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Sample records for toitainete sisaldus mullas

  1. Proclus and Mulla Sadra on First Effusion

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    Saeed Rahimiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra's philosophical system is built upon the belief in unique origin of world to which all diversities can be reduced. Then First Effusion debate can be taken on in this system. According to the principle which reads "from the One nothing is effused but One", contingent beings could not have been emanated from the Necessary Being in a horizontal fashion due to their diversity. Rather they have been effused from the Necessary in a vertical fashion and through a hierarchy of causes and effects. The first stage of the hierarchy is being represented by the First Effusion. Pre-Sadraeian theosophers regarded the First Effusion the first intellect in vertical chain of intellects. Mulla Sadra have two theories of the First Effusion. In some of his books he introduces the first intellect as the first entity effused from the Necessary keeping his pace with his own predecessors. But in some other works like Asfar he describes the Ever-unfolding existence as the First Effusion and takes it to be his final position. Having replaced existential gradation with causation and also individual unity of existence with existential gradation, Mulla Sadra asserts that the First Effusion could only be the Ever-unfolding Existence which is a manifestation of Divine Essence not an independent existence. It is indeed nothing but the Divine Essence although in the form of its first manifestation. Thus the Ever-unfolding Existence has three distinguished attributes which make it qualified to stand in direct relationship with Divine Essence, Existential (and not conceptual universality and comprehensiveness which enables this existence to include the other manifestions. Lack of particular limitation and determination; this is why it can reveal itself to every being in its own peculiar existential terms. Having unity while being imbued in diversity and being diversed while having unity (due to its true but shadowy unity (Rahimian, 1383: 187. First

  2. A Comparative Analytic Study between Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari is Opinions on Beyond Abstract Status of Human Being

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    Ali ArshadRiahi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper one of human characteristic namely beyond abstract status is studied from view point of two great philosophers: Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari. In philosophic knowledge of human being, transcendental theosophy and its commentators, have paid a particular attention to this certain status and have proved its bases. In this article , opinions of Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari on this status are studied and it is concluded that from viewpoint of these two sages, human being, having no determined status, can pass all stages and reach to a stage that is abstract of both: matter and quality. Although these two sages demonstrate and express this subject in a little different ways and this lead them to two different horizon of vision about this status.

  3. Diskursus Akhlak dalam Filsafat Mulla Sadra

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    Thuba Kermani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : In Mulla Sadra’s system of thought, the discussion of  philosophy of  moral (ethics, morality, the nature of morality and matters related, that is the soul (nafs and the spirit, is not a short discussion. All forms of action and the nature of malakah imprinted in the human psyche that will participate in the world hereafter. Therefore, some of the matters of the soul is a postulate of science of moral. Yet despite the differences in the ethics’s school of thoughts, it can be said that almost Muslim philosophers agree to the connection of moral with the perfection of soul. And the foundation of moral questions rests on the principle of perfection of the soul and the effects of the moral act. Without them, there will be no perfect rational and philosophical explanations of the good and bad character. However, in understanding how the process of perfection of the soul through moral acts, it is necessary to understand the perfection of the soul and make it a goal for human.Keywords : philosophy of moral, science of moral, theoretical reasoning, practical reasoning, intuition, meta-ethics. Abstrak : Dalam  struktur  pemikiran Mulla Sadra pembahasan  filsafat  akhlak,  akhlak,  sifat-sifat akhlak dan  hal yang berkaitan  dengannya,  yaitu  jiwa  (nafs dan ruh, bukan  pembahasan  yang  ringkas. Segala bentuk tindakan dan sifat malakah yang terpatri dalam jiwa manusia akan menyertainya di alam akhirat kelak. Oleh karena itu  sebagian  dari  persoalan-persoalan  jiwa  merupakan  postulat  ilmu  akhlak.  Namun  meskipun  terdapat perbedaan dalam aliran-aliran pemikiran filsafat akhlak, dapat dikatakan hampir semua filsuf Islam sepakat bahwa akhlak berkaitan dengan kesempurnaan jiwa. Dan fondasi persoalan-persoalan akhlak bersandar pada prinsip kesempurnaan jiwa dan pengaruh dari perbuatan akhlak. Tanpa hal itu, penjelasan rasional dan filosofis atas kebaikan dan keburukan akhlak tidak akan sempurna. Bagaimanapun

  4. The generation of the soul in the philosophy of Mulla Sadra

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    Halilović Tehran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All Islamic philosophers agree with the idea that the human soul is immaterial and that after it exits the body it continues its life. Also, it is clear that the soul is one of the creatures of God and that its existence is the effect of the Divine Being. In this article, we will not be examining what the soul is or what its cause is. Rather, we will be examining the problem of how Muslim philosophers explain the generation of the human soul. We will especially examine the view of Mulla Sadra who had a visible command over philosophical discussions regarding the soul. This is a problem whose importance will be understood when we examine different parts of religious texts including verses of the Qur'an and the traditions. Some of these texts state that the human soul was generated before the body. However, some others state that the human soul is generated at the time when its body is formed in the womb of its mother. Based upon his new philosophical innovations, which he established in his Transcendent Philosophy, Mulla Sadra leveled many objections against the popular notion that the immaterial human soul is generated at the same time as its material body is formed. In reality, the theory that Mulla Sadra has presented in his philosophy perfects the thoughts of the previous philosophers regarding the generation of the soul. He explains that the human soul - as many verses of the Qur'an have indicated - is generated with the body. However, it is not immaterial at that time. Rather, this immateriality is something that is acquired gradually when it elevates its existential degrees.

  5. Reflection on the Essentials of Avecinna and Mulla-Sadra\\\\\\'s

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    Forigh Rahimpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available   The philosophers believe that the origin of the chain of Intellects "The primal Intellect "(Agl-al Awal is the "First Creature ".In Islamic tradition the First Creature is called by different names such as: Intellect (Agl, The Pen (Qalam, Muhammadan Light, Muhammadan Soul Studies.   This article Avicenna and Mulla Sadra ' s Points of view, and in this line concentrates on the problem that weather the reality of all these different expressions conform and especially, weather the fact inward of the Last prophet (Pbuh can be the applicability of the First Creature or not.   The author to tries the clarify bases of diversity of Avicenna and Mulla Sadra ' s opinions on this matter and belives that the differenc of the views of these two philosophers is based on their different approach to: Accepthing or rejecting the Originality of Existence and Gradating of Existencel, Pre-existence of soul, and Equality or differentiality of the essence of the Last messenger and the essence of other people.

  6. Haffali Mulla: A Hollow Merry Making Under the Moon Light? A Critical Appreciation of Traditional Marriage and Marriage Songs among the Pasaalas in Ghana

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    Confidence Gbolo Sanka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Haffali Mulla are traditional marriage songs among the Pasaalas of the Sisasali speaking ethnic group in Ghana. Like many oral compositions, haffali mulla are literary in nature and can be analysed from that perspective. The institution of marriage, in the rural set up, is not only strong and old, but it is replete with tradition and processes leading up to the union. This paper traces the mores and the processes of traditional marriage among the Pasaalas and critically examines the verbal aesthetics as well as the utilitarian aspects of haffali mulla. Analysis from this paper, using the theory of ethnopoetics, reveals that haffali mulla are compositions which embed verbal art and useful messages that can be used to improve social cohesion and to strengthen the institution of marriage. The traditional processes of marriage are also sound sources of lessons that the present generation can draw on.

  7. A Study Of The Effect Of Human Soul On External Objects : Between Copenhagen School And Mulla Sadra

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    Ali Arshad Riahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The theory of the effects of all human souls on external objects, from the viewpoint of Copenhagen School (in Quantum Physics, has made physicists deny the existence of two separate realms of the observer and the observed; they claim that causality is meaningless and profess that it is impossible to recognize the object. While, on the other hand, Mulla Ṣadra believes that the effect of soul on external objects is limited to the souls of prophets as well as saints and, barring evil eye or supplications, there is no such effect in others. In this article we argue that, based on Mulla Ṣadra’s teachings and philosophical doctrine, it is actually possible to generalize this effect to other human souls. Consequently, it is impossible to have an accurate recognition of the causes of events if causality is considered meaningless. In addition, it is feasible to have cognition about these causes of events through gnostic intuition.Keywords : human soul, external objects, Copenhagen School, Mulla Ṣadra, unity, causality Abstrak :  Teori tentang efek jiwa seluruh manusia terhadap objek-objek eksternal, dari sudut pandang Madzhab Copenhagen (dalam Fisika Kuantum, telah membuat para fisikawan mengingkari keterpisahan dua alam, yaitu subjek dan objek; berdasarkan keyakinan ini, mereka mengklaim bahwa [hukum] kausalitas menjadi gugur dan tidak berguna, dan mereka juga percaya bahwa mengetahui sepenuhnya objek adalah tidak mungkin. Sementara, di tempat lain, Mulla Ṣadra meyakini bahwa jiwa yang berefek terhadap objek-objek eksternal terbatas pada jiwa para nabi dan orang-orang suci. Ia juga meyakini bahwa tidak berefeknya jiwa-jiwa manusia biasa kecuali pada perbuatan-perbuatan seperti yang ia sebut sebagai ‘evil eye’ dan doa. Dalam artikel ini, kami berupaya membuktikan bahwa, berdasarkan ajaran dan doktrin filsafat Mulla Ṣadra, pengaruh (efek jiwa manusia dapat digeneralisir. Dengan demikian tidak mungkin untuk mengetahui secara

  8. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God\\\\\\'s Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

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    Ghasem Kakaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence  a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  9. A Review on the Concepts of Traditional Architecture by Mulla Sadra’s Al-Hikmat Al-Mota'alie

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    Zeinab Soleimani Sheijani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paying little attention to the roots of today's architecture has departed the contemporary architecture from its conceptual origins. However, the single application of traditional architecture principles does not fulfill the demands of today's life. Although by peering into the traditional Iranian architecture, principles and specific ideas implicit in the Islamic wisdom of Iran are revealed. In addition to maintaining the values of traditional architecture, a new approach to architectural design can also be achieved by recognizing and integrating these principles with the necessities of today's life. The article aims to answer whether it is possible to create a link between the traditional Iranian architecture concepts and the principles of contemporary rational architecture, similar to what Mulla Sadra, the great Persian philosopher, created between the Iranian ancient wisdom and al-Hikmat al-Masha which was solely a rational philosophy. To achieve the mentioned aim, first Mulla Sadra's intellectual structure has been studied, after modeling al-Hikmat al-Mota'alie. Then the traditional architecture has been analyzed in order to recognize its being (al-Wojud and essence (al-Mahiyat. The priority of being has been introduced in the next step, followed by levels of being. The next pace was to discuss the structure of Mulla Sadra's thinking method in architecture. The results of study indicate that the process of communication between ancient wisdom and al-Hikmat al-Mashaexplained by Sadra can be classified in two phases, cognizing and integrating. In the stage of integration Sadra used rational reasoning to prove the issues that have been obtained through intuition and the same trend can be applied in architecture. The intuitive aspects of traditional architecture can also be presented within the framework of today's rationalist architecture in two steps, including cognizing and integrating.

  10. Gnostic hermeneutics of Islam, with special emphasis on the transcendental philosophy of Mulla Sadra Shirazi

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    Halilović Seid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In all periods of brilliant Gnostic heritage of Islam, much has been written about esoteric meanings and secret depths of the Qur'an and traditions. Numerous representatives of Muslim practical and doctrinal gnosis have extensively interpreted the most sophisticated teachings of sacred religious texts revealing them in the light of their intuitive knowledge of the human's soul path of development, and the highest realities of the metaphysical sphere of existence. In this paper, we first determine the basic historical contexts and terminology of the process of Gnostic hermeneutics of Islam, and then we extensively analyze the most important ontological-anthropological and methodological principles of the process. As the aforementioned rational principles have been elaborated on in an established demonstrative-philosophical language in the school of transcendental philosophy - the most dominant traditional philosophical school of Islam, we will use here primarily the method of detailed analysis of the contents of the most influential works of the renowned founder of the school, Mulla Sadra Shirazi. We show that the esoteric depths of the primordial Qur'anic messages are recognized in the same way that the existence of numerous profound spheres of the entire universe and human beings is established. We will also explain that in the process of hermeneutic discovering of layered secrets of the Qur'an and traditions, Muslim Gnostics do not reject the exoteric meanings of Qur'anic message, but they deepen these meanings, freeing them from unnecessary restrictions of material forms and thus reach the essential mystery of God's speech.

  11. The Compatibility of Free Will and Determinism in Modern Western Compatibilists and Mulla Sadra

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    Fakhrossadat Alavi

    2014-09-01

    being free and tried to explain a moderate notion of freedom which stands somewhere between the two extremes, i.e. between the minimalistic and maximalistic notions of freedom. Having analyzed the requirements of freedom into two general requirements of "Alternative Possibilities" and "Ultimate Responsibility", the author has turned to the aforementioned triple positions about this requirement (by highlighting the approaches of three western influential compatibilist Frankfurt, Peter Strawson and Wallace; by total or partial rejection of the mentioned requirements of freedom and then displaying replacements for it, compatibilists have revealed that probable governing of determinism on universe is not in conflict with human freedom. After analyzing different sides and points of this compatibilistic model of freedom, we turn to the analysis of the Islamic moderate notion of freedom and point out the accuracy and elegance of Mulla Sadra's interpretation of this type of freedom.

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Mulla Sadra's " Extra-Intellectual Order" and Kierkegaard's "Sphere of Religion"

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    Mahmoud Reza Sadraei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Is there a domain beyond the illogical intellect whose statements are antirational? This question has always called gnosticism  to encounter rationalism. Thus, gnostics, gnosticologists, and religionologists in both Christian west and Islamic east have always paid attention to intellect and the extraintellectual order, and to the possible relationthip between them. Mulla Sadra believed that neither the statements of the intellect are invalid in the extraintellectual order, nor the statements of the latter in the former. Kierkegaard, on the other hand, in his notion of human life stages, has labeled them as esthetic, ethical, and religious. In his view, the religious domain is extra-rational and extra-ethical. In an analytic process, Mulla Sadra has classified the implications and applications of the word "intellect". In his view, intellect is present in overall human domains and no order of humanity is void of the power of reason. Additionally, in epistemological terms, intellect cannot be in conflict with other components when opining within the domain of its own and its cognitive findings; and does not proscribe its ulterior. In other words, errors emerge in the stage of intellect's decreeing, not in the stage of senses' and intuition's reporting . Now the intellect itself is able to recognize its limits, admit ignorance, and lead the humanity to the boundaries of extra-rational matters. In Mulla Sadra's view, the epistemological and cognitive domain of extraintellectual order and the complexity of knowledge within this domain are not accessible to the intellect, being otherwise (e.g., through heart or revelation achievable by humans. In Kierkegaard's view, intellect as human capacity of thought is annexative; and experiences and attitudes acquired in relation to the existence have formed human intellect; and the boundary sought by the intellect is, in a sense, the very purpose or objective of the intellect. With his partiality toward faith

  13. Nature of Time as the Wavy-like Motion of the Matter Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the time for an atom (body) becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity can be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  14. Calculation of the factor of the time's relativity in quantum area for different atoms based on the `Substantial motion' theory of Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.

  15. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  16. Modification of Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

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    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-05-01

    ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other one is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. These two separated natures of space-time are matched on wave-particle duality. Therefore, the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources of particle(s)' flow while they are match exactly with each other. These two sources are potential of flow and potential of time (relative time) which vary with respect to both space and time. Here, we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation with respect to relative time: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt [Gholibeigian et al., APS March Meeting 2016], which for each atom becomes: tatom = ∑mnucleons + ∑melectrons where m is momentum [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Using time's relativity in Schrodinger equation will give us more precious results. AmirKabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

  17. Tehing mulla ja päikesega / Heiki Raudla

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    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Ühendriikide ning kogu maailma novaatorlike farmerite tippu kuuluvad isa ja poeg, Wade ning Clay Mitchell, praktiseerivad kulude minimeerimiseks ja tulude maksimeerimiseks ainulaadset riba-(vahele)viljelust, maa harimisel kasutavad nad ülitäpset automaatjuhtimist. Vt. samas: Põlvest põlve; Strip-intercropping - tagasi muistsete võtete juurde

  18. Religious language in the transcendent philosophy of Mulla Sadra

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    Ali Niyazi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Language is the most important communicative element of mankind with other beings that with at least lingual sign the highest level and account of meaning communication occurs. Thus, after the creation blessing, the Almighty mentioned the language as the greatest gift (Quran 55: 41. Also, the Islamic tradition as the guide of humans in the evolution path should have a language that would in the best way be able to play its role in this path and illuminate the divine message for them (Quran 14: 4. The two languages have an inseparable link and it is due to this reason that during the human history religion has caused the evolution of language and in each religion a specific language emerged (Hebrew and Jewish, Greek and Christianity, Arabic and Islam, Sanskrit and Hinduism and etc.. Most intellectuals who have dealt with the debate about the language of religion, first investigate the verbal propositions whose subject is God and imply one of the divine attributes or acts. It seems in this context that initially the factors which caused the formation of religious language should be considered.

  19. Väljapaistev riigimees August Rei puhkab kodumaa mullas / Urve Sagur

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    Sagur, Urve

    2006-01-01

    Asutava Kogu ja Riigikogu esimehe, riigivanema, ministri ja diplomaadi August Rei ja tema abikaasa urnid maeti Metsakalmistule Kuulsuste künkale. Mälestusteenistusel kõnelesid president Arnold Rüütel ja Riigikogu esimees Toomas Varek. Lisa: Ametid

  20. GDA sinu abimees pakendil / Piret Jaaks ; kommenteerinud Elena Burm

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    Jaaks, Piret, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni kokku kutsutud toitumisteadlaste komisjoni Eurodiet poolt koostatud GDA toitumisjuhist toiduainepakenditel, mis aitab jälgida toote- või joogiportsjoni osatähtsust päevasest soovitatavast kalorite ning olulisemate toitainete kogusest

  1. Mida sportijad vajavad? / Evelin Kivilo-Paas

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    Kivilo-Paas, Evelin, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Sportijate toitainete vajaduse kohta jagavad selgitusi Tallinna Ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktor ja spordibioloog Kristjan Port, Synlab Eesti laboriarst dr Anneli Raave-Sepp ja Spordimeditsiini SA spordiarst dr Krista Veevo

  2. Time Dilation And Changes Of Material Properties Of An Atom (Body) In Speed Of Near Light Speed Based On The ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    Iranian Philosopher, Sadr-ol-Moteallehin (1571-1640) said in his famous book, Asfar: ''the Universe moves in its entity... and time is its fourth dimension, and time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity''. In other words, time for each atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles, [APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. When an atom (body) moves in speed of near light speed, speed of its involved fundamental particles become slow, and consequently the magnitude of its momentum (time) will decrease. On the other hands, when the spin and orbital angular momentum of an atom changed, it means that its properties, mass, strength of its electromagnetic field and its interaction with momentum changed. As a result, each atom (body) which moves in light speed, lower or faster than that, will get a new identity and vice versa. The special relativity can be the special form of this theory. In this way, black holes will be lighter than their involved masses at rest (a paradox with general relativity). Dark matter/energy may be created at first in B.B (Convection Bang) [AGU Fall Meeting 2015, abstract ID: 58425], in more than light speed, so, if we speed protons to more than light speed (in LHC), we may see dark mater/energy in new space-time. AmirKabir University of Technology.

  3. Miks tippjuhid nurjuvad? / Mart Raudsaar

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    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Majandusajakirja Fortune poolt 2000. aastal koostatud "tähelepanuväärseimalt" ebaõnnestunud tegevjuhtide edetabelis sisaldus kolm arvutifirma Apple tegevdirektorit. Autor kirjeldab John Sculley, Michael Spindleri ja Gil Amelio vigu ettevõtte juhtimisel. Lisa: Otsitakse tippjuhti!

  4. PR, patriotism ja olupoliitika / Evi Arujärv

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    Arujärv, Evi, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvade sisalduse pärast. Artikli autor analüüsib sellest hargnenud üldrahvalikku muljetevahetust kui väärtusmaailmade kokkupõrget

  5. Evelin Ilves tegi transrasvadele ära

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvhapete sisalduse pärast. Kalev Chocolate Factory on nüüdseks kõigi oma maiustuste valmistamisel loobunud hüdrogeenimata taimsete rasvade kasutamisest

  6. Inimlik eksitus Lätis saatis kontrolli kõik Aura mahlajoogid / Hindrek Riikoja

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    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Õlletehase liiga suure säilitusaine sisalduse tõttu Lätis müügilt kõrvaldatud Aura Arcticu mahlajoogid tõid kaasa kogu tootesarja ulatusliku kontrolli. Rohkem eksimusi uuring ei tuvastanud. Lisa: Bensoehape

  7. Evelin Ilves: Kalevi kommid on kräpp / Arvo Uustalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uustalu, Arvo, 1964-

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kritiseeris kommivabriku Kalev toodangut transrasvhapete sisalduse pärast. Kommenteerivad ASi Kalev Chocolate Factory turundus- ja müügidirektor Monika Heinrand, suhtekorraldaja Ruth Roht ning toitumisteadlased Selma Teesalu, Mai Maser ja Tagli Pitsi. Vt. samas: Transrasvad põhjustavad rasvumist

  8. Terved mullad - terveks eluks / kokkuvõtte tegi Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    ÜRO on kuulutanud 2015. aasta rahvusvaheliseks mulla-aastaks. Meie mullad on kogu inimeksistentsi aluseks - see sisuliselt taastumatu loodusvara annab 95% meie toidust. Eesti aasta muld 2015 on paepealne muld

  9. Eesti seireandmed näitavad : pestitsiidid jõuavad nii mulda, vette kui ka inimeste toidulauale / Elen Peetsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peetsmann, Elen, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Mai alguses toimunud seminaril "Elukeskkonna ja toidu kvaliteet" tutvustati Eesti seireandmeid mulla, vee ja toidu kvaliteedi kohta. Seminari ettekanded on leitavad http://mahekeskus.emu.ee/uudised/elukeskkonna-ja-toidu-kvaliteet-05052016/

  10. Pikantsed pajatused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Louis Paul Boon. Menuett; Herbjırg Wassmo. Õnne poeg; Jean Stone. Sünnipäevatüdrukud; Jo︠l Schmidt. Constantinus Suure mälestused; Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Catherine Coulter. Märklaud; Ross Macdonald. Mees mulla all

  11. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 1. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)-catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate (stopped-flow technique). Rahamatalla M Mulla Gurubasavaraj C Hiremath Sharanappa T Nandibewoor. Full Papers Volume 117 ...

  12. A Review of Outcome of Postgraduate Medical Training in Zambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Outcome of Postgraduate Medical Training in Zambia. K Bowa, F Goma, JINM Yikona, YF Mulla, SS Banda. Abstract. The University of Zambia School of Medicine was opened in 1966. Since inception, over 1200 undergraduate students have graduated with Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.

  13. Taliban ähvardab kevade lähenedes veriste rünnakutega / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Afganistanis andis Suurbritannia NATO juhitava koalitsiooniväe ISAF juhtimise üle USA-le. Taliban haaras võimu Musa Qala linnas, kus kokkuleppe kohaselt pidid korda hakkama hoidma hõimupealikud. Islamiliikumise ühe liidri mulla Hayatullah Khani sõnul ollakse alustamas sõda, võitlejaid valmistatakse ette suitsiidirünnakuteks

  14. Pakistan tabas surnuks peetud Talibani pealiku / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Pakistani ja USA eriüksuste haarangus langes vangi mulla Abdul Ghani Baradar, samas on Afganistani kaitseministeerium kinnitanud Baradari hukkumist juba 2007. aastal. Talibani on enim haavanud Pakistani armee suurpealetung 2009. aastal ning Afganistani presidendi Hamid Karzai intriigid, millega Talibani juhtkonna liikmeid meelitatakse üle, ostetakse ära või püütakse lepitada

  15. Hakim Mudarres Zunuzi and Banu Amin on the Unity of Essence A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryamsaday Eizadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tawhid (the belief in transcendent oneness or unity of divinity is the culmination of all Islamic teachings and has a special place in Islamic sciences. The unity of essence begins by the unity of existential necessity and ends in unity of existence as many theosophers and mystics suggest. This essay discusses unity of essence as understood by two Sadraean thinkers (Hakim Mudarres Zunuzi and Banu Amin according to Mulla Sadra's principles. Undoubtedly, these two theosophers have no discord as far as they speak about necessity of existence and unity of Necessary Existence. Dispute erupts when Banu voices her Sadraean sympathy with transcendent oneness of existence while Mudarres takes another position.       According to Sadra, the being which has no limitation whatsoever leaves no room for other being to come into existence and be its second or third and thus it is unique and uncountable. In this world, thus, there is no existence but one of which the rest are manifestations (Mulla Sadra, 1382, 67. This view which has been mentioned by Sadra in different positions is the very idea of individual unity of existence. It needs to be explained that in Mulla Sadra's works there are two accounts of effect: Existence in itself for something-else (relational existence Existence for something-else (copulative existence      At first sight which is thought to be elementary as compared to the second one, effect enjoys a reality and existence of its own the whole identity of which is though being related to and depended on cause and this dependency is its very essence and undetachable but the effect like the cause is counted among  beings. This is the position which is also held by Mudarres Zunuzi as to contingent beings (Mudarres Zunuzi, 1376: 357. He seem to have understood Mulla Sadra's words implying this very sense alone without presuming the possibility of a second sense. To put it otherwise, he has indeed fathomed effect's copulative

  16. A Case Study of Cultural Ethnicity and Enduring Social Patterns: The Kurds of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    followings or charismatic influences. Once in power, these "strong leaders" often maintain their positions by authoritarian means. Opposition to the govern...with the father and to a lesser extent the paternal uncle. After the young woman is married this complex conven- tion of right and obligation passes...from 750 families in 1906 to approximately 2700 families by mid- century. A much younger brother, Mulla Mustafa, named Mullah after a maternal uncle

  17. Evaluation of Commercial and Field-Expedient Baited Traps for House Flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    32212, U.S.A. Received 7 September 2008; Accepted 9 January 2009 ABSTRACT: A comparison of nine commercial baited fly traps on Florida dairy farms...baits relied on natural products such as fermented egg slurries (Willson and Mulla 1973) or combinations of such items as molasses, milk, yeast, grain...2006 on four dairy farms in Gilchrist and Alachua counties, FL. Traps were placed near the calf pens on three of the farms and by the commodity

  18. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

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    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  19. Studi Kritis Terhadap Teori Identitas Pikiran-Otak Mario Bunge: Perspektif Neo-Sadrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Bakti Gama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The aim of this research is to conduct a critical analysis of Mario Bunge’s view that mental reality is identical with the reality of brain function known as mind-brain identity theory. The analysis is performed using Neosadrian perspective, i.e. a new form of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy which is developed by Tabataba‘i and his disciples. The author tries to elucidate the main claims held by Bunge and to launch some critiques upon those claims. The main conclusions achieved through this research include the following. Firstly, mind-brain identity theory cannot be accepted. Secondly, current development of scientific studies corroborating certain relations between brain and mental states does not justify the validity of the identity theory, also does not falsify its opposition. Thirdly, a religious-sufistical philosophy, such the Neosadrian, can be consistent with current development of scientific research.Keywords : Mind-brain  identity  theory,  Mario  Bunge, Neo-Sadrian,  science,  religious-sufistical philosophy. Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis kritis atas pandangan Mario Bunge bahwa realitas pikiran identik dengan realitas fungsi otak, yang dikenal dengan teori identitas pikiran- otak. Analisis tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan sudut pandang Neosadrian, yaitu bentuk baru filsafat Mulla Sadra yang dikembangkan oleh Tabataba‘i dan murid-muridnya. Penulis mencoba menguraikan sejumlah klaim utama yang dipegang oleh Bunge tentang teori identitas tersebut dan melancarkan kritik terhadapnya. Sejumlah kesimpulan utama yang bisa dicapai melalui penelitian ini mencakup hal-hal berikut. Pertama, teori identitas pikiran-otak tidak bisa diterima. Kedua, perkembangan studi saintifik yang menguatkan adanya relasi antara status otak dan status mental tidak menjustifikasi validitas teori identitas pikiran-otak, juga tidak memfalsifikasi dualitas esensi keduanya. Ketiga, filsafat yang bercorak religius

  20. Pemikiran Taqi Misbah Yazdi tentang Etika Islam Kontemporer

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    Nurasiah Nurasiah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain about the concept of Islamic ethics promulgated by Taqi Misbah Yazdi. Yazdi had placed himself as a proponent to the concept of rational ethics. To him, the propositions of ethics along with moral expressions have obviously explained a causality relation between an action and desired goals of ethics. Commands and prohibitions, in their prescriptive and descriptive forms, manifest the relation between actions and the objectives of ethics along with the legal consequences behind them. As a result, this matter deals with meaning, objective, the value of objectivity, and rationality. The extent of value and truth of certain action is determined by its objectives. Interestingly, this theory does not influence Yazdi to be trapped within utilitarianism materialist-positivist ethics nor it traps him into the dilemma of value relativity which occurs in the West’s theory of ethics. It can be obviously seen the originality and novelty of Yazdi’s thought; not in terms of the content of his theory, instead in his ability to use the ideas of the Western philosophy to clarify his opinions and concepts by combining Herbert Spencer’s evolutionism and Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism. Building his concepts on transcendental philosophy of Mulla Sadra, Yazdi’s moral causality has successfully preserve the transcendental logic and its esoteric dimensions; an achievement which could not even be attained by Muslim groups who reject the law of causality.

  1. Multi-modal Aedes aegypti mosquito reduction interventions and dengue fever prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger-Browning, Kara K; Elder, John P

    2009-12-01

    To systematically review the effectiveness of biological, chemical and educational dengue fever prevention programs on the reduction of entomologic indicators. Searches of PubMed, GoogleScholar, CabDirect databases and reference lists yielded over 1000 articles containing mosquito abatement interventions. Inclusion criteria were: Vector control programs targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes; Studies providing pre- and post-test data. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using Mulla's formula to determine percent reductions for all studies with control groups. Twenty-one studies were reviewed. Twelve dependent variables were presented, however, the Breteau, House and Container indices were the primary measurement tools for monitoring larval populations. Behavioural methods consisting of educational campaigns and maintaining water containers to reduce the mosquito population were applied in eight studies. Eight studies involved the use of biological methods such as predatory organisms or bacteria. Finally, eight studies used chemical control techniques including insecticide sprays, larvicides, insecticide-treated materials, and cleaning water of containers with household chemicals with three studies using a combination of intervention techniques. Post-intervention reduction in entomologic indices ranged from 100% to an increase of 13.9% from baseline. Little evidence exists to support the efficacy of mosquito abatement programs owing to poor study designs and lack of congruent entomologic indices. Creation of a standard entomological index, use of clustered and randomized-controlled trials, and testing the generalizability of proven methods are recommended for future research.

  2. Investigating Sadraee’s Views on “the Process of Sensory Perception”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Momeni

    2012-09-01

    some thoughts of Mulla Sadra as influencing parameters on this view. Also, his theory that considers these perceptions as Being is introduced and, after pointing to some of its fundamentals, probable accessories of it such as: solving the problems of subjective being, unity of the perceiver and the perceived, the conformity of the perception with the Worlds and self-evident Knowledge are investigated. After looking deeply into this attitude, it is revealed that each of these accessories is also a theory by itself and leads to other views. Therefore, there is a kind of solidarity and concomitance between these ideas. In the second step, compatibility or incompatibility of theories such as Emanation (Efaze from the World of Command, observation of Ideal Forms and Descent of the Soul in this position is investigated systematically. How is it possible that one perception is created simultaneously out of the creativity of the Soul, emanated by Donor, being the result of observation of the incorporeal characters (Tabaye through the Ideal and intellectual senses and created with the descent of Perceiver Soul to the level of Nature and the corporeal senses? These are the main issues studied in this research in detail.

  3. Mullah Mohammad Mehdi Naraqi and analysis of pantheism theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korush Asmand

    2016-09-01

    need to be revised.In fact, Naraqi’s analyses are based on gradational unity and conceptualperspective not personal unity nor extensional perspective. To put it otherwise, he has thought that mystics deny every type of diversity while this is far from being correct as the mystics ground their arguments mainly on Quran and prophetic traditions. Then one cannot negligently attribute such baseless doctrines as immanence, occurrence, apostasy and blasphemy to mystics. After critical assessment of the ideas ofmystics, Naraqi turns to Mulla Sadra’s views of Unity of Existence and reviews him as we have summarized hereunder: -The maxim of Simple Reality in the discussions of unity of existence is concerned with the modes of existence and gradational unity not personal unity. -Mulla Sadra’s depiction of the world as the shadow of Divine Presence is blasphemous because this implies attribution of the flaws of the worldly objects to divinity. -The essential difference between the generator and the generated is an expression of the inconsistency between the mode and the owner of the mode. -Gradationhappens in the concept of existence not in its reality. In other word, weakness and intensity and priority and posteriority occurs in the concept. It seems that the majority of Naraqi’s objections to Mulla Sadra have their origin in Naraqi’ssubjective notion of unity of existence while Mulla Sadras’s point of view of the gradation of existence is objective and his perspective of personal unity of existence is subjective. To put the matter differently, Naraqi speaks of both notions in subjective terms and his idea that there are a number of similarities and differences between the true unity and the untrue one endorses the author’s latter remark. Generally speaking, Naraqi’s objections to the mystics and philosophers show that he is definitely agree with the idea of unity of existence but he does not have a unified approach in this regard and this is why there are

  4. A Study Concerning the Maimonides’ Viewpoint on the Role of Reason and The Law in Human’s perfection, on the Basis of Sadraei’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Ebrahim Najafabadi

    2016-09-01

    ideas can be found in philosophy of Mulla Sadra  who is one of the most prominent   Muslim  philosophers that have serious concerns about "rationality" as the main censor of human from other animals. he believes that paying right of reason in both theoretical and practical aspects would provide genuine happiness and perfection for human. Actually, according to his mastery in rational and traditional knowledge, and in his intellectual framework, he makes effort to show the  function of reason and religion and  their mutual role for persons  who desire attaining the ultimate perfection . In this approach, compliance with religious laws in the realm of the individual and society, is the most important factor for human felicity. So, for this purpose ,he raises issues that has some similarities and differences with the views of Maimonides .Also, despite the latent abilities in reason,  Mulla Sadra, like Maimonides, accept the belief  in  human centrality among the beings in material world, not in whole of possible world. Accordingly ,In this paper the author tries to study  these two thinker’s approach  on the levels of prosperity, the role of law and reason in reaching ultimate human happiness and  the man position among the other creatures.

  5. Comparing evil solution from Sadra and Allame Tabatabaei,s point of view according to dependant and independant existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Vahidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of evil has been presented in logical and evidential forms and has managed to undermine religious doctrines, leading to serious criticisms against religious beliefs. The theists have attempted to solve the problem through different ways. One of these attempts made in Islamic philosophy is the argument against the problem of evil through explaining the connective and independent existences. According to Mulla Sadra, the objective solitary reality of every existent stems from the existence which includes two levels: the independent existence and the connective one. All of the connective existents are ultimately related to an independent existent that contains all the other levels of existence. The connective existence can be illustrated in two different ways:   According to the first picture, the connective existent has the same existence as the independent being, while based on the second presentation it has an independent and distinct existent. It is because every contingent being consists of two dimensions of essence and existence. Its existence stems from God and thus is connected to Him and has no independence, and its essence is the absolute nothingness.   Based on Sadra, the essence which emanates from the presence of connective existence, is the source of all evils in the universe. Since the essence is existing indirectly and due to the connective existence and has no form of existence by itself, the evils which can be described as the privation of good, all are derived from the essence and are regarded as nullity.   According to Allamah, the connective existents are the beings which are totally related and affiliated to the independent existent and are regarded as the manifestations and evidences of His existence. These beings are accompanied by privation, constraints and negation which are imagined through the concept of essence. In fact, it is the human mind which manages to imagine the connective existent as independent

  6. Comparing evil solution from Sadra and Allame Tabatabaei,s point of view according to dependant and independant existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Shanazari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of evil has been presented in logical and evidential forms and has managed to undermine religious doctrines, leading to serious criticisms against religious beliefs. The theists have attempted to solve the problem through different ways. One of these attempts made in Islamic philosophy is the argument against the problem of evil through explaining the connective and independent existences. According to Mulla Sadra, the objective solitary reality of every existent stems from the existence which includes two levels: the independent existence and the connective one. All of the connective existents are ultimately related to an independent existent that contains all the other levels of existence. The connective existence can be illustrated in two different ways:   According to the first picture, the connective existent has the same existence as the independent being, while based on the second presentation it has an independent and distinct existent. It is because every contingent being consists of two dimensions of essence and existence. Its existence stems from God and thus is connected to Him and has no independence, and its essence is the absolute nothingness.   Based on Sadra, the essence which emanates from the presence of connective existence, is the source of all evils in the universe. Since the essence is existing indirectly and due to the connective existence and has no form of existence by itself, the evils which can be described as the privation of good, all are derived from the essence and are regarded as nullity.   According to Allamah, the connective existents are the beings which are totally related and affiliated to the independent existent and are regarded as the manifestations and evidences of His existence. These beings are accompanied by privation, constraints and negation which are imagined through the concept of essence. In fact, it is the human mind which manages to imagine the connective existent as independent

  7. Pemikiran Filosofis Sadra Dalam Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-Karim : Surah Al-’A‘la

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwanto Kerwanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Dalam tafsir atas Surah al-’A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, melalui karyanya Tafsīr al Qur’ān al-Karīm, mengajak jiwa kita berpetualang menuju lapisan makna terdalam untuk mengenali realitas ketauhidan (al- mabdā’, kenabian (shirāth atau nubuwwah dan kebangkitan (ma‘ād dan mengulasnya secara filosofis. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu upaya untuk menggali manfaat dari aspek-aspek penting dari sumber-sumber keagamaan yang tergali dari petunjuk al Qur’an yang berpadu dengan prinsip- prinsip rasional filosofis dan pengalaman mistik (intuitif Sadra. Setiap bab pada tafsir ini diberikan judul dengan tasbīḥ (pernyataan pemujian dan pensucian, dengan tetap memaparkan beragam pokok persoalan terkait metafisika al-Qur’an. Prinsip-prinsip filosofis yang digunakan dalam risalah tafsir ini bisa menjadi salah satu bukti ketidakberjarakan antara filsafat dengan teks-teks keagamaan. Sadra menggunakan metode tafsir yang tetap menerima sisi lahiriah al-Qur’an, dan selanjutnya mencari misteri-misteri, rahasia-rahasia, dan dengan bantuan intelek (akal, intuisi dan iluminasi Tuhan untuk memperoleh realitas-realitas dan makna- makna dibalik selaput ekternalnya (aspek literalnyaKata kunci : Ḥikmah Muta’āliyah, irfan, al-mabdā’, kebangkitan setelah mati, nubuwwah, takwīl, gerak substansial (ḥarakah jawhariyyah, denotasi utama (al-maqshūd al-ashlī, penyempurnaan diri (takammul, tasbīḥ.  Abstract : In his commentary on Surah al-’ A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, through his Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm invites our souls to ventureinto the deepest layers of meaning to recognize the reality of Divinity (al- mabdā’, prophethood (Ṣirāṭ or nubuwwah and resurrection (ma‘ād and discusses it in a more philosophical manner. This study is an attempt to explore the benefits of these important aspects of religious sources unearthed from Qur’anic injunctions combined with rational principles of philosophical and mystical experiences

  8. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khwajegir

    actual knowledge, does not have incompatibility with its Truth in the other degree of knowledge. Therefore, it is right to consider the Decrees of fate as two kinds of essential and actual. In the analysis of Allama's critique on Sadra, should be said Mulla Sadra, has raised five degrees on the Divine Knowledge, including essential detailed science, pencil (ghalam, preserved tablet, tabula rasa and the material beings. This division of the degrees can be understood as the degree of Decrees of fate is out of the essence of god and jurisprudence is other than creative foreknowledge. In addition, the detailed knowledge above mentioned which is called Decrees of fate in other expressions of Mulla Sadra, is not out of Divinity and if it is sometimes referred to as the attribute of oldness that will not be the consistent essential oldness, but oldness by the necessary essence is oldness. From Mulla Sadra's words can be understood, which decrees of fate is sometimes applied to essential creative foreknowledge, as sometimes creative foreknowledge is also referred to decrees of fate. Appling decrees of fate to essential creative foreknowledge does not involve exclusion of decrees of fate in essential knowledge and also does not cause the Absolute and essential oldness of decrees of fate, because jurisprudence which is needed for the essence of god, certainly is necessary by oldness of essence.Also, Mulla Sadra in his interpretation, referred to that Decrees of fate is synonym and coincided with Destiny which is the signs of withdrawal of both from the text of the eternal essence. The Decrees of fate is not limited in the essential knowledge that is the same as eternal dispensation and not limited to the actual knowledge that is outside of essence, but according to the philosopher, it is Compatible for both. So, what Allama in the criticism of Sadra's view has expressed, first, About the Decrees of fate does not consider the unity of Decree and dispensation, second, is not About

  9. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khajegir

    2013-08-01

    essential and actual knowledge, does not have incompatibility with its Truth in the other degree of knowledge. Therefore, it is right to consider the Decrees of fate as two kinds of essential and actual.    In the analysis of Allama's critique on Sadra, should be said Mulla Sadra, has raised five degrees on the Divine Knowledge, including essential detailed science, pencil (ghalam, preserved tablet, tabula rasa and the material beings. This division of the degrees can be understood as the degree of Decrees of fate is out of the essence of god and jurisprudence is other than creative foreknowledge. In addition, the detailed knowledge above mentioned which is called Decrees of fate in other expressions of Mulla Sadra, is not out of Divinity and if it is sometimes referred to as the attribute of oldness that will not be the consistent essential oldness, but oldness by the necessary essence is oldness. From Mulla Sadra's words can be understood, which decrees of fate is sometimes applied to essential creative foreknowledge, as sometimes creative foreknowledge is also referred to decrees of fate. Appling decrees of fate to essential creative foreknowledge does not involve exclusion of decrees of fate in essential knowledge and also does not cause the Absolute and essential oldness of decrees of fate, because jurisprudence which is needed for the essence of god, certainly is necessary by oldness of essence. Also, Mulla Sadra in his interpretation, referred to that Decrees of fate is synonym and coincided with Destiny which is the signs of withdrawal of both from the text of the eternal essence. The Decrees of fate is not limited in the essential knowledge that is the same as eternal dispensation and not limited to the actual knowledge that is outside of essence, but according to the philosopher, it is Compatible for both. So, what Allama in the criticism of Sadra's view has expressed, first, About the Decrees of fate does not consider the unity of Decree and dispensation

  10. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai\\\\\\'s views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khajegir

    2013-09-01

    essential and actual knowledge, does not have incompatibility with its Truth in the other degree of knowledge. Therefore, it is right to consider the Decrees of fate as two kinds of essential and actual.    In the analysis of Allama's critique on Sadra, should be said Mulla Sadra, has raised five degrees on the Divine Knowledge, including essential detailed science, pencil (ghalam, preserved tablet, tabula rasa and the material beings. This division of the degrees can be understood as the degree of Decrees of fate is out of the essence of god and jurisprudence is other than creative foreknowledge. In addition, the detailed knowledge above mentioned which is called Decrees of fate in other expressions of Mulla Sadra, is not out of Divinity and if it is sometimes referred to as the attribute of oldness that will not be the consistent essential oldness, but oldness by the necessary essence is oldness. From Mulla Sadra's words can be understood, which decrees of fate is sometimes applied to essential creative foreknowledge, as sometimes creative foreknowledge is also referred to decrees of fate. Appling decrees of fate to essential creative foreknowledge does not involve exclusion of decrees of fate in essential knowledge and also does not cause the Absolute and essential oldness of decrees of fate, because jurisprudence which is needed for the essence of god, certainly is necessary by oldness of essence. Also, Mulla Sadra in his interpretation, referred to that Decrees of fate is synonym and coincided with Destiny which is the signs of withdrawal of both from the text of the eternal essence. The Decrees of fate is not limited in the essential knowledge that is the same as eternal dispensation and not limited to the actual knowledge that is outside of essence, but according to the philosopher, it is Compatible for both. So, what Allama in the criticism of Sadra's view has expressed, first, About the Decrees of fate does not consider the unity of Decree and dispensation

  11. Konsep Being Perspektif Filsafat dan Islam

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    Suhermanto Jakfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss the concept of being in the perspective of existentialism and Islam. The closest similarity to the word “being” is to on (Ancient Greece, as the word of einai, to be (on, onta. For Parmenides, “being” (to on is one, eternal and unchanging. Gabriel Marcel calls the way the human being with the term être-au-monde, etre in carne, geist-in-welt.  Martin Heidegger uses a formula being in the world to characterize human life. Being in the world as a feature of human life, human beings are in the situation. Living in a world of concrete means that there are human relationships with the situation. Sartre said that the real one where there are two, namely: I’etre en soi and I’etre pour Soi. For Sartre, I’etre en soi is the idea that only a concrete phenomenon has ontological status; only something concrete is real. Unlike the being-in-itself, for Sartre the concept of being-for-itself is a state of being that comes with the awareness and self-control. The concept of being (wujûd by Suhrawardî is a mental concepts (mahfûm that do not have the type and diferensia. In the illumination philosophy of Suhrawardî, the idea of ​​wujûd can not be separated from nature and depiction of light. The philosophy of wujûd by Mulla Sadrâ stands on three basic principles of fundamental importance. These three principles are as follows: wahdat al-wujûd, tashkîk al-wujûd, and tashkîk. While Mohammad Iqbal emphasis on metaphysics and anthropological philosophy. Iqbal gives greater emphasis on more concrete dimensions, namely khudi (ego.

  12. Investigating Sadraee’s Views on “the Process of Sensory Perception”

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    N Momeni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sadr-ol-Motaalehin has looked at the sensory perception from multiple perspectives and, therefore, presented inconsistent views. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between these ideas. Thus, his discussions are studied in two steps. First, his famous view, that is, the creativity of the percipience, is considered and it is tried to introduce some thoughts of Mulla Sadra as influencing parameters on this view. Also, his theory that considers these perceptions as Being is introduced and, after pointing to some of its fundamentals, probable accessories of it such as: solving the problems of subjective being, unity of the perceiver and the perceived, the conformity of the perception with the Worlds and self-evident Knowledge are investigated. After looking deeply into this attitude, it is revealed that each of these accessories is also a theory by itself and leads to other views. Therefore, there is a kind of solidarity and concomitance between these ideas. In the second step, compatibility or incompatibility of theories such as Emanation (Efaze from the World of Command, observation of Ideal Forms and Descent of the Soul in this position is investigated systematically. How is it possible that one perception is created simultaneously out of the creativity of the Soul, emanated by Donor, being the result of observation of the incorporeal characters (Tabaye through the Ideal and intellectual senses and created with the descent of Perceiver Soul to the level of Nature and the corporeal senses? These are the main issues studied in this research in detail.

  13. True dreams: Encounter of the worlds in Islamic philosophy

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    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.

  14. Reflections on the Writing Process: Perspectives from Recent Hindi Novels

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    Veronica Ghirardi

    2017-05-01

    s Seventh Horse, 1952 by Dharmavir Bharati. The novel consists of three narratives about three women recounted by Manik Mulla to his friends over seven afternoons, in the style of Hitopadesha or Panchatantra. Later, in the Seventies, Krishna Baldev Vaid published Bimal Urf Jayen to Jayen Kahan. From the earliest pages of the novel, the narrator addresses his readers with provocative monologues. According to the materials consulted in my research, there are not many other examples of self-reflexive novels until the 1990s: from this decade, in fact, the metafictional component seems to gain new importance. The aim of this paper is to exemplify the new role acquired by metafiction in recent Hindi novels and to understand if it can be considered a possible postmodern trace.

  15. The Tacziya ecstasy as political expression

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    Jan Hjärpe

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta'ziya, "consolation", has become the Shi technical term for the liturgical mourning and commemoration of the martyred Imams, particularly the ritual lamentation for the death of Husayn, celebrated formerly often in the form of passion plays in which the heart is the drama of Kerbela, but in which in addition the whole of human history is viewed sub specie Kerbelae. Nowadays the celebration is first and foremost in the form of processions (in our Western mass media called "demonstrations", enga ing huge masses of people in emotion-evokingbehaviour, also including processions to the cemetery. For the contents of the classical Shi'i passion plays and their performance, and for the theological interpretation of the sacrifice of Husayn and the other martyrs, we refer the reader to the available literature on the subject. The Ta`ziya of Husayn falls in the month of Muharram, with its culmination on the 10th day (ruz-i katl, "the day of the murder", the Ashara' festival, and is followed up by the mourning ceremony on the 40th day (naziarba' in from the 'Ashura' (20th day of Safar. It is important to note the immense impact of the Ta'ziya on the emotions of the participant masses, emotions aroused by several means. We have here the suggestive sentimentality of the speeches held by the Mullas, dwelling on the tribulations and sufferings of Husayn and his family and followers, on the cruelty and baseness of his enemies, and on the courage of the 72 noble-hearted martyrs of Kerbela. In the processions, the emotions are aroused by the rhythmical repetition of formulae expressing mourning for the martyrs and hatred of their murderers. Many of the participants are dressed in shrouds, many wear chains, ropes and scourges, and the lamentations are accompanied by self-flagellation of the naked backs. People beat their breasts, some have put earth on their heads. Women weep, bewailing the pains of Husayn and the 72.

  16. Sadra’s ontological hermeneutics and the religious language problem

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    Mohammad Bidhendi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigating the significance and knowledge domain of a holy text is one of the fundamental problems of religious Language. For Sadra the religious language is a cognitive language. He considers the relation between word and meaning in Revelation as a genetic one; he believes that contrary to imagery in literature in revelation there is a univocity between appearance and reality and the descended truths in the existential hierarchies correspond with each other in a vertical relationship. In this domain, Molla Sadra explains philosophically the self-manifestation of the revealed truths in terms of holy text by using the correspondence between the knowledge and language (Kalam with the being in the arc of descent and in the arc of ascent he provides an understanding process of the holy text whose reconstruction forms his model of ontological hermeneutics. The principal problem of this article is the explanation of the significance of religious language and its cognitive domain in Sadra’s hermeneutic model which results from an investigation of this model and effective factors in the process of the holy text understanding. This research has been conducted based on Mafatih al-ghayb and explanation of its philosophical foundations on the basis of the Transcendent Philosophy and one of its most important findings is displaying the role of triad of individual, text and the author in relation together by Sadra’s hermeneutic model and using this model for explaining the cognitive domain of religious language regarding the text and also from text to extra-text. Contrary to the one-dimensional exoteric conventional or esoteric dogmatic and absolutist models in understanding Quran, Mulla Sadra provides a comprehensive multiple coherent model that is based on singular reality and is rooted in the existence hierarchy, existential layers of human being and the interiors of holy text. Due to move around the gradational singular reality, the

  17. Creation, Phase Change and Evolution of the Universe Based on the "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-04-01

    In our vision, it is believed that creation and phase change of universe and their coupling began by the gigantic Large Scale Forced Convection System (LSFCS) in very high temperature including a swirling wild wind and energetic particles like gravitons. That wind as the creator of the inflation process was carrying many Quantum Convection Loops (QCLs). Those QCLs have been transformed to black holes as the cores of galaxies. Convection Bang (CB) Model for creation, phase change and evolution of the Universe is constituted based on three assumptions as follows: The first is: "Gravity Hypothesis" that describes the gravity fields generation by the LSFCSs of the heat and mass inside the planets, stars, galaxies and clusters. The LSFCS changes the material properties of the domain and produces coupling of the matched electromagnetic and gravity fields. Gravity hypothesis is a new way to understand gravitation phenomenon which is different from the both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's theory of general relativity approaches [Gholibeigian et. al, AGU Fall Meeting 2015, P11A-2056 ]. The second is: "Substantial Motion" theory of Iranian philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571/2-1640), which describes space-time, time's relativity for all atoms (bodies) which are different from each other [Gholibeigian, APS April Meeting 2015, abstract #L1.027], atom's (body) volume squeezing, black hole's mass lightening while increases the velocities of its involved masses inward (a paradox with general relativity), and changes of material properties and geometries in speed of near light speed [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2016, abstract #]. The third is: "Animated Sub-particles" model. These sub-particles (sub-strings) are origin of life and creator of the momentums of the fundamental particles and forces, and basic link of the information transfer to them, [Gholibeigian, APS April Meeting 2015, abstract #L1.027]. In this model, there are four proposed animated sub-particles of mater

  18. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

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    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pulmonology”

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    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    A TERTIARY NEONATAL UNIT • D. Fouad, S. Mulla, D. Sava, M. Kulkarni, R. RoyABS 18. RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY AFTER NICU DISCHARGE OF PRETERM BABIES WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • C. McKnight, S. SomisettyABS 19. A RANDOMISED CLINICAL TRIAL: ORAL VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION FOR PREVENTING BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • E. Calisici, E. Yarci, S.S. Oguz, N. Uras, U.  DilmenABS 20. CLINICAL COURSE AND PROGNOSIS AT ONE YEAR OF CORRECTED AGE OF A 6,135 COLOMBIAN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW INFANTS COHORT DISCHARGED HOME IN KANGAROO POSITION WITH AMBULATORY OXYGEN: A 15 YEARS EXPERIENCE • E. Rodriguez, A. Montealegre, L. Rosero, N. Charpak, S. Fernandez, A. ParraABS 21. BRONCHODILATOR RESPONSE TO SALBUTAMOL MODIFIES LUNG VENTILATION PATTERN IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH BPD, BUT NOT IN PRESCHOOL EX-PREMATURELY BORN CHILDREN WITHOUT BPD • W. Durlak, M. Klimek, A. Sudoł, P. KwintaABS 22. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN PREMATURE INFANTS EVALUATING THE ROLE OF U. UREALYTICUM ON CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • A. Olariu, H. GowdaABS 23. THE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE OF PRETERM NEWBORNS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS • M. Matyas, L. Blaga, G. ZaharieABS 24. URINARY N-TERMINAL PRO-B TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PREDICTS MODERATE OR SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM INFANTS • C. Czernik, S. Hartenstein, B. Metze, C. BührerABS 25. LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF CLUB CELL SECRETORY PROTEIN (CC16 IN GASTRIC FLUID AT BIRTH IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG INFLAMMATION AND MORE SEVERE LUNG DISEASE IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • C. Hagman, L. Björklund, E. Tufvesson, I. Hansen PuppABS 26. LOCAL INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS WHO REQUIRED MECHANICAL VENTILATION SHORTLY AFTER BIRTH • O. Borysiuk, D. Dobryanskyy, Y. KuzminovABS 27. ANIMAL MODEL FOR THE BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M. Tolnai, Zs. Helyes, T. Ertl, P. KissABS 28.OPTIMISING ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (ETT  LENGTH IN NEONATES: PRE-CUT STRATEGY OR UNCUT

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Nutrition and gastroenterology”

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    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    PROTEIN QUANTITY AND QUALITY • P.S. Worsøe, J.B. van Goudoever, B. Koletzko, E.M. van der Beek, M. Abrahamse-Berkeveld, B.J.M. van de Heijning, P.T. Sangild, T. ThymannABS 37. MATERNAL RISK FACTORS FOR NEC IN PREMATURES INFANTS WITH GA UNDER 28 WEEKS • G. Olariu, L. Olariu, S. Olariu, M. TunescuABS 38. DOES DELAYED PASSAGE OF MECONIUM AND LOWER FREQUENCY OF STOOLS PRECEDE DEVELOPMENT OF NECROTISING ENTEROCOLITIS? • E. Lilja, K. Sandberg, A. ElfvinABS 39. THE EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL AGE ON THE CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF SEVERE NECROTISING ENTEROCOLITIS: A UK POPULATION STUDY • C. Battersby, S. Mandalia, N. Fitz-Simon, N. ModiABS 40. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF STANDARDISED FEEDING REGIME AND PROBIOTICS ON INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IN PRE-TERM BABIES, A SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE • K. Mansoor, A. Upasani, A. Minocha, O. Kazeem, R. RoyABS 41. EARLY POSTNATAL HYDROCORTISONE FAILS TO PROTECT AGAINST NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IN PRETERM PIGS • P.S. Worsøe, T. Skeath, M.M. Birck, T. Thymann, P.T. SangildABS 42. FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION DECREASES NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS BUT IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED NEONATAL MORTALITY IN PRETERM PIGS • L. Martin, M.S. Cilieborg, M.M. Birck, T. Thymann, P.T. SangildABS 43. TRANSCRIPTOMICS PROFILING OF HUMAN NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS • E. Tremblay, M.P. Thibault, E. Ferretti, C. Babakissa, V. Bertelle, M. Bettolli, K. Burghardt, J.F. Colombani, D. Grynspan, E. Levy, S. Mayer, D. Ménard, O. Mouterde, I.B. Renes, E.G. Seidman, J.F. BeaulieuABS 44. CURRENT ESPGHAN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRETERM PARENTERAL NUTRITION – A RECIPE FOR SEVERE BIOCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES? • S. Mulla, S. Cowey, R. Close, S. Pullan, R. Howe, J. Jones, L. Radbone, P. ClarkeABS 45. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL BIOMARKERS OF PRETERM INFANTS FED A NEW POWDERED HUMAN MILK FORTIFIER: A MULTICENTER, RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL • J. Spalinger, J.-M. Hascoët, C. Billeaud, J.-C. Picaud, F. Mosca, A. Rubio, E. Saliba, M