about 1.5 degree higher latitude than that of Case P, only Typhoon Phanphon caused significant seiche.Firstly, numerical simulations for the 2 storm surges at Tokyo Bay were conducted by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and Meso-Scale Model Grid Point Values (MSM-GPV). MSM-GPV gave the 10m wind speed and Sea Level Pressure (SLP), especially the Mean Error (ME) and Root Mean Squire Error (RMSE) of SLP were low compared to the 12 JMA observation points data (Case P: ME -0.303hPa, RMSE 1.87hPa, Case V: ME -0.285hPa, RMSE 0.74hPa). The computational results showed that the maximum of storm surge was underestimated but the difference was less than 20cm at 5 observation points in Tokyo Bay(Fig.1, 2).Then, power spectrals, coherences and phase differences of storm surges at the 5 observation points were obtained by spectral analysis of observed and simulated waveforms. For Case P, the phase-difference between the bay mouth and innermost part of Tokyo Bay was little, and coherence was almost 1(Fig.3, 4). However, for Case V, coherence was small around the fundamental period of 5.46 hours. Furthermore, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of storm surge, SLP and sea surface stress were conducted. The contributions of EOF1 were above 90% for the all variables, the

  8. 226Ra behavior in the Pee Dee river-Winyah Bay estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved 226 Ra in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, and in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean are augmented by the desorption of radium from sediments in the low-salinity area of the estuary and diffusion from bottom sediments. Desorption of 226 Ra is reflected by lower concentrations in suspended sediments from higher-salinity regions of the estuary. Bottom sediments from the high-salinity region have lower 226 Ra/ 230 Th activity ratios than those from the low-salinity end. (orig./ME)

  9. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  10. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  11. Synoptic volumetric variations and flushing of the Tampa Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.; Meyers, S. D.; Luther, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    Two types of analyses are used to investigate the synoptic wind-driven flushing of Tampa Bay in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from 1950 to 2007. Hourly sea level elevations from the St. Petersburg tide gauge, and wind speed and direction from three different sites around Tampa Bay are used for the study. The zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components are rotated clockwise by 40° to obtain axial and co-axial components according to the layout of the bay. First, we use the subtidal observed water level as a proxy for mean tidal height to estimate the rate of volumetric bay outflow. Second, we use wavelet analysis to bandpass sea level and wind data in the time-frequency domain to isolate the synoptic sea level and surface wind variance. For both analyses the long-term monthly climatology is removed and we focus on the volumetric and wavelet variance anomalies. The overall correlation between the Oceanic Niño Index and volumetric analysis is small due to the seasonal dependence of the ENSO response. The mean monthly climatology between the synoptic wavelet variance of elevation and axial winds are in close agreement. During the winter, El Niño (La Niña) increases (decreases) the synoptic variability, but decreases (increases) it during the summer. The difference in winter El Niño/La Niña wavelet variances is about 20 % of the climatological value, meaning that ENSO can swing the synoptic flushing of the bay by 0.22 bay volumes per month. These changes in circulation associated with synoptic variability have the potential to impact mixing and transport within the bay.

  12. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  13. Contrasting mercury and manganese deposition in a mangrove-dominated estuary (Guaratuba Bay, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C. J.; Santos, I. R.; Silva-Filho, E. V.; Patchineelam, S. R.

    2008-08-01

    Sediment cores were taken at seven sites along the mangrove-bound Guaratuba Bay estuary (southern Brazil), with the purpose of assessing conditions controlling Hg deposition along a horizontal estuarine sediment gradient. The data suggest contrasting depositional patterns for Hg and Mn in this relatively pristine setting. Total Hg contents of bulk sediments ranged from 12 to 36 ng/g along the estuary, the highest values being found in muddier organic-rich sediments of the upper estuary (the corresponding mud gradient is 12 to 42 wt.%, and the organic matter gradient 4 to 10 wt.%). Thus, the deposition of fine sediments relatively enriched in mercury occurs primarily in closer proximity to the freshwater source. The data also indicate a reverse gradient in reactive Mn contents, ranging from 29 to 81 μg/g, and increasing seaward. This implies that reactive Mn is mobilized from fine-grained reducing mangrove forest sediments in the upper estuary, and deposited downstream in sandier, oxygen-rich nearshore sediments. These results suggest that mangrove-surrounded estuaries may act as barriers to mercury transport to coastal waters, but as a source of manganese. The present findings also imply that reactive Mn may be used as an indication of Hg depositional patterns in other similar coastal sedimentary settings.

  14. Nontarget approach for environmental monitoring by GC × GC-HRTOFMS in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Shunji; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we developed an approach for sequential nontarget and target screening for the rapid and efficient analysis of multiple samples as an environmental monitoring using a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-HRTOFMS). A key feature of the approach was the construction of an accurate mass spectral database learned from the sample via nontarget screening. To enhance the detection power in the nontarget screening, a global spectral deconvolution procedure based on non-negative matrix factorization was applied. The approach was applied to the monitoring of rivers in the Tokyo Bay basin. The majority of the compounds detected by the nontarget screening were alkyl chain-based compounds (55%). In the quantitative target screening based on the output from the nontarget screening, particularly high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants (median concentrations of 31, 116 and 141 ng l(-1) for TDCPP, TCIPP and TBEP, respectively) were observed among the target compounds. Flame retardants used for household furniture and building materials were detected in river basins where buildings and arterial traffic were dominated. The developed GC × GC-HRTOFMS approach was efficient and effective for environmental monitoring and provided valuable new information on various aspects of monitoring in the context of environmental management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Earthquake and human impact on the sedimentology and geochemistry of Ahuriri Estuary, Hawke's Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Nichol, S.L.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Trompetter, W.J.; Sutherland, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    Three cores were collected from the intertidal and salt marsh sediments in Ahuriri Estuary, Hawke's Bay, and analysed by sedimentological, chemical and geochronological techniques. Signatures of various events, of both natural and anthropogenic origin, were identified. Evidence for the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, which resulted in an uplift of one to two metres in the Napier area, is given by a change in grainsize distribution in a core from the southern shore of the Lower Estuary. The change to a high energy environment, similar to the present one in the Lower Estuary, has resulted in deposition of sand over fine silt. The data suggest increased sediment accumulation rates following the uplift event, which might be attributed to increased erosion in the upper catchment. There is no evidence of the earthquake at the two other sites sampled, which is probably due to their more sheltered location in the estuary. Post-European settlement impact is mainly restricted to the Lower Estuary, where increased concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb and Cu may be due to industrial discharges. Evidence of agricultural runoff is given by an increase in Cu concentrations near the Poraiti Hills. The chemical data (Cl and S) suggest a change in the depositional environment in the Upper Estuary due to increased freshwater influx and/or decrease in seawater influence. Dating by 210 Pb infers that this occurred prior to 1931, but the origin and timing of the event are still to be determined. Sediment accumulation rates have averaged 2.5 mm/yr for the last 45 years in the Lower Estuary and 3.8 mm/yr for the last 70 years or so in the Upper Estuary. The variation probably reflects the difference in depositional environment, from a high energy environment dominated by tidal and wave action to a low energy environment with additional organic and fine sediment input from stream runoff. The various signatures identified are based on known events but may be used for identifying events in other less

  17. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km2) glaciated Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Previous work has shown that the late Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated from the three main passages of the bay between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago and was accompanied by a marine transgression during which ice and sea were in contact. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level fell to at least -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,500 years ago. During lowered sea level, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich mud from the river was deposited rapidly in remnant, glacially scoured depressions in the lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow (???20 m water depth) bedrock sill across the bay mouth. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the bay system and received only small amounts of locally derived fine-grained sediments. During the Holocene transgression that accompanied the eustatic rise of sea level, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, heterogeneous fluvial deposits filled the ancestral valley of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin (energy conditions and the waning influence of the Penobscot River at the head of the bay. In contrast, relatively thick (up to 25 m) silty clays accumulated within a subbottom trough in the western half of the bay head. This deposit apparently developed late in the transgression after sea level had reached -20 m and after the westward transport of fine-grained sediments from the Penobscot River had been established. During and since the late Holocene transgression of sea level, waves and currents have eroded, reworked, and

  18. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  19. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  20. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  1. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  2. Relationship between the Prediction Accuracy of Tsunami Inundation and Relative Distribution of Tsunami Source and Observation Arrays: A Case Study in Tokyo Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A rapid and precise tsunami forecast based on offshore monitoring is getting attention to reduce human losses due to devastating tsunami inundation. We developed a forecast method based on the combination of hierarchical Bayesian inversion with pre-computed database and rapid post-computing of tsunami inundation. The method was applied to Tokyo bay to evaluate the efficiency of observation arrays against three tsunamigenic earthquakes. One is a scenario earthquake at Nankai trough and the other two are historic ones of Genroku in 1703 and Enpo in 1677. In general, rich observation array near the tsunami source has an advantage in both accuracy and rapidness of tsunami forecast. To examine the effect of observation time length we used four types of data with the lengths of 5, 10, 20 and 45 minutes after the earthquake occurrences. Prediction accuracy of tsunami inundation was evaluated by the simulated tsunami inundation areas around Tokyo bay due to target earthquakes. The shortest time length of accurate prediction varied with target earthquakes. Here, accurate prediction means the simulated values fall within the 95% credible intervals of prediction. In Enpo earthquake case, 5-minutes observation is enough for accurate prediction for Tokyo bay, but 10-minutes and 45-minutes are needed in the case of Nankai trough and Genroku, respectively. The difference of the shortest time length for accurate prediction shows the strong relationship with the relative distance from the tsunami source and observation arrays. In the Enpo case, offshore tsunami observation points are densely distributed even in the source region. So, accurate prediction can be rapidly achieved within 5 minutes. This precise prediction is useful for early warnings. Even in the worst case of Genroku, where less observation points are available near the source, accurate prediction can be obtained within 45 minutes. This information can be useful to figure out the outline of the hazard in an early

  3. Modeling Trace Element Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Remote Measurement of Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended and dissolved trace elements are key determinants of water quality in estuarine and coastal waters. High concentrations of trace element pollutants in the San Francisco Bay estuary necessitate consistent and thorough monitoring to mitigate adverse effects on biological systems and the contamination of water and food resources. Although existing monitoring programs collect annual in situ samples from fixed locations, models proposed by Benoit, Kudela, & Flegal (2010) enable calculation of the water column total concentration (WCT) and the water column dissolved concentration (WCD) of 14 trace elements in the San Francisco Bay from a more frequently sampled metric—suspended solids concentration (SSC). This study tests the application of these models with SSC calculated from remote sensing data, with the aim of validating a tool for continuous synoptic monitoring of trace elements in the San Francisco Bay. Using HICO imagery, semi-analytical and empirical SSC algorithms were tested against a USGS dataset. A single-band method with statistically significant linear fit (p Arsenic, Iron, and Lead in the southern region of the Bay were found to exceed EPA water quality criteria for human health and aquatic life. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of monitoring programs using remote observation of trace element concentrations, and provide the foundation for investigation of pollutant sources and pathways over time.

  4. A History of Vegetation, Sediment and Nutrient Dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  5. A hydrogen-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing microorganism from the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, F.; Blakemore, R.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A dissimilatory Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterium was isolated from bottom sediments of the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire. The isolate was a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod which did not appear to fit into any previously described genus. It was temporarily designated strain BrY. BrY grew anaerobically in a defined medium with hydrogen or lactate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. BrY required citrate, fumarate, or malate as a carbon source for growth on H2 and Fe(III). With Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor, BrY metabolized hydrogen to a minimum threshold at least 60-fold lower than the threshold reported for pure cultures of sulfate reducers. This finding supports the hypothesis that when Fe(III) is available, Fe(III) reducers can outcompete sulfate reducers for electron donors. Lactate was incompletely oxidized to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Lactate oxidation was also coupled to the reduction of Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, thiosulfate, or trimethylamine n-oxide under anaerobic conditions. BrY provides a model for how enzymatic metal reduction by respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms has the potential to contribute to the mobilization of iron and trace metals and to the immobilization of uranium in sediments of Great Bay Estuary.

  6. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  7. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  8. Seasonal and interannual variability of mesozooplankton in two contrasting estuaries of the Bay of Biscay: Relationship to environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Sanchez, Iraide

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations of total mesozooplankton abundance and community variability were assessed for the period 1998-2005 at 3 salinity sites (35, 33 and 30) of the estuaries of Bilbao and Urdaibai (southeast Bay of Biscay). Spatial differences in mesozooplankton seasonality were recognized, both within and between estuaries, related to differences between sites in hydrodynamic features and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment that drive phytoplankton biomass seasonal cycles. The within estuary seasonal differences in mesozooplankton community were mainly shown through seaward time-advances in the seasonal peak from summer to spring along the salinity gradient, linked to differences in phytoplankton availability during the summer, in turn, related to nutrient availability. These differences were most marked in the estuary of Urdaibai, where zooplankton seasonal pattern at 35 salinity (high tidal flushing) resembled that of shelf waters, while at 35 of the estuary of Bilbao zooplankton showed an estuarine seasonal pattern due to the influence of the estuarine plume. Cirripede larvae contributed most to the mesozooplankton seasonal variability, except at the outer estuary of Bilbao, where cladocerans and fish eggs and larvae were the major contributors, and the inner estuary of Urdaibai, where gastropod larvae contributed most. Total mesozooplankton increased at 30 salinity of the estuary of Bilbao and 35 salinity of the estuary of Urdaibai. Interannual variability of mesozooplankton at the lowest salinity of the estuary of Bilbao was mainly accounted for by copepods due to the introduction of non-indigenous species during estuarine rehabilitation from intense pollution. However, bivalve larvae and gastropod larvae showed the highest contributions at 35 salinity of the estuary of Urdaibai. At the rest of sites, the opposite interannual trends of polychaete larvae and hydromedusae generally made the highest contribution.

  9. Radionuclides in intertidal sands and sediments from Morecambe Bay to the Dee estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.C.; Burton, P.J.; Strange, L.P.; Pratley, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Surface and core samples of intertidal sediments have been collected from the coastline from Morecambe Bay to the Dee Estuary. The sampling took place between October 1987 and July 1989. Caesium-137 was determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry and plutonium isotopes and americium-241 were determined by alpha spectrometry following radiochemical separations. Samples were also sieved to obtain a particle size distribution of the deposits. A wide range of radionuclide activities have been determined depending on the distance from Sellafield and, more importantly, the proportion of clay plus silt ( 239+240 Pu and 241 Am activity discharged by Sellafield up to the end of 1988. The measured activities generally represent a small fraction of the Generalised Derived Limits (GDL's) for marine sediments. (author)

  10. Insights into microbial communities involved in mercury methylation in the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machak, C.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary is the largest estuary on the western coast of the United States, draining a watershed covering more than one third of the state of California. Mercury (Hg) contamination in SFB, as a result of gold and mercury mining in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada region, has been observed for at least 150 years. Additional sources of Hg contamination to SFB come from active oil refineries, manufacturing, and wastewater treatment plants in the area. Concentrations of methylmercury in the sediment at the time of sample collection for the present study ranged from 0.011-3.88 μg/kg (dry weight). At some sites, the concentration exceeds wetland toxicity limits, posing a threat to the health of the ecosystem and potentially endangering humans that use the estuary for food and recreation. This study attempts to understand the factors that control the transformation of Hg to methylmercury by microorganisms in aquatic sediments, where the majority of Hg methylation is known to occur. Under anoxic conditions, some sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria have the capacity to transform Hg into methylmercury. To better understand the microbial communities involved in Hg methylation, an extensive library of 16S rRNA sequences was generated (via Illumina sequencing) from sediment samples at 20 sites throughout the SFB estuary. In addition to genomic data, we have access to a massive database of geochemical measurements made by the SFB Regional Monitoring Program at the sampling locations. These measurements show that our sediment samples have varying methylmercury concentrations and span gradients in porewater sulfate and Fe(III), which are the two known alternative electron acceptors for mercury-methylating anaerobic bacteria. The sampling sites also span gradients in other geochemical factors known to influence microbial community composition (and potentially Hg mercury methylation), such as available organic carbon, pH, and salinity. We will present the

  11. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE TOKYO BAY AREA DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE USING DOWNHOLE ARRAY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takaaki; Konagai, Kazuo; Katagiri, Toshihiko

    Underground motions within a hard diluvial stratum were obtained in the March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake at a downhole in the Tokyo Bay area, which has suffered serious sand-liquefaction over its long 42km2 stretch. The motions in the diluvial sand deposit are characterized by their (1) long dura-tion times with 6 to 8s components surpassing others, (2) moderate amplitude of 51.1 cm/s2 in PGA, which is estimated to have resulted in moderate average strains of 8 to 9 × 10-4 and 5 to 7 × 10-4 over shal-low -2 to -30m and deep -30 to -77m soil deposits, respectively. The peak strain reached in the interior of soil was estimated to be about 1.3 × 10-3.

  12. Collection and analysis of remotely sensed data from the Rhode River Estuary Watershed. [ecological parameters of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    NASA chose the watershed of Rhode River, a small sub-estuary of the Bay, as a representative test area for intensive studies of remote sensing, the results of which could be extrapolated to other estuarine watersheds around the Bay. A broad program of ecological research was already underway within the watershed, conducted by the Smithsonian Institution's Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies (CBCES) and cooperating universities. This research program offered a unique opportunity to explore potential applications for remote sensing techniques. This led to a joint NASA-CBCES project with two basic objectives: to evaluate remote sensing data for the interpretation of ecological parameters, and to provide essential data for ongoing research at the CBCES. A third objective, dependent upon realization of the first two, was to extrapolate photointerpretive expertise gained at the Rhode River watershed to other portions of the Chesapeake Bay.

  13. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-14

    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  14. Metagenomic evidence for reciprocal particle exchange between the mainstem estuary and lateral bay sediments of the lower Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya W Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lateral bays of the lower Columbia River estuary are areas of enhanced water retention that influence net ecosystem metabolism through activities of their diverse microbial communities. Metagenomic characterization of sediment microbiota from three disparate sites in two brackish lateral bays (Baker and Youngs produced approximately 100 Gbp of DNA sequence data analyzed subsequently for predicted SSU rRNA and peptide-coding genes. The metagenomes were dominated by Bacteria. A large component of Eukaryota was present in Youngs Bay samples, i.e. the inner bay sediment was enriched with the invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, known for high ammonia production. The metagenome was also highly enriched with an archaeal ammonia oxidizer closely related to Nitrosoarchaeum limnia. Combined analysis of sequences and continuous, high-resolution time series of biogeochemical data from fixed and mobile platforms revealed the importance of large-scale reciprocal particle exchanges between the mainstem estuarine water column and lateral bay sediments. Deposition of marine diatom particles in sediments near Youngs Bay mouth was associated with a dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes (58% of total Bacteria and corresponding genes involved in phytoplankton polysaccharide degradation. The Baker Bay sediment metagenome contained abundant Archaea, including diverse methanogens, as well as functional genes for methylotrophy and taxonomic markers for syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that active methane cycling occurs at this location. Our previous work showed enrichments of similar anaerobic taxa in particulate matter of the mainstem estuarine water column. In total, our results identify the lateral bays as both sources and sinks of biogenic particles significantly impacting microbial community composition and biogeochemical activities in the estuary.

  15. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  16. Trophic structure and avian communities across a salinity gradient in evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Athearn, N.D.; Saiki, M.K.; Duffy, W.D.; Kleinschmidt, S.; Shellenbarger, G.G.; Jannusch, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial salt evaporation ponds comprise a large proportion of baylands adjacent to the San Francisco Bay, a highly urbanized estuary. In the past two centuries, more than 79% of the historic tidal wetlands in this estuary have been lost. Resource management agencies have acquired more than 10 000 ha of commercial salt ponds with plans to undertake one of the largest wetland restoration projects in North America. However, these plans have created debate about the ecological importance of salt ponds for migratory bird communities in western North America. Salt ponds are unique mesohaline (5–18 g l−1) to hyperhaline (> 40 g l−1) wetlands, but little is known of their ecological structure or value. Thus, we studied decommissioned salt ponds in the North Bay of the San Francisco Bay estuary from January 1999 through November 2001. We measured water quality parameters (salinity, DO, pH, temperature), nutrient concentrations, primary productivity, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds across a range of salinities from 24 to 264 g l−1. Our studies documented how unique limnological characteristics of salt ponds were related to nutrient levels, primary productivity rates, invertebrate biomass and taxa richness, prey fish, and avian predator numbers. Salt ponds were shown to have unique trophic and physical attributes that supported large numbers of migratory birds. Therefore, managers should carefully weigh the benefits of increasing habitat for native tidal marsh species with the costs of losing these unique hypersaline systems.

  17. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 2. Key to the Phytoplankton Phyla and Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helrich, Jane

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. This document is the second of a series of guides designed to help students and teachers gather data concerning the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex and to organize these data to make a contribution to the literature of…

  18. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of estuarial seawater and river water of Bailanghe in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaofeng; Xu, Suning; Wang, Ruijiu; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhiyi; Mei, Junjun; Ding, Zhilei; Yang, Peijie; Yu, Liangju; Lv, Tieying; Bai, Gang; Kang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In the study of seawater intrusion, seawater is usually taken as an end-member that mixes with other source(s). However, compared to standard seawater, the coastal seawater particularly that near the estuary, can be strongly influenced by the rivers into the sea and by coastal human activities. Their composition can be thus continuously changed and redistributed with space and time. Therefore, before investigating seawater intrusion in a certain area, it is essentially important to determine the features of the estuarine seawater (e.g. the mixture percentage between standard seawater and river water). In this study, we aimed to gain a clear situation of the seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, Southern Bohai, China. The issue aforementioned was investigated by comparing the stable isotopic and hydrochemical composition of the marine and river water collected in this area. Samples investigated include 5 surface water samples collected at the downstream of the Bailanghe and 7 seawater samples near the estuary of Laizhou Bay. Inert tracers (δD, δ18O, Cl, Br) and reaction tracers (Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Ca, NO3) are particularly analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1) All the river water samples fall below the Global Meteoric Water Line in the δD - δ18O diagram, reflecting evaporation of the upstream reservoir water. The seawater samples fall on the mixing line of standard seawater and the river water in the stable isotopic diagram. 2) The Cl-δ18O diagram indicates widespread dissolution of evaporate into the river, while high concentration of Ca and HCO3-, as well as the SO42- - Cl relation of the river water samples reflect the dissolution of CO2 , carbonate and sulfate in the atmosphere and on the ground. 3) The Br/Cl ratios of seawater samples are closed to the marine ratios. This together with the plots of major ions vs. Cl suggest that the seawater samples are originated from the mixture of standard seawater and river water. Therefore, when referring to the

  19. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  20. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: A north San Francisco Bay estuary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  1. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  2. Problems and pressures, management and measures in a site of marine conservation importance: Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Blaise

    2014-10-01

    Management of anthropogenic activities that cause pressure on estuarine wildlife and biodiversity is beset by a wide range of challenges. Some, such as the differing environmental and socio-economic objectives and conflicting views and priorities, are common to many estuaries; others are site specific. The Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries European Marine Site encompasses four estuaries of European wildlife and conservation importance and considerable socio-economic value. The estuaries and their wildlife are subject to a range of pressures and threats and the statutory authorities responsible for management in and adjacent to the Site have developed a management scheme to address these. Preparation of the management scheme included an assessment of human activities known to occur in and adjacent to the Site for their potential to cause a threat to the designated habitats and species features, and identified actions the management authorities need to take to minimise or eliminate pressures and threats. To deliver the scheme the partner authorities need to accept the requirement for management actions and work together to achieve them. The Welsh Government also needs to work with these authorities because it is responsible for management of many of the most important pressure-causing activities. However, the absence of statutory obligations for partnership working has proved an impediment to successful management.

  3. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.

    1997-08-01

    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo T. Watanabe; Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Gustavo Y. Hattori; Fernando J. Zara

    2014-01-01

    Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863) in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay) from Mar...

  5. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  6. Estuarine water quality and plankton community responses in the Pensacola Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplankton serve a centrally important role in estuaries forming the base of the food web. Thus factors that affect phytoplankton production and species composition cascades to higher trophic levels, ultimately affecting secondary production. Given their sensitivity to myriad ...

  7. Local Estuary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information about Local Individual Estuary Programs including links to their NEP homepages, social media, Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans, and state of the bay reports.

  8. APPLICATION OF GIS AND SATELLITE DATA IN THE INVESTIGATION OF BAYS AND ESTUARIAL ABRASION-ACCUMULATIVE JUMPERS OF THE VOLGOGRAD RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of Volgograd reservoir bays investigation and their abrasion-accumulative jumpers in the estuarial alignments during field expeditionary researching and with the application of geoinformation systems and satellite data. Based on the results of long-term field observations and satellite data, it was founded that most of small and medium-sized bays have natural jumpers of abrasion-accumulative genesis now. The paper contains short characteristics of such bays as Dlinniy Lipoviy, Zharkova, Korotkiy Lipoviy, Bolshoy, Rostoviy, Mostovoy, Drugalka. The authors have created bathymetric maps and graphs of longitudinal profiles for the water areas of some of the bays on the right bank, calculated the areas of estuarial jumpers and the areas of the shallow water zone inside the bays. The bays, characterized in the entry gate by depths from 9 m to 16 m, do not have a predisposition to being overlapped by jumpers, and a number of bays are currently in the stage of separation. In the course of the investigation it was determined that the maximum depth of the break-away bays does not exceed six and half meters; the active process of detachment covers both small and medium-sized bays; among the studied bays considerable areas are occupied by shallow waters with depths of up to 2 meters; geoinformation systems and satellite data allow one to analyze, complete and generalize field research data and receive visual cartographic materials. Based on the results of bathymetric survey, there was revealed a fairly active accumulation of sediments in the abrasion-accumulative forms of the underwater and above-water relief of all the investigated reservoir bays.

  9. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo Jane is an accessible fashion jewelry company that makes and markets its products as “luxury for less” by designing, importing and selling fashion jewelry pieces that look luxurious but cost only a fraction of the high-priced items that inspired them. Finished products are air......-shipped to company headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark from factories in China, stocked in the head office and delivered to 400 retail partners —small fashion boutiques, big department stores and online shops — who then sell to consumers in Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Canada. The two partners who...... founded the firm in 2005 are facing several problems: the brand definition is not well enough developed to support the next stage in the firm’s growth, certain challenges have outstripped available human resources — they have only three permanent employees and a revolving number of interns...

  10. Incident wave run-up into narrow sloping bays and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinan Özeren, M.; Postacioglu, Nazmi; Canlı, Umut

    2015-04-01

    The problem is investigated using Carrier Greenspan hodograph transformations.We perform a quasi-one-dimensional solution well into the bay, far enough of the mouth of the bay. The linearized boundary conditions at the mouth of the bay lead to an integral equation for 2-D geometry. A semi analytical optimization method has been developed to solve this integral equation. When the wavelength of the incident wave is much larger than the width of the bay, the conformalmapping of the bay and the semi infinite sea onto upper complex plane provides a solution of the integral equation in closed form. Particular emphasis is placed on the case where the frequency of the incident waves matches the real-part of the natural frequency of the oscillation of the bay. These natural frequencies are complex because of the radiation conditions imposed at the mouth of the bay. It is found that the complex part of these natural frequencies decreases with decreasing width of the bay. Thus the trapping of the waves in narrower bays leads to a strong resonance phenomenon when the frequency of the incident wave is equal to the real part of the natural frequency.

  11. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  12. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irabien, M.J.; Cearreta, A.; Leorri, E.; Gomez, J.; Viguri, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna

  13. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and risk assessment of trace metals in sediments from Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Mao, Lingchen; Jia, Yubao; Gu, Zhujun; Shi, Weiling; Chen, Ling; Ye, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River estuary (YRE) and Hangzhou Bay (HZB) is of environmental significance because of the negative impact from industrial activities and rapid development of aquaculture on the south bank of HZB (SHZB) in recent years. This study investigated the distribution and risk assessments of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, and Cd) accumulated in surface sediments by sampling in YRE, outer and south HZB. Copper and Zn concentration (avg. 35.4 and 98.7 mg kg -1 , respectively) in surface sediments were generally higher than the background suggesting a widespread of Cu and Zn in the coastal area of Yangtze River Delta. High concentrations of Cu (~ 42 mg kg -1 ), Zn (~ 111 mg kg -1 ), Cd (~ 0.27 mg kg -1 ), and Hg (~ 0.047 mg kg -1 ) were found in inner estuary of YRE and decreased offshore as a result of terrestrial input and dilution effect of total metal contents by "cleaner" sediments from the adjacent sea. In outer HZB, accumulation of terrestrial derived metal has taken place near the Zhoushan Islands. Increase in sediment metal concentration from the west (inner) to the east (outer) of SHZB gave rise to the input of fine-grained sediments contaminated with metals from outer bay. According the results from geoaccumulation index, nearly 75% of samples from YRE were moderately polluted (1.0 < I geo  < 2.0) by Cd. Cadmium and Hg contributed for 80~90% to the potential ecological risk index in the YRE and HZB, with ~ 72% sites in HZB under moderate risk (150 ≤ RI < 300) especially near Zhoushan Islands.

  15. Effects of Hypoxia on Sedimentary Nitrogen Cycling in the Pensacola Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrophic-induced hypoxic events pose a serious threat to estuaries in coastal systems. Hypoxic events are becoming more intense and widespread with changes in land use and increased anthropogenic pressures. Microbial communities involved in sedimentary nitrogen (N) cycling may h...

  16. Potential climate change impacts on a tropical estuary: Hilo Bay, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, J.; LaPinta, J.; Marusek, J.; Pascoe, K.; Pugh, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hilo Bay is a tropical estuarine ecosystem on the northeast (windward) coast of Hawai`i Island that is potentially vulnerable to climate change effects mediated through elevated water temperatures and/or changing rainfall patterns that impact river and groundwater fluxes. Here, we document trends in water temperature, river flow and phytoplankton dynamics in Hilo Bay. Hilo Bay is fed by two major rivers, Wailuku and Honoli`i, both of which have shown long term declines in output over their 85 and 38 year monitoring periods (USGS), respectively. Time series of groundwater inputs to Hilo Bay do not exist, but the average estimated rate rivals that of average river inputs. Daily average Hilo Bay water temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.35 degrees C per year (p Hilo Bay water quality buoy began in 2010, with the warmest temperatures on record recorded Sept 2015. Salinity did not show a trend over this same time period. Phytoplankton showed a pronounced seasonal cycle in Hilo Bay with a long term average of 3.7 mg m-3 and dominance by diatoms that exploit the co-availability of silica and nitrate in this environment. On shorter time scales of days to Hilo Bay salinity, temperature and phytoplankton biomass. Coincidental atmospheric warming, SST warming in the adjacent North Pacific ocean, and declining river flows will likely work together to result in elevated SST in Hilo Bay if observed trends continue. The El Nino event that started this year is expected to exacerbate this warming through reduce river flow and warmer regional SST.

  17. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kazaoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10–50 m width, 20–100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  18. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  19. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xianxiang; Fan, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the monitoring results of four heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg at 10 sampling stations in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou Bay in November 2008 were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the steam channel and estuary are higher than those in the adjacent sea, and the metal concentrations were below the standard for I class of marine sediment quality, excepting the station 2 in the steam channel and station 5 in the estuary. The assessment of the single-factor pollution index showed that the overall pollution level of the study area was relatively low, but there was serious pollution phenomenon in individual station. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments was generally at a low level, and Hg had the highest potential risk.

  20. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  1. Superstorm Sandy-related Morphologic and Sedimentologic Changes in an Estuarine System: Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; Ganju, N. K.; Navoy, A.; Nicholson, R.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the well-recognized ecological importance of back-barrier estuaries, the role of storms in their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood. Moreover, the focus of storm impact assessments is often the ocean shorelines of barrier islands rather than the exchange of sediment from barrier to estuary. In order to better understand and ultimately predict short-term morphologic and sedimentologic changes in coastal systems, a comprehensive research approach is required but is often difficult to achieve given the diversity of data required. An opportunity to use such an approach in assessing the storm-response of a barrier-estuary system occurred when Superstorm Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey on 29 October 2012. Since 2011, the US Geological Survey has been investigating water circulation and water-quality degradation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) Estuary, the southern end of which is approximately 25 kilometers north of the landfall location. This effort includes shallow-water geophysical surveys to map the bathymetry and sediment distribution within BBLEH, airborne topo-bathymetric lidar surveys for mapping the shallow shoals that border the estuary, and sediment sampling, all of which have provided a recent picture of the pre-storm estuarine geomorphology. We combined these pre-storm data with similar post-storm data from the estuary and pre- and post-storm topographic data from the ocean shoreline of the barrier island to begin to understand the response of the barrier-estuary system. Breaches in the barrier island resulted in water exchange between the estuary and the ocean, briefly reducing residence times in the northern part of the estuary until the breaches were closed. Few morphologic changes in water depths greater than 1.5 m were noted. However, morphologic changes observed in shallower depths along the eastern shoreline of the estuary are likely related to overwash processes. In general, surficial estuarine sediments

  2. A Tree-Ring Reconstruction of the Salinity Gradient in the Northern Estuary of San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Stahle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue oak tree-ring chronologies correlate highly with winter–spring precipitation totals over California, with Sacramento and San Joaquin river stream flow, and with seasonal variations in the salinity gradient in San Francisco Bay. The convergence of fresh and saline currents can influence turbidity, sediment accumulation, and biological productivity in the estuary. Three selected blue oak chronologies were used to develop a 625-year-long reconstruction of the seasonal salinity gradient, or low salinity zone (LSZ, which provides a unique perspective on the interannual-to-decadal variability of this important estuarine habitat indicator. The reconstruction was calibrated with instrumental LSZ data for the winter–spring season, and explains 73% of the variance in the February–June position of the LSZ from 1956 to 2003. Because this calibration period post-dates the sweeping changes that have occurred to land cover, channel morphology, and natural streamflow regimes in California, the reconstruction provides an idealized estimate for how the LSZ might have fluctuated under the seasonal precipitation variations of the past 625 years, given the modern geometry and bathymetry of the estuary and land cover across the drainage basin. The February–June season integrates precipitation and runoff variability during the cool season, and does not extend into the late-summer dry season when LSZ extremes can negatively affect Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta agriculture and some aquatic organisms. However, there is such strong inter-seasonal persistence in the instrumental LSZ data that precipitation totals during the cool season can strongly pre-condition LSZ position in late summer. The 625-year-long reconstruction indicates strong interannual and decadal variability, the frequent recurrence of consecutive 2-year LSZ maxima and minima, large-scale ocean atmospheric forcing, and an interesting asymmetrical influence of warm El Ni

  3. Quantifying contributions to light attenuation in estuaries and coastal embayments: Application to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Narragansett Bay, light attenuation by total suspended sediments (TSS), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a (chl-a) pigment is 129, 97, and 70%, respectively, of that by pure seawater. Spatial distribution of light attenuation indicates hig...

  4. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J.; Woodruff, D.; Quattrochi, D.; Rose, K.; Swann, R.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  5. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Swann, R.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  6. Ecosystem responses to long-term nutrient management in an urban estuary: Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, H.; Janicki, A.; Sherwood, E. T.; Pribble, R.; Johansson, J. O. R.

    2014-12-01

    In subtropical Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, we evaluated restoration trajectories before and after nutrient management strategies were implemented using long-term trends in nutrient loading, water quality, primary production, and seagrass extent. Following citizen demands for action, reduction in wastewater nutrient loading of approximately 90% in the late 1970s lowered external total nitrogen (TN) loading by more than 50% within three years. Continuing nutrient management actions from public and private sectors were associated with a steadily declining TN load rate and with concomitant reduction in chlorophyll-a concentrations and ambient nutrient concentrations since the mid-1980s, despite an increase of more than 1 M people living within the Tampa Bay metropolitan area. Water quality (chlorophyll-a concentration, water clarity as indicated by Secchi disk depth, total nitrogen concentration and dissolved oxygen) and seagrass coverage are approaching conditions observed in the 1950s, before the large increases in human population in the watershed. Following recovery from an extreme weather event in 1997-1998, water clarity increased significantly and seagrass is expanding at a rate significantly different than before the event, suggesting a feedback mechanism as observed in other systems. Key elements supporting the nutrient management strategy and concomitant ecosystem recovery in Tampa Bay include: 1) active community involvement, including agreement about quantifiable restoration goals; 2) regulatory and voluntary reduction in nutrient loadings from point, atmospheric, and nonpoint sources; 3) long-term water quality and seagrass extent monitoring; and 4) a commitment from public and private sectors to work together to attain restoration goals. A shift from a turbid, phytoplankton-based system to a clear water, seagrass-based system that began in the 1980s following comprehensive nutrient loading reductions has resulted in a present-day Tampa Bay which looks and

  7. Avian communities in baylands and artificial salt evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Lu, C.T.; Pratt, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    San Francisco Bay wetlands, seasonal and tidal marshes between the historic low and high tide lines, are now highly fragmented because of development during the past 150 years. Artificial salt pond systems in the Bay are hypersaline and typically support simple assemblages of algae and invertebrates. In order to establish the value of salt ponds for migratory waterbirds, we used datasets to conduct a meta-analysis of avian communities in the baylands and salt ponds of San Pablo Bay. Fifty-three species of waterbirds in the salt ponds represented six foraging guilds: surface feeders, shallow probers, deep probers, dabblers, diving benthivores and piscivores. The total number of species and the Shannon-Weiner diversity index was higher in baylands than in salt ponds during all four seasons. However, overall bird density (number/ha) was higher in salt ponds compared with baylands in the winter and spring, primarily because of large concentrations of benthivores. Cessation of salt production in 1993 and subsequent reduction in water depth resulted in a decline of some diving duck populations that used the salt ponds.

  8. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  9. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  10. Oceanography of Glacier Bay, Alaska: Implications for biological patterns in a glacial fjord estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, L.L.; Hooge, P.N.; Hooge, Elizabeth Ross; Hill, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska, U.S.A, is one of the few remaining locations in the world that has fjords that contain temperate idewater glaciers. Studying such estuarine systems provides vital information on how deglaciation affects oceanographic onditions of fjords and surrounding coastal waters. The oceanographic system of Glacier Bay, Alaska, is of particular interest ue to the rapid deglaciation of the Bay and the resulting changes in the estuarine environment, the relatively high oncentrations of marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, and invertebrates, and the Bay’s status as a national park, where ommercial fisheries are being phased out. We describe the first comprehensive broad-scale analysis of physical and iological oceanographic conditions within Glacier Bay based on CTD measurements at 24 stations from 1993 to 2002. easonal patterns of near-surface salinity, temperature, stratification, turbidity, and euphotic depth suggest that freshwater nput was highest in summer, emphasizing the critical role of glacier and snowmelt to this system. Strong and persistent tratification of surface waters driven by freshwater input occurred from spring through fall. After accounting for seasonal nd spatial variation, several of the external physical factors (i.e., air temperature, precipitation, day length) explained a large mount of variation in the physical properties of the surface waters. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton biomass varied hroughout the year and were related to stratification levels, euphotic depth, and day length. We observed hydrographic atterns indicative of strong competing forces influencing water column stability within Glacier Bay: high levels of freshwater ischarge promoted stratification in the upper fjord, while strong tidal currents over the Bay’s shallow entrance sill enhanced ertical mixing. Where these two processes met in the central deep basins there were optimal conditions of intermediate tratification, higher light levels, and potential nutrient renewal

  11. Tokyo / Karin Thea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karin, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Tokyo vaatamisväärtused: Sky Tree teletorn, Takeshita Dori jalakäijate tänav, Asakusa linnaosa, The Gate Hotel, Tokyo metroo, Ryogoku Kokugikan, Nippon Kasgaku Miraikan ning Jaapani suurim kalaturg Tsukiji

  12. Polychaete assemblage of an impacted estuary, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Santi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight stations were sampled in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to assess the spatio-temporal diversity and biomass of sublittoral polychaetes. Samples were collected during the dry (September 2000 and rainy season (May 2001 in shallow sublittoral sediments. The polychaete spatial composition showed a heterogeneous distribution throughout the bay. A negative gradient of diversity and biomass was observed towards the inner parts of the bay and sheltered areas. A wide azoic area was found inside the bay. Some high-biomass and low-diversity spots were found near a sewage-discharge point. In these areas, the polychaete biomass increased after the rainy season. A diversified polychaete community was identified around the bay mouth, with no dramatic changes of this pattern between the two sampling periods. Deposit-feeders were dominant in the entire study area. The relative importance of carnivores and omnivores increased towards the outer sector, at stations with coarse sediment fractions. Guanabara Bay can be divided into three main zones with respect to environmental conditions and polychaete diversity and biomass patterns: A High polychaete diversity, hydrodynamically exposed areas composed of sandy, oxidized or moderately reduced sediments with normoxic conditions in the water column. B Low diversity and high biomass of deposit and suspension-feeding polychaete species in the middle part of the bay near continental inflows, comprising stations sharing similar proportions of silt, clay and fine sands. C Azoic area or an impoverished polychaete community in hydrodynamically low-energy areas of silt and clay with extremely reduced sediments, high total organic matter content and hypoxic conditions in the water column, located essentially from the mid-bay towards the north sector. High total organic matter content and hypoxic conditions combined with slow water renewal in the inner bay seemed to play a key role in the polychaete

  13. Recording of the Holocene sediment infilling in a confined tide-dominated estuary: the bay of Brest (Britanny, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Gwendoline; Le Roy, Pascal; Ehrhold, Axel; Jouet, Gwenael; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Modern estuaries constitute key areas for the preservation of sedimentary deposits related to the Holocene period. Several previous studies using stratigraphic reconstructions in such environments allowed to characterise the major parameters controlling the Holocene transgressive sequence and to decipher their respective role in the sedimentary infill: (1) the evolution of main hydrologic factors (wave or tide-dominated environment), (2) the sea level fluctuation and (3) the morphologies of the bedrock and the coastline. Nevertheless, the timing of the transgressive deposits and the detailed facies need to be precise in regard to the stratigraphic schemes. The Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France) offers the opportunity to examine these points and to compare with previous studies. It constitutes an original tide-dominated estuary that communicates to the open sea (Iroise Sea) by a narrow strait. Two main rivers (Aulne and Elorn) are connected to a submerged paleovalleys network that was incised in the Paleozoic basement during lowstands and still preserved in the present morphology. It delineates the central basin surrounded by tidal flat located in sheltered area. The analysis of high and very-high resolution seismic lines recorded through the whole bay combined with sediment cores (up to 4.5 m long) and radiocarbon dating allow to precise the architecture and the timing of the thick Holocene coastal wedge. It is preserved from the valley network to the shore and presents a longitudinal variability (downstream-upstream evolution). The infill is divided into two successive stages (corresponding to the transgressive and highstand system tracts) which laterally evolve from the paleo-valley to the coast. Two units constitute the transgressive system tract. The oldest, dated from 8200 to 7000 cal B.P. is composed of fine-grained, organic-rich tidal flat deposits located in the sheltered area and organised in levees on the terrace bordering the paleo-valley. A tidal

  14. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p'-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderaterized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  15. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  16. The sedimentary record of climatic and anthropogenic influence on the Patuxent estuary and Chesapeake Bay ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Vann, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    Ecological and paleoecological studies from the Patuxent River mouth reveal dynamic variations in benthic ostracode assemblages over the past 600 years due to climatic and anthropogenic factors. Prior to the late 20th century, centennial-scale changes in species dominance were influenced by climatic and hydrological factors that primarily affected salinity and at times led to oxygen depletion. Decadal-scale droughts also occurred resulting in higher salinities and migration of ostracode species from the deep channel (Loxoconcha sp., Cytheromorpha newportensis) into shallower water along the flanks of the bay. During the 19th century the abundance of Leptocythere nikraveshae and Perissocytheridea brachyforma suggest increased turbidity and decreased salinity. Unprecedented changes in benthic ostracodes at the Patuxent mouth and in the deep channel of the bay occurred after the 1960s when Cytheromorpha curta became the dominant species, reflecting seasonal anoxia. The change in benthic assemblages coincided with the appearance of deformities in foraminifers. A combination of increased nitrate loading due to greater fertilizer use and increased freshwater flow explains this shift. A review of the geochemical and paleoecological evidence for dissolved oxygen indicates that seasonal oxygen depletion in the main channel of Chesapeake Bay varies over centennial and decadal timescales. Prior to 1700 AD, a relatively wet climate and high freshwater runoff led to oxygen depletion but rarely anoxia. Between 1700 and 1900, progressive eutrophication occurred related to land dearance and increased sedimentation, but this was superimposed on the oscillatory pattern of oxygen depletion most likely driven by climatological and hydrological factors. It also seems probable that the four- to five-fold increase in sedimentation due to agricultural and timber activity could have contributed to an increased natural nutrient load, likely fueling the early periods (1700-1900) of hypoxla

  17. Radioanalytical assessment of sedimentation rates in Guajara Bay (Amazon Estuary, N Brazil). A study with unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricia Andrade Neves; Paulo Alves de Lima Ferreira; Marcia Caruso Bicego; Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Guajara Bay is an integral part of the Amazon Estuary system, and functions as the main receiver of urban and industrial wastes from the city of Belem, capital city of PA State (N Brazil). There is a lack of knowledge regarding quantitative measures of sedimentation, such as sedimentation rates, in the literature for this area of the Amazon Estuary. This study aimed the evaluation of recent (time range of 100 years) sedimentation rates in three sediment profiles collected in the coastal system of Guajara Bay with a radioanalytical approach of unsupported 210 Pb and 137 Cs modeling. The mean sedimentation rates for the cores obtained were 0.85 ± 0.12 cm year -1 for Anadim core, 1.02 ± 0.17 cm year -1 for Outeiro core and 0.53 ± 0.04 cm year -1 for Tucunduba core. With the use of three models of sedimentation rate models, it was observed that Anadim and Outeiro core presented constant sedimentation rates for the evaluated time range, but Tucunduba did not. This difference in sedimentation rates was probably due to their different sampling locations that present diverse hydrodynamic regime, with deposition of fine sediments in the upper area of the bay and stronger fluvial currents in the southernmost region. (author)

  18. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  19. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Maron, Philippe; Amouroux, David

    2014-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day −1 ) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day −1 ), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day −1 ) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d −1 , in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d −1 ). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d −1 ) may also limit Hg T inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d −1 ). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone. - Highlights:

  20. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  1. Seasonal estimates of DOC standing stocks in Apalachicola Bay estuary: Towards a better understanding using field, ocean color and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Joshi, I.; Osburn, C. L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Ko, D. S.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Arellano, A.; Ward, N.

    2016-12-01

    Apalachicola Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary located in Florida's panhandle, is well known for its water quality and oyster yields. We present the use of combined field and ocean color satellite observations and the outputs of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model to study the influence of physical processes on the distribution and the transport of terrestrially derived CDOM and DOC to shelf waters during the spring and fall of 2015. Determination of DOC stocks were based on the development of a CDOM algorithm (R2 = 0.87, N = 9) for the VIIRS ocean color sensor, and the assessment of CDOM - DOC relationships (R2 = 0.88, N = 13 in March; R2 = 0.83, N = 24 in November) for the Apalachicola Bay. Satellite-derived CDOM and DOC maps together with model-based salinity distributions revealed their spatial extent, sources and transport to the shelf water. Furthermore, strong seasonal influence on DOM distribution in the bay was associated with inputs from Apalachicola and Carrabelle Rivers and the surrounding marshes. Estimates of DOC standing stocks in the bay obtained using ocean color data and high-resolution bathymetry showed relatively higher stocks in November ( 3.71 × 106 kg C, 560 km2) than in March ( 4.07 × 106 kg C, 560 km2) despite lower river discharge in dry season. Results of DOC flux estimates from the bay to coastal waters will also be presented.

  2. Preliminary results on the influence of river discharges on biogeochemical processes in Godavari estuary and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in the following dry seasons. Biological productivity was found to be very high during the retrieval period of the monsoon. These initial results suggest that the Godavari estuary ecosystem is different from what we know of its seasonal variability....

  3. Development of the determination method of rare earth elements in seawater by ICP-MS with an on-line preconcentration column of improved iminodiacetate resin and its application to Tokyo Bay seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneto, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Furuta, Naoki; Furusho, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with an on-line preconcentration column, we used the improved iminodiacetate chelate resin (MetaSEP ME-2) that had a cation-type alkyl group. Its operating conditions were optimized, and the recoveries of REEs and the removal rates of matrix elements were compared with other resins. Ca and Mg were removed more efficiently under a buffer solution of pH 5.0. The removal efficiencies of Ca and Mg using MetaSEP ME-2 were better than those using other resins. We determined REEs in a seawater reference material (NASS-5) with MetaSEP ME-2. The obtained results were in good agreement with the reference values. We applied this method to the determination of REEs in seawater collected from Tokyo Bay, and evaluated the distribution patterns of REEs. Consequently, the positive anomaly of Gd in the small-molecule fraction was observed. The positive anomaly of Gd can be attributed to the outflow of Gd compounds, which are used for a magnetic resonance imaging contrast medium. (author)

  4. Effects of small-scale hydrogeologic heterogeneity on submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) dynamics in river dominated estuaries: example of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, D.; Dimova, N.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is known to be an important pathway for nutrients and dissolved constituents in estuarine environments worldwide. Despite its limited contribution to the total fresh water flux to the ocean (5 - 10 %), SGD-derived material loadings can rival riverine inputs. Therefore, a good understanding of the coastal hydrogeology and subsequent SGD dynamics is crucial to further investigate constituent fluxes and its implications on small and large scale coastal ecosystems. We evaluated SGD in Mobile Bay (Alabama), the fourth largest estuary in the US, using a combination of radiotracer techniques (223Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn), stable isotopes (δ 18O and δ 2H), geophysical surveys (continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)), and seepage meters during three consecutive years. A detailed examination of the entire shoreline of Mobile Bay using CRP, ERT imaging, and multiple sediment cores collection unveiled a heterogeneous (horizontal and vertical) distribution of the surficial coastal aquifer. This was reflected and confirmed by groundwater tracer measurements and direct measurements of SGD in the coastal zone. We found that SGD occurs mainly in the northeast section of Mobile Bay with a total flux that ranged between 0.9 and 13 × 105 m3 d-1 during dry and wet periods, which represents 0.4 - 2 % of the total fresh water inputs into the Bay. While total SGD is insignificant when accounting the whole water budget of Mobile Bay, we found that small-scale geology variations produce groundwater flow preferential pathways in particular areas where SGD inputs play an important role in the water and nutrient budgets.

  5. Some Ecological characteristics with Special Reference to Heavy Metals of Two Estuaries of the North-East Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruk, A. S. M.; Das, N. G.; Saha, S. B.; Zaher, M.

    2007-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics with the emphasis on load of heavy metals of the low tide water of Bakkhali river estuary and Naf river estuary were evaluated. Both the lotic environments were alkaline in nature and the levels in alkalinity were sufficient enough to support primary productivity. But the high concentration of suspended solids may impair primary productivity. The respective concentration of dissolved Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr and Cd of Bakkhali river estuary was 22.12∼45.20 μg l -1 , 75.23∼105.00 μg l -1 , 130.42∼580.61 μg l -1 , 130.25∼186.76 μg l -1 , 4.21∼11.10 μg l -1 , and 1.51∼2.00 μg l -1 , and that of Naf river estuary was 28.64∼40.64 μg l -1 , 64.28∼135.70 μg l -1 , 234.16∼425.56 μg l -1 , 22.12∼45.20 μg l -1 , 158.83∼203.08 μg l -1 , 8.20∼14.6045.20 μg l -1 , and 1.25∼1.98μg l -1 . Real indication of multicollinearity existed among different metals of naf river estuary. Considering the physicochemical characteristics and concentrations of heavy metals, low tide water of Naf rever estuary can be considered better in regard to pollution than that of Bakkhali river estuary.(author)

  6. Levels and ages of selenium and metals in sedimentary cores of Ise Bay as determined by 210-Pb dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Chikuma, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Ise Bay is connected with estuaries of Nagoya harbor which is one of the most active industrial areas in Japan. Nagoya harbor estuaries are recipient of a large quantity of municipal and industrial discharge. The land boundaries of estuaries are sites of the manufacturing industries and they are utilized by oil tankers and cargo vessels. Accumulation of various kinds of metal such as selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and chromium have occurred in sediments for many years. The authors have carried out an extensive investigation on the selenium pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries. The input of selenium to Ise Bay has occurred ever since the industrial activity was established in Nagoya city. Investigators have reported the sedimentary record of metals of Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Seto Inland Sea. Some investigators reported the pollution caused by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in sediments of Ise Bay, but did not mention metals. The authors determined metals including selenium in sedimentary core samples. The ages of those samples were already estimated by 210-Pb dating technique

  7. The distribution and speciation of trace metals in surface sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and the Daya Bay, Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujuan; Yan Yan; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the Daya Bay (DYB) were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical phase partitioning. The total concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the PRE were obviously higher than those in DYB. The maximum concentrations of trace metals in DYB occurred in the four sub-basins, especially in Dapeng Cove, while the concentrations of these metals in the western side of the PRE were higher than those in the east side. Such distribution pattern was primarily due to the different hydraulic conditions and inputs of anthropogenic trace metals. The chemical partitioning of metals analyzed by the BCR sequential extraction method showed that Cr, Ni, and Zn of both areas were present dominantly in the residual fraction, while Pb was found mostly in the non-residual fractions. The partitioning of Cu showed a significant difference between the two areas.

  8. Assessing toxicant effects in a complex estuary--A case study of effects of silver on reproduction in the bivalve, Potamocurbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia L.; Parchaso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminant exposures in natural systems can be highly variable. This variability is superimposed upon cyclic variability in biological processes. Together, these factors can confound determination of contaminant effects. Long term, multidisciplined studies with high frequency sampling can be effective in overcoming such obstacles. While studying trace metal contamination in the tissues of the clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in the northern reach of San Francisco Bay, an episode of high Ag concentrations was identified (maximum of 5.5 µg g−1) at two mid-estuary sites. High concentrations were not seen in clams up-estuary (maximum of 1.92 µg g−1) from these sites and were reduced down-estuary (maximum of 2.67 µg g−1). Silver is not common naturally in the environment, so its elevated presence is usually indicative of anthropogenic influences such as municipal and industrial discharge. Monthly sampling of reproductive status of clams characterized the reproductive cycle and differences in the patterns of reproductive activity that corresponded to changes in Ag tissue concentrations. The proportion of reproductive clams was less than 60% during periods when tissue concentrations were high (generally >2 µg g−1). When tissue concentrations of Ag decreased (≤1 µg g−1), the proportion of reproductive clams was 80 to 100%. A comparison between the annual proportion of reproductive clams and annual Ag tissue concentrations showed a significant negative correlation. No other measured environmental variables were correlated with reproductive impairment. The weight-of-evidence approach strongly supports a cause and effect relationship between Ag contamination and reduced reproductive activity in P. amurensis.

  9. Assessing toxicant effects in a complex estuary: A case study of effects of silver on reproduction in the bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.L.; Parchaso, F.; Thompson, J.K.; Luoma, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminant exposures in natural systems can be highly variable. This variability is superimposed upon cyclic variability in biological processes. Together, these factors can confound determination of contaminant effects. Long term, multidisciplined studies with high frequency sampling can be effective in overcoming such obstacles. While studying trace metal contamination in the tissues of the clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in the northern reach of San Francisco Bay, an episode of high Ag concentrations was identified (maximum of 5.5 ??g g-1) at two mid-estuary sites. High concentrations were not seen in clams up-estuary (maximum of 1.92 ??g g-1) from these sites and were reduced down-estuary (maximum of 2.67 ??g g-1). Silver is not common naturally in the environment, so its elevated presence is usually indicative of anthropogenic influences such as municipal and industrial discharge. Monthly sampling of reproductive status of clams characterized the reproductive cycle and differences in the patterns of reproductive activity that corresponded to changes in Ag tissue concentrations. The proportion of reproductive clams was less than 60% during periods when tissue concentrations were high (generally >2 ??g g-1). When tissue concentrations of Ag decreased (???1 ??g g-1), the proportion of reproductive clams was 80 to 100%. A comparison between the annual proportion of reproductive clams and annual Ag tissue concentrations showed a significant negative correlation. No other measured environmental variables were correlated with reproductive impairment. The weight-of-evidence approach strongly supports a cause and effect relationship between Ag contamination and reduced reproductive activity in P. amurensis.

  10. An integrated evaluation of molecular marker indices and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) to measure sewage input in a subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, César C.; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Barbosa-Cintra, Scheyla C.T.; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L.; Souza, Fernanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Babitonga Bay is a South Atlantic estuary with significant ecological function; it is part of the last remaining areas of mangrove communities in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of the faecal sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments and to perform an integrated evaluation of several molecular marker indices to assess the sewage contamination status in the study area. The highest observed concentrations of faecal sterols (coprostanol + epicoprostanol) and LABs were 6.65 μg g −1 and 413.3 ng g −1 , respectively. Several faecal sterol indices were calculated and correlated with coprostanol levels; these analyses showed that the index limits presented in the current literature could underestimate the sewage contamination in this study area. For the overall estuarine system, a low sewage impact may be assumed based on the low total mass inventories calculated for coprostanol (between 1.4% and 4.8%). - Highlights: • Sewage contamination in a South Atlantic estuary was confirmed by molecular markers. • Faecal sterol indices were established as indicators of sewage contamination. • Estimates of the total mass inventory of coprostanol and LABs are presented. • Faecal sterols are preferable to LABs for the evaluation of sewage inputs in this study area. - Faecal sterols index limits has been established to a subtropical environment as way to ensure reliability for a more precise assessment of sewage contamination

  11. Characterizing the parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay and northern South China Sea: Influence of riverine input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ke; Wang, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Zou, Shichun; Li, Yan; Yang, Qingshu; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    Distributions of 31 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 29 alkyl PAHs in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), Daya Bay (DYB) and northern South China Sea (SCS) were examined to study the influence of riverine input. It was found that the contributions of riverine input to sediment PAHs in PRE was much higher than other areas. However, higher proportion of alkyl PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs in DYB and the northern SCS was observed, indicating their different sources. Nevertheless, the sediment PAHs in PRE were heterogeneous and affected by the hydrodynamic conditions. The high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in PRE and enriched in the depositional area of suspended particular matter (SPM). Moreover, the concentration of PAHs in SPM was similar to those in surface sediments and dominated in water columns. Therefore, SPM played a very important role in transportation and distribution of PAHs in PRE. - Highlights: • EPA 16 PAHs contributed a small amount of total PAHs. • Alkyl PAHs showed different behaviors from parent PAHs. • High weight PAHs preferably indicated riverine input. • PAHs distribution in sediment was related with the suspended particle deposition. - Suspended particular matter played a very important role in distribution of PAHs in tide-dominated estuary and alkyl PAHs showed different behavior from parent PAHs

  12. Tampa Bay as a model estuary for examining the impact of human activities on biogeochemical processes: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Baskaran, Mark; Henderson, Carl S.; Yates, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a shallow, Y-shaped coastal embayment that is located along the center of the Florida Platform – an expansive accumulation of Cretaceous–Tertiary shallow-water carbonates and evaporites that were periodically exposed during glacio–eustatic sea level fluctuations. As a consequence, extensive karstification likely had a controlling impact on the geologic evolution of Tampa Bay. Despite its large aerial size (∼ 1000 km2), Tampa Bay is relatively shallow (mean depth = 4 m) and its watershed (6700 km2) is among the smallest in the Gulf of Mexico. About 85% of all freshwater inflow (mean = 63 m3 s-1) to the bay is carried by four principal tributaries (Orlando et al., 1993). Groundwater makes up an important component of baseflow of these coastal streams and may also be important in delivering nutrients and other constituents to the bay proper by submarine groundwater discharge.

  13. Morphodynamic evolution of Laida beach (Oka estuary, Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve, southeastern Bay of Biscay) in response to supratidal beach nourishment actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ganuzas, M.; Gainza, J.; Liria, P.; Epelde, I.; Uriarte, A.; Garnier, R.; González, M.; Nuñez, P.; Jaramillo, C.; Medina, R.

    2017-12-01

    Laida beach, located at the Oka estuary mouth (Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve) in the southeastern region of the Bay of Biscay, suffered the impact of a severe succession of storms during the first months of 2014. As a result of the erosion induced by these events, the beach lost its supratidal zone almost completely. The absence of a supratidal beach generated an impact on the recreational use of the beach during the summer 2014, and represented a potential impact for the coming summer 2015. Furthermore, it resulted in an overexposure and damage of adjacent infrastructures due to impinging strong waves. Therefore, the competent authorities, in coordination, decided to take action in order to nourish the supratidal zone of this beach. The solution adopted combined two different actions. The first one accomplished in spring of 2015, consisted in the mobilization of 44,800 m3 of sand from an area of 35,200 m2 equal to the 7% of the intertidal zone of Laida beach interpreted as the existing surface between the average low and high tidal limits, to the zone next to the eastern rocky beach contour. This action successfully resulted in an increase of the supratidal beach for the entire summer 2015 without negatively perturbing the morphological system. The second action was somewhat experimental and consisted in the mechanical plough of the previously existing intertidal low-amplitude ridges with the aim of increasing the sand transport toward the supratidal beach. Although this action did not lead to the increase of the supratidal beach, it seems to have resulted in an acceleration of the natural onshore migration of the bars. The objective of this contribution is to describe the morphodynamical response of the estuarine mouth after the performed actions with special emphasis on the evolution of extracted sites and the supratidal Laida beach area. The information here presented represents an innovative step in the understanding of the complex mechanisms driving the

  14. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  15. The Tokyo axion helioscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, R.; Akimoto, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.; Mizumoto, T.; Moriyama, S.; Namba, T.; Takasu, Y.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tokyo Axion Helioscope experiment aims to detect axions which are produced in the solar core. The helioscope uses a strong magnetic field in order to convert axions into X-ray photons and has a mounting to follow the sun very accurately. The photons are detected by an X-ray detector which is made of 16 PIN-photodiodes. In addition, a gas container and a gas regulation system are adopted for recovering the coherence between axions and photons in the conversion region giving sensitivity to axions with masses up to 2 eV. In this paper, we report on the technical detail of the Tokyo Axion Helioscope.

  16. Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

  17. Principles and concepts in designing tropical-shore settlement in estuary ecosystem, case study: Weriagar District, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah; Nidia Kusuma, Bintang; Prayuni, Ira; Fernando, Aldo

    2017-12-01

    Weriagar District is located in estuary area and is prone to land loss, due to river and coastal erosion. This paper will describe about tropical-shore settlement design and house design in estuary area. The results from analysis phase shows that it's necessary to design a house and settlement that can fulfil the needs of indigenous people, both functionally and aesthetically. Functionally, the house is designed to provide spaces for both private and public needs of the family. It can be used either as a family private space or as a public gathering space between family and their neighbours. Aesthetically, house’ architectural form is designed into that identifies the locality of Weriagar District. The houses’ design feature highlighted in using local material, rainwater harvesting system, high pitched roof feature as response to hot-humid climate, and elevated-floor feature as response to tidal condition in estuary area. The houses design also considered daily activity pattern and community culture, including appropriate structure, construction, and material availability. The expected result was that the settlement improvement and house design would meet suitable standards and needs of inhabitants in Weriagar District.

  18. Alterations in the organic carbon pool recorded in sediments of Guanabara Bay, Brazil, a fertilized tropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, R.S.; Kalas, F.A.; Santos, E.S.; Lima, A.L.; Godoy, J.M.; Wagener, A.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    We designed a core project in Guanabara Bay aimed at studying the possible anthropogenic impact on early diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter deposited in this system over the last century. The basic approach has been to look for the molecular, elemental (C, N and P) and isotopic compositions of organic matter in order to obtain the necessary information. The present work presents data on C, P and isotopic composition of organic matter, as well as the results of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sedimentation rates and humic acids so far obtained for cores collected at several stations in the bay

  19. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  20. Comparative analysis of long-term chlorophyll data with generalized additive model - San Francisco Bay and St. Lucie Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of estuarine ecosystems is often influenced by hydraulic and nutrient loading from upstream watersheds. We examined four decades of monitoring data of nutrient export into the Indian River Lagoon and San Francisco Bay, both of which have received considerable attentio...

  1. Leven estuary project. Fisheries Department final report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    This is the report on the Leven estuary project: Fisheries Department final report produced by the Environment Agency North West in 1997. This report contains information about Leven estuary, river Leven catchment, river Crake catchment and the Ulverston Discharges. The Leven estuary is characterised by being very shallow, and shares the extremely variable tides and currents that characterize the whole of Morecambe Bay. There was little detailed knowledge of the impact on the Leven estuary, a...

  2. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  3. Levels of chromium contamination in the estuary of the Iraja river (Guanabara Bay) and experimental incorporation of 51Cr in barnacles (Balanus sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerelt, M.D.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Levels were determined of chromium contamination in the estuary of Iraja River, produced by an electroplating industry located 3 km upstream the study area. Uptake-and release kinetics of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in barnacles (Balanus sp.) were studied. Samples of barnacles and suspended particles from Guanabara Bay were analysed. Chromium concentrations (dry weight) ranged from not detectable (ND) to 154,66 μg/g for soft tissues and from ND to 423,76 μg/g for suspended particles. Mean of maximum concentrations of chromium in samples from Guanabara Bay are 3 and 4 times above those of identical samples from control area (Coroa Grande). Soft tissues presented a concentration factor (CF) of 10 3 related to chromium available in suspended particles. 51 Cr(VI) is preferentiably incorparated by soft tissues (biological half life being 100 days). Chromium uptake by Balanus sp from solution is as significant as it is from particulate matter available in sea water from experimental sets. CF for Cr(VI) in soft tissues in laboratory conditions was 10 2 related to 51 Cr present in sea water. Environmental chromium contamination was found to be of the same order of magnitude or above levels reported for other areas subjected to industrial impacts. Barnacles appear to be able to accumulate chromium in soft tissues from the available metal in the environment. Cr(VI) is the critical form, being greatly accumulated in soft tissues of barnacles, that act as a long-term integrator of this metal. For Cr(III), this organism can only be regarded as an instantaneous indicator of environmental contamination of chromium attached to suspended particles. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Agricultural Chemical Concentrations and Loads in Rivers Draining the Central Valley, California, to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Before and During an Extended Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drought or near drought conditions have occurred in California since 2012. Although some parts of the State received near normal precipitation in water year 2016, other locations were still below average. Extended drought can impact aquatic organisms in a variety of ways because of decreased flows and elevated water temperature. However, lower precipitation and availability of irrigation water may limit subsequent runoff, resulting in reduced concentrations and loads of certain environmental toxicants, such as pesticides and ammonia, thereby limiting their toxic effects. In this study, funded by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Program, the occurrence of 227 pesticides and degradation products, and nutrients was assessed before and during this current drought in the two largest rivers draining to the San Francisco Bay: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The watersheds of both rivers include substantial agricultural and urban land use. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and ammonia were detected throughout the study (2010 to 2016) and models of daily concentration using the seasonal wave model (rloadest) were formulated to assess the amount of time that concentrations may have exceeded benchmark levels known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Frequently detected pesticides included the fungicide azoxystrobin, herbicides or their degradation products such as diuron, glyphosate, and metolachlor, and insecticides such as imidacloprid. Compounds that are transported primarily by surface runoff generally showed decreasing concentrations as the drought progressed, especially in the San Joaquin River. Compounds mainly transported by groundwater, as indicated by seasonal concentration profiles, had more stable concentrations in the rivers. Mass loads to the Bay all decreased, as expected, because of the lower river discharge. When compared to aquatic-life benchmarks, modeled concentrations indicated that individual compounds were not contributing to

  5. Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons derived from terrestrial and anthropogenic sources in the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was made in Suisun Bay, California, of the distributions of hydrocarbons in estuarine bed and suspended sediments and in the recently introduced asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Sediments and clams were contaminated with hydrocarbons derived from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Distributions of alkanes and of hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments and clams were similar, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons associated with sediments are bioavailable to Potamocorbula amurensis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and clams were derived mainly from combustion sources. Potamocorbula amurensis is therefore a useful bioindicator of hydrocarbon contamination, and may be used as a biomonitor of hydrocarbon pollution in San Francisco Bay.

  6. Flow and nutrient dynamics in a subterranean estuary (Waquoit Bay, MA, USA): Field data and reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Claudette; Slomp, Caroline P.; Charette, Matthew A.; Tuncay, Kagan; Meile, Christof

    2008-07-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) reactive transport model is used to investigate the controls on nutrient ( NO3-, NH4+, PO 4) dynamics in a coastal aquifer. The model couples density-dependent flow to a reaction network which includes oxic degradation of organic matter, denitrification, iron oxide reduction, nitrification, Fe 2+ oxidation and sorption of PO 4 onto iron oxides. Porewater measurements from a well transect at Waquoit Bay, MA, USA indicate the presence of a reducing plume with high Fe 2+, NH4+, DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and PO 4 concentrations overlying a more oxidizing NO3--rich plume. These two plumes travel nearly conservatively until they start to overlap in the intertidal coastal sediments prior to discharge into the bay. In this zone, the aeration of the surface beach sediments drives nitrification and allows the precipitation of iron oxide, which leads to the removal of PO 4 through sorption. Model simulations suggest that removal of NO3- through denitrification is inhibited by the limited overlap between the two freshwater plumes, as well as by the refractory nature of terrestrial DOC. Submarine groundwater discharge is a significant source of NO3- to the bay.

  7. Levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fishes from the Pearl River estuary and Daya Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingli; Qiu Yaowen; Zhang Gan; Zheng, Gene J.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Fifty fish samples were collected from the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and Daya Bay, South China and were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Except the high concentrations of DDT observed in fishes, the concentrations of HCHs, chlordanes and PBDEs were low when compared to other regions. BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener and the BDE-209 concentrations were relatively low, despite its high concentration in surface sediments. The absence of significant increase of DDT, HCH, chlordane and PBDE concentrations towards higher δ 15 N values, as well as the lack of a significant correlation (p 15 N, may indicate a weak biomagnification of these chemicals in the food webs. Good agreement was observed between their concentrations and lipid contents of the organisms. Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms in the studied subtropical waters. - Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms of subtropical waters

  8. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R C; Baliarsingh, S K; Rao B, Srinivasa; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K; Sahu, K C

    2016-10-15

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe>Ni>Mn>Pb>As>Zn>Cr>V>Se>Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe>Mn>Cd>As>Pb>Ni>Cr>Zn>V>Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the role of SGD on the nitrogen budget of the fourth largest estuary in the USA, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, N. T.; Montiel, D.; Lu, Y.; Adyasari, D.

    2017-12-01

    The present study aims to help understand further the importance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to Mobile Bay, Alabama with respect to associated nitrogen (N-) fluxes. Based on a three-year long study we found that on a large scale, when comparing Mobile River discharge to SGD, during the dry season, the SGD flux is only 2.5% of Mobile River discharge, whereas, during the wet season, this contribution is less than 1%. However, when examining the nitrogen budget of MB, we found that during the dry season, SGD delivers about half of the fluxes to the Bay. Furthermore, we found that the distribution of these SGD-derived inputs along the MB shoreline is very heterogeneous. Shallow geophysical electrical resistivity imaging and multiple sediment cores recovered in the examined areas reveal a rich organic sediment layer (up to 80 cm thick at some locations) which is perhaps responsible for the observed enhanced N-fluxes. Ongoing microbial, DOM and stable isotope sediment examination aim to explain the geochemical processes responsible for the disproportionally large SGD-delivered nitrogen fluxes in the identified impacted coastal areas.

  10. Pairing Coral Geochemical Analyses with an Ecosystem Services Model to Assess Drivers and Impacts of Sediment Delivery within Micronesia's Largest Estuary, Ngeremeduu Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D.; Barkdull, M.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific tools assessing impacts to watershed and coastal ecosystem services, like those from land-use land conversion (LULC), are critical for sustainable land management strategies. Small island nations are particularly vulnerable to LULC threats, especially sediment delivery, given their small spatial size and reliance on natural resources. In the Republic of Palau, a small Pacific island country, three major land-use activities—construction, fires, and agriculture— have increased sediment delivery to important estuarine and coastal habitats (i.e., rivers, mangroves, coral reefs) over the past 30 years. This project examines the predictive capacity of an ecosystem services model, Natural Capital Project's InVEST, for sediment delivery using historic land-use and coral geochemical analysis. These refined model projections are used to assess ecosystem services tradeoffs under different future land development and management scenarios. Coral cores (20-41cm in length) were sampled along a high-to-low sedimentation gradient (i.e., near major rivers (high-impact) and ocean (low-impact)) in Micronesia's largest estuary, Ngeremeduu Bay. Isotopic indicators of seasonality (δ18O and δ13C values (% VPDB)) were used to construct the age model for each core. Barium, Manganese, and Yttrium were used as trace metal proxies for sedimentation and measured in each core using a laser ablation ICP-MS. Finally, the Natural Capital Project's InVEST sediment delivery model was paired with Geospatial data to examine the drivers of sediment delivery (i.e., construction, farms and fires) within these two watersheds. A thirty-year record of trace metal to calcium ratios in coral skeletons show a peak in sedimentation during 2006 and 2007, and in 2012. These results suggest historic peaks in sediment delivery correlating to large-scale road construction and support previous findings that Ngeremeduu Bay has reached a tipping point of retaining sediment. Natural Capital's project In

  11. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R.C.; Baliarsingh, S.K.; Srinivasa, Rao B.; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K.; Sahu, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe > Ni > Mn > Pb > As > Zn > Cr > V > Se > Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe > Mn > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > V > Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. - Highlights: • First-hand report on trace metal concentration in zooplankton and seawater covering 2 years from this eco-sensitive region. • In seawater trace metals followed the rank order of Fe > Ni > Mn > Pb > As > Zn > Cr > V > Se > Cd. • In zooplankton the rank order was Fe > Mn > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > V > Se. • The bioaccumulation factor of Fe was highest followed by Zn. • Strong affinity, coexistence, and similar source of trace metals in the study area.

  12. Multi functionele gebouwcomplexen in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijnsbergen, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes eight Multi Uses Complexes in Tokyo. All these buildings combine work, living, leisure and parking. In the first part of the study, there is a historical view of Tokyo concerning the infra-structure of the city. Important is that the city has still the same street pattern

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Cheliff River for discharge into the Bay of Mostaganem, marked by significant space-time variations. In January (24 mg / l, the values of nitrates recorded west of the mouth of Cheliff exceed norms. Ammonium records strong concentrations in January (1.2 mg NH4+/ l and in February (0.8 mg /l. Nitrites such lagging of high contents in January (NO2- 0.99 mg / l and February (NO2- 0.59 mg /l, respectively. The ortho phosphates post a maximum concentration in January (6.6mg PO43-/ l. In addition, the organic matter rate measured in surface water is maximum during periods of flooding especially in January (7.51 mg / l and lowest in the exceptionally dry season in August (2.19 mg / l.

  14. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  15. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  16. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  19. "Ruudi" võitis Tokyos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" (stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe) sai Tokyo 14. lastefilmide festivalil Kodomotachino parima mängufilmi auhinna

  20. Study of Circulation in the Tillamook Bay and the Surrounding Wetland Applying Triple-Nested Models Downscaling from Global Ocean to Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the circulation and water quality in the Tillamook Bay, Oregon, a high-resolution estuarine model that covers the shallow bay and the surrounding wetland has been developed. The estuarine circulation at Tillamook Bay is mainly driven by the tides and the river flows and ...

  1. Food Webs in an Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Barbara B.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on food chains in an estuary. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  2. India and the Tokyo round

    OpenAIRE

    André Sapir; Robert Baldwin

    1983-01-01

    The paper attempts to quantify the gains and the losses for India from the changes in import tariffs decided during the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. The study focuses on exports to the ECCC, Japan, and the US. It is conducted at the tariff line level and uses the actual tariffs resulting from the Tokyo Round. The evaluation is in terms of the static effect of the tariff changes. The results indicate that the gains for India from most-favoured nation tariff cuts far outweigh...

  3. Vulnerability Assessments in Support of the Climate Ready Estuaries Program: A Novel Approach Using Expert Judgement, Volume II: Results for the Massachusetts Bays Program (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) program, the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a report exploring a new methodology fo...

  4. Seasonal effects on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Hooghly estuary, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S K; Biswas, H; De, T K; Sen, S; Jana, T K

    2002-08-01

    Monthly variation of CO2 fugacity (fCO2) in surface water and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in the Hooghly estuary which is one of the most important estuaries, since it is fed by one of the world's largest rivers, the Ganges with a flow of 15,646 m3 s-1 (1.6% of the world's combined river flow). Carbon dioxide fluxes averaged over the entire estuary are in the range of -2.78 to 84.4 mmol m-2 d-1. This estuary acts as a sink for CO2 during monsoon months and seasonal variation of its flux is controlled by dilution of seawater by river water. Since the solubility of CO2 and the disassociation of carbonic acid in estuarine water are controlled by temperature and salinity, the observed variations of CO2 fluxes are compared with those predicted from seasonal changes in temperature, salinity and the ratio of gross primary production to community respiration using empirical equations with an explained variability of 55%.

  5. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  6. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in a large Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, AL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜ 100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  7. Assessment of surface water chemistry and algale biodiversity in the Bay of Mostaganem and the Cheliff estuary: North-western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima kies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have led to water quality deterioration in many parts of the word, especially in Northwest Algeria. The current work investigated the spatiotemporal variations of water quality in the Cheliff River, samples for physico-chemical were performed at different periods from 2004 to 2007, the results chowed that nitrate (NO3- intake is very high especially in the month of February 2006 (26 mg/l and February 2007 (37 mg/l, nitrite (NO2- values also exceed the standard for samples taken at the estuary (and the sea, ie 0.96 mg/l in the month of February 2006 and 0.98 mg/l in April 2007;the Ammonium (NH4+ contributions are due to the River because the value recorded at the estuary (4.22 in February 2006 ;silicate (SiO2 varies greatly depending on the River flow resulting from soil leaching SOUR to the estuary where we see the maximum values of 20.10 mg/l in the month of February 2007 and 19.1 mg/l in March 2005. The recorded values of elements phosphorus (PO4--- are high and very variable from 0.01 to 1.90 mg/l for the River, 0.01- 0.80 mg/l for the estuary and 0- 0.49 mg/l for the sea. The analyzed biological confirmed a total of 41 phytoplankton speciesand31 macroalgae species. So, Aquatic ecosystems are particulury vulnerable to environmental change and many are, at present, severely degraded.

  8. Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, ...

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  11. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in a Eutrophic Gulf of Mexico Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal ...

  12. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  13. Modeling Diel Oxygen Dynamics and Ecosystem Metabolism in a Shallow, Eutrophic Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow eutrophic estuary that exhibits frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and periods of dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation during the day. Diel DO dynamics in shallow estuaries like Weeks Bay are complex, and may be influenced by wind forcing, vertical an...

  14. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  15. The Coastal Dynamics of Heterogeneous Sedimentary Environments: Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Mass Transport in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    Medina, et al. (2006). "The Prestige oil spill in Cantabria (Bay of Biscay). Part I: Operational forecasting system for quick response, risk assessment...estuaries (Kostoglidis, Pattiaratchi et al. 2005), macrotidal estuaries (Yang, Eisma et al. 2000), and estuaries with fringing mangrove swamps...the Atchafalaya Bay system (Cobb, Keen et al. 2008), and Patos Lagoon, Brazil . The model current fields used in the Papua New Guinea study (Keen, Ko

  16. JCI Tokyo convention is held; JCI tokyo taikai wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-10

    For 3 days on 15{approx}17 of Julies, Japan Concrete Inst. (Toyokazu Shiire chairman) held concrete technology annual meeting in the Tokyo big site in Tokyo and Ariake. Various events such as ready-mixed concrete seminar (participant: 562 person), joint seminar with the Korea concrete institute, observation were developed 20th concrete technology lecture (paper the report: 521 case participant real number: 1400 person), 12th concrete fair (exhibit: 95 case attendance number: 10150 person) center on present convention. The opinion in which the party of the first line of various quarters became heated on the direction in which the ready-mixed concrete will ought to advance based on performance definition and internationalization in the ready-mixed concrete seminar in this inside in future was exchanged. Whether it is the JIS ready-mixed concrete and whether quality audit system are necessary why. The severe order of more cheaply supplying the better concrete in the responsibility of the factory, also came out. Within the special lecture (participant: 548 person), it was an interest of the nation who obtained the time too, the fact of the president election that it does secret story especially and comes out happily heard it. In the new planning, 'the concrete which the primary school child makes' (it is introduced in this journal No. 614) was exhibited in the tip in the fair place. The figure of parent and child companion who gazed at the masterpiece which broke through the preliminary in each place was conspicuous. The still, schedule that the annual meeting in next time is held in the Sendai City on July 7{approx}9, 1999. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  20. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  1. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  2. New tomographic images of P- , S- wave velocity and Q on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo: Implication to seismotectonics and seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Keiji; Kimura, Hisanor; Honda, Ryou

    2013-04-01

    The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake in the Tokyo metropolitan region will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) and Q tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo region. Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we interpreted the tomographic images as petrologic images. Tomographic images revealed the presence of two stepwise velocity increase of the top layer of the subducting PSP slab. Rock velocity data reveals that subducting PSP crust transforms from blueschists to amphibolites at depth of 30km and amphibolites to eclogites at depth of 50km, which suggest that dehydration reactions occurs in subducting crust of basaltic compositions during prograde metamorphism and water is released from the subducting PSP crust. Tomograms show evidence for a low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the area just north of Tokyo bay. A Q tomogram show a low Q zone in PSP slab. We interpret the LVZ as a

  3. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  4. Intensive use of an intertidal mudflat by foraging adult American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus in the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Jean LEE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although concerns about harvesting levels of the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus have prompted increased research into its ecology, current understanding of the species’ foraging ecology is mostly limited to mid-Atlantic populations. This study elucidates the spatial and temporal pattern of Limulus foraging on an intertidal mudflat of a northern New England estuary. A novel survey method was used to monitor Limulus foraging activity without disturbing the sediment. A fixed 50 m´2 m transect was monitored with monthly surveys of the number of Limulus feeding pits from June to October 2009, May and June 2010. Snorkelling surveys were also carried out to observe individual behavior and examine the spatial scale of activity of individual animals. Results showed frequent and intensive use of the mudflat by foraging Limulus. Limulus were actively foraging within the survey area during all months surveyed. Foraging patterns exhibited a seasonal pattern with activity levels peaking in August 2009 and increased significantly towards the end of the study in June 2010. It was also shown that Limulus intertidal foraging persisted and peaked after the spring breeding season. Observations of foraging Limulus revealed that individual predators dig multiple pits within a single high tide, with little disturbance to the sediment in between. In addition to altering the perception of Limulus as a subtidal predator outside of the breeding season, findings from this study suggests a segregation of spawning and feeding habitats, thus underscoring the need to consider a wider range of critical habitats in the management of Limulus populations [Current Zoology 56 (5: 611–617, 2010].

  5. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  6. Ecomorphodynamic Response of Foreshore Saltmarsh to the Implementation of Flood and Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation Structures in a Hypertidal Estuary: Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G.; van Proosdij, D.; Ross, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood and erosion mitigations and adaptation structures are often implemented in anthropogenically modified coastal regions, such as dykelands, to protect against coastal hazards. If saltmarshes are to be incorporated into a coastal management plan as a source of coastal defence, it is paramount to understand how ecomorphodynamic feedbacks triggered by implementing these structures can impact saltmarshes. This study examines how these structures, in combination with natural drivers, have precipitated changes in foreshore saltmarsh erosion and progradation rates over varying spatial scales in the hypertidal Minas Basin, located in the upper Bay of Fundy, during the past 80 years. Foreshore change rates (in 25m segments) are obtained using empirical field measurements, geomatics techniques in a geographical information system (GIS), as well as imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, UAV DSMs were used to determine infill rates and short-term sediment budgets in saltmarsh borrow pits. Natural cyclical foreshore change rates are observed in the Minas Basin, but are often augmented by the presence of anthropogenic structures. Erosion and progradation rates in individual transects have been observed to be as much as -14.9m/yr and 20.1m/yr, respectively. In individual saltmarsh communities, average change rates have been observed to be as much -3.4m/yr and 2.1m/yr across the entire foreshore. Furthermore, results suggest that under specific environmental conditions some structures (e.g. kickers) work in tandem with saltmarshes to protect the upland by precipitating ecomorphodynamic feedbacks that promote saltmarsh progradation. Conversely, other structures (e.g. foreshore rocking) can exacerbate natural cycles of erosion, locally. Borrow pit studies reveal that although local suspended sediment concentrations, which can vary from 50mg/l to 50000mg/l, play an integral role in pit sedimentation, channel geometry

  7. Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree: History and Symbolism in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Ysela Mandujano-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tokyo Tower and the Tokyo Skytree are the two most recognizable landmarks on the skyline of Japan’s capital. By means of a documental revision, a textual interpretative analysis of media contents, participant observation and unstructured interviews, the objective of this article is to identify the development of these towers as symbols of Tokyo and Japan. It is found that, with more than half a century of existence, the Tokyo Tower represents the successful post-war Japanese society, while in just five years the Tokyo Skytree has become a symbol of Japanese national spirit and resilience in an era of multiple crises. Both broadcasting towers are regularly portrayed in Japanese media linked to narratives of romance, dreams, family and community. Also, enhanced by their special lightening at night, they stand as attractive backgrounds for locals and visitors in relevant events in their lives.

  8. Habitat Scale Mapping of Fisheries Ecosystem Service Values in Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. O'Higgins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the variability of ecosystem service values at spatial scales most relevant to local decision makers. Competing definitions of ecosystem services, the paucity of ecological and economic information, and the lack of standardization in methodology are major obstacles to applying the ecosystem-services approach at the estuary scale. We present a standardized method that combines habitat maps and habitat-faunal associations to estimate ecosystem service values for recreational and commercial fisheries in estuaries. Three case studies in estuaries on the U.S. west coast (Yaquina Bay, Oregon, east coast (Lagoon Pond, Massachusetts, and the Gulf of Mexico (Weeks Bay, Alabama are presented to illustrate our method's rigor and limitations using available data. The resulting spatially explicit maps of fisheries ecosystem service values show within and between estuary variations in the value of estuarine habitat types that can be used to make better informed resource-management decisions.

  9. Some Challenges of an “Upside Down” Nitrogen Budget – Science and Management in Greenwich Bay, RI (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When nutrients impact estuarine water quality, scientists and managers instinctively focus on quantifying and controlling land-based sources. However, in Greenwich Bay, RI, the estuary opens onto a larger and more intensively fertilized coastal water body (Narragansett Bay). Prev...

  10. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate , part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  11. Temporal variability of macrofauna from a disturbed habitat in Zuari estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.

    of macrofaunal community from Mormugao Bay, Zuari estuary, (Goa) on the west coast of India was examined from 2003 to 2004 at seven stations. Environmental variability was assessed through physicochemical parameters of water and sediment. The changes...

  12. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Bathymetry: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These multi-beam bathymetric data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were...

  13. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  14. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  15. Modelling the transverse distribution of velocity and suspended sediment in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, K.M.H.

    2011-01-01

    An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. Examples are the Western Scheldt River Estuary and the Chesapeake Bay. Within these environments complex

  16. Concentration and Distribution of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants and Metals in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this baseline study of Ukrainian estuaries, sediments and organisms from the Dnieper and Boh estuaries and Danube Delta on the mainland, Sevastopol and Balaklava Bays on the Crimean Peninsula, and coastal Black Sea along the Crimean Peninsula were collected in 2006. Contamina...

  17. Development of an integrated ecosystem model to determine effectiveness of potential watershed management projects on improving Old Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward T. Sherwood; Holly Greening; Lizanne Garcia; Kris Kaufman; Tony Janicki; Ray Pribble; Brett Cunningham; Steve Peene; Jim Fitzpatrick; Kellie Dixon; Mike Wessel

    2016-01-01

    The Tampa Bay estuary has undergone a remarkable ecosystem recovery since the 1980s despite continued population growth within the region. However during this time, the Old Tampa Bay (OTB) segment has lagged behind the rest of the Bay’s recovery relative to improvements in overall water quality and seagrass coverage. In 2011, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, in...

  18. Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  19. Climate Ready Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on climate change impacts to different estuary regions, tools and resources to monitor changes, and information to help managers develop adaptation plans for risk management of estuaries and coastal communities.

  20. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  1. Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in surface seawater around Sagami bay and its vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano-Ohta, T.; Kubota, T.; Mahara, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Sato, J.

    2006-01-01

    Activity ratios of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra in surface seawaters were observed at 5 ports of Izu-Oshima, Ajiro port of Sagami bay and Umizuri park of Tokyo bay. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio in surface seawaters were from 0.2 to 0.7 for Izu-Oshima, from 0.2 to 0.7 for Ajiro port and from 0.6 to 0.8 for Tokyo bay. The activity ratio in surface seawaters of Izu-Oshima and Atami of Sagami bay showed lower in spring and highly in autumn, while narrow variation pattern was observed in Umizuri park of Tokyo bay. The observed variation patterns of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra in surface seawaters at Izu-oshima, Ajiro park and Umizuri park may be reflected by difference of contribution from amount of seawater far off coast with low 228 Ra concentration. (author)

  2. The zooplankton of Mgazana, a mangrove estuary in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    continent. The estuary is in an excellent state of preservation and all three species of mangrove trees which occur south of K.osi Bay (260 54' S) are recorded here (Avicennia marina, Bruguieria gymnorhiza .... of Heron Island a shallow ford or drift occurs where depth may be less than 0,25 m at low tide. Above the island the ...

  3. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  4. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Pilot Phase 2 web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of nature's benefits is difficult to consider in environmental decision-making since ecosystem goods and services are usually not well measured or quantified in economic terms. The Tampa Bay Estuary Program, Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council, the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  5. Evaluating the potential effects of hurricanes on long-term sediment accumulation in two micro-tidal sub-estuaries: Barnegat Bay and Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.

    2016-06-23

    Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a multidisciplinary study of sediment transport and hydrodynamics to understand the mechanisms that govern estuarine and wetland responses to storm forcing. This report details the physical and chemical characteristics of surficial and downcore sediments from two areas within the bay. Eleven sites were sampled in both the central portion of the bay near Barnegat Inlet and in the southern portion of the bay in Little Egg Harbor. Laboratory analyses include Be-7, Pb-210, bulk density, porosity, x-radiographs, and grain-size distribution. These data will serve as a critical baseline dataset for understanding the current sedimentological regime and can be applied to future storms for understanding estuarine and wetland evolution.

  6. Morphodynamics, sedimentary and anthropogenic influences in the San Vicente de la Barquera estuary (North coast of Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    FLOR-BLANCO, G.; FLOR, G.; PANDO, L.; ABANADES, J.

    2015-01-01

    The estuary of San Vicente de la Barquera (Cantabria, Spain) occupies two fluvial valleys that have incised into soft sedimentary rocks (Lower Mesozoic) and are controlled by inactive faults. These two estuary subsystems, the Escudo (main valley) and Gandarilla, share outer estuarine zones, i.e., a sandy bay and an estuary-mouth complex. The complexity of the system lies in the presence of a confining barrier formed by an aeolian dune/ beach system that is currently enclosed by a jetty, which...

  7. Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the

  8. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Candace; Smith, Leslie; Krumholz, Jason; Coupland, Catherine; Stoffel, Heather; Keller, Aimee; McManus, M. Conor; Reed, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Except for the Providence River and side embayments like Greenwich Bay, Narragansett Bay can no longer be considered eutrophic. In summer 2012 managed nitrogen treatment in Narragansett Bay achieved a goal of reducing effluent dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs by over 50%. Narragansett Bay represents a small northeast US estuary that had been heavily loaded with sewage effluent nutrients since the late 1800s. The input reduction was reflected in standing stock nutrients resulting in a statistically significant 60% reduction in concentration. In the Providence River estuary, total nitrogen decreased from 100 μm to about 40 μm, for example. We tested four environmental changes that might be associated with the nitrogen reduction. System apparent production was significantly decreased by 31% and 45% in the upper and mid Bay. Nutrient reductions resulted in statistically improved water clarity in the mid and upper Bay and in a 34% reduction in summer hypoxia. Nitrogen reduction also reduced the winter spring diatom bloom; winter chlorophyll levels after nutrient reduction have been significantly lower than before the reduction. The impact on the Bay will continue to evolve over the next few years and be a natural experiment for other temperate estuaries that will be experiencing nitrogen reduction. To provide perspective we review factors effecting hypoxia in other estuaries with managed nutrient reduction and conclude that, as in Narragansett Bay, physical factors can be as important as nutrients. On a positive note managed nutrient reduction has mitigated further deterioration in most estuaries.

  9. Milwaukee Estuary AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rivers in the Milwaukee estuary in Wisconsin drain into Lake Michigan. Wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows contribute pollution which affects fish and wildlife and recreation.

  10. Evaluating Aquatic Life Benefits of Reducing Nutrient Loading to Remediate Episodic and Diel Cycling Hypoxia in a Shallow Hypereutrophic Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoretical linkages between excess nutrient loading, nutrient-enhanced community metabolism (i.e., production and respiration), and hypoxia in estuaries are well-understood. In seasonally-stratified estuaries and coastal systems (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, northern Gulf of Mexico), h...

  11. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  12. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Middle Bay Lighthouse in Mobile Bay, AL from 05/23/2005 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the University of South Alabama, the Alabama Department of...

  13. TOKYO criteria 2014 for transpapillary biliary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao; Ryozawa, Shomei; Nakai, Yousuke; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to carry out meta-analyses or to compare the results of different studies of biliary stents because there is no uniform evaluation method. Therefore, a standardized reporting system is required. We propose a new standardized system for reporting on biliary stents, the 'TOKYO criteria 2014', based on a consensus among Japanese pancreatobiliary endoscopists. Instead of stent occlusion, we use recurrent biliary obstruction, which includes occlusion and migration. The time to recurrent biliary obstruction was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. We can evaluate both plastic and self-expandable metallic stents (uncovered and covered). We also propose specification of the cause of recurrent biliary obstruction, identification of complications other than recurrent biliary obstruction, indication of severity, measures of technical and clinical success, and a standard for clinical care. Most importantly, the TOKYO criteria 2014 allow comparison of biliary stent quality across studies. Because blocked stents can be drained not only using transpapillary techniques but also by an endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural procedure, we should devise an evaluation method that includes transmural stenting in the near future. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in Shallow Estuaries: The Effects of Source and Transport on Light Attenuation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W. K.; Ganju, N. K.; Pohlman, J.; Suttles, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Light is of great importance to the health and ecological function of shallow estuaries. Primary production in such estuaries, which is typically dominated by seagrass, is contingent upon light penetration to the deeper part of the estuarine water column. A major component contributing to light attenuation in these systems is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is most often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of taking rapid, accurate fDOM measurements. Fluorescence data can then be converted to absorbance by CDOM for use in light attenuation models. However, this fDOM-CDOM conversion has proven to be quite variable between estuaries, and even between sites along a given estuary. We displayed and attempted to explain this variability through the study of three diverse estuaries: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from wastewater treatment to agricultural operations and residential communities. Measurements of fDOM and absorbance by CDOM (quantified via spectrophotometer measurement of 0.2μm-filtered samples) were taken along a gradient from terrestrial to oceanic end-members. These measurements yielded highly variable fDOM-CDOM relationships between estuaries. The mean ratio of absorption coefficient at 340nm (m-1) to fDOM (QSU) was much higher in West Falmouth Harbor (0.874) than in Barnegat Bay (0.227) and Chincoteague Bay (0.173). This fDOM-CDOM relationship was also observed to be variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent throughout sites along Chincoteague Bay. This variability, both within and between estuaries, is likely due to differing CDOM sources as a result of differences in land use in the areas surrounding these estuaries. Stable carbon isotope analysis of DOC from each site and hydrodynamic model results will be used to differentiate sources and further elucidate the

  15. Tokyo XX videofestival ja kohtumine Suure Hiirega / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    JVC Tokyo XX videofestivalist. Peapreemia Jon Alpertile dokumentaalse videoga "Life of Crime : Deleris's Sad Story". R. Kelomehe videost "Maja". Interaktiivse kunsti muuseumist ICC (Inter Communication Center) Tokyo Opera Citys. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 72-75

  16. Instrument packages to study long-term sediment transport processes in a shallow bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Martini, Marinna A.; Davis, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure and near-surface and near-bottom measurements of current, temperature, salinity and light transmission were required in Mobile Bay, a 3 m deep estuary on the Gulf of Mexico. This environment presented several obstacles to obtaining long term observations. Boat traffic, soft estuary bottom, heavy biofouling, rapid sample rates and large data storage were overcome by using instrumentation techniques that are applicable to other estuary systems. Nearly two years of continuous data was collected.

  17. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  18. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  19. Corroborating a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo from historical intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R.; Toda, S.

    2006-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past observations of shaking. For this we analyzed 10,000 intensity observations recorded during AD 1600-2000 in a 350 x 350 km area centered on Tokyo in a Geographic Information System. A frequency-intensity curve is found for each 5 x 5 km cell, and from this the probability of exceeding any intensity level can be estimated. The principal benefits of this approach is that it builds the fewest possible assumptions into a probabilistic seismic forecast, it includes site and source effects without imposing this behavior, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The cost is that we must abandon any attempt to make a time-dependent forecast, which could be quite different. We believe the method is suitable to many applications of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and to other regions. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA>=6 shaking (roughly equivalent to PGA>=0.9 g or MMI=IX-X) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba, the range reflecting spatial variability and curve-fitting alternatives. The strongest shaking is forecast along the margins of Tokyo Bay, within the river sediments extending northwest from Tokyo, and at coastal sites near the plate boundary faults. We also produce long- term exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and short-term hazard maps associated with hypothetical catastrophe bonds. Our results for greater Tokyo resemble our independent Poisson probability developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis, as well as

  20. Keurbooms Estuary floods and sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart H. Schumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Keurbooms Estuary at Plettenberg Bay lies on a wave-dominated, microtidal coast. It has a dune-topped sandy barrier, or barrier dune, almost 4 km long, with a narrow back-barrier lagoon connected to its source rivers, the Keurbooms and Bitou. The estuary exits to the sea through this barrier dune, and it is the geomorphology and mouth position in relation to floods, which is the subject of this paper. Measurements of rainfall, water level, waves and high- and low-tide water lines were used to analyse the mouth variability over the years 2006–2012. Two major floods occurred during this time, with the first in November 2007 eroding away more than 500 000 m3 of sediment. The new mouth was established at the Lookout Rocks limit – the first time since 1915. The second flood occurred in July 2012 and opened up a new mouth about 1 km to the north-east; high waves also affected the position of the breach. The mouth has a tendency to migrate southwards against the longshore drift, but at any stage this movement can be augmented or reversed. The effectiveness of floods in breaching a new mouth through the barrier dune depends on the flood size and the nature of the exit channel in the back-barrier lagoon. Other factors such as ocean waves, sea level, vegetative state of the dune and duration of the flood are also important and can determine where the breach occurs, and if the new mouth will dominate the old mouth.

  1. Penobscot Estuary (Maine) Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's NEFSC collects fisheries data from the Penobscot Estuary using several types of fishing gear. The data is used to determine species presence, relative...

  2. IMPORTANCE OF "GREEN TIDES" IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY: PRODUCTION DYNAMICS OF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA), DWARF EELGRASS (Z. JAPONICA) AND ENTEROMORPHA SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrophytes play a large role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of estuaries. I examine the relative contribution of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) to overall productivity of a macrotidal system. Biomass data from Yaquina Bay suggests that although these seagras...

  3. Nuclear Human Resource Development in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satio, Masaki; Igashira, Masayuki; Obara, Toru; Kikura, Hironari; Kawahara, Akira; Ujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education has been initiated in 1957 at the graduate school of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Higher Educational activities have been conducted for more than half century. More than 1000 Master students and 200 Doctoral students graduated from the Department of Nuclear Engineering in Tokyo Institute if Technology. Many of them are working in nuclear industries and institutes. International course of nuclear engineering was initiated in 1994, and 130 students from 20 overseas countries have graduated from Master and Doctoral Programs. In the present paper, the current nuclear educational activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology are summarized

  4. Solidarity and the city: The case of modern Tokyo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    is that of architecture. Architects have more than any other profession worked on, and with, the urban condition theoretically as well as practically and solution-oriented. Returning Japanese architects have been confronted with the art of rebuilding cities from the bottom, not least in the case of Tokyo . The second...... day’s Tokyo is marked by a non-visible hidden order of this historical era. It is an order that opens for methodological strategies to make possible the empirical understanding of urban society as emergent reality. They go for learning from Tokyo with a historical privilege to particular ideas...

  5. Estuary-ocean connectivity: fast physics, slow biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Cloern, James E

    2017-06-01

    Estuaries are connected to both land and ocean so their physical, chemical, and biological dynamics are influenced by climate patterns over watersheds and ocean basins. We explored climate-driven oceanic variability as a source of estuarine variability by comparing monthly time series of temperature and chlorophyll-a inside San Francisco Bay with those in adjacent shelf waters of the California Current System (CCS) that are strongly responsive to wind-driven upwelling. Monthly temperature fluctuations inside and outside the Bay were synchronous, but their correlations weakened with distance from the ocean. These results illustrate how variability of coastal water temperature (and associated properties such as nitrate and oxygen) propagates into estuaries through fast water exchanges that dissipate along the estuary. Unexpectedly, there was no correlation between monthly chlorophyll-a variability inside and outside the Bay. However, at the annual scale Bay chlorophyll-a was significantly correlated with the Spring Transition Index (STI) that sets biological production supporting fish recruitment in the CCS. Wind forcing of the CCS shifted in the late 1990s when the STI advanced 40 days. This shift was followed, with lags of 1-3 years, by 3- to 19-fold increased abundances of five ocean-produced demersal fish and crustaceans and 2.5-fold increase of summer chlorophyll-a in the Bay. These changes reflect a slow biological process of estuary-ocean connectivity operating through the immigration of fish and crustaceans that prey on bivalves, reduce their grazing pressure, and allow phytoplankton biomass to build. We identified clear signals of climate-mediated oceanic variability in this estuary and discovered that the response patterns vary with the process of connectivity and the timescale of ocean variability. This result has important implications for managing nutrient inputs to estuaries connected to upwelling systems, and for assessing their responses to changing

  6. Understanding the fate of iron in a modern temperate estuary: Leirarvogur, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Gemma M.; Worden, Richard H.; Hodgson, David M.; Polya, David A.; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Barrie, Craig D.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fluvial Fe (aq) and Fe (total) concentrations drop upon mixing with seawater in estuaries. → The majority of Fe in estuaries is lost in the bay-head delta. → Our results suggest that the bay-head delta is a key location in Fe-mineral formation. → Isotopic variation in estuarine waters may play a role in the formation of Fe-minerals. - Abstract: Fluvial dissolved Fe concentrations decrease upon mixing with seawater, resulting in the formation of Fe-floccules. However, a clear understanding of the fate of these floccules has yet to be established. Assessing how tidal processes affect the formation of Fe-colloids in the Leirarvogur estuary, SW Iceland, is an important step in understanding the formation and potential deposition of estuarine Fe-rich minerals within this estuarine system. The Leirarvogur estuary drains predominately Fe-rich basalt, increasing the likelihood of detecting changes in Fe-phases. Fluvial waters and local lake waters that drain into the estuary were compared and the effects of seasonal changes were considered, in an attempt to understand how varying end-members and external factors play a role in Fe-rich mineral formation. Aqueous and colloidal Fe concentrations were found to be greater towards the head of the Leirarvogur estuary, suggesting that potential Fe-rich minerals and complexes are forming at sites of fluvial input. Increasing suspended colloidal Fe towards the estuary mouth suggests that Fe-colloids are readily transported seaward.

  7. Impact of climate change on Gironde estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborie, Vanessya; Hissel, Francois; Sergent, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Within the THESEUS European project, a simplified mathematical model for storm surge levels in the Bay of Biscay was adjusted on 10 events at Le Verdon using wind and pressure fields from CLM/SGA, so that the water levels at Le Verdon have the same statistic quantiles as observed tide records for the period [1960-2000]. A numerical model of the Gironde Estuary was used to evaluate future water levels at 6 locations of the estuary from Le Verdon to Bordeaux and to assess the changes in the quantiles of water levels during the 21. century using ONERC's pessimistic scenario for sea level rise (60 cm). The analysis of future storm surge levels shows a decrease in their quantiles at Le Verdon,, whereas there is an increase of the quantiles of total water levels. This increase is smaller than the sea level rise and gets even smaller as one enters farther upstream in the estuary. A series of flood maps for different return periods between 2 and 100 years and for four time periods ([1960-1999], [2010-2039], [2040-2069] and [2070-2099]) have been built for the region of Bordeaux. Quantiles of water levels in the flood plain have also been calculated. The impact of climate change on the evolution of flooded areas in the Gironde Estuary and on quantiles of water levels in the flood plain mainly depends on the sea level rise. Areas which are not currently flooded for low return periods will be inundated in 2100. The influence of river discharges and dike breaching should also be taken into account for more accurate results. (authors)

  8. Impact of climate change on Gironde Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Vanessya; Hissel, François; Sergent, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Within the THESEUS European project, a simplified mathematical model for storm surge levels in the Bay of Biscay was adjusted on 10 events at Le Verdon using wind and pressure fields from CLM/SGA, so that the water levels at Le Verdon have the same statistic quantiles as observed tide records for the period [1960-2000]. The analysis of future storm surge levels shows a decrease in their quantiles at Le Verdon, whereas there is an increase of the quantiles of total water levels. This increase is smaller than the sea level rise and gets even smaller as one enters farther upstream in the estuary. A numerical model of the Gironde Estuary was then used to evaluate future water levels at 6 locations of the estuary from Le Verdon to Bordeaux and to assess the changes in the quantiles of water levels during the XXIst century using ONERC's pessimistic scenario for sea level rise (60 cm). The model was fed by several data sources : wind fields at Royan and Mérignac interpolated from the grid of the European Climatolologic Model CLM/SGA, a tide signal at Le Verdon, the discharges of Garonne (at La Réole), the Dordogne (at Pessac) and Isle (at Libourne). A series of flood maps for different return periods between 2 and 100 years and for four time periods ([1960-1999], [2010-2039], [2040-2069] and [2070-2099]) have been built for the region of Bordeaux. Quantiles of water levels in the floodplain have also been calculated. The impact of climate change on the evolution of flooded areas in the Gironde Estuary and on quantiles of water levels in the floodplain mainly depends on the sea level rise. Areas which are not currently flooded for low return periods will be inundated in 2100. The influence of river discharges and dike breaching should also be taken into account for more accurate results.

  9. About Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions.

  10. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  11. From headwaters to coast: Influence of human activities on water quality of the Potomac River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Suzanne B.; Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, Owen P.

    2014-01-01

    The natural aging process of Chesapeake Bay and its tributary estuaries has been accelerated by human activities around the shoreline and within the watershed, increasing sediment and nutrient loads delivered to the bay. Riverine nutrients cause algal growth in the bay leading to reductions in light penetration with consequent declines in sea grass growth, smothering of bottom-dwelling organisms, and decreases in bottom-water dissolved oxygen as algal blooms decay. Historically, bay waters were filtered by oysters, but declines in oyster populations from overfishing and disease have led to higher concentrations of fine-sediment particles and phytoplankton in the water column. Assessments of water and biological resource quality in Chesapeake Bay and tributaries, such as the Potomac River, show a continual degraded state. In this paper, we pay tribute to Owen Bricker’s comprehensive, holistic scientific perspective using an approach that examines the connection between watershed and estuary. We evaluated nitrogen inputs from Potomac River headwaters, nutrient-related conditions within the estuary, and considered the use of shellfish aquaculture as an in-the-water nutrient management measure. Data from headwaters, nontidal, and estuarine portions of the Potomac River watershed and estuary were analyzed to examine the contribution from different parts of the watershed to total nitrogen loads to the estuary. An eutrophication model was applied to these data to evaluate eutrophication status and changes since the early 1990s and for comparison to regional and national conditions. A farm-scale aquaculture model was applied and results scaled to the estuary to determine the potential for shellfish (oyster) aquaculture to mediate eutrophication impacts. Results showed that (1) the contribution to nitrogen loads from headwater streams is small (about 2 %) of total inputs to the Potomac River Estuary; (2) eutrophic conditions in the Potomac River Estuary have improved in

  12. Diversidade e abundância sazonal da avifauna em duas planícies de maré no estuário da baía da Babitonga, norte de Santa Catarina Diversity and abundance of birds in two tidal flat in Babitonga Bay estuary, north of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Grose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a ocorrência de aves nos ambientes estuarinos de Santa Catarina ainda são escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a diversidade, abundância e variação sazonal das aves em duas planícies de maré na baía da Babitonga. As amostragens foram realizadas durante um ano (maio de 2006 a abril 2007. No total foram identificadas 25 espécies, sendo 15 no Linguado (LG e 24 na desembocadura do Monte de Trigo (MT. Apenas uma espécie foi exclusiva no LG Himantopus melanurus (Vieillot, 1817, enquanto dez espécies ocorreram apenas no MT. O número de espécies em MT foi superior ao encontrado em LG. A espécie mais abundante em MT foi Rynchops niger (Linnaeus, 1758 e em LG foi Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758. Durante alguns meses foram registradas espécies migratórias neárticas em ambas as áreas, o que representou um acréscimo na diversidade. A extensa planície de maré formada pelo fechamento do canal do Linguado tem sido muito ocupada por aves, possivelmente pela maior disponibilidade de alimento.Information of birds in estuaries of Santa Catarina is scarce. This work aimed to collect data on diversity, abundance and seasonal variation on this community. Sampling of birds in two tidal flats in Babitonga Bay estuary was carried out during one year (May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 25 species were identified, being 15 in Linguado (LG and 24 in Monte de Trigo (MT. Only one species was unique in LG (Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 and 10 in MT. The number of species in MT was higher than in LG due to the conservation condition. The most abundant species on MT was the Black Skimmer [Rynchops niger (Linnaeus, 1758] and in the LG was the Little Blue Heron [Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758]. During some months Nearctic migratory species were recorded in both areas, representing an increase in diversity. The extensive tidal flat formed by the closure of the channel in LG is widely used by birds, possibly because of

  13. Review and synthesis of historical Tampa Bay water quality data. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.; Weisberg, R.; Bendis, B.; Rutherford, E.H.

    1992-11-01

    The review and synthesis of historical water quality data was one of the first characterization projects administered by the Tampa Bay National Estuary Program (NEP). The objective of the project was to describe the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Tampa Bay. The report examines the spatial and temporal trends from the acquired data for possible interrelationships and develops them statistically

  14. Recovery of Data from the Narragansett Bay Project, 1985-1992: User's Manual and CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from the 1985-1992 era of the Narragansett Bay Project, an estuary of the National Estuary Program, were recovered from numerous storage media, updated to modern software, and burned to CD-ROM. The data will be used by, among others, EPA researchers working on long-term tren...

  15. Development of an estuarine assessment scheme for the management of a highly urbanised catchment/estuary system, Sydney estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Gunns, T J; Chapman, D; Harrison, D

    2016-05-01

    As coastal populations increase, considerable pressures are exerted on estuarine environments. Recently, there has been a trend towards the development and use of estuarine assessment schemes as a decision support tool in the management of these environments. These schemes offer a method by which complex environmental data is converted into a readily understandable and communicable format for informed decision making and effective distribution of limited management resources. Reliability and effectiveness of these schemes are often limited due to a complex assessment framework, poor data management and use of ineffective environmental indicators. The current scheme aims to improve reliability in the reporting of estuarine condition by including a concise assessment framework, employing high-value indicators and, in a unique approach, employing fuzzy logic in indicator evaluation. Using Sydney estuary as a case study, each of the 15 sub-catchment/sub-estuary systems were assessed using the current scheme. Results identified that poor sediment quality was a significant issue in Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Iron Cove and Hen and Chicken Bay while poor water quality was of particular concern in Duck River, Homebush Bay and the Parramatta River. Overall results of the assessment scheme were used to prioritise the management of each sub-catchment/sub-estuary assessed with Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Homebush Bay, Iron Cove and Duck River considered to be in need of a high priority management response. A report card format, using letter grades, was employed to convey the results of the assessment in a readily understood manner to estuarine managers and members of the public. Letter grades also provide benchmarking and performance monitoring ability, allowing estuarine managers to set improvement targets and assesses the effectiveness of management strategies. The current assessment scheme provides an effective, integrated and consistent assessment of estuarine health and

  16. Evolution of mid-Atlantic coastal and back-barrier estuary environments in response to a hurricane: Implications for barrier-estuary connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Brian D.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.; Navoy, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of coupled barrier island-estuary storm response are rare. Hurricane Sandy made landfall during an investigation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary that included water quality monitoring, geomorphologic characterization, and numerical modeling; this provided an opportunity to characterize the storm response of the barrier island-estuary system. Barrier island morphologic response was characterized by significant changes in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach volume; morphologic changes within the estuary were less dramatic with a net gain of only 200,000 m3 of sediment. When observed, estuarine deposition was adjacent to the back-barrier shoreline or collocated with maximum estuary depths. Estuarine sedimentologic changes correlated well with bed shear stresses derived from numerically simulated storm conditions, suggesting that change is linked to winnowing from elevated storm-related wave-current interactions rather than deposition. Rapid storm-related changes in estuarine water level, turbidity, and salinity were coincident with minima in island and estuarine widths, which may have influenced the location of two barrier island breaches. Barrier-estuary connectivity, or the transport of sediment from barrier island to estuary, was influenced by barrier island land use and width. Coupled assessments like this one provide critical information about storm-related coastal and estuarine sediment transport that may not be evident from investigations that consider only one component of the coastal system.

  17. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Data Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James

    2004-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that combines the expertise of federal, state and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for the application of integrated research projects in other estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico. Efficient information and data distribution for the Tampa Bay Study has required the development of a Data Information Management System (DIMS). This information system is being used as an outreach management tool, providing information to scientists, decision makers and the public on the coastal resources of the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Analysis of Suspended-Sediment Dynamics in Gulf of Mexico Estuaries Using MODIS/Terra 250-m Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. J.; Otis, D. B.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; Chen, F. R.

    2016-02-01

    Suspended sediments in coastal ecosystems reduce light penetration, degrade water quality, and inhibit primary production. In this study, a 15-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra) turbidity time-series was developed for use in the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 645 nm and 250-m resolution was validated with in-situ turbidity measurements in these estuaries: Coastal Bend Bays (TX), Galveston Bay (TX), Barataria and Terrebonne Bays (LA), Mobile Bay (AL), Tampa Bay (FL), Sarasota Bay (FL), and Charlotte Harbor (FL). Mean values of turbidity over the time-series ranged from 2.5 NTU to over 10 NTU. Turbidity patterns exhibited seasonal cycles with peak values generally found during spring months, although there is considerable variability in the timing of peak turbidity. Episodes of elevated turbidity ranged from 6 episodes in Galveston Bay to 15 in Mobile Bay. The spatial extent of elevated turbidity within estuaries, frequency and duration of turbidity events, and potential driving factors behind episodes of elevated turbidity were also examined.

  20. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  1. Phytoplankton growth, dissipation, and succession in estuarine environments. [Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1976-01-01

    Two major advances in a study of phytoplankton ecology in the Chesapeake Bay are reported. The annual subsurface transport of a dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum mariae labouriae) from the mouth of the bay a distance northward of 120 nautical miles to the region of the Bay Bridge was followed. Prorocentrum is a major seasonal dinoflagellate in the Chespeake Bay and annually has been reported to form mahogany tides, dense reddish-brown patches, in the northern bay beginning in late spring and continuing through the summer. Subsequent to this annual appearance the Prorocentrum spread southward and into the western tributary estuaries. The physiological behavioral characteristics of the Prorocentrum were correlated with the physical water movements in the bay. A phytoplankton cage technique for the measurement in situ of the growth rates of natural mixed populations is described. (CH)

  2. The benthic regeneration of N and P in the Great Brak estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... modification of coastal environments, in particular the rise in inorganic and .... estuary is artificially breached at 2 m mean sea level (MSL) in order to prevent the ...... in a shallow subtropical bay in Florida. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

  3. Nutrient Budgets and Management Actions in the Patuxent River Estuary, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-year nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budgets were developed for the Patuxent River estuary, a seasonally stratified and moderately eutrophic tributary of Chesapeake Bay. Major inputs (point, diffuse, septic and direct atmospheric) were measured for 13 years during which la...

  4. Below the Disappearing Marshes of an Urban Estuary: Historic Nitrogen Trends and Soil Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshes in the urban Jamaica Bay Estuary, New York, USA are disappearing at an average rate of 13 ha/yr, and multiple stressors (e.g., wastewater inputs, dredging activities, groundwater removal, and global warming) may be contributing to marsh losses. Among these stressors, wa...

  5. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  6. Vibracore locations collected in 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In response to the 2010 Governor’s Action Plan to clean up the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) estuary in New Jersey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)...

  7. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  8. A note on the comparative turbidity of some estuaries of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R.J.; Smith, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Field data from 27 estuaries of the Americas are used to show that, in broad terms, there is a large difference in turbidity between the analyzed east and west-coast estuaries and that tidal range and tidal length have an important influence on that turbidity. Generic, numerical sediment-transport modeling is used to illustrate this influence, which exists over a range of space scales from, e.g., the Rogue River Estuary (few km, few mg l-1) to the Bay of Fundy (hundreds of km, few g l-1). The difference in Pacific and Atlantic seaboard estuarine turbidity for the analyzed estuaries is ultimately related to the broad-scale geomorphology of the two continents.

  9. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  10. Enhanced Surveillance for the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013: Preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Naotaka; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Nakamura, Yuuki; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Takuya; Matsui, Tamano; Kawano, Masashi; Watase, Hirotoshi; Morikawa, Yukiko; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surveillance was conducted during the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013 (September 28-October 14, 2013) for early detection of outbreaks of infectious diseases and other health emergencies. Through this enhanced surveillance, 15 cases were found that required additional gathering of information outside the routine process of creating/evaluating the Daily Report. However, none of these was assessed as critical. Through the enhanced surveillance, we structured a framework that allows for earlier response when detecting aberrations. It includes the role of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in communications and contacts with relevant parties such as public health centers, as well as in monitoring of surveillance data. However, some issues need to be further considered toward the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, such as establishing the criteria for additional response steps, increasing the number of participating bodies in syndromic surveillance, and strengthening of cooperation with related departments, including those for crisis management assuming potential biological/chemical terrorism.

  11. The Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; DileepKumar, M.; Shankar, D.

    of their extensive use for fisheries, agriculture, transportation, dumping of waste, etc. The two estuaries have since continued to attract scientific curiosity over the years, thanks in large measure to support from national and local funding agencies. As a... made so far to simulate them in numerical models, and characteristics of stratification and mixing. These are followed by chapters that examine the fun- damentals of biology and chemistry of the estuaries. A distinct characteristic of the estuaries...

  12. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W. K.; Ganju, N. K.; Pohlman, J. W.; Suttles, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM-fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m-1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from -19.7 to -26.1 ‰ and -20.8 to -26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of DOC source to CDOM : f

  13. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W.K.; Ganju, Neil K.; Pohlman, John; Suttles, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM–fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 ‰ and −20.8 to −26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of

  14. Ecology of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennish, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects represents the most definitive and comprehensive source of reference information available on the human impact on estuarine ecosystems. The book discusses both acute and insidious pollution problems plaguing these coastal ecotones. It also provides a detailed examination of the deleterious and pervasive effects of human activities on biotic communities and sensitive habitat areas in estuaries. Specific areas covered include organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dredging and dredge-spoil disposal, radionuclides, as well as other contaminants and processes. The diverse components of these anthropogenic influences are assembled in an organized framework and presented in a clear and concise style that will facilitate their understanding

  15. Energy system for Tokyo East 21. Tokyo East 21 energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, N. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The paper reports cogeneration of the Tokyo East 21 building, which is composed of a 21-story office building, a 20-story hotel, and a mall. The heat source system is a combined energy system; that is, midnight power utilization and the large-scale thermal stratification heat storage tank system as electric heat source, and the gas cogeneration system and the gas boiler/the double effect absorption refrigerator as gas heat source. The system is based on the large temperature-difference thermal stratification cooling water bed, supplying water directly to the low-story section, and supplying water to the high-story section through the water-water heat exchanger and by cooling water by the double effect absorption refrigerator and by the closed-loop inverter-control heat flow system. Moreover, for heat source for the water heat source heat pump package in the mall building, the cooling water which is used also for the cogeneration is utilized. It is a cascade-like utilization of low-temperature waste heat. This combined heat source system is found to be the most advantageous in comparison with the overall gas system and the electric heat pump system. 14 figs.

  16. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  17. Study of polonium and lead in shellfish (Mytilus Edulis) from NORM discharge area of Aberdeen Bay and Ythan Estuary of Scotland and radiological impact to the local people and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyajit Ghose; Brian Heaton

    2005-01-01

    can be made it is essential that the release rates of the nuclides from the discharges are known. If polonium becomes available in the marine environment from these discharges they will contribute to the impact on the environment. In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local people and the environment, a comprehensive study was set up in order to determine the full extent of TENORM and NORM outputs and the impact that these radionuclides were having on the environment. The main aim of this study concerned the quantification of the levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb in shellfish species and other environmental samples taken from around Aberdeen, and use them as bio-indicators for the analysis of Polonium-210 and Lead-210 with particular emphasis on the seasonal variation in Mytilus edulis at one site of Ythan estuary. There was a supplementary programme undertaken to some dose assessment work relevant to human consumption of shellfish. Additionally, the study of the distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Pb between the filtered, particulate phases, sediment and mussels can provide interesting in formation about their behaviour in this aquatic system. Experimental Radiochemical separation and α Spectrometer with Dual surface barrier detector was used to count the polonium a particles. A Perspex disc holder for polonium deposition was specially designed to be held in a stirrer and to fit inside a 150-200 ml breaker. The holder provides positive protection to one face of the silver disc. Silver disc with a thickness of 0.2 mm and 25 mm in diameter was used for 210 Po spontaneous deposition. Results: The measured 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in filtrate water, sediment, particulate matter and mussel samples are reported. Some results are presented in Figure 1 and Table 1. Correlations between 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in mussel and related environmental samples, mussel wet weight and size are presented. The Condition

  18. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  19. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: flowchart for the management of acute cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A.; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O. James; Miura, Fumihiko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Ukai, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Shibao, Kazunori; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new flowchart for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Grade III AC was not indicated for straightforward laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C). Following analysis of subsequent clinical investigations and drawing on Big Data in particular, TG18

  20. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomi, Harumi; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Ukai, Tomohiko; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A.; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Takamori, Yoriyuki; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O. James; Miura, Fumihiko; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Mukai, Shuntaro; Higuchi, Ryota; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a mainstay of the management for patients with acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) provides recommendations for the appropriate use of antimicrobials for community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. The listed agents are for

  1. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Pitt, Henry A.; Yoshida, Masahiro; Gomi, Harumi; Miura, Fumihiko; Garden, O. James; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Endo, Itaru; Asbun, Horacio J.; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Umezawa, Akiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Itoi, Takao; Hata, Jiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Dervenis, Christos; Asai, Koji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Mukai, Shuntaro; Jagannath, Palepu; Cherqui, Daniel; Kozaka, Kazuto; Baron, Todd H.; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Wakabayashi, Go; Padbury, Robert; Jonas, Eduard; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Singh, Harjit; Gabata, Toshifumi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chen, Miin-Fu; Ker, Chen-Guo; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Management bundles that define items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been used in many guidelines in recent years. Application of these bundles facilitates the adaptation of guidelines and helps improve the prognosis of target diseases. In Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13),

  2. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  3. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  4. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  5. Tidal Mixing Box Submodel for Tampa Bay: Calibration of Tidal Exchange Flows with the Parameter Estimation Tool (PEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s the Tampa Bay Estuary Program proposed a nutrient reduction strategy focused on improving water clarity to promote seagrass expansion within Tampa Bay. A System Dynamics Model is being developed to evaluate spatially and temporally explicit impacts of nutrient r...

  6. Phosphorus fractionation distribution in Guapimirim estuary: SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Michel Arthur Faria; de Melo, Gustavo Vaz; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Allan Sandes

    2016-01-01

    The Guapimirim estuary is the main tributary of Guanabara bay and is located in the northeast portion. Although it is protected, this estuary has been experiencing strong anthropogenic pressure, which has led to changes in the natural characteristics. Large amounts of sewage are dumped into the bay through tributaries, thereby changing the water and bottom sediment quality. One of the main elements of sewage is phosphorus. Despite its importance to life, a high concentration of this nutrient in the environment can result in eutrophication. This work describes the phosphorus distribution in its different fractions in the bottom sediment at 16 stations located in the main channel of the Guapimirim estuary. These results are correlated with data on grain size, organic matter and calcium carbonate content in the bottom sediment and with physicochemical parameters of the bottom water. The grain size decreases toward the mouth of the estuary, whereas the organic matter and carbonate content increase. The salinity increases significantly at 3.5 km upstream from the mouth, where there is also a notable increase in fine sediments; the same site is the mean position of the salinity front. The temperature and pH increase in the same direction. The Pinorg-total ranges between 3.18 and 7.13 µmol g(-1), increasing toward the mouth. The same trend is observed for the other phosphorus fractions P-Ca, P-Fe and P-f.a., which range from 0.68 to 1.91, 0.79 to 1.71 and 0.03 to 0.93 µmol g(-1), respectively. The P-Ca and P-Fe fractions are the most representative in the Pinorg-total, occurring at 26.3 and 26.0 %, respectively.

  7. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  8. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  9. Asie : Asie de l'Est : Japon : Région de Kanto : Préfecture de Tokyo : Tokyo : Habitations récentes dans la banlieue Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Lubeigt , Guy

    1983-01-01

    Commentaire de l'auteur en 2015: Tokyo a été presque entièrement détruite par les bombardements US en 1945 - Toutes les maisons en bois ont flambé; Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Tokyo, banlieue N. Nouveau lotissement, toits en tuiles. " Géolocalisation : Approximative centrée sur le Nord de Tokyo.

  10. Long-term changes in primary production and mineralization of organic matter in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Golubkov, Mikhail; Tiunov, Alexei; Nikulina, Vera

    2017-07-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea. At present, heavy nutrient and organic matter loading, mainly from the Neva River and point sources in the upper estuary are the most serious environmental problem for the Neva Estuary and adjacent parts of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Long-term studies of mid-summer primary production and mineralization of organic matter were conducted in upper and middle parts of the Neva Estuary. A considerable increase of production and biomass of phytoplankton was observed in the middle part of the estuary during the last decades mainly due to an increase in biomass of cyanobacteria. However, they are mostly concentrated in the upper water layers and only a small part of them reached the near bottom water layers and may be used as a food by zoobenthos. The mineralization of organic matter in the water column was twice higher than primary production that indicates the importance of allochthonous organic matter in the carbon budget of the both parts of the estuary. The carbon isotope signature of seston and most of the zoobenthic species in the upper part of the estuary was close to the signature of allochthonous carbon leaking from watershed (- 27‰). Higher values of δ13C of seston in the upper mix layer of the Middle estuary indicate intensive primary production in mid-summer. The carbon isotopic signature of zoobenthos in this part of the estuary was also in general lower than in the Neva Bay reflected higher importance of autochthonous organic matter in food webs of the estuary.

  11. Developing a Phytoplankton Biotic Index as an Indicator of Freshwater Inflow within a Subtropical Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, J. L.; Quigg, A.; Lucchese, A.; Preischel, H.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater inflows drive the water and sediment quality in coastal bays and estuaries influencing the ecosystem and health of the biological community. Phytoplankton accessory pigments (used as a proxy for major taxonomic groups) have been utilized to develop a biotic index of physical, chemical and biotic disturbances in Chesapeake Bay (USA) and other estuarine systems. In this study we have used the Chesapeake Bay - Phytoplankton Index of Biotic Integrity model as a guide in developing an index for Galveston Bay, TX (USA) as an indicator of sufficient freshwater inflow to a subtropical estuary. Multivariate statistical analyses were run using PRIMER-E+PERMANOVA to determine the correlations between phytoplankton accessory pigment concentrations and a suite of abiotic factors associated with freshwater inflow (salinity, DIN, PO4, secchi). Phytoplankton pigment concentrations and water quality parameters were collected across Galveston Bay on a monthly basis from 2008-2013. In the upper region of the bay nearest the river source Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae (winter (Dec-Feb)) and Chlorophyceae (winter and spring (Mar-May)) were significantly correlated to freshwater inflow and nutrient concentrations PO4 (p<0.05). Increased concentrations of Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae (summer (Jun-Aug)) were significantly correlated to lower concentrations of DIN (p<0.05). Near the mouth of the estuary there was a significant correlation between the increase in Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Dinophyceae with decreasing PO4 (p<0.05). Within the dynamic system of Galveston Bay we are working to apply a Phytoplankton Index of Biotic Integrity as a means of monitoring the biological health of this ecologically and economically important estuarine ecosystem.

  12. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  13. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  14. The reliability and validity of the Tokyo Autistic Behaviour Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H; Miyake, Y

    1990-03-01

    The Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS) consisting of 39 items provisionally grouped in four areas--interpersonal-social relationship, language-communication, habit-mannerism and others--is an instrument used by a child's caretaker to rate the child's autistic behaviors on a 3-point scale. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (i.e., an r for a total score was .94). Among six DSM-III diagnostic groups, infantile autism showed a significantly higher total TABS score than the other five groups, and a taxonomic validity coefficient was .54. An r between total scores of the TABS and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale--Tokyo Version was .59. The area scores showed a lower validity than the total score. The TABS appears to be a useful instrument to assess autistic behavior.

  15. A University-Hosted Program in Pursuit of Coastal Sustainability: The Case of Tokyo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Baba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a unique way by which a university program can contribute to capacity development for coastal sustainability. The program is steered by a working group of volunteer faculty members, having different academic backgrounds, in collaboration with students and marine professionals, including fisherfolk and environment education interpreters. Although the program began with conventional educational ideas and style, its practical framework evolved to include interactive activities with collaborators in the community, all of which were geared toward social learning. The combination of service learning and participatory action research (PAR was proven to be an adequate approach to link higher education for sustainable development (HESD and university-community partnerships and to promote learning for coastal sustainability. Challenges identified include (1 ensuring continuity of learning and (2 reducing the heavy workload of faculty members involved in program preparation and coordination. The authors would like to emphasize the possibilities offered by the engagement of scholarship in the capacity development for coastal sustainability by focusing on community-based efforts.

  16. [Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Science—Improving the value of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott W.; Hyer, Kenneth; Goldbaum, Elizabeth

    2017-05-05

    IntroductionCongress directed the Federal Government to work with States to restore the Nation’s largest estuary.Chesapeake Bay restoration provides important economic and ecological benefits:18 million people live and work in the Bay watershed and enjoy its benefits.3,600 types of fish, wildlife, and plants underpin the economic value of the Bay ecosystem.Poor water quality and habitat loss threaten restoration and negatively impact the economy.10 Goals to meet by 2025 through the Chesapeake Bay Program, a voluntary partnership.

  18. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  19. Hydrodynamic Aspects at Vitória Bay Mouth, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA A.A. GARONCE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understading the hydrodynamic behavior and suspended particulated matter (SPM transport are of great importance in port regions such as Vitória Harbor, which is located at Vitória Bay, Vitória – ES, Brazil. Vitória Bay is an estuary that has not been systematically assessed through a temporal analysis in order to identify its hydrodynamics characteristics and SPM exchange. This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitória Bay by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel crosssection. Results showed that the estuarine mouth tended to present partial stratification periods during neap tides and little stratification in spring tides. The circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide, with little influence from river discharge. With regard to the SPM, the mouth of the estuary tended to show low concentrations, with the highest values occurring during the dry season. A close relationship between momentary discharge, SPM and salt fluxes was observed. Despite all the data was collected at the mouth of the estuary, the system showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitoria Bay is not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf.

  20. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  1. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  2. Stable Isotopic Composition of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Fueling Brown Tide in a Semi-Arid Texas Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J.; Felix, J. D. D.; Wetz, M.; Cira, E.

    2017-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have the potential to adversely affect the water quality of estuaries and, consequently, their ability to support healthy and diverse ecosystems. Since the early 1990s, Baffin Bay, a semi-arid south Texas estuary, has progressively experienced harmful algal blooms. The primary species of HAB native to the Baffin Bay region, Aureoumbra lagunensis, is unable to utilize nitrate as a nutrient source, but instead relies on forms of reduced nitrogen (such as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and ammonium (NH4+)) for survival. DON levels in Baffin Bay (77 ± 10 µM) exceed the DON concentrations of not only typical Texas estuaries, but estuaries worldwide. Additionally, DON accounts for 90% of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in Baffin Bay, followed by NH4+ at 8%, and NO3-+NO2- contributing 2%. Due to the dependence of A. lagunensis on the reduced forms of nitrogen as an energy source and the elevated concentrations of DON throughout the bay, it is important to identify the origin of this nitrogen as well as how it's being processed as it cycles through the ecosystem. The presented work investigates the stable isotopic composition of reactive nitrogen (Nr) (δ15N-DON, δ15N-NH4+, and δ15N-NO3-) in Baffin Bay samples collected monthly at nine stations over the period of one year. The work provides preliminary evidence of Nr sources and mechanisms driving favorable conditions for HAB proliferation. This information can be useful and applicable to estuarine ecosystems in various settings, advancing scientific progress towards mitigating blooms. Additionally, since the elevated concentrations of DON make Baffin Bay uniquely suited to investigate its sources and processing, this project will aid in characterizing the role of this largely unstudied form of Nr, which could provide insight and change perceptions about the role of DON in nitrogen dynamics.

  3. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  4. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the plutonium distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States of America. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analysed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In the three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse and Newport) the suspended particulate matter (1μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah river estuary, in addition to fall-out plutonium, has received up to 0.3Ci of plutonium from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the US Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence plutonium isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Plutonium contents in surface marsh sediment from the Savannah River estuary are lower than those found in nearby bay sediments. In fact, total plutonium concentrations of sediments showed increases from the upper to lower portions of the estuary; however, higher contributions of 238 Pu in the upper portions indicate that releases from the Savannah River Plant do contribute plutonium to the Savannah river estuary. Plutonium concentrations in Spartina were less than 10fCi/g dry weight but are higher than plutonium contents of terrestrial plants ( 238 Pu to the total plutonium activities in the sediment and the Spartina. Plutonium concentrations were about three times higher in the Newport river estuary than in the Neuse and Savannah river estuaries. (author)

  5. FLORA OF MOLOCHNYI ESTUARY COASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day characteristic of the coastal flora of Molochnyi eastury is given, that is one of the largest estuaries in Ukraine, the shores and waters of which in 2009 became a part of the Pryazov’ya National Nature Park. The analysis of the main parameters of the flora is made. Rare component of the estuary coastal flora is characterized, further steps to conserve the nature of Pryazov’ya are proposed.

  6. Dengue fever in the San Juan Bay Estuary: Evaluating the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that thrives in cities. Here we ask which elements within the urban environment could be managed to reduce the potential for Dengue occurrence. In particular, we study the potential of wetlands in the SJBE to buffer from vector proliferation. Wetlands provide ecosystem services such as heat and water hazard mitigation, water purification and habitat for a diversity of species, all of which are factors that have been shown to affect Dengue vectors. As such, we hypothesize that within coastal neighborhoods in the SJBE wetlands, ecosystem services lead to lower Dengue occurrence. We test this hypothesis using Dengue data from 2010-2013, which includes the largest epidemic in PR history. Our analytical model includes relevant socio-economic factors and environmental controls that may also affect Dengue dynamics. Results indicated a negative effect of neighborhood mangrove cover and a positive effect of percent flood area on Dengue prevalence. Moreover, heat hazards were positively correlated with dengue prevalence and negatively correlated with neighborhood mangrove cover. Dengue prevalence did not correlate with herbaceous wetlands, or with the ecosystem services of water quality or vertebrate species richness. Mosquito borne diseases are an increasingly important health concern, which pose great challenges for safe and sustainable control and eradication. This reality calls for management approaches that consider m

  7. Effects of urbanisation on macroalgae and sessile invertebrates in southeast Australian estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Amelia E.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F.; Hill, Nicole A.; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B.; Edgar, Graham J.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of anthropogenic and environmental factors on the composition, cover and dominance of macroalgae and sessile invertebrates was assessed in three capital city estuaries in south-eastern Australia. Heavy metals and proximity to ports showed the strongest relationships to the distribution of sessile reef biota after accounting for natural environmental gradients. The densities of laminarian, fucoid, brown and red foliose algae were negatively correlated with heavy metals, both in Port Phillip Bay (Melbourne) and the Derwent (Hobart), while turf, filamentous algae and some invertebrates were favoured. Sydney Harbour possessed a different pattern, with the laminarian kelp Ecklonia radiata most abundant near the main shipping port, probably because of biotic interactions involving urchin grazing in the lower estuary. Identifying drivers of benthic community pattern represents a key challenge for effective conservation management, particularly for estuaries affected by multiple anthropogenic impacts.

  8. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  9. A Marriage Of Larval Modeling And Empirical Data: Linking Adult, Larval And Juvenile Scallops In An Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, S.; Wahle, R.; Brooks, D. A.; Brady, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The giant sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, is a commercially valuable sedentary broadcast spawner that occupies offshore banks and coastal bays and estuaries in the Northwest Atlantic. Although area closures have helped repopulate depleted scallop populations, little is known about whether populations at densities that yield larvae supply local or distant populations. Surveying scallop populations in the Damariscotta River estuary in Maine during the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons, and settling out spat bags to collect settling larvae along the gradient of the estuary, we were able to compare adult densities to newly settled juvenile (`spat') abundance. Using the location where we found a high density of adults, we incorporated previously published behavior, pelagic larval duration, wind and current data into a particle dispersal model within the estuary to determine likely sinks for larvae from the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons. Preliminary model simulations demonstrate where in the estuary swimming is effective in affecting water column position for larvae, and that most larvae are retained much closer to the mouth of the estuary than previously expected. Combining larval dispersal modeling with empirical data on adult densities and spat settlement on the scale of an embayment or estuary may be helpful in determining sources, sinks and areas that are both sources and sinks for shellfish species that are endangered or economically critical. This may aid in determining small area closures or Marine Protected Areas along coastal regions in the Gulf of Maine and beyond.

  10. Application of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Technology to Visually Compare Belowground Components of Salt Marshes in Jamaica Bay and Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using CT imaging, we found that rapidly deteriorating marshes in Jamaica Bay had significantly less belowground mass and abundance of coarse roots and rhizomes at depth (< 10 cm) compared to more stable areas in the Jamaica Bay Estuary. In addition, the rhizome diameters and pea...

  11. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  12. Potential for Increased Mercury Accumulation in the Estuary Food Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Davis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Present concentrations of mercury in large portions of San Francisco Bay (Bay, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta, and the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers are high enough to warrant concern for the health of humans and wildlife. Large scale tidal wetland restoration is currently under consideration as a means of increasing populations of fish species of concern. Tidal wetland restoration activities may lead to increased concentrations of mercury in the estuarine food web and exacerbate the existing mercury problem. This paper evaluates our present ability to predict the local and regional effects of restoration actions on mercury accumulation in aquatic food webs. A sport fish consumption advisory is in place for the Bay, and an advisory is under consideration for the Delta and lower Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Mercury concentrations in eggs of several water bird species from the Bay have exceeded the lowest observed effect level. A variety of mercury sources, largely related to historic mercury and gold mining, is present in the watershed and has created a spatially heterogeneous distribution of mercury in the Bay-Delta Estuary. Mercury exists in the environment in a variety of forms and has a complex biogeochemical cycle. The most hazardous form, methylmercury, is produced at a relatively high rate in wetlands and newly flooded aquatic habitats. It is likely that distinct spatial variation on multiple spatial scales exists in net methylmercury production in Bay-Delta tidal wetlands, including variation within each tidal wetland, among tidal wetlands in the same region, and among tidal wetlands in different regions. Understanding this spatial variation and its underlying causes will allow environmental managers to minimize the negative effects of mercury bioaccumulation as a result of restoration activities. Actions needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with this issue include a long term, multifaceted research effort, long

  13. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  14. Estuary-wide genetic stock distribution and salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  15. Radioactive fallout collected in Tokyo on November 26, 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y; Kanazawa, T

    1956-01-01

    A large nuclear weapon test by Russia was reported November 23, 1955 as having occurred the previous day. Rain water and fallout samples taken in Tokyo before and after the 22nd indicated the test had produced a secondary fallout from some previous explosion. Rain water of the 21st and fallout of the 29th had radioactive content of 13 days half-life; fallout of the 26th, rain of the 27th 3 days half-life. Sample of the 26th consisted of 15 mg of sooty material giving nearly 2000 counts/min at that time.

  16. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  17. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  18. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  19. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  20. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  1. Tidal and spatial variability of nitrous oxide (N2O) in Sado estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Célia; Brogueira, Maria José; Nogueira, Marta

    2015-12-01

    The estimate of the nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes is fundamental to assess its impact on global warming. The tidal and spatial variability of N2O and the air-sea fluxes in the Sado estuary in July/August 2007 are examined. Measurements of N2O and other relevant environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic nitrogen - nitrate plus nitrite and ammonium) were recorded during two diurnal tidal cycles performed in the Bay and Marateca region and along the estuary during ebb, at spring tide. N2O presented tidal and spatial variability and varied spatially from 5.0 nmol L-1 in Marateca region to 12.5 nmol L-1 in Sado river input. Although the Sado river may constitute a considerable N2O source to the estuary, the respective chemical signal discharge was rapidly lost in the main body of the estuary due to the low river flow during the sampling period. N2O varied with tide similarly between 5.2 nmol L-1 (Marateca) and 10.0 nmol L-1 (Sado Bay), with the maximum value reached two hours after flooding period. The influence of N2O enriched upwelled seawater (˜10.0 nmol L-1) was well visible in the estuary mouth and apparently represented an important contribution of N2O in the main body of Sado estuary. Despite the high water column oxygen saturation in most of Sado estuary, nitrification did not seem a relevant process for N2O production, probably as the concentration of the substrate, NH4+, was not adequate for this process to occur. Most of the estuary functioned as a N2O source, and only Marateca zone has acted as N2O sink. The N2O emission from Sado estuary was estimated to be 3.7 Mg N-N2O yr-1 (FC96) (4.4 Mg N-N2O yr-1, FRC01). These results have implications for future sampling and scaling strategies for estimating greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes in tidal ecosystems.

  2. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  3. Frequent Questions about Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  4. Downloading and Installing Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  5. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  6. SANCOR estuaries programme 1982-1986

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available , such research will also aid in the rational management of estuaries. Estuaries on which research should be concentrated are identified and guidelines are given for project proposals and reporting....

  7. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    phosphate and ammonia were high at Kallai compared to other three estuaries. All the estuaries showed an increase in nitrate content during monsoon. Nitrite values were high in postmonsoon. Ammonia levels were generally high except at Korapuzha. Nutrient...

  8. Use of Geographic Information Systems to examine cumulative impacts of development on Mobile Bay, AL and Galveston Bay, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosigno, P.F.; McNiff, M.E.; Watzin, M.C.; Ji, W.

    1993-01-01

    Databases from Mobile Bay, Alabama and Galveston Bay, Texas were compiled using ARC/INFO Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the cumulative impacts from urbanization and industrialization on these two Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The databases included information on wetland habitats, pollution sources, metal contamination, bird-nesting sites, and oyster reefs, among others. A series of maps were used to represent the impacts within and between each ecosystem. These two estuaries share many similarities in the types of developmental pressures that each experience. However, difference in the magnitude of industrial activity, pollution loading, and urban growth coupled with distinct hydrodynamic and geochemical differences in sediment mineralogy, freshwater inflows and salinity regimens results in differing responses. With growing human population and extensive oil and gas development, the demands on Galveston Bay are quite different than those placed on Mobile Bay which has lower growth and less extensive oil and gas infrastructure. Mobile Bay tends to retain whatever contamination enters into the system because of the high levels of clay and organic carbon found in its sediment. Some of these chemicals bioaccumulate, posing an extra risk to natural resources. Geographic Information Systems provide natural resource managers with the technology to manage complex databases. The analytical and mapping capabilities of GIS can be used to consider cumulative effects in a regional context and to develop plans to protect ecologically sensitive areas

  9. Health risks and precautions for visitors to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Wada, Koji; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Smith, Derek R

    2018-02-02

    In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports. We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Communicable disease risks for vaccine-preventable illnesses such as measles and rubella, as well as food and waterborne diseases represent the most likely risks. The risk of acquiring vector-borne diseases is considered low in Japan. On the other hand, however, heat-related illness represents a potential risk, as Tokyo 2020 is scheduled during the hottest season in Japan, with temperatures generally expected to exceed 30 °C. Maintaining an up-to-date routine vaccination schedule is highly recommended for visitors attending the Tokyo 2020 and appropriate hygiene measures for food and waterborne diseases as well as health promotion for heat-related illness. It may also be useful to increase the number of multilingual triage clinicians whom can be placed within emergency departments during the Tokyo 2020 to provide first contact services and coordination of emergency care among non-Japanese speaking visitors to Tokyo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Commercialization of residential fuel cell systems at Tokyo Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hisao; Kameyama, Hiromichi; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Nishizaki, Kunihiro

    2007-07-01

    Increased affluence at homes may inevitably bring about increased energy consumption with it and hence increased CO2 emission from the residential sector, which accounts for a substantial share in the overall CO2 emission. Technologies that can reduce CO2 emission without sacrificing comfort of living at home will be critically important to achieve economic prosperity and preservation of the global environment at the same time. The residential fuel cell system is one of those technologies. Tokyo Gas has been engaging in its development cooperating with the manufacturers and has been playing an important role in the design, development and promotion of fuel cell systems with its vast knowledge and experience of end users' energy consumption. The development, demonstration and promotion of fuel cell systems have been strongly supported by the Japanese Government. In 'the Large Scale Demonstration Project', more than 1000 units of polymer electrolyte fuel cells have been installed to existing homes and have demonstrated their energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential. This paper reports the status of the development of residential fuel cell systems in Japan and the role Tokyo Gas plays in it.

  11. Urban warming and energy consumption in Tokyo metro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.; Hisada, T.; Shimada, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of field observation and three-dimensional simulation of urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area. The three-dimensional governing equations in an urban atmospheric boundary layer were formulated by virtue of vorticity-velocity vector potential method. Particular attention was focused on the representation of a buoyancy term in equation of motion in the vertical direction, thereby describing the crossover and stratification effects near the ground surface. The vorticity-velocity potential method is superior from the view point of numerical stability and suitable for the simulation of an urban heat island. The authors first made a survey on the energy consumption in Tokyo metropolitan area. Next, the three-dimensional simulations were carried out using these data. The simulation results were then compared with the data of field observation of the surface temperature by automobiles. Further future prediction of urban warming was performed when the energy consumption rate is increased five times as large as the present rate, which will correspond to the year 2030 if the present consumption rate were maintained until then

  12. The Tokyo subway sarin attack-lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, T.; Hisaoka, T.; Yamada, A.; Naito, T.; Isonuma, H.; Okumura, S.; Miura, K.; Sakurada, M.; Maekawa, H.; Ishimatsu, S.; Takasu, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin

  13. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  14. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  15. Indian estuaries: Dynamics, ecosystems, and threats

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    the tide pulls the mixed water out of the estuary through its mouth. Different processes within an estuary contribute to mixing of the two waters, the important among these in the Mandovi estuary are: influence of the tide on the advective field within...

  16. The Role of Tidal Marsh Restoration in Fish Management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Herbold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011. Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha. In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta, one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013. The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010. This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium. 

  17. Indirect Effects and Potential Cumulative Impacts of Dredging in an Urbanized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfield, C. K.; Chen, J.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.

    2016-02-01

    For over two centuries, the Delaware River and Bay estuary has supported one of the most economically important ports in the United States. To accommodate ships of ever-increasing size, the 165-km axial shipping channel has been deepened to over twice the natural depth of the estuary. While it is known that the channel has modified tides and sedimentation patterns in the estuary, unknown are the impacts on the ecosystem as a whole. A concern is the influence of channelization on sediment movement to the tidal wetland coast, which is eroding at rates on the order of meters per year. Tidal wetlands frame the entire estuary and provide vital ecosystem services ranging from recreation to carbon sequestration. To identify shifts in baseline conditions, we are performing a retrospective analysis of estuarine dynamics using historical bathymetry, numerical modeling, and observational studies. The period of interest extends from 1848 (50 years prior to channel construction) to present. During this period the channel was progressively deepened from its natural depth of 5.5 m to the current depth of 14 m. Preliminary modeling results support independent evidence that the salt intrusion and zone of rapid sediment deposition migrated several 10s of kilometers up-estuary as an indirect effect of deepening. Ironically, the locus of intense deposition now falls squarely within the Wilmington-Philadelphia port complex; river sediment that initially settles in this area is removed by maintenance dredging before it can disperse seaward. Sediment budgetary analysis indicates that the mass of sediment dredged from the upper estuary on average exceeds the mass of the new sediment supplied from the drainage basin. Hence, a probable cumulative impact of dredging is a reduction in sediment delivery to the lower estuary and fringing wetlands. Connections among the shipping channel, wave-tide interactions, and marsh edge erosion are a topic of ongoing modeling and observational research.

  18. Contribution of Cultural Eutrophication to Marsh Loss in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of salt marsh area in the Jamaica Bay Estuary (NY) has accelerated in recent years, with loss rates as high as 45 acres per year. A contributing factor to this acceleration is likely cultural eutrophication due to over 6 decades of sewage effluent inputs. We examined marsh...

  19. Grain-size data from vibracores collected in 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In response to the 2010 Governor’s Action Plan to clean up the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) estuary in New Jersey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)...

  20. Using sediment profile imagery to quantify water quality and benthic condition relationships in Pensacola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results from a monthly study in the Pensacola Bay estuary (FL) designed to evaluate the response and recovery in benthic habitats to intermittent, seasonal hypoxia (DO < 2 mg L-1). Samples were collected monthly from June 2015 through October 2017 at seven to nine s...

  1. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in seagrass coverage in Southwest Florida: assessing the relative effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions and rainfall in four contiguous estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, D A; Corbett, C A; Greening, H S; Raulerson, G E

    2005-08-01

    The estuaries of Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, Lemon Bay, and Upper Charlotte Harbor are contiguous waterbodies located within the subtropical environment of Southwest Florida. Based on an examination of rainfall data over the period of record (1916-2001) within the watersheds of these estuaries, there is no evidence for spatial differences (at the watershed level) or monotonic trends in annual rainfall. During the 1980s, nitrogen loads into Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay (generated primarily by domestic wastewater treatment facilities) were reduced by 57% and 46%, respectively. In response, both Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay have lower phytoplankton concentrations, greater water clarity and more extensive seagrass coverage in 2002 than in the early 1980s. As there is no evidence of a concurrent trend in rainfall during the period of 1982-2001, it is unlikely that variation in rainfall can account for the observed increase in seagrass coverage in these two bays. In contrast, seagrass coverage has remained relatively constant since the mid 1980s in Lemon Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Domestic wastewater treatment facilities are minor sources of nitrogen to Lemon Bay, and water clarity in Charlotte Harbor varies mostly as a function of dissolved organic matter and non-chlorophyll associated turbidity, not phytoplankton levels. Even in estuaries that share boundaries and are within 100 km of each other, varied responses to anthropogenic changes and natural phenomena were observed in water quality and associated seagrass extent. Resource management strategies must take into account system-specific factors-not all strategies will result in similar results in different systems.

  3. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: diagnostic criteria and severity grading of acute cholecystitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoe, Masamichi; Hata, Jiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Wakabayashi, Go; Kozaka, Kazuto; Endo, Itaru; Deziel, Daniel J.; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chen, Miin-Fu; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Shikata, Satoru; Ukai, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Mori, Yasuhisa; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Jagannath, Palepu; Jonas, Eduard; Liau, Kui-Hin; Dervenis, Christos; Gouma, Dirk J.; Cherqui, Daniel; Belli, Giulio; Garden, O. James; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Pitt, Henry A.; Singh, Harjit; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Gomi, Harumi; Itoi, Takao; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Matsumura, Naoki; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kitano, Seigo; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    The Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were globally disseminated and various clinical studies about the management of acute cholecystitis were reported by many researchers and clinicians from all over the world. The 1st edition of the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07)

  4. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  5. Current status and future of MALT, The University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.S.; Nakano, C.

    2013-01-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is designed for highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system using ion beam generated by MC-SNICSTM solid state ion sources and Pelletron TM 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently multi-nuclide AMS ( 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I) system and other beam analysis techniques (PIXE, NRA, ERDA) are available and show good performance. After the 2011 earthquake-disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, investigation of 129 I distribution and behavior in the environment originated the accident has come to be an important mission at MALT as well as many collaborating scientific projects such as 'Study on natural and anthropogenic iodine isotope system', 'Application of in situ cosmogenic radio nuclides to the geomorphologic processes', and 'Analysis of cosmogenic radio nuclides in the Antarctic ice core', so on. (author)

  6. Tritiated water vapor in the surface air at Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki; Katsuragi, Yukio; Shigehara, Koji

    1984-01-01

    Tritium concentration in water vapor in the air near the surface and in the precipitation at Tokyo was measured during the period from 9 August to 20 November in 1974. From August to the middle of October, tritium mixing ratios in the surface air had relatively higher values except those in air masses which were associated with a typhoon. The mixing ratios of tritium in the air decreased abruptly at the middle of October, which indicates the decrease of tritium influx from aloft. These data exhibit the salient feature that variations in tritium concentration in TR are linear to the reciprocal of the content of water vapor during each period. Tritium concentrations in vapor and rain water collected simultaneously show nearly equal values. One of the reasons for the good correlation of tritium concentration between falling drops and ambient air is considered to be the result of the rapid isotopic exchange. (author)

  7. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Mashimo, T; Matsui, N; Sakamoto, H; Ueda, I

    2014-01-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  8. Oceanographic data collected from Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-02 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0161822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0161822 contains navigational and physical data collected at Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3), a fixed station in the Columbia...

  9. Linking human impacts within an estuary to ebb-tidal delta evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Kate L.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2009-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, California, USA is among the most anthropogenically altered estuaries in the entire United States, but the impact on sediment transport to the coastal ocean has not been quantified. Analysis of four historic bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of the San Francisco Bay. From 1873 to 2005 the bar eroded an average of 80 cm, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 + 65 x 106 m3 of sediment. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb delta has contracted radially while its crest has moved landward an average of 1 km. Compilation of historic records reveals that 130 x 106 m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay and adjacent coastal ocean. Constriction of the bar is hypothesized to be from a decrease in sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, a reduction in the tidal prism of the estuary, and/or a reduction in the input of hydraulic mining debris. Changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have likely altered wave refraction and focusing patterns on adjacent beaches and may be a factor in persistent beach erosion occurring in the area.

  10. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  11. Biogeochemical budgets for Tapi Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bapardekar, M.V.; DeSousa, S.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    sup(-1) comes from the wastes. Chemical fertilizers are used in the basin at the rate of 113 kg.ha sup(-1). During the dry season the salinity in the estuary decreases progressively in the upstream direction form an average 32.53 psu at the mouth to 0...

  12. Simulated Sampling of Estuary Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jenkins, Deborah Bainer

    2009-01-01

    To find out about the microscopic life in the valuable estuary environment, it is usually necessary to be near the water. This dry lab offers an alternative, using authentic data and a simulation of plankton sampling. From the types of organisms found in the sample, middle school students can infer relationships in the biological and physical…

  13. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Hang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary. We found that TIC concentration (6.3-20.1 g kg-1) was much higher than TOC (0.2-4.4 g kg-1) in the surface sediment. There showed a large spatial variability in TOC and TIC and their stable isotopes. Both TOC and TIC were higher to the north (2.6 and 14.5 g kg-1) than to the south (1.6 and 12.2 g kg-1), except in the southern bay where TOC and TIC reached 2.7 and 15.4 g kg-1, respectively. Generally, TOC and TIC in our study area was mainly autochthonous. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. However, the southern bay revealed the most negative δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb, suggesting that there might exist some transfer of OC to IC in the section. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.

  14. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  15. Will the balance of power shift among native eastern Pacific estuary ecosystem engineers with the introduced bopyrid isopod parasite orthione griffenis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, the bay ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, and eelgrass, Zostera marina are endemic ecosystem engineers that define the ecological structure and function of estuaries along the Pacific coast of the US as significantly as do marshes...

  16. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  17. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    ém, no mês de outubro de 2002.This study aimed to describe the gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of the population of Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 in the estuary of the Subaé river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia. The bivalves were collected from November 2001 to November 2002. A total of 244 specimens was measured (anteroposterior axis, gutted, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. The histology of the gonads was performed by 5 mm thick serial sections of gonadal tissue, and stained with HE. The length at the beginning of gonadal maturation (Lpm was estimated from the distribution of the relative frequencies of youth and adults, by length class of individuals. The relative frequencies of the sexes at each stage of development were considered together for the analysis of the reproductive behavior of the population, and, separately, to assess the sexual cycle synchrony between males and females. We observed a variation of sizes between 9.1 and 66.6 mm, with a mean length of 50.2 mm. The study showed no significant difference between the sizes of males and females. There was no evidence of gender differentiation in 2.1% of subjects analyzed. 51.6% of subjects were identified as males (M and 46.3% as females (F, without significant differences among average number of male and female, resulting in the proportion of M:F ratio of 1,1:1. Lpm was estimated at 11.4 mm, but only to achieve average length of 34.4 mm, all subjects were considered adults. We characterized four stages of evolution of gonadal development in females and males. Analysis of different stages allowed the observation of the atresia phenomena and sex reversal in females. The reproductive cycle presents continuous elimination of gametes, with higher reproductive intensities in the months of November 2001 to April 2002 and also in October 2002.

  18. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    ém, no mês de outubro de 2002.This study aimed to describe the gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of the population of Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 in the estuary of the Subaé river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia. The bivalves were collected from November 2001 to November 2002. A total of 244 specimens was measured (anteroposterior axis, gutted, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. The histology of the gonads was performed by 5 mm thick serial sections of gonadal tissue, and stained with HE. The length at the beginning of gonadal maturation (Lpm was estimated from the distribution of the relative frequencies of youth and adults, by length class of individuals. The relative frequencies of the sexes at each stage of development were considered together for the analysis of the reproductive behavior of the population, and, separately, to assess the sexual cycle synchrony between males and females. We observed a variation of sizes between 9.1 and 66.6 mm, with a mean length of 50.2 mm. The study showed no significant difference between the sizes of males and females. There was no evidence of gender differentiation in 2.1% of subjects analyzed. 51.6% of subjects were identified as males (M and 46.3% as females (F, without significant differences among average number of male and female, resulting in the proportion of M:F ratio of 1,1:1. Lpm was estimated at 11.4 mm, but only to achieve average length of 34.4 mm, all subjects were considered adults. We characterized four stages of evolution of gonadal development in females and males. Analysis of different stages allowed the observation of the atresia phenomena and sex reversal in females. The reproductive cycle presents continuous elimination of gametes, with higher reproductive intensities in the months of November 2001 to April 2002 and also in October 2002.

  19. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  20. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    final theme is the rather heterogeneous set of results from monitoring and research in the estuary. For example, some topics have been subjects of intense activity both in research and monitoring (e.g., physical dynamics of the upper estuary, phytoplankton blooms, while others have received little attention (e.g., microzooplankton. In addition, both research and monitoring have emphasized some regions of the estuary (e.g., the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over others (e.g., San Pablo Bay. In addition, ecological modeling and synthesis has emphasized lower trophic levels over higher. Opportunities for restoration in the open waters of the estuary are somewhat limited by the lack of scientific basis for restoration, and the difficulty in detecting ecosystem responses in the context of high natural variability.

  1. In-stream PIT detection, estuary wetlands - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  2. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  3. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  4. Sedimentary Records of Hyperpycnal Flows and the Influence of River Damming on Sediment Dynamics of Estuaries: Examples from the Nelson, Churchill, Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, G.; Duboc, Q.; Boyer-Villemaire, U.; Lajeunesse, P.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment cores were sampled in the estuary of the Nelson and Churchill Rivers in western Hudson Bay, as well as in the estuary of the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers in Gulf of St. Lawrence in order to evaluate the impact of hydroelectric dams on the sedimentary regime of these estuaries. The gravity cores at the mouth of the Nelson River recorded several cm-thick rapidly deposited layers with a reverse to normal grading sequence, indicating the occurrence of hyperpycnal flows generated by major floods during the last few centuries. These hyperpycnal flows were probably caused by ice-jam formation, which can increase both the flow and the sediment concentration following the breaching of such natural dams. Following the construction of hydroelectric dams since the 1960s, the regulation of river discharge prevented the formation of hyperpycnal flows, and hence the deposition of hyperpycnites in the upper part of the cores. In the core sampled in the estuary of the Churchill River, only one hyperpycnite was recorded. This lower frequency may be due to the enclosed estuary of the Churchill River, its weaker discharge and the more distal location of the coring site.In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, grain size measurements allowed the identification of a major flood around AD 1844±4 years in box cores from both the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie Rivers, whereas a drastic decrease in variations in the median grain size occurred around AD ~1900 in the estuary of the Sainte-Marguerite River, highlighting the offshore impact of the SM1 dam construction in the early 1900s. Furthermore, sedimentological variations in the box cores from both estuaries have been investigated by wavelet analysis and the sharp disappearance of high frequencies around AD 1900 in the estuary of the dammed river (Sainte-Marguerite River), but not in the estuary of the natural river (Moisie River), also provides evidence of the influence of dams on the sedimentary regime of estuaries.

  5. Optical Proxies for Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Montgomery, M. T.; Boyd, T. J.; Bianchi, T. S.; Coffin, R. B.; Paerl, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    The flux of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean from rivers and estuaries is a major part of the ocean's carbon cycle. Absorbing and fluorescing properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) often are used to fingerprint its sources and to track fluxes of terrestrial DOM into the ocean. They also are used as proxies for organic matter to calibrate remote sensing observations from air and space and from in situ platforms. In general, strong relationships hold for large river dominated estuaries (e.g., the Mississippi River) but little is known about how widely such relationships can be developed in estuaries that have relatively small or multiple riverine inputs. Results are presented from a comparison of six diverse estuarine systems: the Atchafalaya River (ARE), the Mackenzie River (MRE), the Chesapeake Bay (CBE), Charleston Harbor (CHE), Puget Sound (PUG), and the Neuse River (NRE). Mean DOM concentrations ranged from 100 to 700 µM and dissolved lignin concentrations ranged from ca. 3-30 µg L-1. Overall trends were linear between CDOM measured at 350 nm (a350) and DOC concentration (R2=0.77) and between a350 and lignin (R2=0.87). Intercepts of a350 vs lignin were not significantly different from zero (P=0.43) suggesting that most of the CDOM was terrestrial in nature. Deviations from these regressions were strongest in the Neuse River Estuary, the most eutrophic of the six estuaries studied. After this calibration procedure, fluorescence modeling via parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to make estimates of terrigenous and planktonic DOC in these estuaries.

  6. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  7. The Role of Sub-National Actors in Climate Change Policy. The Case of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roppongi, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Tokyo is known as a pioneer throughout the history of Japan's environmental policy, often being compared to California in the United States or Paris in France. Following the global trend of growing local initiatives tackling climate change, Tokyo introduced a cap-and-trade scheme in 2010 ahead of a national implementation. The Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program is the first of its kind that regulates CO_2 emissions from all business sectors, where energy consumers are defined in terms of the business establishments they own. Tokyo's initiative is largely seen as a reaction to the modest national commitment, following the tradition of center-local rivalry. This study first explains the centre-local relationship in the history of Japan's environmental governance. It then analyzes the development of the Tokyo's flagship climate policy and its implications for national and other sub-national governments in Japan. The tactics used by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to overcome business opposition typically seen in the introduction of GHG control, and future policy challenges are also discussed. The study finds that Tokyo's policy encourages behavioral changes and technological improvement in the business sector, going a step beyond the existing culture of energy conservation in Japan. An emission trading scheme is often associated with the collapse of carbon markets and the 'money game', rather than a practical tool to reduce CO_2 emissions, but the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program has demonstrated a policy impact that recasts such an image. A known case of policy diffusion to Saitama prefecture, an immediate neighbor of Tokyo with the fifth largest population in Japan, is also discussed to elaborate on the potential domestic diffusion of the policy. (author)

  8. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, S.K.; Slyman, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  9. Distribution ofVibrio cholerae in two Florida estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The distribution ofVibrio cholerae was examined in 2 Florida estuaries, Apalachicola and Tampa Bay.Vibrio cholerae serotype non-01 was the most abundant serotype, being isolated from 45% of the oyster samples, 30% of the sediments, 50% of the waters, and 75% of the blue crabs.Vibrio cholerae serotype 01 was isolated from only one oyster sample. Strong linear correlations betweenV. cholerae and temperature, salinity, or the other physical/chemical parameters measured,Escherichia coli, or fecal coliforms were not observed, but a range of temperatures and salinities appeared relevant to the distribution of the organism. The organism was present in the highest concentrations when salinities were 10‰-25‰ and temperatures were 20‡C-35‡C.In vitro growth curves of 95V. cholerae environmental isolates further supported that 10‰-25‰ was an ideal salinity range for the organisms. The results suggest thatV. cholerae is a widely distributed organism in the nutrient-rich warm waters of the Gulf Coast estuaries.

  10. Flight to Liquidity on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during the 2008 Share Market Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Brooke Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the existence of the flight-to-liquidity phenomenon for shares which are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during share market crashes. Using data from the First section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the existence of a flight-to-liquidity during the 2008 share market crashes is clearly documented. The Tokyo Stock Exchange differs from other major exchanges as price limit rules restrict the daily price movements of shares. It provides a unique setting to test if a flight-to...

  11. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  12. Bycatch and catch-release mortality of small sharks in the Gulf coast nursery grounds of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    Hueter, Robert E.; Manire, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The bays and estuaries of the southeast United States coast generally are thought to serve as nursery areas for various species of coastal sharks, where juvenile sharks find abundant food and are less exposed to predation by larger sharks. Because these areas typically support substantial commercial and recreational fisheries, fishing mortality of sharks in the nurseries particularly by bycatch, may be significant. This two-year project assessed the relative importance of two estuaries of the...

  13. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  14. The mismatch of bioaccumulated trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in field and transplanted oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to ambient surficial sediments and suspended particulate matter in a highly urbanised estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Birch, Gavin F

    2016-04-01

    A significant correlation between sedimentary metals, particularly the 'bio-available' fraction, and bioaccumulated metal concentrations in the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) tissues has been successfully demonstrated previously for Cu and Zn in a number of estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. However, this relationship has been difficult to establish in a highly modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia) where metal contamination is of greatest concern and where a significant relationship would be most useful for environmental monitoring. The use of the Sydney rock oyster as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination was assessed in the present study by investigating relationships between metals attached to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to bioaccumulated concentrations in oyster tissues. Surficial sediments (both total and fine-fraction), SPM and wild oysters were collected over 3 years from three embayments (Chowder Bay, Mosman Bay and Iron Cove) with each embayment representing a different physiographic region of Sydney estuary. In addition, a transplant experiment of farmed oysters was conducted in the same embayments for 3 months. No relationship was observed between sediments or SPM metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) to tissue of wild oysters; however, significant relationship was observed against transplanted oysters. The mismatch between wild and farmed, transplanted oysters is perplexing and indicates that wild oysters are unsuitable to be used as a biomonitoring tool due to the involvement of unknown complex factors while transplanted oysters hold strong potential.

  15. Lessons from Japan: Resilience after Tokyo and Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 1995 Japan experienced the world’s first major terrorist attack using chemical weapons by a little-known religious cult called Aum Shinrikyo. The attack on the Tokyo subway, which killed 13 people, was the first lethal case of a non-state actor using a chemical agent against a civilian population. In March 2011, following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor experienced a full meltdown releasing radiation into the surrounding area. The seemingly unhurried government reaction provided conflicting information to Japanese citizens, slowing evacuation and protective actions. Government failure is cited as a significant factor in the severity of the nuclear disaster in three investigations conducted after the incident. This article defines resilience and raises the question of whether the U.S. government has the ability to address the issues raised by the two case studies. There are four primary lessons of these two case studies from Japan: Trust is essential; two-way communications are vital; someone or something will always unexpectedly fail to act appropriately, while others will provide surprising support and; finally, recovery is long-term.

  16. Hydrobiological characteristics of Shark River estuary, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    Water quality in the Shark River estuary was strongly influenced by seasonal patterns of rainfall, water level and temperature. During the rainy season (summer and early fall) the salinity in the 20-mile long estuary ranged from that of fresh water to half that of sea water while concentrations of dissolved oxygen were low, 2-5 milligrams per liter (mg/l) presumably because, among other factors, microbial activity and respiration were accelerated by high temperatures (30-33 degrees C). During the dry season (late fall through spring) the salinity ranged from 18 grams per liter (g/l) in the headwaters to 36 g/l at the Gulf during a dry year such as 1967 and from 1 to 25 g/l during a wet year such as 1969. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen increased from 2-3 mg/l in the summer of 1967 to 4-7 mg/l in the winter of 1968, and temperature decreased from an average of about 30 degrees C in summer to 20 degrees C in winter. Water level declined 5 to 10 decimeters in the headwaters during the dry season, and salinity and tidal action increased. Large amounts of submerged vegetation died in some headwater creeks at the end of the dry season, presumably killed by salinities above 3 g/l. The decaying organic matter and the decrease in photosynthesis resulted in low dissolved oxygen (1-2 mg/l). Fish died at this time probably as a result of the low dissolved oxygen. Trace elements, heavy metals and insecticides occurred in the waters of the estuary in concentrations below those indicated as harmful for aquatic life by current standards established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (1968). The insecticides detected were concentrated in sediment and in various organisms. The patterns of distribution of planktonic and small nektonic animals in the estuary were related to salinity. Copepods (Arcatia tonsa, Labidocera aestiva, Pseudodiaptomus coronatus), cumaceans (Cyclaspis sp.), chaetognaths (Sagitta hispida), bay anchovies (Anchoa mitchilli), and scaled

  17. Flood Tide Transport of Blue Crab Postlarvae: Limitations in a Lagoonal Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudaback, C.; Eggleston, D.

    2005-05-01

    Blue crabs, an important commercial species, spend much of their life in estuaries along the east coast. The larvae spawn at or near the ocean, but the juveniles mature in the lower salinity waters of the estuary. It is generally believed that blue crab postlarvae migrate into near surface waters on flood, possibly cued by increasing salinity, and return to the bottom on ebb. Over several tidal cycles, the postlarvae travel a significant distance up-estuary. This model applies quite well to Chesapeake Bay, which has a strong along-estuary salinity gradient and large tides, but may not apply as well to Pamlico Sound, where circulation and salinity are more wind-driven than tidal. A recently completed study (N. Reyns, PhD), indicates that postlarval blue crabs use flood tides and wind-driven currents to cross Pamlico Sound. This study was based on observations with good spatial coverage, but limited vertical and temporal resolution. We have recently completed a complementary study, sampling crab larvae around the clock at four depths at a single location. Preliminary results from the new study suggest that the crab postlarvae do swim all the way to the surface, on flood only, and that flood currents are strongest slightly below the surface. These observations suggest the utility of flood tide transport in this system. However, near bottom salinity does not seem to be driven by tides; at this point it is unclear what cue might trigger the vertical migration of the postlarvae.

  18. Optical Proxies for Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Osburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical proxies, especially DOM fluorescence, were used to track terrestrial DOM fluxes through estuaries and coastal waters by comparing models developed for several coastal ecosystems. Key to using optical properties is validating and calibrating them with chemical measurements, such as lignin-derived phenols - a proxy to quantify terrestrial DOM. Utilizing parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC, and comparing models statistically using the OpenFluor database (http://www.openfluor.org we have found common, ubiquitous fluorescing components which correlate most strongly with lignin phenol concentrations in several estuarine and coastal environments. Optical proxies for lignin were computed for the following regions: Mackenzie River Estuary, Atchafalaya River Estuary, Charleston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, and Neuse River Estuary. The slope of linear regression models relating CDOM absorption at 350 nm (a350 to DOC and to lignin, varied 5 to 10 fold among systems. Where seasonal observations were available from a region, there were distinct seasonal differences in equation parameters for these optical proxies. Despite variability, overall models using single linear regression were developed that related dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration to CDOM (DOC = 40×a350+138; R2 = 0.77; N = 130 and lignin (Σ8 to CDOM (Σ8 = 2.03×a350-0.5; R2 = 0.87; N = 130. This wide variability suggested that local or regional optical models should be developed for predicting terrestrial DOM flux into coastal oceans and taken into account when upscaling to remote sensing observations and calibrations.

  19. Behaviour of uranium during mixing in the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Church, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Unequivocal evidence is presented for the removal of uranium in two major estuarine systems of the north-eastern United States: the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. In both the estuaries, during all seasons but mostly in summer, dissolved uranium shows distinctly non-conservative behaviour at salinities ≤ 5. At salinities above 5, there are no deviations from the ideal dilution line. In these two estuaries as much as 22% of dissolved uranium is removed at low salinities, around salinity 2. This pronounced removal of uranium observed at low salinities has been investigated in terms of other chemical properties measured in the Delaware Estuary. In the zone of uranium removal, dissolved oxygen is significantly depleted and pH goes through a minimum down to 6.8. In the same low salinity regime, total alkalinity shows negative deviation from the linear dilution line and phosphate is removed. Humic acids, dissolved iron and manganese are also rapidly removed during estuarine mixing in this low salinity region. Thus, it appears that removal of uranium is most likely related to those properties of alkalinity and acid-base system of the upper estuary that may destabilize the uranium-carbonate complex. Under these conditions, uranium may associate strongly with phosphates or humic substances and be removed onto particulate phases and deposited within upper estuarine sediments. (author)

  20. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  1. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  2. Interaction between two subducting plates under Tokyo and its possible effects on seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis; Okaya, David; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2007-09-01

    Underneath metropolitan Tokyo the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts to the north on top of the westward subducting Pacific plate (PAC). New, relatively high-resolution tomography images the PHS as a well-defined subduction zone under western Kanto Plain. As PAC shoals under eastern Kanto, the PHS lithosphere is being thrusted into an increasingly tighter space of the PAC-Eurasian mantle wedge. As a result, zones of enhanced seismicity appear under eastern Kanto at the top of PHS, internal to PHS and also at its contact with PAC. These zones are located at depths greater than the causative fault of the disastrous 1923 Great Tokyo ``megathrust'' earthquake, in the vicinity of several well-located historical, damaging (M6 and M7) earthquakes. Thus a rather unique interaction between subducting plates under Tokyo may account for additional seismic hazards in metropolitan Tokyo.

  3. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  4. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  5. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H.; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J.; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O. James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk J.; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A.; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore,

  6. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  7. Overview of the CTR blanket engineering research program at the University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Madarame, Haruki; Takahashi, Yoichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    A small overview has been given on the fusion reactor blanket engineering research program at the University of Tokyo as an introduction to the following articles, especially in its history, organization, experimental facilities and ten years research activity. (orig.)

  8. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion; human modification of sediment supply; introduction of non-native species; sewage input; environmental policy; and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion; decreasing turbidity; restructuring of plankton communities; nutrient enrichment; elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota; and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The wide range of variability time scales and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs. But the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  9. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.

    2012-12-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays, and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion, human modification of sediment supply, introduction of nonnative species, sewage input, environmental policy, and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion, decreasing turbidity, restructuring of plankton communities, nutrient enrichment, elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota, and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The many time scales of variability and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs, but the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  10. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  11. Identification of High Potential Bays for HABs Occurrence in Peninsular Malysia Using Palsar Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs) poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL BAYS FOR HABs OCCURRENCE IN PENINSULAR MALYSIA USING PALSAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma Vedula, VSS

    2012-07-01

    The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

  14. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    affairs to a member of the National Diet , a Fulbright Fellow at Tokyo University, a reporter for Defense News and the Iwate Nippo, and Tokyo...process of introducing electoral reform in the Diet has already split the LDP and led to the recent series of coalitions. The process of implementing this...what Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad told Japanese Prime Minister Murayama in August 1994. See "Mahathir to Japan: ’Drop War Apologies, Join

  15. Radionuclide tracers for the fate of metals in the Savannah estuary: River-ocean exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Thein, M.; Larsen, I.L.; Byrd, J.T.; Windom, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium-238 from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant labels riverborne particles, providing a unique opportunity for examining the fate of metals in estuaries and for tracing river-ocean exchange processes. Results indicate that plutonium and lead-210 are enriched on estuarine particles and that inputs of plutonium from oceanic sources greatly exceed inputs from riverborne or drainage-basin sources as far upstream as the landward limit of seawater penetration. We suggest that these radionuclides (and other chemically reactive metals) are being scavenged from oceanic water by sorption onto particles in turbid estuarine and coastal areas. Since estuaries, bays, mangroves, and intertidal areas serve as effective traps for fine particles and associated trace substances, these results have important implications concerning the disposal of chemically reactive substances in oceanic waters. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  17. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  18. Trapping of sediment in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernetsky, A.

    2012-01-01

    An estuary is an ideal habitat for various aquatic species. At the same time, estuaries and adjacent rivers are used as fast navigation routes between the coastal and inland territories. The fast industrial development and the subsequent growth of cities and trade have led to large-scale

  19. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2015-01-01

    Estuarine Microplastics (MPs) are limited to know globally. By filtering subsurface water through 330 μm nets, MPs in Jiaojiang, Oujiang Estuaries were quantified, as well as that in Minjiang Estuary responding to Typhoon Soulik. Polymer matrix was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. MP (<5 mm) comprised more than 90% of total number plastics. The highest MPs density was found in Minjiang, following Jiaojiang and Oujiang. Fibers and granules were the primary shapes, with no pellets found. Colored MPs were the majority. The concentrations of suspended microplastics determine their bioavailability to low trophic organisms, and then possibly promoting the transfer of microplastic to higher trophic levels. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the prevalent types of MPs analyzed. Economic structures in urban estuaries influenced on MPs contamination levels. Typhoon didn't influence the suspended MP densities significantly. Our results provide basic information for better understanding suspended microplastics within urban estuaries and for managerial actions. - Highlights: • Suspended microplastic were investigated within three densely populated/developed urban estuaries, China. • Economical structures may contribute to the abundances of microplastic particles within the studied estuaries. • Typhoon Soulik didn't influence microplastic densities in the water column of Minjiang Estuary. • Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) dominated more than 90% of the total plastic by number. - Suspended microplastics (MPs) levels were quantified within three urban estuaries, China. MPs densities were consistent with the urban economical structure, and that in Minjiang were unaffected by Typhoon.

  20. The Mntafufu and Mzamba River estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-14

    Mar 14, 1989 ... A survey of the fish fauna of Transkei estuaries. Part Four: The Mntafufu and Mzamba River estuaries. E.E. Plumstead • and J.F. Prinsloo. Department of Zoology, University of Transkei, Private Bag X1, Unitra, Umtata, Republic of Transkei. H.J. Schoonbee. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, ...

  1. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  2. The Effect of Low Energy Turbulence in Estuary Margins on Fine Sediment Settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; MacVean, L. J.; Tse, I.; Mazzaro, L. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment dynamics in estuaries and near shore regions control the growth or erosion of the bed and fringing wetlands, determine the spread of sediment-associated contaminants, and limit the light availability for primary productivity through turbidity. In estuaries such as San Francisco Bay, this sediment is often cohesive, and can flocculate. Changes to the composition of the sediment and waters, the suspended sediment concentration, and the turbulence can all affect the flocculation of suspended sediment. In turn, flocculation controls the particle diameter, settling velocity, density, and particle inertia. These sediment properties drive the turbulent diffusivity, which balances with the settling velocity to impact the vertical distribution of sediment in the water column. The vertical profile strongly affects how sediment is transported through the estuary by lateral flow. Turbulence may also impact settling velocity in non-cohesive particles. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, thus particles are more likely to get swept along the downward side of a turbulent eddy than the upward side, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. We isolated the impacts of turbulence level, particle size and type, and suspended sediment concentration on particle settling velocities using uniform grain size particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Controlling the turbulence in a well-defined turbulence tank, we used Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, separated vertically, to measure turbulent velocities (w') and suspended sediment concentrations (C), which yield condition dependent settling velocities (ws), via equation 1. Lab characterization of particle settling velocities help to validate the method for measuring settling velocities in the field, and will serve as a foundation for an extensive field experiment in San Francisco Bay. Characterizing the velocity enhancement relative to the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the

  3. Using Remote Sensing to Determine the Spatial Scales of Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N.; Nahorniak, J.

    2016-02-01

    One challenge facing Earth system science is to understand and quantify the complexity of rivers, estuaries, and coastal zone regions. Earlier studies using data from airborne hyperspectral imagers (Bissett et al., 2004, Davis et al., 2007) demonstrated from a very limited data set that the spatial scales of the coastal ocean could be resolved with spatial sampling of 100 m Ground Sample Distance (GSD) or better. To develop a much larger data set (Aurin et al., 2013) used MODIS 250 m data for a wide range of coastal regions. Their conclusion was that farther offshore 500 m GSD was adequate to resolve large river plume features while nearshore regions (a few kilometers from the coast) needed higher spatial resolution data not available from MODIS. Building on our airborne experience, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO, Lucke et al., 2011) was designed to provide hyperspectral data for the coastal ocean at 100 m GSD. HICO operated on the International Space Station for 5 years and collected over 10,000 scenes of the coastal ocean and other regions around the world. Here we analyze HICO data from an example set of major river delta regions to assess the spatial scales of variability in those systems. In one system, the San Francisco Bay and Delta, we also analyze Landsat 8 OLI data at 30 m and 15 m to validate the 100 m GSD sampling scale for the Bay and assess spatial sampling needed as you move up river.

  4. Concerns in assessing radiological releases to a major estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldesi, Leslie P.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: In the State of Virginia, the James River flows into the Chesapeake Bay and from the mouth of the James River to the fall line the river is under the influence of tidal forces. There are several centers of commerce along the river including an international port of call at the mouth of the James. Associated with the centers of commerce are potential sources of radioactive materials for being released to the river. Two hundred miles inland, the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear fuels processing plants are situated along-side the James River, which has been known to flood its banks quickly in the mountainous regions of Virginia. Storage tanks have been swept downstream from this facility in a previous flood. Fortunately, the tanks were not destroyed. Another source of a possible release is the Suny Nuclear Power Station located on the James River about fifty miles from the Chesapeake Bay. In the cities of Norfolk and Newport News, shipyards are fueling and defueling the Navy's nuclear powered fleet. In addition, many of the Navy's ships are carrying nuclear weapons. These activities may also result in an inadvertent release. In assessing the radiological release from any one of the previously mentioned activities, it is obvious that dilution of the material released into the river is a major factor in dose assessment, as well as the fact that the water is brackish and not suitable as a source of potable water. However, dilution in this case may not be the simple solution. We also have to remember that this estuary is under tidal effects, which means that the materials may not be going out to sea to be further diluted as quickly as we would like to think. It may be possible that the material will be carried up river as far as the fall line and deposited, or deposited along the river's banks. From Virginia's experience with the pesticide, Kepone, materials may be deposited along the estuary and enter the food chain thereby necessitating the limitation of taking

  5. Concerns in assessing radiological releases to a major estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldesi, Leslie P [Virginia Department of Health, Bureau of Radiological Health, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Full text: In the State of Virginia, the James River flows into the Chesapeake Bay and from the mouth of the James River to the fall line the river is under the influence of tidal forces. There are several centers of commerce along the river including an international port of call at the mouth of the James. Associated with the centers of commerce are potential sources of radioactive materials for being released to the river. Two hundred miles inland, the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear fuels processing plants are situated along-side the James River, which has been known to flood its banks quickly in the mountainous regions of Virginia. Storage tanks have been swept downstream from this facility in a previous flood. Fortunately, the tanks were not destroyed. Another source of a possible release is the Suny Nuclear Power Station located on the James River about fifty miles from the Chesapeake Bay. In the cities of Norfolk and Newport News, shipyards are fueling and defueling the Navy's nuclear powered fleet. In addition, many of the Navy's ships are carrying nuclear weapons. These activities may also result in an inadvertent release. In assessing the radiological release from any one of the previously mentioned activities, it is obvious that dilution of the material released into the river is a major factor in dose assessment, as well as the fact that the water is brackish and not suitable as a source of potable water. However, dilution in this case may not be the simple solution. We also have to remember that this estuary is under tidal effects, which means that the materials may not be going out to sea to be further diluted as quickly as we would like to think. It may be possible that the material will be carried up river as far as the fall line and deposited, or deposited along the river's banks. From Virginia's experience with the pesticide, Kepone, materials may be deposited along the estuary and enter the food chain thereby necessitating the limitation of taking

  6. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  7. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Freshwater Flow and Salinity in the Ten Thousand Islands Estuary, Florida, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderqvist, Lars E.; Patino, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The watershed of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) estuary has been substantially altered through the construction of canals and roads for the Southern Golden Gate Estates (SGGE), Barron River Canal, and U.S. 41 (Tamiami Trail). Two restoration projects designed to improve freshwater delivery to the estuary are the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which includes the Southern Golden Gate Estates, and the Tamiami Trail Culverts Project; both are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To address hydrologic information needs critical for monitoring the effects of these restoration projects, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in October 2006 to characterize freshwater outflows from the rivers, internal circulation and mixing within the estuary, and surface-water exchange between the estuary and Gulf of Mexico. The effort is conducted in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District and complemented by monitoring performed by the Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Surface salinity was measured during moving boat surveys using a flow-through system that operated at planing speeds averaging 20 miles per hour. The data were logged every 10 seconds by a data recorder that simultaneously logged location information from a Global Positioning System. The major rivers, bays, and nearshore Gulf of Mexico region of the TTI area were surveyed in approximately 5 hours by two boats traversing about 200 total miles. Salinity and coordinate data were processed using inverse distance weighted interpolation to create salinity contour maps of the entire TTI region. Ten maps were created from salinity surveys performed between May 2007 and May 2009 and illustrate the dry season, transitional, and wet season salinity patterns of the estuarine rivers, inner bays, mangrove islands, and Gulf of Mexico boundary. The effects of anthropogenic activities are indicated by exceptionally low salinities associated with point discharge into the

  8. Vibracore, Radiocarbon, Microfossil, and Grain-Size Data from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Pendleton, E.A.; Poore, R.Z.; Osterman, L.E.; Kelso, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected by using a Rossfelder electric percussive (P-3) vibracore system during a cruise on the Research Vessel (R/V) G.K. Gilbert. Selection of the core sites was based on a geophysical survey that was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Coastal Services Center (CSC) and the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. This report contains the vibracore data logs, photographs, and core-derived data including grain-size analyses, radiocarbon ages, microfossil counts, and sedimentological interpretations. The long-term goal of this study is to provide maps, data, and assistance to the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in their effort to monitor and understand the geology and ecology of Apalachicola Bay Estuary. These data will inform coastal managers charged with the responsibility for resource preservation.

  9. Collaborative Potential between National Estuary Programs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitat for freshwater and marine species as well as valuable social and economic benefits. The wealth of ecosystem goods and services from estuaries has led to growth and development of human communities in adjacent areas and an increase in human activities that can adversely affect water quality and critical habitat. Managing for sustainable estuaries requires a balance of environmental concerns with community social and economic values. This has created an opportunity to leverage Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientific knowledge and tools with National Estuary Program (NEP) planning and management expertise to address environmental challenges in important estuarine ecosystems. The non-regulatory National Estuary Program (NEP) was outlined in the Clean Water Act to provide stakeholders an opportunity to monitor and manage ‘nationally significant’ estuaries. Currently there are 28 estuaries in the NEP, broadly distributed across the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coasts, and in Puerto Rico. The local NEP management conferences must address a variety of environmental issues, from water quality and natural resources to coastal and watershed development. While the underlying objectives of each NEP are quite similar, each has unique landscapes, land uses, waterbodies, habitats, biological resources, economies and social culture. Consequently, the effects and severity of anthr

  10. Characterizing seston in the Penobscot River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseck, Shannon L; Li, Yaqin; Sunila, Inke; Dixon, Mark; Clark, Paul; Lipsky, Christine; Stevens, Justin R; Music, Paul; Wikfors, Gary H

    2017-10-01

    The Penobscot River Estuary is an important system for diadromous fish in the Northeast United States of American (USA), in part because it is home to the largest remnant population of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the country. Little is known about the chemical and biological characteristics of seston in the Penobscot River Estuary. This study used estuarine transects to characterize the seston during the spring when river discharge is high and diadromous fish migration peaks in the Penobscot River Estuary. To characterize the seston, samples were taken in spring 2015 for phytoplankton identification, total suspended matter (TSM), percent organic TSM, chlorophyll a, particle size (2 μm-180 μm), particulate carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The estuarine profiles indicate that TSM behaved non-conservatively with a net gain in the estuary. As phytoplankton constituted only 1/1000 of the particles, the non-conservative behavior of TSM observed in the estuary was most likely not attributable to phytoplankton. Particulate carbon and nitrogen ratios and stable isotope signals indicate a strong terrestrial, allochthonous signal. The seston in the Penobscot River Estuary was dominated by non-detrital particles. During a short, two-week time period, Heterosigma akashiwo, a phytoplankton species toxic to finfish, also was detected in the estuary. A limited number of fish samples, taken after the 2015 Penobscot River Estuary bloom of H. akashiwo, indicated frequent pathological gill damage. The composition of seston, along with ichthyotoxic algae, suggest the need for further research into possible effects upon resident and migratory fish in the Penobscot River Estuary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Holocene environmental and parasequence development of the St. Jones Estuary, Delaware (USA): Foraminiferal proxies of natural climatic and anthropogenic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leorri, E.; Martin, R.; McLaughlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The benthic foraminiferal record of marshes located along western Delaware Bay (St. Jones Estuary, USA) reflects the response of estuaries to sea-level and paleoclimate change during the Holocene. System tracts are recognized and within them parasequences based on sedimentological and foraminiferal assemblages identification. The parasequences defined by foraminiferal assemblages appear correlative with rapid Holocene climate changes that are of worldwide significance: 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600??cal years BP. Following postglacial sea-level rise, modern subestuaries and marshes in the region began to develop between 6000 and 4000??years BP, depending on their proximity to the mouth of Delaware Bay and coastal geomorphology. Initial sediments were fluvial in origin, with freshwater marshes established around 4000??years BP. The subsequent sea-level transgression occurred sufficiently slowly that freshwater marshes alternated with salt marshes at the same sites to around 3000??years BP. Locally another two transgressions are identified at 1800 and 1000??years BP respectively. Marine influence increased in the estuaries until 600??years BP (Little Ice Age), when regression occurred. Sea-level began to rise again during the mid-19th Century at the end of the Little Ice Age, when marshes became established. The presence of a sand lens in the upper and middle estuary and the reduction in the number of tests in the top samples in cores from the same area also suggest an anthropogenic influence. The estuary infill resulted in a sharp transgressive sequence, represented by salt marsh foraminiferal assemblages in the upper part of the cores. The increase in marsh foraminifera in both areas suggests an increase in marine influence that might be due to the transgression beginning at the end of the Little Ice Age about 150-180??years ago coupled with anthropogenic straightening of the channel in 1913. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oil Characterization and Distribution in Florida Estuary Sediments Following the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace G. Barron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to impact, during peak oiling, and post-wellhead capping. Only two locations closest to the Gulf of Mexico had elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. These samples showed a clear weathered crude oil signature, pattern of depletion of C9 to C19 alkanes and C0 to C4 naphthalenes, and geochemical biomarker ratios in concordance with weathered Macondo crude oil. All other locations and sample times showed only trace petroleum contamination. The results of this study are consistent with available satellite imagery and visual shoreline survey data showing heavy shoreline oiling limited to sandy beaches near the entrance to Pensacola Bay and shorelines of Santa Rosa Island.

  13. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Characterization of Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Tidal wetlands in Tampa Bay, Florida, consist of mangrove forests and salt marshes. Wetlands buffer storm surges, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and enhance water quality through the removal of water-borne nutrients and contaminants. Substantial areas of both mangroves and salt marshes have been lost to agricultural, residential, and industrial development in this urban estuary. Wetlands researchers are characterizing the biological components of tidal wetlands and examining the physical factors such as salinity, tidal flushing, and sediment deposition that control the composition of tidal wetland habitats. Wetlands restoration is a priority of resource managers in Tampa Bay. Baseline studies such as these are needed for successful restoration planning and evaluation.

  14. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatje, V.; Macedo, S.M.; Jesus, R.M. de; Cotrim, G.; Garcia, K.S.; Queiroz, A.F. de; Ferreira, S.L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total concentration of As at several stations along Todos os Santos Bay, was above TEL value. → At Subae and Paraguacu systems, As (V) was the dominant species, which is less toxic and less mobile than As (III). → Arsenic concentrations at Jaguaripe estuary were higher than in other estuaries and As (III) was the dominant species. → Relationship between As, Fe, Mn and sand indicated that As enrichment at Jaguaripe River is natural. → As concentrations in sediments and biota suggest that As is bioavailable and it is accumulating in marine organisms, which may impose human risks. → Slurry sampling showed to be a easy, accurate procedure to be used for As determination in estuarine samples. - Abstract: The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subae and Paraguacu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subae estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguacu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  15. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Lester J. McKee,

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal-estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 x 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  16. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  17. Short-term tidal asymmetry inversion in a macrotidal estuary (Beira, Mozambique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzualo, Teodósio N. M.; Gallo, Marcos N.; Vinzon, Susana B.

    2018-05-01

    The distortion of the tide in estuaries, bays and coastal areas is the result of the generation of overtides due to the non-linear effects associated with friction, advection, and the finite effects of the tidal amplitude in shallow waters. The Beira estuary is classified as macrotidal, with a large ratio of S2/M2. Typical tides ranges from 6 m and 0.8 m, during springs and neaps tides, respectively. As a consequence of this large fortnightly tidal amplitude difference and the estuarine morphology, asymmetry inversions occur. Two types of tidal asymmetries were investigated in this paper, one considering tidal duration asymmetry (time difference between rising and falling tide) and the other, related to tidal velocity asymmetry (unequal magnitudes of flood and ebb peaks currents). In the Beira estuary when we examine the tidal duration asymmetry, flood dominance is observed during spring tide periods (negative time difference between rising and falling tide), while ebb dominance appears during neap tides (positive time difference between rising and falling tide). A 2DH hydrodynamic model was implemented to analyze this asymmetry inversion. The model was calibrated with water-level data measured at the Port of Beira and current data measured along the estuary. The model was run for different scenarios considering tidal constituents at the ocean boundary, river discharge and the morphology of the estuary. River discharge did not show significant effects on the tidal duration asymmetry. Through comparison of the scenarios, it was shown that the incoming ocean tide at the boundary has an ebb-dominant asymmetry, changing to flood-dominant only during spring tides due to the effect of shoaling and friction within the estuary. During neap tides, the propagation occurs mainly in the channels, and ebb dominance remains. The interplay between the estuary morphodynamics was thus identified and the relation between tidal duration asymmetry and tidal velocity asymmetry was

  18. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  19. Fifty years experiences in nuclear engineering education at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuhiko; Saito, Masaki; Aritomi, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education has been initiated in 1957 at the graduate school of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Educational activities have been conducted for fifty years under the support of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors. In the past fifty years, about 1000 Master students and 200 Doctoral students and 200 Doctoral students graduated from our Nuclear Engineering Department at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Many of them found their jobs in nuclear industries and institutes. International course of nuclear engineering was initiated in 1994, and so far about 90 students from 15 overseas countries have graduated from our Master and Doctoral Programs. In 2003, our proposal of 'Innovative Nuclear Energy System for the Sustainable World' was adopted as the Center of Excellent Program sponsored by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Recently a collaborative education network has been developed among Kanazawa University, Fukui University, Ibaraki University, Okayama University, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  20. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  1. Researches at the University of Tokyo fast neutron sources reactor, YAYOI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.; Saito, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was critical in 1971 at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo (UTNL). The core is fueled with the enriched uranium surrounded by the depleted uranium. YAYOI is the first fast reactor in Japan. Many types of studies have been carried out by the researchers of the University of Tokyo in these 20 years. It also contributed to the Japan's national project of developing fast breeder reactors. The reactor is opened to the visiting researchers from universities and research institutes. YAYOI has also been utilized for education of undergraduate and graduate students of the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Tokyo. The present paper briefly summerizes past and present researchers. (author)

  2. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  3. Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Pandya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mahi river estuary is one of the major estuaries of Gujarat. This paper presents a comprehensive list of birds of the Mahi river estuary (nearly 50 km stretch and the adjacent banks/ravines and defines the avian diversity at three major estuarine gradations with a brief check of similarity and diversity within the three. The present observation is the outcome of a 3 year period from August 2006 to July 2009. A sum total of 118 species belonging to 42 families were reported and listed as on Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream of estuary. No significant difference was seen in the species richness at the three zones; a change in avian composition at upstream and downstream was notable.

  4. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  5. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  6. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  7. Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Borole, D.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Hg levels in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Ulhas estuary are under considerable environmental stress due to the indiscriminate release of effluents from a variety of industries including chlor-alkali plants. Concentration...

  8. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  9. Young of the year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) as a bioindicator of estuarine health: Establishing a new baseline for persistent organic pollutants after Hurricane Sandy for selected estuaries in New Jersey and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Deshpande, Ashok D; Blazer, Vicki S; Dockum, Bruce W; Timmons, DeMond; Sharack, Beth L; Baker, Ronald J; Samson, Jennifer; Reilly, Timothy J

    2016-06-30

    Atlantic coastal bays of the US are essential habitat for young of year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Their residence in these estuaries during critical life stages, high lipid content, and piscivory make bluefish an ideal bioindicator species for evaluating estuarine health. Individual whole fish from four estuaries impacted by Hurricane Sandy were collected in August 2013, analyzed for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides and evaluated using health metrics. Concentrations in whole bluefish differed by estuary; however, concentrations for many POPs decreased or were similar to those observed prior to the hurricane. Prevalence of the ectoparasitic gill isopod (Lironeca ovalis) varied by estuary and no relationships between contaminants and lesions were observed. Bluefish should be considered for monitoring programs and, if sampled frequently, could be an effective bioindicator of incremental and episodic changes in contaminants within aquatic food webs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean understanding to high school students. When the student has completed this unit, he should be able to: (1) define an…

  11. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  12. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  13. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  14. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  15. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.

  16. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  17. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing and long term monitoring reveal watershed-estuary ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E. L.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Morgan-King, T.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-02-01

    Estuarine ecosystems and their biogeochemical processes are extremely vulnerable to climate and environmental changes, and are threatened by sea level rise and upstream activities such as land use/land cover and hydrological changes. Despite the recognized threat to estuaries, most aspects of how change will affect estuaries are not well understood due to the poorly resolved understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions in estuarine systems. Remote sensing technologies such as high spectral resolution optical systems enable measurements of key environmental parameters needed to establish baseline conditions and improve modeling efforts. The San Francisco Bay-Delta is a highly modified estuary system in a state of ecological crisis due to the numerous threats to its sustainability. In this study, we used a combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and long-term in situ monitoring records to investigate how water clarity has been responding to extreme climatic events, anthropogenic watershed disturbances, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) invasions. From the long-term turbidity monitoring record, we found that water clarity underwent significant increasing step changes associated with sediment depletion and El Nino-extreme run-off events. Hyperspectral remote sensing data revealed that invasive submerged aquatic pant species have facultative C3 and C4-like photosynthetic pathways that give them a competitive advantage under the changing water clarity conditions of the Bay-Delta system. We postulate that this adaptation facilitated the rapid expansion of SAV following the significant step changes in increasing water clarity caused by watershed disturbances and the 1982-1983 El Nino events. Using SAV maps from hyperspectral remote sensing, we estimate that SAV-water clarity feedbacks were responsible for 20-70% of the increasing water clarity trend in the Bay-Delta. Ongoing and future developments in airborne and

  19. Sensitivity of Estuaries to Coastal Morphological Change Induced by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Mariotti, G.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands play a critical role by providing food and habitat for a variety of species and by dissipating wave and storm surge. These regions are also vulnerable to climate change and specifically rising sea levels. Projections show that coastal marshes across the Northern Gulf of Mexico are threatened by a higher risk of losing their productivity through increased inundation depth and time [Alizad et al., 2016a]. Individual estuaries will respond differently to stressors based on local conditions such as tidal range, creek geometry, and sediment sources, among others. In addition, morphological changes in estuaries are functions of both physical processes such as hydrodynamics and wind waves as well as biological mechanisms. To investigate the sensitivity of storm surge to bio-geomorphological changes associated with climate change within an estuary, the Hydro-MEM model [Alizad et al., 2016b] and first-order bathymetric changes were applied for a set of sea level rise (SLR) scenarios. Morphologic change in the form of marsh platform accretion and enhanced bay bathymetry through time was employed in an ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) shallow-water equation model. The model was used to run synthetic storm simulations for an intermediate-low (0.5 m), intermediate-high (1.2 m), and high (2.0 m) SLR scenarios in Grand Bay, MS (marine dominated) and Weeks Bay, AL (mixed) estuaries. Results including with and without morphologic changes applied will be discussed. Future steps for incorporating morphological effects including channel widening and wave erosion processes into the Hydro-MEM model is to couple morphologic and hydrodynamic models [Mariotti and Canestrelli, 2017] in the Hydro-MEM time step framework. ReferencesAlizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, S. C. Medeiros, M. V. Bilskie, and J. F. Weishampel (2016a), Coastal wetland response to sea-level rise in a fluvial estuarine system, Earth's Future, 4(11), 483-497. Alizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, P

  20. Records of contaminant input to San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geen, A. van; Luoma, S.N.; Hornberger, M.; Fuller, C.; Pereira, W.; Hostettler, F.; Kvenvolden, K.; Anima, R.; Ritson, P.; Flegal, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the few large estuaries on the West Coast of North America, was subjected to great change as mining, agriculture, industrialization and urbanization accelerated after 1849, and river flows were diverted for agriculture. Trends in contamination were evident in sediment cores analyzed from seven sites. Sedimentation rates increased with human activities. Industrialization was a greater source of contamination than mining. Nearest the mouth of the estuary, concentrations of Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and PAH began to increase around 1900. Isotopes of Pb indicated sediments were affected by a mixture of atmospheric, industrial and erosional inputs. Peaks in some contaminants were evident since the 1950s, notably Ag, Cd in water (as recorded in foraminifers tests), and DDT. Chromium and vanadium were naturally enriched throughout the cores. Declines in metal concentrations in surface sediments were not evident. Vertical mixing could delay response of sediments to changed metal inputs. Nearer the head of the estuary, contaminant concentrations, TOC and indicators of terrigenous carbon increased sharply where 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu was present (presumably post-1950). Diversion of river flows may have affected accumulation of sediments contaminated by post-war industrialization and acceleration of agricultural development

  1. Temporal changes in the prevalence of parasites in two Oregon estuary-dwelling fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert E; Pierce, Jack R; Jacobson, Kym C; Burreson, Eugene M

    2004-06-01

    The parasite faunas of juvenile English sole (Parophrys vetulus) in 1971-1972 and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) in 1971 from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, were compared with faunas found in the same estuary in 1997-2000 (English sole) and 1999-2000 (staghorn sculpin). The 7 most commonly occurring parasites in 1971 were compared with the same species observed during the same month and sampling sites in 1997-2000. Multivariate community analysis of juvenile English sole parasites supported the suggestion that the 1971 parasite data were representative of the early-1970s time period. Four of the parasite species infecting English sole and 6 of those infecting staghorn sculpins had significantly lower prevalences in 1997-2000. Parasite species with significantly lower prevalences also had reduced intensity levels. One parasite (Glugea stephani) of English sole increased in prevalence in the 1997-2000 samples in association with the warm estuarine temperatures during the 1997 El Niño year. Although the causes for the changes in occurrence of other parasites were not determined, ecological changes in Yaquina Bay that may have influenced parasite ecology include apparent changes in the estuary ichthyofauna that occurred between the sampling periods. Such changes could be associated with increases in the number of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) subsequent to establishment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972.

  2. Immunotoxicity in plaice exposed to marine sediments in Baie des Anglais on the St. Lawrence Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, A. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nagler, J.; Lee, K.; Lebeuf, M.; Cyr, D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, M. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The sediments of Baie des Anglais on the St. Lawrence Estuary have a history of environmental contamination. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the immune system of American Plaice (Hippoglossoides Platessoides) could be affected following in-situ exposure at three different sites in and near Baie des Anglais. These sites vary with their proximity to local industry, Sites 1 and 2 (within the bay) being the closest and Site 3 (outside the bay) the furthest away. Fishes placed in cages at each site for three weeks, displayed head kidney cell immune responses (i.e., phagocytosis) modifications indicating that Site 1 was most immunotoxic and site 3 the least. Sediment chemical analysis show a gradient in contaminant concentrations with the highest levels recorded at Site 1, about 10-fold less at Site 2 and 100-fold less at Site 3. Organics predominated (PAHs, PCBs, PCDFs) with heavy metal concentrations low and representative of background levels for the St. Lawrence Estuary. The results obtained indicate that contaminants present in the sediments are bioavailable to fish and significantly affect their immune system.

  3. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  4. The Estuary Book: A Guide to Promoting Understanding and Regional Management of Maine's Estuaries and Embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Jenny

    The objective of this document is to provide information about estuaries, the impact of uses on the environmental health of an estuary, and what communities and concerned individuals can do to manage and protect their local estuarine resources successfully. Much of the information presented here pertains to other embayments along the Maine coast…

  5. Seasonal stratification and property distributions in a tropical estuary (Cochin estuary, west coast, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaprasad, A.; Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    immune from extended hypoxia/anoxia and maintaining the health of the Cochin estuary. For the seasonally varying river flow in the estuary, salt intrusion receded with increasing river flow in monsoon and rebounded with decreasing river flow in dry season...

  6. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA), by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. I. Introduction and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, James T.; Thompson, Janet K.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1990-01-01

    The euryhaline bivalve mollusc Potamocorbula amurensis (family Corbulidae), a native of China, Japan, and Korea, has recently appeared and become very abundant in San Francisco Bay. This clam appears to have been introduced as veliger larvae in the seawater ballast of cargo vessels. It was first collected in northern San Francisco Bay in late 1986. P, amurensis then spread throughout the estuary within 2 yr and reached densities at some sites exceeding 10 000 m-2 It lives primarily in the subtidal on all substrates (mud, sand, peat, and clay) and is found in the full range of bay salinities (estuary ecosystem. These could include changes in (1) trophic dynamics (through competition with other suspension-feeding and deposit-feeding infauna; changes in benthic community energy flow; availability of a new and abundant prey item for birds, fish, and crabs; and reduction - as a result of its filter feeding - of phytoplankton standmg stock) and (2) benthic dynamics (through inhibition and/or enhancement of infauna due to substrate destabilization; alteration of suspended sediment load of near-bottom water; and change of sediment surface redox balance). The early detection of the appearance and spread of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay makes this one of the best documented invasions of any estuary in the world.

  7. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  8. The 137Cs distribution in sediment profiles from the Yangtze River estuary: a comparison of modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S.M.; Xu, Y.H.; Wang, A.; Povinec, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted when estimating sedimentation rates using the 137 Cs dating method that the position of the 137 Cs maximum in a sediment profile represents the year 1963. In this paper we validated this approach by developing a model in which the annual 137 Cs global fallout flux for the Yangtze River estuary was established on the basis of the Tokyo flux corrected for precipitation rates observed in Shanghai. As the 137 Cs maxima in the sediment deposition profiles depend on the sedimentation rates, the sub-sampling intervals were calculated accordingly. Higher measured than the calculated values were found in some cores, what may be due to fluctuating sedimentation rates and an additional deposition of 137 Cs from land-based sources. The study provides useful information on the reliability of the measured 137 Cs maxima in sediment profiles frequently used for dating of sediments in marine (coastal regions, open seas) as well as in terrestrial (lakes) environments. (author)

  9. Discharge, water-quality characteristics, and nutrient loads from McKay Bay, Delaney Creek, and East Bay, Tampa, Florida, 1991-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Y.E.; Levesque, V.A.; Fritz, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in Tampa Bay has caused a decline in water quality in the estuary. Efforts to reduce the nutrient loading to Tampa Bay have resulted in improvement in water quality from 1981 to 1991. However, Tampa Bay still is onsidered enriched with nutrients. Water quality in East Bay (located at the northeastern part of Hillsborough Bay, which is an embayment in Tampa Bay) is not improving at the same rate as the rest of the bay. East Bay is the center of shipping activity in Tampa Bay and the seventh largest port in the United States. One of the primary cargoes is phosphate ore and related products such as fertilizer. The potential for nutrient loading to East Bay from shipping activities is high and has not previously been measured. Nitrogen and phosphorus loads from East Bay to Hillsborough Bay were measured during selected time periods during June 1992 through May 1993; these data were used to estimate seasonal and annual loads. These loads were evaluated to determine whether the loss of fertilizer products from shipping activities resulted in increased nutrient loading to Hillsborough Bay. Discharge was measured, and water-quality samples were collected at the head of East Bay (exiting McKay Bay), and at the mouth of East Bay. Discharge and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for the period June 1992 through May 1993 were used to compute loads. Discharges from McKay Bay, Delaney Creek, and East Bay are highly variable because of the effect of tide. Flow patterns during discharge measurements generally were unidirectional in McKay Bay and Delaney Creek, but more complex, bidirectional patterns were observed at the mouth of East Bay. Tidally affected discharge data were digitally filtered with the Godin filter to remove the effects of tide so that residual, or net, discharge could be determined. Daily mean discharge from McKay Bay ranged from -1,900 to 2,420 cubic feet per second; from Delaney Creek, -3.8 to 162 cubic feet per second; and from East

  10. Distribution and sources of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the Pearl River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Dong; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-10-01

    The Pearl River delta, one of the most prosperous economically region in China, has experienced significant contaminant inputs. However, the dynamics of pollutants in the Pearl River estuary and the adjacent coastal areas are still unclear at present. In the paper, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the surface sediments of the Pearl River estuary. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 126.08 to 3828.58 ng/g with a mean value of 563.52 ng/g, whereas the highest PAHs were observed in Guangzhou channel. Among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs, PAHs with 3-4 rings exhibited relative higher levels. A positive relationship was found between PAHs and total organic carbon. The source analysis further showed that the major sources of PAHs in the Pearl River estuary were originated from the pyrolytic inputs, reflecting a mixed energy structure such as wood, coal and petroleum combustion. In summary, although PAHs in Lingding Bay and the adjacent coastal areas of the Pearl River estuary exhibited a relatively low pollution level, the relatively high pollution level of PAHs in Guangzhou channel will be attended.

  11. Effectiveness of remediation of metal-contaminated mangrove sediments (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin; Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2015-04-01

    Industrial activities and urbanization have had a major consequence for estuarine ecosystem health and water quality globally. Likewise, Sydney estuary has been significantly impacted by widespread, poor industrial practices in the past, and remediation of legacy contaminants have been undertaken in limited parts of this waterway. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of remediation of a former Pb-contaminated industrial site in Homebush Bay on Sydney estuary (Australia) through sampling of inter-tidal sediments and mangrove (Avicennia marina) tissue (fine nutritive roots, pneumatophores, and leaves). Results indicate that since remediation 6 years previously, Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) in surficial sediment have increased to concentrations that approach pre-remediation levels and that they were considerably higher than pre-settlement levels (3-30 times), as well as at the reference site. Most metals were compartmentalized in fine nutritive roots with bio-concentration factors greater than unity, while tissues of pneumatophores and leaves contained low metal concentrations. Lead concentrations in fine nutritive root, pneumatophore, and leaf tissue of mangroves from the remediated site were similar to trees in un-remediated sites of the estuary and were substantially higher than plants at the reference site. The situation for Zn in fine nutritive root tissue was similar. The source of the metals was either surface/subsurface water from the catchment or more likely remobilized contaminated sediment from un-remediated parts of Homebush Bay. Results of this study demonstrate the problems facing management in attempting to reduce contamination in small parts of a large impacted area to concentrations below local base level.

  12. Distribution and Invasion Potential of Limonium ramosissimum subsp. provinciale in San Francisco Estuary Salt Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Archbald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-native sea lavenders (Limonium spp. are invasive in salt marshes of southern California and were first documented in the San Francisco Estuary (the estuary in 2007. In this study, we mapped distributions of L. ramosissimum subsp. provinciale (LIRA and L. duriusculum within the estuary and investigated how the invasion potential of the more common species, LIRA, varies with elevation and edaphic conditions. We contacted colleagues and conducted field searches to find and then map sea lavender populations. In addition, we measured LIRA’s elevational range at three salt marshes. Across this range we measured (1 soil properties: salinity, moisture, bulk density, and texture; and (2 indicators of invasion potential: LIRA size, seed production, percent cover, spread (over 1 year, recruitment, and competition with native halophytes (over 6 months. We found LIRA in 15,144 m2 of upper salt marsh habitat in central and south San Francisco bays and L. duriusculum in 511 m2 in Richardson and San Pablo bays. LIRA was distributed from mean high water (MHW to 0.42 m above mean higher high water (MHHW. In both spring and summer, soil moisture and salinity were lowest at higher elevations within LIRA’s range, which corresponded with greater rosette size, inflorescence and seed production (up to 17,400 seeds per plant, percent cover, and recruitment. LIRA cover increased on average by 11% in 1 year across marshes and elevations. Cover of the native halophytes Salicornia pacifica, Jaumea carnosa, and Distichlis spicata declined significantly at all elevations if LIRA were present in plots (over a 6-month, fall–winter period. Results suggest LIRA’s invasion potential is highest above MHHW where salinity and moisture are lower, but that LIRA competes with native plants from MHW to above MHHW. We recommend removal efforts with emphasis on the salt marsh-terrestrial ecotone where LIRA seed output is highest.

  13. Construction, characteristics and present status of high-fluence irradiation facility at University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Kouchi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    New ion accelerator facility (HIT Facility) was constructed at Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo. This facility, which was equipped with some special apparatus, has been mainly dedicated to the study of radiation effects of ion beams on materials. In this report, the construction, the characteristics and the present status of this facility are described. (author)

  14. Tokyo Halloween on the Street : Japanese Dressing Up Between Bricolage and Authenticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.H.; Takagi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives related to fashion and consumerist cultures on the one hand and anthropology and appropriation on the other hand, this paper addresses dressing up on the streets during the celebration of Halloween in Tokyo, Japan. By relating commercially marketed Halloween fun-dress to

  15. Development of a Distributed Modeling Framework to Estimate Thermal Comfort along 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hirabayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is an issue for marathon races in the summer, such as the one planned for the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic games. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government is planning to grow existing street trees’ canopies to enlarge their shade to reduce air temperature and solar radiation. To formulate a baseline to assess the effect of street trees and buildings on human thermal comfort, Distributed-COMfort FormulA (D-COMFA, a prototype of a distributed computer model using a geographic information system (GIS was developed. D-COMFA calculates the energy budget of a human body on a 1 m cell basis, using readily available datasets such as weather measurements and polygon data for street structures. D-COMFA was applied to a street segment along the marathon course in Tokyo on an hourly-basis on 9 August 2016, the hottest day in Tokyo in 2016. Our case study showed that the energy budget was positively related to the sky view factor, air temperature, and solar radiation. The energy budget was reduced on average by 26–62% in the shade throughout the day.

  16. Present situation of unused uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Present situation of unused enriched uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology is described. The fuels were for sub-critical experiments. There is no special facility for transportation in the site. But there is no technical problem for it. One of the important issues to be done is a duty by national regulation against nuclear disaster. (author)

  17. Tokyo elanikud pagevad linnast. Poed kaubast tühjad / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo poole liigub radiatsioon, mitmed elanikud lahkuvad linnast. Peaminister Naoto Kani sõnul edasise radioaktiivsuse lekke võimalus kasvab ning tehakse kõik, et vältida lekke levikut. Fukushima Daiichi tuumajaama ümbrusest on inimesed evakueeritud

  18. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  19. Towards the classification of eutrophic condition in estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and ecological integrity of estuaries closely reflect activities within the entire upstream catchment. Much emphasis has been placed on the response of estuaries to anthropogenic stressors through the use of monitoring programmes. Key...

  20. Benthos of Beypore and Korapuzha estuaries of North Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Venugopal, P.

    The benthos from Beypore and Korapuzha estuaries were studied for one year. Environmental features, sediment characteristics and organic carbon content were estimated. Benthic density was high during monsoon and postmonsoon in both the estuaries...

  1. Variations of dissolved oxygen in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; SenGupta, R.

    During non-monsoon months the estuaries were well mixed showing uniform oxygen concentrations from surface to bottom. However, during monsoon months both the estuaries showed stratified conditions with surface water showing high oxygen concentration...

  2. Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the Gouritz Water ... into the estuaries within the Gouritz Water Management Area (WMA) of South Africa. ... Long-term water quality monitoring data (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, i.e. ...

  3. Skagit IMW - Skagit River Estuary Intensively Monitored Watershed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates system-level effects of several estuary restoration projects on juvenile Chinook salmon production in the Skagit River estuary. The monitoring...

  4. Origin and composition of particulate organic matter in a macrotidal turbid estuary: The Gironde Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Nicolas; David, Valérie; Morisseau, François; Etcheber, Henri; Abril, Gwenaël; Billy, Isabelle; Charlier, Karine; Oggian, Georges; Derriennic, Hervé; Sautour, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    At the interface between continent and ocean, estuaries receive particles, and especially particulate organic matter (POM) originating from these two reservoirs, but also produce POM, through autochthonous primary production. The origin and composition of surface POM in the Gironde Estuary (SW France) and the environmental forcing of its variability was investigated using the data set produced by the French Coastal Monitoring Network SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral; monthly like sampling during years 2007-2009). This estuary is considered as a model of macrotidal turbid estuaries. Using elemental and isotopic composition of the POM, we estimated that, at the inner estuary space scale and inter-annual time scale, surface particulate organic carbon (POC) was composed of terrestrial POM originated from the turbidity maximum (96.4%; refractory POC) and flood events (1.6%; labile and refractory POC), and of riverine (0.1%), estuarine (0.8%) and marine (1.1%) phytoplankton, i.e. that POC was 98% and 2% of terrestrial and phytoplankton origin, respectively. However, there was a clear spatial gradient: the phytoplankton contribution increases from ca. 1% in the upper and middle estuary to 8.5% in the lower estuary, where light condition is more favourable to plankton growth. The low contribution of phytoplankton to the POC is a characteristic of the Gironde estuary and contrast with other large temperate estuaries. Statistical analysis indicates that salinity, river flow and SPM concentration, and thus associated hydro-dynamic and sedimentary processes, were the only environmental forcings to the composition of surface POC in this system, at intra- and inter-annual time scale. In contrast, temperature and nutrient concentrations, and thus associated processes, do not force this composition of POC. By combining POC fluxes entering the inner estuary (literature data), POC loss as dissolved organic carbon and CO2 and as sediment trapping within the inner

  5. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  6. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  7. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  8. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  9. Change in Urban Land Use and Associated Attributes in the Upper San Francisco Estuary, 1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Stoms

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use is an ultimate driver of many of the stressors on the Upper San Francisco Estuary, but the magnitude and pattern of land use change has not been analyzed. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap through a screening-level risk assessment. Urban land use was compared within hydrodynamic subregions in 1990, 2000, and 2006. Ancillary data were then used to quantify secondary measures such as impervious cover, housing density, road density and road crossings. Despite the rapid growth of the Bay Area, Sacramento, and Stockton metropolitan areas, the percentage of urban area and rates of change in the subregions are generally low to moderate when compared to other estuaries in the United States. The spatial data sets used in this analysis have been posted online to a public repository to be used by other researchers.

  10. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  11. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  12. Environmental flow assessments for transformed estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Yang, Zhifeng; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose an approach to environmental flow assessment that considers spatial pattern variations in potential habitats affected by river discharges and tidal currents in estuaries. The approach comprises four steps: identifying and simulating the distributions of critical environmental factors for habitats of typical species in an estuary; mapping of suitable habitats based on spatial distributions of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) and adopting the habitat aggregation index to understand fragmentation of potential suitable habitats; defining variations in water requirements for a certain species using trade-off analysis for different protection objectives; and recommending environmental flows in the estuary considering the compatibility and conflict of freshwater requirements for different species. This approach was tested using a case study in the Yellow River Estuary. Recommended environmental flows were determined by incorporating the requirements of four types of species into the assessments. Greater variability in freshwater inflows could be incorporated into the recommended environmental flows considering the adaptation of potential suitable habitats with variations in the flow regime. Environmental flow allocations should be conducted in conjunction with land use conflict management in estuaries. Based on the results presented here, the proposed approach offers flexible assessment of environmental flow for aquatic ecosystems that may be subject to future change.

  13. Wave-current interaction in Willapa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of wave-current interaction in an inlet-estuary system. The three-dimensional, fully coupled, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system was applied in Willapa Bay (Washington State) from 22 to 29 October 1998 that included a large storm event. To represent the interaction between waves and currents, the vortex-force method was used. Model results were compared with water elevations, currents, and wave measurements obtained by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. In general, a good agreement between field data and computed results was achieved, although some discrepancies were also observed in regard to wave peak directions in the most upstream station. Several numerical experiments that considered different forcing terms were run in order to identify the effects of each wind, tide, and wave-current interaction process. Comparison of the horizontal momentum balances results identified that wave-breaking-induced acceleration is one of the leading terms in the inlet area. The enhancement of the apparent bed roughness caused by waves also affected the values and distribution of the bottom shear stress. The pressure gradient showed significant changes with respect to the pure tidal case. During storm conditions the momentum balance in the inlet shares the characteristics of tidal-dominated and wave-dominated surf zone environments. The changes in the momentum balance caused by waves were manifested both in water level and current variations. The most relevant effect on hydrodynamics was a wave-induced setup in the inner part of the estuary.

  14. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  15. Improving navigability on the Kromme River Estuary: A choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Navigation of estuaries is a vitally important aspect of boating recreation in South Africa and elsewhere. This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate recreation values of the Kromme River Estuary, a popular estuary along South Africa's east coast. This valuation methodology allows for the identification of preferred ...

  16. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  17. Upstream freshwater and terrestrial sources are differentially reflected in the bacterial community structure along a small Arctic river and its estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviaja Lyberth Hauptmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N. Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns.

  18. Lithostratigraphy and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core from Nagasaki bay, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shusaku; Tsujimoto, Akira; Murakami, Akiko; Mitamura, Muneki; Nagaoka, Shinji; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    The latest Pleistocene to Holocene deposits are distributed in Nagasaki Bay and its surrounding area. In this study, sedimentary facies and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core were analyzed for clarifying lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of Nagasaki Bay in the Holocene. The depositional environments inferred from the core succession are as follows: The lower sandy silt and clay (Unit 1), 3.55 m thick, are estuary deposits showing rapid deposition (about 19 mm/yr); the middle gravelly sand and sand (Unit 2), 0.60 m thick, are sandy tidal-sandbar deposits, and deposited extremely slowly (about 0.1 mm/yr) during rapid rising stage of sea-level; the upper clay and silt (Unit 3), 5.32 m thick, are inner bay deposits of slow deposition (about 1.3 mm/yr) during a persistent highstand in sea-level. (author)

  19. Sources, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay watershed-An empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Brakebill, John W.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) was used to provide empirical estimates of the sources, fate, and transport of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and the mean annual TN and TP flux to the bay and in each of 80,579 nontidal tributary stream reaches. Restoration efforts in recent decades have been insufficient to meet established standards for water quality and ecological conditions in Chesapeake Bay. The bay watershed includes 166,000 square kilometers of mixed land uses, multiple nutrient sources, and variable hydrogeologic, soil, and weather conditions, and bay restoration is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources and complex interacting factors affecting the occurrence, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from source areas to streams and the estuary. Effective and efficient nutrient management at the regional scale in support of Chesapeake Bay restoration requires a comprehensive understanding of the sources, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in the watershed, which is only available through regional models. The current models, Chesapeake Bay nutrient SPARROW models, version 4 (CBTN_v4 and CBTP_v4), were constructed at a finer spatial resolution than previous SPARROW models for the Chesapeake Bay watershed (versions 1, 2, and 3), and include an updated timeframe and modified sources and other explantory terms.

  20. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  1. Estuary wader capacity following severe weather mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.A.; Baillie, S.R.; Clark, N.A.; Langston, R.H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The building of a tidal power barrage across an estuary may lead to substantial changes in its ecology. Many of Britain's estuaries hold internationally important numbers of waders. Careful consideration, therefore, needs to be given to the likely effects of tidal power barrages on wader populations. The opportunity for increased understanding of the mechanisms which govern wader populations was provided by a period of severe winter weather in 1991, which resulted in a substantial mortality of waders in eastern England. Such conditions are known to be stressful to birds and the study objectives were to investigate both the effects of and recovery from severe weather. (author)

  2. Sacchi, Livio (2004. Tokyo: City and Architecture. 249 p. ISBN: 0-7893-1212-3. Nueva York: Universe Publishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The book by the Italian author Livio Sacchi, focuses on the analysis on the spatial development of the city of Tokyo and the way in which the socioeconomic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries influenced the conformation of the urban structure on which millions of Tokyo citizens develop their daily life. During the text, the author underlines the impact of the modern architectural movement on the urban landscape of Tokyo. Furthermore, it is important to mention that this work serves as a translator for the western readers, because it deciphers the social and spatial characteristics that constitute the most populous city in the world.

  3. Historical Relationships Between Research and Resource Management in the Apalachicola River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Robert J

    1991-11-01

    A continuous field research effort has been carried out in the Apalachicola River estuary since March 1972. The information generated from this interdisciplinary study has been directly applied to the management of the Apalachicola resource by means of close associations among local, state, and federal officials and university scientists. During the early years, scientific data were instrumental in the prevention of the impoundment of the Apalachicola River. A series of regional studies was carried out to evaluate various forms of effects due to forestry activities, pesticides, and stormwater runoff from urban areas. A review was made of fisheries problems associated with dredging, overfishing, and marine pollution. Results of such studies were directly applied to local management questions. Research that linked the river wetlands with the estuary, in terms of the input of fresh water, nutrients, and organic matter, served as the basis for the purchase of extensive bottomland tracts. Other initiatives were carried out that were designed to protect the naturally high productivity of the river estuary. Further purchases of estuarine wetlands and barrier island properties were made that formed an almost continuous buffer of publicly held lands between upland developments and critical habitats and important populations of the bay system. A regional management plan was adopted that was designed to limit local municipal development in the estuarine region. Analyses of the long-term scientific data indicated that dominant, commercially important estuarine populations are associated with river flow, local salinity characteristics, and biological (predation, competition) interactions with the salinity regime and food web structure. Such interactions are not straight forward, however; they reflect complex interactions of the freshwater influxes and biological response in the estuary that are not well understood. Species-specific responses to the principal driving factors

  4. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  5. Radiocarbon dating, chronologic framework, and changes in accumulation rates of holocene estuarine sediments from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Baucom, P.C.; Bratton, J.F.; Cronin, T. M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Willard, D.; Zimmerman, A.R.; Vogt, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly accumulating Holocene sediments in estuaries commonly are difficult to sample and date. In Chesapeake Bay, we obtained sediment cores as much as 20 m in length and used numerous radiocarbon ages measured by accelarator mass spectrometry methods to provide the first detailed chronologies of Holocene sediment accumulation in the bay. Carbon in these sediments is a complex mixture of materials from a variety of sources. Analyses of different components of the sediments show that total organic carbon ages are largely unreliable, because much of the carbon (including coal) has been transported to the bay from upstream sources and is older than sediments in which it was deposited. Mollusk shells (clams, oysters) and foraminifera appear to give reliable results, although reworking and burrowing are potential problems. Analyses of museum specimens collected alive before atmospheric nuclear testing suggest that the standard reservoir correction for marine samples is appropriate for middle to lower Chesapeake Bay. The biogenic carbonate radiocarbon ages are compatible with 210 Pb and 137 Cs data and pollen stratigraphy from the same sites. Post-settlement changes in sediment transport and accumulation is an important environmental issue in many estuaries, including the Chesapeake. Our data show that large variations in sediment mass accumulation rates occur among sites. At shallow water sites, local factors seem to control changes in accumulation rates with time. Our two relatively deep-water sites in the axial channel of the bay have different long-term average accumulation rates, but the history of sediment accumulation at these sites appears to reflect overall conditions in the bay. Mass accumulation rates at the two deep-water sites rapidly increased by about fourfold coincident with widespread land clearance for agriculture in the Chesapeake watershed.

  6. Arrival and expansion of the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai Uchio in Padilla Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.; Penttila, Dan; Walsh, John P.; Corbett, Reide

    2012-01-01

    Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifera native to Japanese estuaries, was first identified as an invasive in 1995 in San Francisco Bay and later in 16 other west coast estuaries. To investigate the timing of the arrival and expansion of this invasive species in Padilla Bay, Washington, we analyzed the distribution of foraminifera in two surface samples collected in 1971, in nine surface samples collected by Scott in 1972–1973, as well as in two cores (Padilla Flats 3 and Padilla V1/V2) obtained in 2004. Trochanimina hadai, originally identified as the native Trochammina pacifica Cushman in several early foraminiferal studies, dominates the assemblage of most of the surface samples. In the Padilla V1/V2 and Padilla Flats 3 cores, the species' abundance follows a pattern of absence, first appearance, rapid expansion commonly seen shortly after the arrival of a successful biological invasion, setback, and second expansion. Using Q-mode cluster analysis, pre-expansion and expansion assemblages were identified. Pb-210 dating of these cores proved unsuccessful. However, based on T. hadai's first appearance occurring stratigraphically well above sedimentological changes in the cores that reflect deposition of sediments in the bay due to previous diversions of the Skagit River, and its dominance in the early 1970s surface samples, we conclude that the species arrived in Padilla Bay somewhere between the late 1800s and 1971. Trochammina hadai may have been introduced into the bay in the 1930s when oyster culturing began there or, at a minimum, ten years prior to its appearance in San Francisco Bay.

  7. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to increase

  8. Trace metal associations in the water column of South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Cloern, J.E.; Fries, T.L.; Davis, J.A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial distributions of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were followed along a longitudinal gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in South San Francisco Bay (herein referred to as the South Bay). Dissolved Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 24 to 66 nM, from 20 to 107 nM and from 1??2 to 4??7 nM, respectively, in samples collected on five dates beginning with the spring phytoplankton bloom and continuing through summer,1985. Dissolved Cu and Zn concentrations varied indirectly with salinity and directly with DOC concentration which ranged from 2??1 to 4??1 mg l-1. Available thermodynamic data strongly support the hypothesis that Cu speciation may be dominated by association with dissolved organic matter. Analogous control of Zn speciation by organic complexation was, however, not indicated in our computations. Computed free ion activity estimates for Cu, Zn and Cd were of the order of 10-10, 10-8 and 10-10 M, respectively. The availability of these metals may be among the factors regulating the growth of certain phytoplankton species within this region of the estuary. In contrast to dissolved Cu, dissolved Cd was directly related to the concentration of suspended particulate matter, suggesting a source of dissolved Cd coincident with elevated particle concentrations in the South Bay (e.g. runoff and solute desorption). Consistent with work in other estuaries, partitioning of all three trace metals onto suspended particulates was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with increases in particulate organic carbon associated with the phytoplankton bloom. These results for the South Bay indicate that sorption processes influence dissolved concentrations of these trace metals, the degree of this influence varies among metals, and processes controlling metal distribution in this estuary appear to be more element-specific than spatially- or temporally-specific. ?? 1989.

  9. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  10. Using the Surface Reflectance MODIS Terra Product to Estimate Turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is a commonly-used index of the factors that determine light penetration in the water column. Consistent estimation of turbidity is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Traditional methods monitoring fixed geographical locations at fixed intervals may not be representative of the mean water turbidity in estuaries between intervals, and can be expensive and time consuming. Although remote sensing offers a good solution to this limitation, it is still not widely used due in part to required complex processing of imagery. There are satellite-derived products, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra surface reflectance daily product (MOD09GQ Band 1 (620–670 nm which are now routinely available at 250 m spatial resolution and corrected for atmospheric effect. This study shows this product to be useful to estimate turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida, after rainfall events (R2 = 0.76, n = 34. Within Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay (HB and Old Tampa Bay (OTB presented higher turbidity compared to Middle Tampa Bay (MTB and Lower Tampa Bay (LTB.

  11. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  12. The relationship between sediment and plutonium budgets in a small macrotidal estuary: Esk Estuary, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Emptage, M.; Mudge, S.; Bradshaw, K.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.

    1991-01-01

    During a spring tide, measurements were made of sediment and 239,240 Pu discharges through a cross-section of the Esk estuary. These indicated that over the full tidal cycle, the inner estuary had a net gain of ca. 18 t of sediment and ca. 85 MBq of particulate phase 239,240 Pu, and a probable net loss of ca. 1 to 2 MBq of solution phase 239,240 Pu. Each of these was the net result of large gross discharges of sediment and plutonium into and out of the estuary for which the sea was the main source, with eroded estuarine sediment providing an additional minor source of sediment, of particulate phase plutonium and, via desorption, of solution phase plutonium. A net input with each tide, of sediment and its associated radionuclides, is considered to be typical for the Esk estuary under the normal conditions of low river flows. (author)

  13. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  14. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  15. Determination of the optimum commercial size for the mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Solange Andrade; Souza, Raymundo Costa e

    1980-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 1 – 8 Pilot studies were conducted in 1977-1978 on the cultivation of mangrove oysters in the Jacuruna River estuary at Todos OS Santos Bay, Salvador, Brazil. Growth characteristics were studied by comparing the relationships between total live weight, volume of the shell cavity fluid and yield of meat, and dry body weight to size (height). The most economically feasible proposition was production of approximately 7 cm high oysters for the sh...

  16. Nuclear engineering experiments at experimental facilities of JNC in graduate course of Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Takahashi, Minoru; Aoyama, Takafumi; Onose, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear engineering experiments using outside facilities of the campus have been offered for graduate students in the nuclear engineering course in Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.). The experiments are managed with the collaboration of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). This report presents the new curriculum of the nuclear engineering experiments at JNC since 2002. The change is due to the shutdown of Deuterium Criticality Assembly Facility (DCA) that was used as an experimental facility until 2001. Reactor physics experiment using the training simulator of the experimental fast reactor JOYO is continued from the previous curriculum with the addition of the criticality approach experiment and control rods calibration. A new experimental subject is an irradiated material experiment at the Material Monitoring Facility (MMF). As a result, both are acceptable as the student experiments on the fast reactor. (author)

  17. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Yukako; Ida, Miki; Nakama, Akiko; Nishino, Yukari; Fukui, Rie; Kuroda, Sumiyo; Hirai, Akihiko; Kai, Akemi; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000-2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006-2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3-1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low.

  18. Gamma-ray dose rate in air on the subway lines in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masayuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Ogashiwa, Susumu; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray dose rates in air were performed on 12 subway lines in Tokyo from the perspective of health physics, because the subways are commonly used for commuting in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The results showed that the maximum dose rate (36.5 nGy/h) was 1.6 times higher than that of the minimum one (23.3 nGy/h), and that the dose rate in the subway car was 33% lower than the outside. Also the results strongly suggested that the dose rates depend on the concentration of natural radionuclide around the subway lines and the platform structures rather than the depth. (author)

  19. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  20. Keterpaduan Pasar Tuna Segar Benoa/Bali, Indonesia Dan Pasar Sentral Tuna Tokyo, Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    SITORUS, EDYANTO

    2007-01-01

    Tuna fish is which forming life and horde in tropical territorial water until subtropics. Tuna type which important in commerce is Yellowfin, Bigeye, Poor Southern Bluefin, Northern Bluefin, Albacore and of Skipjack (Cakalang). Objective of this research is analyze integrity of market that happened between local market (Market of Benoa, Bali) with reference market (Tuna Central Market of Tokyo, Japan), It is seen from the research that in Benoa there are 3 system of selling fresh tu...

  1. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Karasuda, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  2. Antibacterial Therapy of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis (According to Tokyo Guidelines2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics should be used wisely in antimicrobial therapy in each institution, region and country. The recent global spread of antibiotic resistance gives us a warning in the modern practice. Tokyo Guidelines 2013 provide practical guidance for physicians and surgeons involved in the treatment of community-acquired and hospital acute biliary infection. Much remains uncertain in this view. Continuous monitoring of local resistance to antibiotics and further studies in acute cholecystitis and cholangitis should be justified.

  3. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  4. Microphytobenthos potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Jean-Marc; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, Jody L.; Gros, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  5. Microphytobenthic potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  6. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  7. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  8. The Tokyo Trial and the Question of Colonial Responsibility: Korean Reactions to Allied Justice in Occupied Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-hwan Chong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the zainichi Korean media and organizations responded to the Tokyo Trial and its pursuit of war responsibility. Their critiques of the Tokyo Trial often presented a critical insight from the perspective of anti-colonialism. Zainichi Koreans correctly questioned the absence of colonial responsibility in the pursuit of justice and war responsibility in the trial. In this sense, the problems and limits of the Tokyo Trial that scholars started to “discover” in the 1970s had already been discussed by some zainichi Koreans in the late 1940s. By delving into previously under-explored historical sources, particularly the numerous newspapers published by zainichi Korean groups during the occupation period, this article demonstrates how zainichi Korean critics understood the limits of the Tokyo Trial beyond the binary of “victors' justice” and “the judgment of civilization.”

  9. 77 FR 56909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tokyo 1955-70: A New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, from on or about November 18, 2012, until on or about February... ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  10. Features at some significant estuaries of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattathiri, P.M.A.

    in the second and 162 in the third. Most of the studies on various aspects have been confined to very few of these, and that too, mostly to minor ones. Very little work has been carried out from many of the estuaries of the major rivers. An overview...

  11. Radiological assessment of the Esk Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howorth, J.M.; Barr, H.M.; Toole, J.; Strange, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out of the radiological impact of artificial radionuclides in the Esk estuary in Cumbria, UK. Measurements were made of the distributions of 137 Cs, 239 + 240 Pu, and 241 Am in water, surface bed sediments and core profiles. The highest measured concentrations in surface sediments were 2.8 Bq g -1 of 137 Cs, 3.1 Bq g -1 of 239 + 240 Pu and 4.7 Bq g -1 of 241 Am. These values represent significant decreases from similar measurements made in 1970-1980. The measured behaviour of the actinides in low salinity water at the head of the estuary supports previous observations of actinide remobilisation from the bed. A model has been developed which simulates the long-term behaviour of radioactivity in the estuary. The model incorporates representations of tidal mixing, sediment transport, seasonal and long-term sediment accretion. The model also represents long-term build-up in salt marsh regions. The model gives good agreement with measured distributions of 137 Cs, but tends to underestimate actinide concentrations by factors of 2-3. Dose calculations show the importance of radionuclide uptake through livestock grazing sea-washed pasture alongside the estuary. 137 Cs and 241 Am are identified as the most important radionuclides considered in the assessment. (Author)

  12. The environmental characteristics of the Ganga estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Murty, C.S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.

    This report presents physical, chemical and biological observations in the last 160 km stretch of river Ganga for period of 3 years. In the one-layer estuary the mixing is brought about by the horizontal gradient of the flow field closely associated...

  13. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  14. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  15. Geochemical studies in the Godavari Estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Martin, J.M.; Eisma, D.; Thomas, A.J.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.S.

    are reported. The DOC and Fe concentrations are lower compared with those in other estuaries of the world and are below the average value reported for world rivers. Silicon behaves non-conservatively; its depletion which is most likely due to biological...

  16. Flushing characteristics of Mahim river estuary (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabnis, M.M; Zingde, M

    to the influence of wastewater. Flushing time of 19 tidal cycles was estimated by applying modified tidal prism method. After a large number of tidal cycles the estuary would retain 9.3x10 super(4) m super(3) of wastewater which was over 15% of the spring high tide...

  17. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    estuaries. The mean pCO sub(2) and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO sub(2) fluxes from...

  19. Hydrodynamics of the Bot river estuary revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 20 years management of the Bot/Kleinmond estuarine system in the south-western Cape has been based on the premise that, barring intervention, the estuary was naturally evolving into a freshwater coastal lake. This paper presents...

  20. Sedimentation in a river dominated estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, JAG

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mgeni Estuary on the wave dominated cast coast of South Africa occupies a narrow, bedrock confined, alluvial valley and is partially blocked at the coast by an elongate sandy barrier. Fluvial sediment extends to the barrier and marine depositon...

  1. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  2. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  3. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and Steelhead AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of availability; recovery plan module for Columbia River estuary salmon and steelhead... Plan Module for Salmon and Steelhead (Estuary Module). The Estuary Module addresses the estuary...

  4. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics Held at Tokyo (Japan) on October 6-10 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    sciences, material sciences, and ocean University of Tokyo, and his many able and science and technology . dedicated co-workers, in organizing this meeting...occasion. Since our Symposia concerning hydro- us to ease this section and gastronomy such as this dynamics or naval science took place in Tokyo, I buffet...Houten, R.J., Unpublished, 1978. 6. Van Oossanen, P., "Theoretical 6. CONCLUSION Prediction of Cavitation of Propellers,"Marine Technology , Vol. 14, No

  5. Predicted eelgrass response to sea level rise and its availability to foraging Black Brant in Pacific coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Frank J.; Gilkerson, Whelan; Black, Jeffrey M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Managers need to predict how animals will respond to habitat redistributions caused by climate change. Our objective was to model the effects of sea level rise on total eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat area and on the amount of that area that is accessible to Brant geese (Branta bernicla), specialist grazers of eelgrass. Digital elevation models were developed for seven estuaries from Alaska, Washington, California (USA), and Mexico. Scenarios of future total eelgrass area were derived from combinations of estuarine specific sediment and tectonic rates (i.e., bottom change rate) with three rates of eustatic sea level rise (ESLR). Percentages of total eelgrass areas that were accessible to foraging Brant were determined for December when the birds overwinter at more southerly sites and in April as they move north to sites where they build body stores on their way to nesting areas in Alaska. The modeling showed that accessible eelgrass area could be lower than total area due to how daytime low-tide height, eelgrass shoot length, and the upper elevation of eelgrass determined Brant-reaching depth. Projections of future eelgrass area indicated that present-day ESLR (2.8 mm/yr) and bottom change rates should sustain the current pattern of estuarine use by Brant except in Morro Bay, where use should decrease because eelgrass is being ejected from this estuary by a positive bottom change rate. Higher ESLR rates (6.3 and 12.7 mm/yr) should result in less Brant use of estuaries at the northern and southern ends of the flyway, particularly during the winter, but more use of mid-latitude estuaries. The capacity of mid-latitude estuaries to function as Brant feeding refugia, or for these estuaries and Izembek Lagoon to provide drift rather than attached leaves, is eventually limited by the decrease in total eelgrass area, which is a result of a light extinction affect on the eelgrass, or the habitat being pushed out of the estuary by positive tectonic rates. Management

  6. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  7. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  8. Evaluation of surface water and sediment quality in Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek, and Chapora Bay from Goa coast, India - a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Gauns, M.U.; Ansari, Z.A.

    into the Arabian Sea. Out of these, Mandovi and Zuari rivers are famous as lifeline of Goa because of their economic importance which covers the 69% of the geographic area of the state. In Goa, estuaries are used for ore transport, fishing, tourism activities... and other tourism activities and is also exposed to iron ores transportations from mines located upstream. Chapora Bay (ChB) (15°36’30.43”N, 73°44’7.19”E) site is located far from main city. This site is exposed to major fish landing jetty, sewage...

  9. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  10. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  11. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  12. Radium isotopes in Port Phillip Bay: estimation of the rate of bio irrigation of sediments, and water residence time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.J.; Webster, I.T.

    1998-01-01

    Recent work has shown that estuarine sediments are a source of radium (Ra) to coastal waters (Bollinger and Moore, 1982, Webster et al., 1994; Hancock et al., 1997). Ra is soluble in saline water (Moore, 1992, Webster et al., 1995) and is rapidly desorbed into porewater from deposited fluvial sediments where it is continuously generated by insoluble Th parents. The rate at which Ra effuses into surface water has been used to determine the rate of surface-water pore water exchange (Hancock and Murray, 1996). Once in the water column, the behaviour of Ra is essentially conservative, enabling the determination of water residence time in a semi-enclosed estuary (Turekian et al., 1996). Here we use measurements of Ra in an estuary to estimate two water mixing processes. Port Phillip Bay (PPB) is a semi-enclosed estuary adjacent to the city of Melbourne, one of the highest density population centres in Australia. The Bay is approximately 50 km in diameter, and has an average depth of 14 m. A recent study found that the potential for eutrophication and algal blooms in the Bay was intricately linked to the fate of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, discharged into the Bay from rivers, drains, and sewage treatment plants (Harris et al. 1996). Two of the most important processes controlling the levels of inorganic N in the water column were identified as bio irrigation of bottom sediments, and the rate of exchange of Bay water with ocean water via Bass Strait. In this paper we describe how Ra isotopes can be used to estimate the rates of these processes, and we compare these rates with estimates made using conventional techniques. Water and sediment samples were collected from five sites in February 1996. Sediment cores were collected by divers, frozen, and sectioned in the laboratory. Surface, mid depth and bottom water samples were collected using a Niskin bottle. Radionuclide activities were determined by alpha spectrometry (Martin and Hancock, 1992) and gamma spectrometry

  13. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  14. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  15. Stormwater impact in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro): Evidences of seasonal variability in the dynamic of the sediment heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E. M.; Baptista Neto, J. A.; Silva, C. G.; McAlister, J. J.; Smith, B. J.; Fernandez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Guanabara Bay is one of the most prominent coastal bays in Brazil. This environment is an estuary of 91 rivers and channels, surrounded by the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro. The bay receives considerable amounts of contaminants introduced from sewage effluents, industrial discharge, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric fallout, and the combined inputs from the rivers, making Guanabara Bay one of the most polluted coastal environments on the Brazilian coastline. The aim of this work is to study the concentration and fractionation of the heavy metals within the sediments of the bay. In order to understand the possible seasonal influence on the heavy metal fractionation, two campaigns were carried out in two different seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Twelve stations, in four different areas, with different oceanographic characteristics, where chosen. To assess the bioavailability of the metals a selective extraction procedure was used to study the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. The rainy season was very important with respect to variation in the total concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb and their fractionation within different "operational" phases present in Guanabara Bay sediments. The water-soluble phase showed little importance, with respect to metal adsorption and this would suggest very low mobility of metals in the water column. Nevertheless, the potentially available metals within these sediments showed a high probability for their release and therefore cause contamination of the water column, since different parts of the bay are constantly subjected to dredging projects promoted by the harbor authorities.

  16. Seasonal variability in the surface sediments of Mobile Bay, Alabama, recorded by geochemistry and foraminifera, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D.K.; Osterman, L.E.; Smith, C.G.; Frazier, J.; Richwine, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to document and quantify recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The study was part of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project, a regional project funded by the Coastal and Marine Geology Program to understand how natural forcings and anthropogenic modifications influence coastal ecosystems and their susceptibility to coastal hazards. Mobile Bay is a large drowned-river estuary that has been modified significantly by humans to accommodate the Port of Mobile. Examples include repeated dredging of a large shipping channel down the central axis of the bay and construction of a causeway across the head of the bay and at the foot of the bayhead delta. In addition to modifications, the bay is also known to have episodic periods of low oxygen (hypoxia) that result in significant mortality to fish and benthic organisms (May, 1973). For this study a series of surface sediment samples were collected. Surface benthic foraminiferal and bulk geochemical data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference to changing environmental parameters in the past (Osterman and Smith, in press) and into the future. This report archives data collected as part of the Mobile Bay Study that may be used in future environmental change studies.

  17. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  18. Long time-series of turbid coastal water using AVHRR: an example from Florida Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Frayer, M. L.

    1997-02-01

    The AVHRR can provide information on the reflectance of turbid case II water, permitting examination of large estuaries and plumes from major rivers. The AVHRR has been onboard several NOAA satellites, with afternoon overpasses since 1981, offering a long time-series to examine changes in coastal water. We are using AVHRR data starting in December 1989, to examine water clarity in Florida Bay, which has undergone a decline since the late 1980's. The processing involves obtaining a nominal reflectance for red light with standard corrections including those for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiances. Established relationships between reflectance and the water properties being measured in the Bay provide estimates of diffuse attenuation and light limitation for phytoplankton and seagrass productivity studies. Processing also includes monthly averages of reflectance and attenuation. The AVHRR data set describes spatial and temporal patterns, including resuspension of bottom sediments in the winter, and changes in water clarity. The AVHRR also indicates that Florida Bay has much higher reflectivity relative to attenuation than other southeastern US estuaries.

  19. Dynamics of circulation and salt balance in the upper reaches of Periyar river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The Eulerian residual currents of the upper reaches of Periyar estuary (Kerala, India) were directed down the estuary throughout the water column during the monsoon season. During the summer months the residual flow was directed up the estuary...

  20. Plankton composition in two estuaries of the Konkan coast during premonsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Devassy, V.P.; Nair, V.R.

    abundant at the mouth region. Zooplankton biomass was relatively high in the Kajvi Estuary and all the major groups occurred in high density throughout this estuary. In the Shastri Estuary, the zooplankton biomass was relatively lower and all the major...