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Sample records for toitainete sisaldus mullas

  1. Eksistensialisme Mulla Sadra

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    Faiz Faiz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze Mulla Sadra’s philosophical existentialism. Sadra seeks to provide answers to formulate a concept called the philosophy of wisdom. In outline the teaching philosophy of Sadra include authenticity of the form (asâlat al-wujûd that the answer to differences in the methods used by the essentialist and existentialist. In this case authenticity of the form (asâlat al-wujûd spawned several sections related to each other, among other pantheism (wahdat al-wujûd, doubts exist (tashkîk al-wujûd, and movement core (al-harakah al-jawharîyah. Through wahdat al-wujûd (pantheism, Sadra then change the view of the beginning made authenticity essence (asâlat al-mâhîyah as the core of the reality to an authenticity presence (asâlat al-wujûd. As for tashkîk al-wujûd (doubts exist is in response to the notion that “form” is God, while the universe is a shadow of it. Sadra gives a different view, he said the absence of the universe (reality man can not find the “form” the truth, the God who became a grand synthesis of some of the concepts put forward by Islamic thinkers.

  2. Mulla Sadra and Evolution Theory

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    ALI ARSHAD RIAHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In their observations, contemporary scientists have believed in transformism which claims whole natural world is always in evolvement. This paper investigates whether Mulla Sadra’s philosophical opinions are consistent with this theory or not. The method of this research is analytical-descriptive. The conclusion is that four fundamentals: the principality of existence, the analogical unity of existence, the substantial movement and gradual increase in intensity of existence, are the main foundations of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy. The first three principles justify the forth one which is ‘the evolutional movement of the natural creatures’. According to Mulla Sadra, nature is in-itself a movement and movement is not limited to accident, but he believes that movement is the mood of the nature. He believes that nature is, therefore, a continuous whole that moves from its inferiority to its superiority, in the same way as a child grows. In this paper it is also proved that the evolution of the creatures does not contradict the existence of God and religious texts.

  3. Takwil Dalam Pandangan Mulla Sadra

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    Muhammad Nur Jabir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This paper seeks to explain the notion of “ta’wīl” in the view of Mulla Sadra. There are several important issues that would be discussed. What is ta’wīl ? Is it distinguished from interpretations either contrast to the exoteric meaning? Why do we need ta’wīl ? Is the interpretation alone is enough ? How does the process ? It would also attempt to explain the three important issues of ta’wīl; first, the definition of ta’wīl according to Mulla Sadra. Second, to explain the foundation of ta’wīl. Third, to describe the two methods that might be used in ta’wīl. For Sadra, as internal meaning, ta’wīl does not eradicate or invalidate the outward meaning of the verse, rather it is the complement aspect. It becomes evident that sacred texts (al- Qur’an and hadīth have different levels of meaning. Thus, in the process of ta’wīl , there are two important methods that might be used, i.e., the sufistic method and the method of the outward-inward meaning.Keywords : Ta’wīl, intepretation, outward, inward, sharī’a texts, levels, spirit of meaning Abstrak : Tulisan ini mencoba menjelaskan tentang takwil dalam pandangan Mulla Sadra. Beberapa persoalan akan dibahas, di antaranya: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan takwil? Apakah takwil berbeda dengan tafsir? Apakah menakwil berarti memahami teks bertentangan dengan makna lahiriyahnya? Mengapa kita membutuhkan takwil? Tidakkah cukup dengan tafsir saja? Bagaimana bentuk proses penakwilan yang mungkin dilakukan? Tulisan ini juga akan memaparkan tiga persoalan penting dalam takwil: Pertama, tentang definisi takwil dalam pandangan Sadra; kedua, mengenai fondasi takwil. Ketiga, mengenai dua metode yang mungkin digunakan dalam takwil. Dalam pandangan Sadra, takwil tidak bertentangan dengan lahir ayat, namun melengkapi dan penyempurnakan makna lahir tersebut. Takwil dibutuhkan karena teks-teks syariah (al-Qur’an dan hadis memiliki tingkatan-tingkatan. Dalam proses

  4. Proclus and Mulla Sadra on First Effusion

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    Zahra Eskandari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra's philosophical system is built upon the belief in unique origin of world to which all diversities can be reduced. Then First Effusion debate can be taken on in this system. According to the principle which reads "from the One nothing is effused but One", contingent beings could not have been emanated from the Necessary Being in a horizontal fashion due to their diversity. Rather they have been effused from the Necessary in a vertical fashion and through a hierarchy of causes and effects. The first stage of the hierarchy is being represented by the First Effusion. Pre-Sadraeian theosophers regarded the First Effusion the first intellect in vertical chain of intellects. Mulla Sadra have two theories of the First Effusion. In some of his books he introduces the first intellect as the first entity effused from the Necessary keeping his pace with his own predecessors. But in some other works like Asfar he describes the Ever-unfolding existence as the First Effusion and takes it to be his final position. Having replaced existential gradation with causation and also individual unity of existence with existential gradation, Mulla Sadra asserts that the First Effusion could only be the Ever-unfolding Existence which is a manifestation of Divine Essence not an independent existence. It is indeed nothing but the Divine Essence although in the form of its first manifestation. Thus the Ever-unfolding Existence has three distinguished attributes which make it qualified to stand in direct relationship with Divine Essence, Existential (and not conceptual universality and comprehensiveness which enables this existence to include the other manifestions. Lack of particular limitation and determination; this is why it can reveal itself to every being in its own peculiar existential terms. Having unity while being imbued in diversity and being diversed while having unity (due to its true but shadowy unity (Rahimian, 1383: 187. First

  5. Proclus and Mulla Sadra on First Effusion

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    Saeed Rahimiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra's philosophical system is built upon the belief in unique origin of world to which all diversities can be reduced. Then First Effusion debate can be taken on in this system. According to the principle which reads "from the One nothing is effused but One", contingent beings could not have been emanated from the Necessary Being in a horizontal fashion due to their diversity. Rather they have been effused from the Necessary in a vertical fashion and through a hierarchy of causes and effects. The first stage of the hierarchy is being represented by the First Effusion. Pre-Sadraeian theosophers regarded the First Effusion the first intellect in vertical chain of intellects. Mulla Sadra have two theories of the First Effusion. In some of his books he introduces the first intellect as the first entity effused from the Necessary keeping his pace with his own predecessors. But in some other works like Asfar he describes the Ever-unfolding existence as the First Effusion and takes it to be his final position. Having replaced existential gradation with causation and also individual unity of existence with existential gradation, Mulla Sadra asserts that the First Effusion could only be the Ever-unfolding Existence which is a manifestation of Divine Essence not an independent existence. It is indeed nothing but the Divine Essence although in the form of its first manifestation. Thus the Ever-unfolding Existence has three distinguished attributes which make it qualified to stand in direct relationship with Divine Essence, Existential (and not conceptual universality and comprehensiveness which enables this existence to include the other manifestions. Lack of particular limitation and determination; this is why it can reveal itself to every being in its own peculiar existential terms. Having unity while being imbued in diversity and being diversed while having unity (due to its true but shadowy unity (Rahimian, 1383: 187. First

  6. Diskursus Akhlak dalam Filsafat Mulla Sadra

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    Thuba Kermani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : In Mulla Sadra’s system of thought, the discussion of  philosophy of  moral (ethics, morality, the nature of morality and matters related, that is the soul (nafs and the spirit, is not a short discussion. All forms of action and the nature of malakah imprinted in the human psyche that will participate in the world hereafter. Therefore, some of the matters of the soul is a postulate of science of moral. Yet despite the differences in the ethics’s school of thoughts, it can be said that almost Muslim philosophers agree to the connection of moral with the perfection of soul. And the foundation of moral questions rests on the principle of perfection of the soul and the effects of the moral act. Without them, there will be no perfect rational and philosophical explanations of the good and bad character. However, in understanding how the process of perfection of the soul through moral acts, it is necessary to understand the perfection of the soul and make it a goal for human.Keywords : philosophy of moral, science of moral, theoretical reasoning, practical reasoning, intuition, meta-ethics. Abstrak : Dalam  struktur  pemikiran Mulla Sadra pembahasan  filsafat  akhlak,  akhlak,  sifat-sifat akhlak dan  hal yang berkaitan  dengannya,  yaitu  jiwa  (nafs dan ruh, bukan  pembahasan  yang  ringkas. Segala bentuk tindakan dan sifat malakah yang terpatri dalam jiwa manusia akan menyertainya di alam akhirat kelak. Oleh karena itu  sebagian  dari  persoalan-persoalan  jiwa  merupakan  postulat  ilmu  akhlak.  Namun  meskipun  terdapat perbedaan dalam aliran-aliran pemikiran filsafat akhlak, dapat dikatakan hampir semua filsuf Islam sepakat bahwa akhlak berkaitan dengan kesempurnaan jiwa. Dan fondasi persoalan-persoalan akhlak bersandar pada prinsip kesempurnaan jiwa dan pengaruh dari perbuatan akhlak. Tanpa hal itu, penjelasan rasional dan filosofis atas kebaikan dan keburukan akhlak tidak akan sempurna. Bagaimanapun

  7. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God's Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

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    Kakaee,Gh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  8. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God's Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

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    Ghasem Kakaee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence  a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  9. The generation of the soul in the philosophy of Mulla Sadra

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    Halilović Tehran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All Islamic philosophers agree with the idea that the human soul is immaterial and that after it exits the body it continues its life. Also, it is clear that the soul is one of the creatures of God and that its existence is the effect of the Divine Being. In this article, we will not be examining what the soul is or what its cause is. Rather, we will be examining the problem of how Muslim philosophers explain the generation of the human soul. We will especially examine the view of Mulla Sadra who had a visible command over philosophical discussions regarding the soul. This is a problem whose importance will be understood when we examine different parts of religious texts including verses of the Qur'an and the traditions. Some of these texts state that the human soul was generated before the body. However, some others state that the human soul is generated at the time when its body is formed in the womb of its mother. Based upon his new philosophical innovations, which he established in his Transcendent Philosophy, Mulla Sadra leveled many objections against the popular notion that the immaterial human soul is generated at the same time as its material body is formed. In reality, the theory that Mulla Sadra has presented in his philosophy perfects the thoughts of the previous philosophers regarding the generation of the soul. He explains that the human soul - as many verses of the Qur'an have indicated - is generated with the body. However, it is not immaterial at that time. Rather, this immateriality is something that is acquired gradually when it elevates its existential degrees.

  10. Reflection on the Essentials of Avecinna and Mulla-Sadra\\\\\\'s

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    Forigh Rahimpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available   The philosophers believe that the origin of the chain of Intellects "The primal Intellect "(Agl-al Awal is the "First Creature ".In Islamic tradition the First Creature is called by different names such as: Intellect (Agl, The Pen (Qalam, Muhammadan Light, Muhammadan Soul Studies.   This article Avicenna and Mulla Sadra ' s Points of view, and in this line concentrates on the problem that weather the reality of all these different expressions conform and especially, weather the fact inward of the Last prophet (Pbuh can be the applicability of the First Creature or not.   The author to tries the clarify bases of diversity of Avicenna and Mulla Sadra ' s opinions on this matter and belives that the differenc of the views of these two philosophers is based on their different approach to: Accepthing or rejecting the Originality of Existence and Gradating of Existencel, Pre-existence of soul, and Equality or differentiality of the essence of the Last messenger and the essence of other people.

  11. Haffali Mulla: A Hollow Merry Making Under the Moon Light? A Critical Appreciation of Traditional Marriage and Marriage Songs among the Pasaalas in Ghana

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    Confidence Gbolo Sanka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Haffali Mulla are traditional marriage songs among the Pasaalas of the Sisasali speaking ethnic group in Ghana. Like many oral compositions, haffali mulla are literary in nature and can be analysed from that perspective. The institution of marriage, in the rural set up, is not only strong and old, but it is replete with tradition and processes leading up to the union. This paper traces the mores and the processes of traditional marriage among the Pasaalas and critically examines the verbal aesthetics as well as the utilitarian aspects of haffali mulla. Analysis from this paper, using the theory of ethnopoetics, reveals that haffali mulla are compositions which embed verbal art and useful messages that can be used to improve social cohesion and to strengthen the institution of marriage. The traditional processes of marriage are also sound sources of lessons that the present generation can draw on.

  12. A Study Of The Effect Of Human Soul On External Objects : Between Copenhagen School And Mulla Sadra

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    Ali Arshad Riahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The theory of the effects of all human souls on external objects, from the viewpoint of Copenhagen School (in Quantum Physics, has made physicists deny the existence of two separate realms of the observer and the observed; they claim that causality is meaningless and profess that it is impossible to recognize the object. While, on the other hand, Mulla Ṣadra believes that the effect of soul on external objects is limited to the souls of prophets as well as saints and, barring evil eye or supplications, there is no such effect in others. In this article we argue that, based on Mulla Ṣadra’s teachings and philosophical doctrine, it is actually possible to generalize this effect to other human souls. Consequently, it is impossible to have an accurate recognition of the causes of events if causality is considered meaningless. In addition, it is feasible to have cognition about these causes of events through gnostic intuition.Keywords : human soul, external objects, Copenhagen School, Mulla Ṣadra, unity, causality Abstrak :  Teori tentang efek jiwa seluruh manusia terhadap objek-objek eksternal, dari sudut pandang Madzhab Copenhagen (dalam Fisika Kuantum, telah membuat para fisikawan mengingkari keterpisahan dua alam, yaitu subjek dan objek; berdasarkan keyakinan ini, mereka mengklaim bahwa [hukum] kausalitas menjadi gugur dan tidak berguna, dan mereka juga percaya bahwa mengetahui sepenuhnya objek adalah tidak mungkin. Sementara, di tempat lain, Mulla Ṣadra meyakini bahwa jiwa yang berefek terhadap objek-objek eksternal terbatas pada jiwa para nabi dan orang-orang suci. Ia juga meyakini bahwa tidak berefeknya jiwa-jiwa manusia biasa kecuali pada perbuatan-perbuatan seperti yang ia sebut sebagai ‘evil eye’ dan doa. Dalam artikel ini, kami berupaya membuktikan bahwa, berdasarkan ajaran dan doktrin filsafat Mulla Ṣadra, pengaruh (efek jiwa manusia dapat digeneralisir. Dengan demikian tidak mungkin untuk mengetahui secara

  13. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God\\\\\\'s Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

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    Ghasem Kakaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence  a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Mulla Sadra's " Extra-Intellectual Order" and Kierkegaard's "Sphere of Religion"

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    Mahmoud Reza Sadraei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Is there a domain beyond the illogical intellect whose statements are antirational? This question has always called gnosticism  to encounter rationalism. Thus, gnostics, gnosticologists, and religionologists in both Christian west and Islamic east have always paid attention to intellect and the extraintellectual order, and to the possible relationthip between them. Mulla Sadra believed that neither the statements of the intellect are invalid in the extraintellectual order, nor the statements of the latter in the former. Kierkegaard, on the other hand, in his notion of human life stages, has labeled them as esthetic, ethical, and religious. In his view, the religious domain is extra-rational and extra-ethical. In an analytic process, Mulla Sadra has classified the implications and applications of the word "intellect". In his view, intellect is present in overall human domains and no order of humanity is void of the power of reason. Additionally, in epistemological terms, intellect cannot be in conflict with other components when opining within the domain of its own and its cognitive findings; and does not proscribe its ulterior. In other words, errors emerge in the stage of intellect's decreeing, not in the stage of senses' and intuition's reporting . Now the intellect itself is able to recognize its limits, admit ignorance, and lead the humanity to the boundaries of extra-rational matters. In Mulla Sadra's view, the epistemological and cognitive domain of extraintellectual order and the complexity of knowledge within this domain are not accessible to the intellect, being otherwise (e.g., through heart or revelation achievable by humans. In Kierkegaard's view, intellect as human capacity of thought is annexative; and experiences and attitudes acquired in relation to the existence have formed human intellect; and the boundary sought by the intellect is, in a sense, the very purpose or objective of the intellect. With his partiality toward faith

  15. The relation of religion and reason in the transcendent wisdom: A look at the necessity of philosophical investigation in the view of Mulla Sadra

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    Husain Agha Shiraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of reason and religion is a very important topic indeed. It has always preoccupied the minds of thinkers from times immemorial. Not only have human beings delved into this subject, but God Himself has spoken at great length in religious texts concerning this issue. This topic can be examined from a number of different points of view. What concerns us specifically is the necessity of pure rational/philosophical investigation in the eternal/religious felicity of man. What is more, we will be more specifically concerned with the view of one school of thought, rather, the view of the founder of that school of thought, in this regard. Philosophical investigation has always met with mixed reactions amongst Muslim thinkers. A very novel view regarding the necessity of philosophical investigation is that of the famous sage, Mulla Sadra. He was of the opinion that, not only is philosophical endeavor a necessity to understand religion and that it is by means of reason (as well as mystical intuition that human beings can prove the tenants of religion, but what is more, the eternal and religious felicity of human beings depends solely on the degree of acquaintance with philosophy. This paper will examine the view of this sage as can be found in the introduction of his philosophical encyclopedia, the Asfar. As will be seen Mulla Sadra presented an elaborate rational demonstration to substantiate his claim. However, no matter how precise it was this proof was internally flawed in that one of its premises rest upon an interpretation of a religious tradition using philosophical jargon that would only come into existence hundreds of years after this tradition was initially stated.

  16. Nature of Time as the Wavy-like Motion of the Matter Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the time for an atom (body) becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity can be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  17. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  18. Modification of Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-05-01

    ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other one is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. These two separated natures of space-time are matched on wave-particle duality. Therefore, the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources of particle(s)' flow while they are match exactly with each other. These two sources are potential of flow and potential of time (relative time) which vary with respect to both space and time. Here, we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation with respect to relative time: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt [Gholibeigian et al., APS March Meeting 2016], which for each atom becomes: tatom = ∑mnucleons + ∑melectrons where m is momentum [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Using time's relativity in Schrodinger equation will give us more precious results. AmirKabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

  19. Tehing mulla ja päikesega / Heiki Raudla

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    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Ühendriikide ning kogu maailma novaatorlike farmerite tippu kuuluvad isa ja poeg, Wade ning Clay Mitchell, praktiseerivad kulude minimeerimiseks ja tulude maksimeerimiseks ainulaadset riba-(vahele)viljelust, maa harimisel kasutavad nad ülitäpset automaatjuhtimist. Vt. samas: Põlvest põlve; Strip-intercropping - tagasi muistsete võtete juurde

  20. Religious language in the transcendent philosophy of Mulla Sadra

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    Ali Niyazi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Language is the most important communicative element of mankind with other beings that with at least lingual sign the highest level and account of meaning communication occurs. Thus, after the creation blessing, the Almighty mentioned the language as the greatest gift (Quran 55: 41. Also, the Islamic tradition as the guide of humans in the evolution path should have a language that would in the best way be able to play its role in this path and illuminate the divine message for them (Quran 14: 4. The two languages have an inseparable link and it is due to this reason that during the human history religion has caused the evolution of language and in each religion a specific language emerged (Hebrew and Jewish, Greek and Christianity, Arabic and Islam, Sanskrit and Hinduism and etc.. Most intellectuals who have dealt with the debate about the language of religion, first investigate the verbal propositions whose subject is God and imply one of the divine attributes or acts. It seems in this context that initially the factors which caused the formation of religious language should be considered.

  1. Väljapaistev riigimees August Rei puhkab kodumaa mullas / Urve Sagur

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    Sagur, Urve

    2006-01-01

    Asutava Kogu ja Riigikogu esimehe, riigivanema, ministri ja diplomaadi August Rei ja tema abikaasa urnid maeti Metsakalmistule Kuulsuste künkale. Mälestusteenistusel kõnelesid president Arnold Rüütel ja Riigikogu esimees Toomas Varek. Lisa: Ametid

  2. GDA sinu abimees pakendil / Piret Jaaks ; kommenteerinud Elena Burm

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    Jaaks, Piret, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni kokku kutsutud toitumisteadlaste komisjoni Eurodiet poolt koostatud GDA toitumisjuhist toiduainepakenditel, mis aitab jälgida toote- või joogiportsjoni osatähtsust päevasest soovitatavast kalorite ning olulisemate toitainete kogusest

  3. Evelin Ilves tegi transrasvadele ära

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvhapete sisalduse pärast. Kalev Chocolate Factory on nüüdseks kõigi oma maiustuste valmistamisel loobunud hüdrogeenimata taimsete rasvade kasutamisest

  4. PR, patriotism ja olupoliitika / Evi Arujärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arujärv, Evi, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvade sisalduse pärast. Artikli autor analüüsib sellest hargnenud üldrahvalikku muljetevahetust kui väärtusmaailmade kokkupõrget

  5. Miks tippjuhid nurjuvad? / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Majandusajakirja Fortune poolt 2000. aastal koostatud "tähelepanuväärseimalt" ebaõnnestunud tegevjuhtide edetabelis sisaldus kolm arvutifirma Apple tegevdirektorit. Autor kirjeldab John Sculley, Michael Spindleri ja Gil Amelio vigu ettevõtte juhtimisel. Lisa: Otsitakse tippjuhti!

  6. Time Dilation And Changes Of Material Properties Of An Atom (Body) In Speed Of Near Light Speed Based On The ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    Iranian Philosopher, Sadr-ol-Moteallehin (1571-1640) said in his famous book, Asfar: ''the Universe moves in its entity... and time is its fourth dimension, and time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity''. In other words, time for each atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles, [APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. When an atom (body) moves in speed of near light speed, speed of its involved fundamental particles become slow, and consequently the magnitude of its momentum (time) will decrease. On the other hands, when the spin and orbital angular momentum of an atom changed, it means that its properties, mass, strength of its electromagnetic field and its interaction with momentum changed. As a result, each atom (body) which moves in light speed, lower or faster than that, will get a new identity and vice versa. The special relativity can be the special form of this theory. In this way, black holes will be lighter than their involved masses at rest (a paradox with general relativity). Dark matter/energy may be created at first in B.B (Convection Bang) [AGU Fall Meeting 2015, abstract ID: 58425], in more than light speed, so, if we speed protons to more than light speed (in LHC), we may see dark mater/energy in new space-time. AmirKabir University of Technology.

  7. Inimlik eksitus Lätis saatis kontrolli kõik Aura mahlajoogid / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Õlletehase liiga suure säilitusaine sisalduse tõttu Lätis müügilt kõrvaldatud Aura Arcticu mahlajoogid tõid kaasa kogu tootesarja ulatusliku kontrolli. Rohkem eksimusi uuring ei tuvastanud. Lisa: Bensoehape

  8. Evelin Ilves: Kalevi kommid on kräpp / Arvo Uustalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uustalu, Arvo, 1964-

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvhapete sisalduse pärast. Kommenteerivad ASi Kalev Chocolate Factory turundus- ja müügidirektor Monika Heinrand, suhtekorraldaja Ruth Roht ning toitumisteadlased Selma Teesalu, Mai Maser ja Tagli Pitsi. Vt. samas: Transrasvad põhjustavad rasvumist

  9. Bait Units for Collection of House Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, H. R.; Mulla, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lurtox™4 is a proteinaceous attractant for Musca domestica L. and other synanthropic Diptera (Mulla et al. 1973: Willson and Mulla 1973a) and is easily mixed with commercial poison sugar baits. The mixture of Lurtox and dichlorvos sugar bait (50:50 by wt) can be administered in measurable quantities into compact bait units where dead flies can be easily recovered for counting and for other studies. While developing Lurtox for control of Hippelates eye gnats, Mulla et al. (1973) found that moi...

  10. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)- catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate. (stopped-flow technique). RAHAMATALLA M MULLA, GURUBASAVARAJ C HIREMATH and. SHARANAPPA T NANDIBEWOOR*. PG Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, ...

  11. Terved mullad - terveks eluks / kokkuvõtte tegi Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    ÜRO on kuulutanud 2015. aasta rahvusvaheliseks mulla-aastaks. Meie mullad on kogu inimeksistentsi aluseks - see sisuliselt taastumatu loodusvara annab 95% meie toidust. Eesti aasta muld 2015 on paepealne muld

  12. Eesti seireandmed näitavad : pestitsiidid jõuavad nii mulda, vette kui ka inimeste toidulauale / Elen Peetsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peetsmann, Elen, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Mai alguses toimunud seminaril "Elukeskkonna ja toidu kvaliteet" tutvustati Eesti seireandmeid mulla, vee ja toidu kvaliteedi kohta. Seminari ettekanded on leitavad http://mahekeskus.emu.ee/uudised/elukeskkonna-ja-toidu-kvaliteet-05052016/

  13. Evaluation of Commercial and Field-Expedient Baited Traps for House Flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    baits relied on natural products such as fermented egg slurries (Willson and Mulla 1973) or combinations of such items as molasses, milk , yeast, grain...would result in improved collections, presumably due to fermentation or the presence of decomposing flies in the bait reservoir. An evaluation of long

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 1. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)-catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate (stopped-flow technique). Rahamatalla M Mulla Gurubasavaraj C Hiremath Sharanappa T Nandibewoor. Full Papers Volume 117 ...

  15. Pakistan tabas surnuks peetud Talibani pealiku / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Pakistani ja USA eriüksuste haarangus langes vangi mulla Abdul Ghani Baradar, samas on Afganistani kaitseministeerium kinnitanud Baradari hukkumist juba 2007. aastal. Talibani on enim haavanud Pakistani armee suurpealetung 2009. aastal ning Afganistani presidendi Hamid Karzai intriigid, millega Talibani juhtkonna liikmeid meelitatakse üle, ostetakse ära või püütakse lepitada

  16. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 1. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)-catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate (stopped-flow technique). Rahamatalla M Mulla Gurubasavaraj C Hiremath Sharanappa T Nandibewoor. Full Papers Volume 117 ...

  17. Pikantsed pajatused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Louis Paul Boon. Menuett; Herbjırg Wassmo. Õnne poeg; Jean Stone. Sünnipäevatüdrukud; Jo︠l Schmidt. Constantinus Suure mälestused; Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Catherine Coulter. Märklaud; Ross Macdonald. Mees mulla all

  18. Taliban ähvardab kevade lähenedes veriste rünnakutega / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Afganistanis andis Suurbritannia NATO juhitava koalitsiooniväe ISAF juhtimise üle USA-le. Taliban haaras võimu Musa Qala linnas, kus kokkuleppe kohaselt pidid korda hakkama hoidma hõimupealikud. Islamiliikumise ühe liidri mulla Hayatullah Khani sõnul ollakse alustamas sõda, võitlejaid valmistatakse ette suitsiidirünnakuteks

  19. Hakim Mudarres Zunuzi and Banu Amin on the Unity of Essence A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryamsaday Eizadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tawhid (the belief in transcendent oneness or unity of divinity is the culmination of all Islamic teachings and has a special place in Islamic sciences. The unity of essence begins by the unity of existential necessity and ends in unity of existence as many theosophers and mystics suggest. This essay discusses unity of essence as understood by two Sadraean thinkers (Hakim Mudarres Zunuzi and Banu Amin according to Mulla Sadra's principles. Undoubtedly, these two theosophers have no discord as far as they speak about necessity of existence and unity of Necessary Existence. Dispute erupts when Banu voices her Sadraean sympathy with transcendent oneness of existence while Mudarres takes another position.       According to Sadra, the being which has no limitation whatsoever leaves no room for other being to come into existence and be its second or third and thus it is unique and uncountable. In this world, thus, there is no existence but one of which the rest are manifestations (Mulla Sadra, 1382, 67. This view which has been mentioned by Sadra in different positions is the very idea of individual unity of existence. It needs to be explained that in Mulla Sadra's works there are two accounts of effect: Existence in itself for something-else (relational existence Existence for something-else (copulative existence      At first sight which is thought to be elementary as compared to the second one, effect enjoys a reality and existence of its own the whole identity of which is though being related to and depended on cause and this dependency is its very essence and undetachable but the effect like the cause is counted among  beings. This is the position which is also held by Mudarres Zunuzi as to contingent beings (Mudarres Zunuzi, 1376: 357. He seem to have understood Mulla Sadra's words implying this very sense alone without presuming the possibility of a second sense. To put it otherwise, he has indeed fathomed effect's copulative

  20. العلم الإلهي باالجزئيات مقاربة ابن سينا و صدر المتألهين نموذجا

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    السيد خالد سيساوي خميني

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The philosophical problems have closed ties with the principle of tawhid. One of them is the  problem  of 'divine knowledge' about the particular matters. This article shows those problems from the approach of Ibn Sīna and Mulla Ṣadra. Ibn Sīna holds that the Divine Essence knows the particular things in a universal form rather than in a particular. That is to say in the form of causality of forms that manifested in the system of existence (wujūd. Mulla Ṣadra on the other hand agrees that the Divine Essence is the forms of everything, without exception. He interprets the knowledge of God to the particular things that exist in the matter without any changing in the Divine knowledge itself, along with the events that turn.Keywords : Divine knowledge of particular things, universal form, matter

  1. Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in Aqueous Sucrose Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    malathion- sugar solution. Incorporation of Bacillus sphaericus Meyer and Neide spores with the sucrose/dye solutions provided further evidence with... larvae (Darriet and Corbel 2006, Jiang and Mulla 2009). Previous studies have reported on effective delivery of spinosad in sucrose as oral baits...Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae . Based on topical application of adults, higher efficacy of fipronil than permethrin was reported by Pridgeon et al

  2. Existence does not Have any Extension: Sohrawardi\\'s Theory about Existence not Having any Real Extension and its Usage in the Realm of the Necessary Being through Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    r akbari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories about the dawn of "principality of existence" or "principality of quiddity" stand in the realm of "confusion of term and concept fallacy". It is true that asalat as a term appeared for the first time in Mirdamad's works such as Taqwim al-Iman to mention the problem of principality of existence, but we should notice that its meaning as a concept can be tracked in Suhrawadi's works. If by the term asalat we mean having real extension, as it is used in Mulla Sadra's work, we can, without any doubt, claim that Suhrawardi is among the proponents of principality of quiddity. Proposing the distinction of existence and quiddity by al-Faraby and Avicenna, some philosophers regarded this distinction as a real one. But Suhrawardi, by presenting about nine arguments, claimed that existence remains as a mental predicate and does not have any real extension. He made use of his theory in the realm of the Necessary Being through Itself. Avicenna had claimed that the essence of God is His Existence (al-Haqq mahiyyatuh inniyyatuh but Suhrawardi denied this Avicennan Peripatetic principle. He said that existence has no real extension and so the essence of God cannot be existence. He claimed that here iniyyah means indivisible life (al-Hayat al-Basit. It seems that Mulla Sadra's arguments for demonstrating the principality of existence posed versus Suhrawardi's arguments for the mental nature of existence.

  3. A Comparison of MullÁ Sadra\\\\\\'s and Thomas Aquinas’ Spiritual Psychology Centering on the Structure of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezazadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual psychology has a special status and essential role in philosophical theology of Thomas Aquinas and Mulla Sadra. Characteristics of such status and role can be clearly found in compiling structure of “Summa Theologiae” of Aquinas and “Asfar” of Sadra. A Comparative survey of this fundamental element in two systematical structures indicates that these philosophers has so similarly regarded spiritual psychology in networks of metaphysical teachings and doctrines that considered both ontological aspect of human being as caused/creature and his epistemological statue or situation about God, himself and world. But the issue of the way of human beings toward God in two mentioned systems has provided two different types of justification and compiling structure, because of different Christian background of Aquinas’ thought and Islamic background of Sadra's thought.

  4. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  5. Studi Kritis Terhadap Teori Identitas Pikiran-Otak Mario Bunge: Perspektif Neo-Sadrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Bakti Gama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The aim of this research is to conduct a critical analysis of Mario Bunge’s view that mental reality is identical with the reality of brain function known as mind-brain identity theory. The analysis is performed using Neosadrian perspective, i.e. a new form of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy which is developed by Tabataba‘i and his disciples. The author tries to elucidate the main claims held by Bunge and to launch some critiques upon those claims. The main conclusions achieved through this research include the following. Firstly, mind-brain identity theory cannot be accepted. Secondly, current development of scientific studies corroborating certain relations between brain and mental states does not justify the validity of the identity theory, also does not falsify its opposition. Thirdly, a religious-sufistical philosophy, such the Neosadrian, can be consistent with current development of scientific research.Keywords : Mind-brain  identity  theory,  Mario  Bunge, Neo-Sadrian,  science,  religious-sufistical philosophy. Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis kritis atas pandangan Mario Bunge bahwa realitas pikiran identik dengan realitas fungsi otak, yang dikenal dengan teori identitas pikiran- otak. Analisis tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan sudut pandang Neosadrian, yaitu bentuk baru filsafat Mulla Sadra yang dikembangkan oleh Tabataba‘i dan murid-muridnya. Penulis mencoba menguraikan sejumlah klaim utama yang dipegang oleh Bunge tentang teori identitas tersebut dan melancarkan kritik terhadapnya. Sejumlah kesimpulan utama yang bisa dicapai melalui penelitian ini mencakup hal-hal berikut. Pertama, teori identitas pikiran-otak tidak bisa diterima. Kedua, perkembangan studi saintifik yang menguatkan adanya relasi antara status otak dan status mental tidak menjustifikasi validitas teori identitas pikiran-otak, juga tidak memfalsifikasi dualitas esensi keduanya. Ketiga, filsafat yang bercorak religius

  6. Mullah Mohammad Mehdi Naraqi and analysis of pantheism theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korush Asmand

    2016-09-01

    need to be revised.In fact, Naraqi’s analyses are based on gradational unity and conceptualperspective not personal unity nor extensional perspective. To put it otherwise, he has thought that mystics deny every type of diversity while this is far from being correct as the mystics ground their arguments mainly on Quran and prophetic traditions. Then one cannot negligently attribute such baseless doctrines as immanence, occurrence, apostasy and blasphemy to mystics. After critical assessment of the ideas ofmystics, Naraqi turns to Mulla Sadra’s views of Unity of Existence and reviews him as we have summarized hereunder: -The maxim of Simple Reality in the discussions of unity of existence is concerned with the modes of existence and gradational unity not personal unity. -Mulla Sadra’s depiction of the world as the shadow of Divine Presence is blasphemous because this implies attribution of the flaws of the worldly objects to divinity. -The essential difference between the generator and the generated is an expression of the inconsistency between the mode and the owner of the mode. -Gradationhappens in the concept of existence not in its reality. In other word, weakness and intensity and priority and posteriority occurs in the concept. It seems that the majority of Naraqi’s objections to Mulla Sadra have their origin in Naraqi’ssubjective notion of unity of existence while Mulla Sadras’s point of view of the gradation of existence is objective and his perspective of personal unity of existence is subjective. To put the matter differently, Naraqi speaks of both notions in subjective terms and his idea that there are a number of similarities and differences between the true unity and the untrue one endorses the author’s latter remark. Generally speaking, Naraqi’s objections to the mystics and philosophers show that he is definitely agree with the idea of unity of existence but he does not have a unified approach in this regard and this is why there are

  7. Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, Biruni and Biological Evolutionary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory contains two major ideas: common descent and natural selection. This theory goes back to mid-nineteenth century and Darwin. Some scholars have claimed that this theory had been given by Muslims such as Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, and Biruni. Among contemporary scholars who agree with this claim are Ebrahimzadeh, Motahari, and Azkaei. But there are scholars who disagree with this claim, among them are Nasr and Falatouri. Nasr says that those Muslims believed in "the great chain of being." And Falatouri says especifically about Biruni that he believed in some kind of gradual evolution, not a Darwinian one. In this paper we first explain these opinions. Then to clarify what is at stake, evolutionary theory and the great chain of being will be described. Criticisms and suggestions come next. We argue that because evolutinary theory was the result of gradual changes of the great chain of being, there is some truth in the ideas of the first camp. And because the great chain that those Muslims hold was of the type of that of Ibn Sina, there is also some truth in the ideas of the second camp. At last we claim that the great chain of the type that Mulla Sadra maintained is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  8. Investigating Sadraee’s Views on “the Process of Sensory Perception”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Momeni

    2012-09-01

    some thoughts of Mulla Sadra as influencing parameters on this view. Also, his theory that considers these perceptions as Being is introduced and, after pointing to some of its fundamentals, probable accessories of it such as: solving the problems of subjective being, unity of the perceiver and the perceived, the conformity of the perception with the Worlds and self-evident Knowledge are investigated. After looking deeply into this attitude, it is revealed that each of these accessories is also a theory by itself and leads to other views. Therefore, there is a kind of solidarity and concomitance between these ideas. In the second step, compatibility or incompatibility of theories such as Emanation (Efaze from the World of Command, observation of Ideal Forms and Descent of the Soul in this position is investigated systematically. How is it possible that one perception is created simultaneously out of the creativity of the Soul, emanated by Donor, being the result of observation of the incorporeal characters (Tabaye through the Ideal and intellectual senses and created with the descent of Perceiver Soul to the level of Nature and the corporeal senses? These are the main issues studied in this research in detail.

  9. Comparing evil solution from Sadra and Allame Tabatabaei,s point of view according to dependant and independant existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Shanazari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of evil has been presented in logical and evidential forms and has managed to undermine religious doctrines, leading to serious criticisms against religious beliefs. The theists have attempted to solve the problem through different ways. One of these attempts made in Islamic philosophy is the argument against the problem of evil through explaining the connective and independent existences. According to Mulla Sadra, the objective solitary reality of every existent stems from the existence which includes two levels: the independent existence and the connective one. All of the connective existents are ultimately related to an independent existent that contains all the other levels of existence. The connective existence can be illustrated in two different ways:   According to the first picture, the connective existent has the same existence as the independent being, while based on the second presentation it has an independent and distinct existent. It is because every contingent being consists of two dimensions of essence and existence. Its existence stems from God and thus is connected to Him and has no independence, and its essence is the absolute nothingness.   Based on Sadra, the essence which emanates from the presence of connective existence, is the source of all evils in the universe. Since the essence is existing indirectly and due to the connective existence and has no form of existence by itself, the evils which can be described as the privation of good, all are derived from the essence and are regarded as nullity.   According to Allamah, the connective existents are the beings which are totally related and affiliated to the independent existent and are regarded as the manifestations and evidences of His existence. These beings are accompanied by privation, constraints and negation which are imagined through the concept of essence. In fact, it is the human mind which manages to imagine the connective existent as independent

  10. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    effect on the region. The high number of Summer Shamal days is associated with the strong summer monsoon or eastward-shift of the Azores High over land. Conversely, the low number of Summer Shamal days is associated with a westward-shift of the Azores High over the Atlantic or weak summer monsoon. References Al Aali, H. (2011); Collected wind data, over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010), from Bahrain Bahrain International airport wind data set, submitted by official communication using official email Hhalaali@caa.gov.bh. Govinda, R., Al-Sulaiti, M., Al-Mulla, A., (2001); Winter Shamals in Qatar, Arabian Gulf, Weather, Vol 56, No.12, PP 444-451. Govinda R., Hatwar, H., Al-Sulaiti, M., Al-Mulla, A., (2003); Summer Shamal over the Arabian Gulf, Weather, Vol 58, No.12, PP 471-477. Nazemosadat, M., Samani, N., Barry, D., and Niko, M., (2006); ENSO forcing on climate change in Iran: Precipitation analysis, Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction B, Engineering, Vol. 30, No B4, p. 555-565 NCEP, 2013; Monthly/Seasonal Climate Composites

  11. True dreams: Encounter of the worlds in Islamic philosophy

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    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.

  12. (Solanum tuberosum, grupo Phureja de la región Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz P. Rojas Mercado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la productividad de diez cultivares de papa chaucha de la Región Cajamarca, en Diseño de BloquesCompletos al Azar, con diez tratamientos (cultivares y tres repeticiones:Peruanita 3, Montañera 2, Limeña,Amarilla, Clavelina 2, Roja 2, Mulla,Huagalina, Amarilla mahuay y Chimbina colorada. Se evaluóaltura deplanta, número de tallos,número total de tubérculos, número de tubérculos comerciales, peso total detubérculos, peso de tubérculos comerciales,materia seca de tubérculos, peso seco delfollaje e índice decosecha. El rendimiento varió de 5,0 (Huagalina a 11,5 t ha-1(Amarilla mahuay con una media de 8,6 t ha-1.El peso total de tubérculos, el peso de tubérculos comerciales, el número total de tubérculos y el peso seco delfollaje, presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cultivares. Los cultivares Limeña y Huagalinafueron estadísticamente inferiores al resto de cultivares, en peso total de tubérculos y peso de tubérculoscomerciales. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas altamente significativas para número de tallos e índice decosecha. Los mejores índices de cosechase registraron en Huagalina (46%, Amarilla mahuay (45% yClavelina 2 (42%.

  13. Konsep Being Perspektif Filsafat dan Islam

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    Suhermanto Jakfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss the concept of being in the perspective of existentialism and Islam. The closest similarity to the word “being” is to on (Ancient Greece, as the word of einai, to be (on, onta. For Parmenides, “being” (to on is one, eternal and unchanging. Gabriel Marcel calls the way the human being with the term être-au-monde, etre in carne, geist-in-welt.  Martin Heidegger uses a formula being in the world to characterize human life. Being in the world as a feature of human life, human beings are in the situation. Living in a world of concrete means that there are human relationships with the situation. Sartre said that the real one where there are two, namely: I’etre en soi and I’etre pour Soi. For Sartre, I’etre en soi is the idea that only a concrete phenomenon has ontological status; only something concrete is real. Unlike the being-in-itself, for Sartre the concept of being-for-itself is a state of being that comes with the awareness and self-control. The concept of being (wujûd by Suhrawardî is a mental concepts (mahfûm that do not have the type and diferensia. In the illumination philosophy of Suhrawardî, the idea of ​​wujûd can not be separated from nature and depiction of light. The philosophy of wujûd by Mulla Sadrâ stands on three basic principles of fundamental importance. These three principles are as follows: wahdat al-wujûd, tashkîk al-wujûd, and tashkîk. While Mohammad Iqbal emphasis on metaphysics and anthropological philosophy. Iqbal gives greater emphasis on more concrete dimensions, namely khudi (ego.

  14. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai's views

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    Alireza Khajegir

    2013-08-01

    essential and actual knowledge, does not have incompatibility with its Truth in the other degree of knowledge. Therefore, it is right to consider the Decrees of fate as two kinds of essential and actual.    In the analysis of Allama's critique on Sadra, should be said Mulla Sadra, has raised five degrees on the Divine Knowledge, including essential detailed science, pencil (ghalam, preserved tablet, tabula rasa and the material beings. This division of the degrees can be understood as the degree of Decrees of fate is out of the essence of god and jurisprudence is other than creative foreknowledge. In addition, the detailed knowledge above mentioned which is called Decrees of fate in other expressions of Mulla Sadra, is not out of Divinity and if it is sometimes referred to as the attribute of oldness that will not be the consistent essential oldness, but oldness by the necessary essence is oldness. From Mulla Sadra's words can be understood, which decrees of fate is sometimes applied to essential creative foreknowledge, as sometimes creative foreknowledge is also referred to decrees of fate. Appling decrees of fate to essential creative foreknowledge does not involve exclusion of decrees of fate in essential knowledge and also does not cause the Absolute and essential oldness of decrees of fate, because jurisprudence which is needed for the essence of god, certainly is necessary by oldness of essence. Also, Mulla Sadra in his interpretation, referred to that Decrees of fate is synonym and coincided with Destiny which is the signs of withdrawal of both from the text of the eternal essence. The Decrees of fate is not limited in the essential knowledge that is the same as eternal dispensation and not limited to the actual knowledge that is outside of essence, but according to the philosopher, it is Compatible for both. So, what Allama in the criticism of Sadra's view has expressed, first, About the Decrees of fate does not consider the unity of Decree and dispensation

  15. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai's views

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    Ali Reza Khwajegir

    actual knowledge, does not have incompatibility with its Truth in the other degree of knowledge. Therefore, it is right to consider the Decrees of fate as two kinds of essential and actual. In the analysis of Allama's critique on Sadra, should be said Mulla Sadra, has raised five degrees on the Divine Knowledge, including essential detailed science, pencil (ghalam, preserved tablet, tabula rasa and the material beings. This division of the degrees can be understood as the degree of Decrees of fate is out of the essence of god and jurisprudence is other than creative foreknowledge. In addition, the detailed knowledge above mentioned which is called Decrees of fate in other expressions of Mulla Sadra, is not out of Divinity and if it is sometimes referred to as the attribute of oldness that will not be the consistent essential oldness, but oldness by the necessary essence is oldness. From Mulla Sadra's words can be understood, which decrees of fate is sometimes applied to essential creative foreknowledge, as sometimes creative foreknowledge is also referred to decrees of fate. Appling decrees of fate to essential creative foreknowledge does not involve exclusion of decrees of fate in essential knowledge and also does not cause the Absolute and essential oldness of decrees of fate, because jurisprudence which is needed for the essence of god, certainly is necessary by oldness of essence.Also, Mulla Sadra in his interpretation, referred to that Decrees of fate is synonym and coincided with Destiny which is the signs of withdrawal of both from the text of the eternal essence. The Decrees of fate is not limited in the essential knowledge that is the same as eternal dispensation and not limited to the actual knowledge that is outside of essence, but according to the philosopher, it is Compatible for both. So, what Allama in the criticism of Sadra's view has expressed, first, About the Decrees of fate does not consider the unity of Decree and dispensation, second, is not About

  16. Investigating Sadraee’s Views on “the Process of Sensory Perception”

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    N Momeni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sadr-ol-Motaalehin has looked at the sensory perception from multiple perspectives and, therefore, presented inconsistent views. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between these ideas. Thus, his discussions are studied in two steps. First, his famous view, that is, the creativity of the percipience, is considered and it is tried to introduce some thoughts of Mulla Sadra as influencing parameters on this view. Also, his theory that considers these perceptions as Being is introduced and, after pointing to some of its fundamentals, probable accessories of it such as: solving the problems of subjective being, unity of the perceiver and the perceived, the conformity of the perception with the Worlds and self-evident Knowledge are investigated. After looking deeply into this attitude, it is revealed that each of these accessories is also a theory by itself and leads to other views. Therefore, there is a kind of solidarity and concomitance between these ideas. In the second step, compatibility or incompatibility of theories such as Emanation (Efaze from the World of Command, observation of Ideal Forms and Descent of the Soul in this position is investigated systematically. How is it possible that one perception is created simultaneously out of the creativity of the Soul, emanated by Donor, being the result of observation of the incorporeal characters (Tabaye through the Ideal and intellectual senses and created with the descent of Perceiver Soul to the level of Nature and the corporeal senses? These are the main issues studied in this research in detail.

  17. The Tacziya ecstasy as political expression

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    Jan Hjärpe

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta'ziya, "consolation", has become the Shi technical term for the liturgical mourning and commemoration of the martyred Imams, particularly the ritual lamentation for the death of Husayn, celebrated formerly often in the form of passion plays in which the heart is the drama of Kerbela, but in which in addition the whole of human history is viewed sub specie Kerbelae. Nowadays the celebration is first and foremost in the form of processions (in our Western mass media called "demonstrations", enga ing huge masses of people in emotion-evokingbehaviour, also including processions to the cemetery. For the contents of the classical Shi'i passion plays and their performance, and for the theological interpretation of the sacrifice of Husayn and the other martyrs, we refer the reader to the available literature on the subject. The Ta`ziya of Husayn falls in the month of Muharram, with its culmination on the 10th day (ruz-i katl, "the day of the murder", the Ashara' festival, and is followed up by the mourning ceremony on the 40th day (naziarba' in from the 'Ashura' (20th day of Safar. It is important to note the immense impact of the Ta'ziya on the emotions of the participant masses, emotions aroused by several means. We have here the suggestive sentimentality of the speeches held by the Mullas, dwelling on the tribulations and sufferings of Husayn and his family and followers, on the cruelty and baseness of his enemies, and on the courage of the 72 noble-hearted martyrs of Kerbela. In the processions, the emotions are aroused by the rhythmical repetition of formulae expressing mourning for the martyrs and hatred of their murderers. Many of the participants are dressed in shrouds, many wear chains, ropes and scourges, and the lamentations are accompanied by self-flagellation of the naked backs. People beat their breasts, some have put earth on their heads. Women weep, bewailing the pains of Husayn and the 72.

  18. Reflections on the Writing Process: Perspectives from Recent Hindi Novels

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    Veronica Ghirardi

    2017-05-01

    s Seventh Horse, 1952 by Dharmavir Bharati. The novel consists of three narratives about three women recounted by Manik Mulla to his friends over seven afternoons, in the style of Hitopadesha or Panchatantra. Later, in the Seventies, Krishna Baldev Vaid published Bimal Urf Jayen to Jayen Kahan. From the earliest pages of the novel, the narrator addresses his readers with provocative monologues. According to the materials consulted in my research, there are not many other examples of self-reflexive novels until the 1990s: from this decade, in fact, the metafictional component seems to gain new importance. The aim of this paper is to exemplify the new role acquired by metafiction in recent Hindi novels and to understand if it can be considered a possible postmodern trace.

  19. Sadra’s ontological hermeneutics and the religious language problem

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    Mohammad Bidhendi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigating the significance and knowledge domain of a holy text is one of the fundamental problems of religious Language. For Sadra the religious language is a cognitive language. He considers the relation between word and meaning in Revelation as a genetic one; he believes that contrary to imagery in literature in revelation there is a univocity between appearance and reality and the descended truths in the existential hierarchies correspond with each other in a vertical relationship. In this domain, Molla Sadra explains philosophically the self-manifestation of the revealed truths in terms of holy text by using the correspondence between the knowledge and language (Kalam with the being in the arc of descent and in the arc of ascent he provides an understanding process of the holy text whose reconstruction forms his model of ontological hermeneutics. The principal problem of this article is the explanation of the significance of religious language and its cognitive domain in Sadra’s hermeneutic model which results from an investigation of this model and effective factors in the process of the holy text understanding. This research has been conducted based on Mafatih al-ghayb and explanation of its philosophical foundations on the basis of the Transcendent Philosophy and one of its most important findings is displaying the role of triad of individual, text and the author in relation together by Sadra’s hermeneutic model and using this model for explaining the cognitive domain of religious language regarding the text and also from text to extra-text. Contrary to the one-dimensional exoteric conventional or esoteric dogmatic and absolutist models in understanding Quran, Mulla Sadra provides a comprehensive multiple coherent model that is based on singular reality and is rooted in the existence hierarchy, existential layers of human being and the interiors of holy text. Due to move around the gradational singular reality, the

  20. Creation, Phase Change and Evolution of the Universe Based on the "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-04-01

    In our vision, it is believed that creation and phase change of universe and their coupling began by the gigantic Large Scale Forced Convection System (LSFCS) in very high temperature including a swirling wild wind and energetic particles like gravitons. That wind as the creator of the inflation process was carrying many Quantum Convection Loops (QCLs). Those QCLs have been transformed to black holes as the cores of galaxies. Convection Bang (CB) Model for creation, phase change and evolution of the Universe is constituted based on three assumptions as follows: The first is: "Gravity Hypothesis" that describes the gravity fields generation by the LSFCSs of the heat and mass inside the planets, stars, galaxies and clusters. The LSFCS changes the material properties of the domain and produces coupling of the matched electromagnetic and gravity fields. Gravity hypothesis is a new way to understand gravitation phenomenon which is different from the both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's theory of general relativity approaches [Gholibeigian et. al, AGU Fall Meeting 2015, P11A-2056 ]. The second is: "Substantial Motion" theory of Iranian philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571/2-1640), which describes space-time, time's relativity for all atoms (bodies) which are different from each other [Gholibeigian, APS April Meeting 2015, abstract #L1.027], atom's (body) volume squeezing, black hole's mass lightening while increases the velocities of its involved masses inward (a paradox with general relativity), and changes of material properties and geometries in speed of near light speed [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2016, abstract #]. The third is: "Animated Sub-particles" model. These sub-particles (sub-strings) are origin of life and creator of the momentums of the fundamental particles and forces, and basic link of the information transfer to them, [Gholibeigian, APS April Meeting 2015, abstract #L1.027]. In this model, there are four proposed animated sub-particles of mater

  1. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

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    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  2. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  3. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pulmonology”

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    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    A TERTIARY NEONATAL UNIT • D. Fouad, S. Mulla, D. Sava, M. Kulkarni, R. RoyABS 18. RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY AFTER NICU DISCHARGE OF PRETERM BABIES WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • C. McKnight, S. SomisettyABS 19. A RANDOMISED CLINICAL TRIAL: ORAL VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION FOR PREVENTING BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • E. Calisici, E. Yarci, S.S. Oguz, N. Uras, U.  DilmenABS 20. CLINICAL COURSE AND PROGNOSIS AT ONE YEAR OF CORRECTED AGE OF A 6,135 COLOMBIAN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW INFANTS COHORT DISCHARGED HOME IN KANGAROO POSITION WITH AMBULATORY OXYGEN: A 15 YEARS EXPERIENCE • E. Rodriguez, A. Montealegre, L. Rosero, N. Charpak, S. Fernandez, A. ParraABS 21. BRONCHODILATOR RESPONSE TO SALBUTAMOL MODIFIES LUNG VENTILATION PATTERN IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH BPD, BUT NOT IN PRESCHOOL EX-PREMATURELY BORN CHILDREN WITHOUT BPD • W. Durlak, M. Klimek, A. Sudoł, P. KwintaABS 22. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN PREMATURE INFANTS EVALUATING THE ROLE OF U. UREALYTICUM ON CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • A. Olariu, H. GowdaABS 23. THE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE OF PRETERM NEWBORNS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS • M. Matyas, L. Blaga, G. ZaharieABS 24. URINARY N-TERMINAL PRO-B TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PREDICTS MODERATE OR SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM INFANTS • C. Czernik, S. Hartenstein, B. Metze, C. BührerABS 25. LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF CLUB CELL SECRETORY PROTEIN (CC16 IN GASTRIC FLUID AT BIRTH IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG INFLAMMATION AND MORE SEVERE LUNG DISEASE IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • C. Hagman, L. Björklund, E. Tufvesson, I. Hansen PuppABS 26. LOCAL INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS WHO REQUIRED MECHANICAL VENTILATION SHORTLY AFTER BIRTH • O. Borysiuk, D. Dobryanskyy, Y. KuzminovABS 27. ANIMAL MODEL FOR THE BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M. Tolnai, Zs. Helyes, T. Ertl, P. KissABS 28.OPTIMISING ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (ETT  LENGTH IN NEONATES: PRE-CUT STRATEGY OR UNCUT

  4. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Nutrition and gastroenterology”

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    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    PROTEIN QUANTITY AND QUALITY • P.S. Worsøe, J.B. van Goudoever, B. Koletzko, E.M. van der Beek, M. Abrahamse-Berkeveld, B.J.M. van de Heijning, P.T. Sangild, T. ThymannABS 37. MATERNAL RISK FACTORS FOR NEC IN PREMATURES INFANTS WITH GA UNDER 28 WEEKS • G. Olariu, L. Olariu, S. Olariu, M. TunescuABS 38. DOES DELAYED PASSAGE OF MECONIUM AND LOWER FREQUENCY OF STOOLS PRECEDE DEVELOPMENT OF NECROTISING ENTEROCOLITIS? • E. Lilja, K. Sandberg, A. ElfvinABS 39. THE EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL AGE ON THE CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF SEVERE NECROTISING ENTEROCOLITIS: A UK POPULATION STUDY • C. Battersby, S. Mandalia, N. Fitz-Simon, N. ModiABS 40. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF STANDARDISED FEEDING REGIME AND PROBIOTICS ON INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IN PRE-TERM BABIES, A SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE • K. Mansoor, A. Upasani, A. Minocha, O. Kazeem, R. RoyABS 41. EARLY POSTNATAL HYDROCORTISONE FAILS TO PROTECT AGAINST NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IN PRETERM PIGS • P.S. Worsøe, T. Skeath, M.M. Birck, T. Thymann, P.T. SangildABS 42. FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION DECREASES NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS BUT IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED NEONATAL MORTALITY IN PRETERM PIGS • L. Martin, M.S. Cilieborg, M.M. Birck, T. Thymann, P.T. SangildABS 43. TRANSCRIPTOMICS PROFILING OF HUMAN NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS • E. Tremblay, M.P. Thibault, E. Ferretti, C. Babakissa, V. Bertelle, M. Bettolli, K. Burghardt, J.F. Colombani, D. Grynspan, E. Levy, S. Mayer, D. Ménard, O. Mouterde, I.B. Renes, E.G. Seidman, J.F. BeaulieuABS 44. CURRENT ESPGHAN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRETERM PARENTERAL NUTRITION – A RECIPE FOR SEVERE BIOCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES? • S. Mulla, S. Cowey, R. Close, S. Pullan, R. Howe, J. Jones, L. Radbone, P. ClarkeABS 45. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL BIOMARKERS OF PRETERM INFANTS FED A NEW POWDERED HUMAN MILK FORTIFIER: A MULTICENTER, RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL • J. Spalinger, J.-M. Hascoët, C. Billeaud, J.-C. Picaud, F. Mosca, A. Rubio, E. Saliba, M