WorldWideScience

Sample records for toimunud world cyber

  1. Preparing Our Undergraduates to Enter a Cyber World

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer , Dino; Gibson , David; Bibighaus , David; Boleng , Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Today’s students have grown up with computer-based technology and need to be prepared to enter a career in a digital world. This includes an understanding of the broader implications of technology such as the growing threat of cyber-crime and cyber-terrorism, cyber-ethics, the legal and social implications of technology, and the local and global impacts. At our institution, we have taken a broad look at ways of integrating cyber awareness and education ...

  2. Electronic strategies for information and research: cyberNephrology/cyberMedicine in the emerging world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solez, Kim; Hales, Michele; Katz, Sheila Moriber

    2005-09-01

    Communication and medicine have evolved together. Internet resources now provide an unprecedented opportunity to provide health assistance to the developing world. The International Society of Nephrology Informatics Commission and National Kidney Foundation cyberNephrology initiative (http://www.cybernephrology.org) have created e-mail discussion groups (e.g., NEPHROL, NEPHKIDS, and so forth) and online texts and web resources (e.g., the Schrier Atlas: http://www.kidneyatlas.org) that are, in many respects, ahead of other areas of medicine. On the other hand, nephrology is quite behind in its embrace of some specific communications initiatives that could benefit emerging nations: the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative program, which provides free full-text access to medical journals and books in poorer countries; the Global Health Network Supercourse, which provides specially designed online lectures for the developing world; and Internet2/Abilene and similar research networks around the world, which provide reliable, guaranteed bandwidth for high-quality Internet videoconferencing as an alternative to face-to-face lectures and meetings. The intent of many educational ventures in nephrology, particularly in the clinical practice guideline realm (National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, and so forth), is not just to disseminate information but to change human behavior: physician practice and referral patterns, patient compliance, and so forth. Concepts from the worlds of marketing and entertainment, where the science of changing human behavior is highly evolved, can be used to create high-impact, educational offerings to promote health. They can also be highly beneficial to share Internet educational innovations and future vision across boundaries of medical specialties, which is part of the intent of the cyberMedicine joint venture (http://www.cyber-medicine.org).

  3. Usability Requirements for Complex Cyber-Physical Systems in a Totally Networked World

    OpenAIRE

    Kölmel , Bernhard; Bulander , Rebecca; Dittmann , Uwe; Schätter , Alfred; Würtz , Günther

    2014-01-01

    Part 7: Cyber-Physical Systems; International audience; “The Internet has made the world “flat” by transcending space. […] The Internet has transformed how we conduct research, studies, business, services, and entertainment.” [1] Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. Advances in CPS will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security, an...

  4. Security Scheme Based on Parameter Hiding Technic for Mobile Communication in a Secure Cyber World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution (LTE and Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A support a better data transmission service than 3G dose and are globally commercialized technologies in a cyber world that is essential for constructing a future mobile environment, since network traffics have exponentially increased as people have started to use more than just one mobile device. However, when User Equipment (UE is executing initial attach processes to access LTE networks, there is a vulnerability in which identification parameters like International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI and Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI are transmitted as plain texts. It can threat various services that are commercialized therewith in a cyber world. Therefore, a security scheme is proposed in this paper where identification parameters can be securely transmitted and hidden in four cases where initial attach occurs between UE and Mobility Management Entity (MME. The proposed security scheme not only supports encrypted transmission of identification parameters but also mutual authentication between Evolved Node B (eNB and MME to make a secure cyber world. Additionally, performance analysis results using an OPNET simulator showed the satisfaction of the average delay rate that is specified in LTE standards.

  5. PUBLIC DATA AND PRIVATE INFORMATION- THE THREAT AND ATTACK BY CYBER WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Gantela*1, MD.Mohammad Shareef2

    2018-01-01

    In the world of Internet nothing can be done without identifying the user. Internet is borderless and to perform any task we need to give our information so that we can be identified by the Cyber world. Identity is required by any website like banking, online shopping, mails and Social sites. In general the information that is entered while registering to any website is used to identify the user for further logins and access. Some sites may ask us to create a profile which could be used by ot...

  6. Erasektori korruptsiooni regulatsioon Eestis. Karistusõiguse revisjoniga toimunud muudatused / Silvia Kruusmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusmaa, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    2015. aasta karistusseadustiku revisjoniga toimunud muudatustest korruptsioonikuritegude regulatsioonis ning altkäemaksu andmisest erasektoris tegutsevale isikule. Erasektori korruptsiooni regulatsioonist rahvusvahelises õiguses ja Euroopa Liidu riikides

  7. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  8. Introducing cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  9. Toimunud istungid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riigikohtu otsusest ASi E hagis ASi J vastu 564 984 kr ja 4 sendi saamiseks ja ASi J vastuhagi E ASi vastu elektrivarustuse taastamiseks ning otsusest OÜ Priva, OÜ Priva Shipping Company, OÜ Priva Ehitus, OÜ Priva KV (endise ärinimega AB Priva Kinnisvara OÜ), Priva Trading OÜ (endise ärinimega AB Priva Trade OÜ) ja OÜ Priva Audit hagis OÜ PRIVA Baltic vastu, kus nõuti viimase sellise nime all tegevuse lõpetamist

  10. Park World Tour Hiinas / Timo Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Timo, 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Reisikiri Eesti sportlaste osalemisest septembris Hiinas korraldatud Park World Tour orienteerumisvõistlustel - Changchunis toimunud kahepäevasel Vasa orienteerumisfestivalil, Chongqingi lähistel toimunud Hiina meistrivõistlustel orienteerumissprindis ja Wanshengis toimunud lühiraja Hiina meistrivõistlustel ning Bekingi botaanikaaias toimunud keskkooli ja ülikooli meistrivõistlustel

  11. CYBER FORENSICS COMPETENCY-BASED FRAMEWORK - AREVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas

    2011-01-01

    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  12. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  13. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  14. Cyber Crime & Cyber War – "Part of the Game": Cyber Security, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-09-01

    äventivmaßnahmen ist weder ausreichend noch nachhaltig. What roles does cyber crime play today? What differentiates cyber crime from cyber war? How must cyber security be organized in order to effectively ensure sustainable protection? Cyber crime activities are frequently characterized by the easy accessibility of fraudulent know-how and technical means. Due to the sluggish and inadequate implementation of coordinated countermeasures, cyber crimes are a low-risk and high-reward scenario for cyber criminals. The more organized and specialized a cyber crime network, the greater the potential for damage. In fact, cyber crime is the umbrella term for fraudulent activities via the World Wide Web. These rely on the model of "traditional" offline criminal behavior patterns, which are easy to access thanks to the technological spectrum of the Internet. Nonetheless, it is the technical execution of the crime that represents a crucial distinguishing characteristic between online and offline fraud. Furthermore, from the point of view of organized crime, governments and terror groups, a lower inhibition threshold for a military exploitation of the Internet is a focal point of cyber security. As soon as cyber crime activity is the means by which to achieve political goals, it is called cyber war. Sustainable measures directed against cyber crime and cyber war take place in a highly dynamic environment. Cyber criminals are usually well-equipped in terms of logistics and financial resources. Many are supported by governments. Cyber criminals have wide-ranging technical expertise, which enables them to develop customized malware to accomplish their goals. At present, many companies and public sector entities do not fully realize how imperative defense systems are. Cyber security focus on purely preventive measures is therefore neither sufficient nor sustainable.

  15. Influence Operations and the Internet: A 21st Century Issue. Legal, Doctrinal and Policy Challenges in the Cyber World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    create a single set of cyberlaws and procedures internationally in order to insure that there is no safe harbor for cyber criminals .”55 PUTTING IT ALL...TOGETHER – OPERATIONAL EXAMPLES Cyber criminals would include state and non-state actors threatening our security. Assuming all of the previous

  16. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  17. Addressing the Cyber-security and Cyber-terrorism Threats [video

    OpenAIRE

    Robi Sen; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    While cyber terrorism is a relatively new threat in the world of national defense, the security issues we face are not necessarily new as a genre. In this segment, Chief Science Officer Robi Sen draws on the changing attitudes towards the cyber world. Topics include cooperation between law enforcement and hackers, the major motivations behind criminal hacking, and the realistic threats of cyber terrorism.

  18. Cyber Defense Exercises and their Role in Cyber Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Alexandru Bratosin

    2014-01-01

    The threat of cyber-attacks is increasing with the access to PC’s and Internet of a larger number of people around the world. Although the Internet provides a large number of advantages, it can also be used as a cyber-weapon in order to serve the interests of counties, political and economic groups or individual. The cyber-attacks of today are capable to disable the manufacturing of nuclear bombs of a country. Thus, there is an increasing demand for IT security specialists. Cyber-defense exer...

  19. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  20. KYPO Cyber Range: Design and Use Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Vykopal Jan; Ošlejšek Radek; Čeleda Pavel; Vizváry Martin; Tovarňák Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The physical and cyber worlds are increasingly intertwined and exposed to cyber attacks. The KYPO cyber range provides complex cyber systems and networks in a virtualized, fully controlled and monitored environment. Time-efficient and cost-effective deployment is feasible using cloud resources instead of a dedicated hardware infrastructure. This paper describes the design decisions made during it’s development. We prepared a set of use cases to evaluate the proposed design decisions and to de...

  1. Countering the Cyber-Attack, a case-study [video

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Squires; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-criminal organization electronically diverts funds, a hacking group uses their prowess to try to influence politics, these are examples of the evolving world of cyber crime. Keith Squires, Commissioner of Public Safety and Homeland Security Advisor for the State of Utah talks about his experience in building a cyber security program to counter such cyber criminals.

  2. Real-World Dangers in an Online Reality: A Qualitative Study Examining Online Relationships and Cyber Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; McLuckie, Alan; Saini, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Children and youths use electronic technology such as the Internet more than any other medium through which to communicate and socialize. To understand the phenomenon of cyber abuse from children's and youths' perspectives, the authors examined anonymous posts made by children and youths to a free, 24-hour, national, bilingual phone and Web…

  3. Cyber Deterrence and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goychayev, Rustam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Donnelly, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodda, Kabrena E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, Archibald D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andres, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries, deterrence and arms control have been cornerstones of strategic stability between the superpowers. However, the weaponization of the cyber realm by State actors and the multipolar nature of cyber conflict now undermines that stability. Strategic stability is the state in which nations believe that if they act aggressively to undermine U.S. national interests and the post-World War II liberal democratic order, the consequences will outweigh the benefits. The sense of lawlessness and lack of consequences in the cyber realm embolden States to be more aggressive in taking actions that undermine stability. Accordingly, this paper examines 1) the role of deterrence and arms control in securing cyber stability, and 2) the limitations and challenges associated with these traditional national security paradigms as applied to this emerging threat domain. This paper demonstrates that many 20th-century deterrence and arms control concepts are not particularly applicable in the cyber realm. However, they are not entirely irrelevant. The United States can distill lessons learned from this rich deterrence and arms control experience to develop and deploy a strategy to advance cyber stability.

  4. Psychological Needs as a Predictor of Cyber Bullying: A Preliminary Report on College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys show that cyber bullying is a pervasive problem in North America. Many news stories have reported cyber bullying incidents around the world. Reports on the prevalence of cyber bullying and victimization as a result of cyber bullying increase yearly. Although we know what cyber bullying is it is important that we learn more about the…

  5. Cyber crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzback, Kara

    2014-07-01

    Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.

  6. Cyber Threats/Attacks and a Defensive Model to Mitigate Cyber Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Hussain Awan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, every internet user is part of cyber world. In this way, millions of users, knowledge seekers, and service provider organizations are connected to each other, a vast number of common people shifted their everyday activities to cyber world as they can save their time, traffic problem and gets effective and costless services by using various services such as, online banking, social networking sites, government services and cloud services. The use of Cyber services, eBusiness, eCommerce and eGovernance increases the usage of online/cyber services also increased the issue of cyber security. Recently, various cases have been reported in the literature and media about the cyber-attacks and crimes which seriously disrupted governments, businesses and personal lives. From the literature. It is noticed that every cyber user is unaware about privacy and security practices and measures. Therefore, cyber user has provided knowledge and fully aware them from the online services and also about cyber privacy and security. This paper presents a review on the recent cybercrimes, threats and attacks reported in the literature and media. In addition, the impact of these cyber breaches and cyber law to deal with cyber security has been discussed. At last, a defensive model is also proposed to mitigate cyber-criminal activities.

  7. Cyber-Aggression as an Example of Dysfunctional Behaviour of the Young Generation in the Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prymak Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to try to identify the specificity and frequency of cyber-agression as a form of problem behaviour characteristic for the contemporary youth known as Generation Y. Analysis of the results of research conducted among schoolchildren aged 15–16 indicates that cyber-agression is a common phenomenon in the group. It raises the need for reconstruction and re-evaluation of practices and standards developed to date and implemented to address the problematic behaviour of young people through the global network. In the paper, proposals for solutions in this area are presented, which can be used to create future prevention programs aimed at constructive online behaviour and foster rational choice-making regarding the use of the Internet and modern media.

  8. A cross sectional review of patient information available in the World Wide Web on CyberKnife: fallacies and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Durgapoorna; Chelakkot, Prameela G; Sunil, Devika; Lakshmaiah, Ashwini

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of videos available in YouTube on CyberKnife. The term "CyberKnife" was input into the search window of www.youtube.com on a specific date and the first 50 videos were assessed for technical and content issues. The data was tabulated and analysed. The search yielded 32,300 videos in 0.33 s. Among the first 50 analysed, most were professional videos, mostly on CyberKnife in general and for brain tumours. Most of the videos did not mention anything about patient selection or lesion size. The other technical details were covered by most although they seemed muffled by the animations. Many patient videos were recordings of one entire treatment, thus giving future patients an insight on what to expect. Almost half the videos projected glorified views about the treatment technique. The company videos were reasonably accurate and well presented as were many institutional videos, although there was a tendency to gloss over a few points. The glorification of the treatment technique was a disturbing finding. The profound trust of the patients on the health care system is humbling.

  9. Cyber Panel Experimentation Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haines, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    .... A variety of multi-step cyber attacks were perpetrated against the target network each of which typifies a current-day real-world attack. The preliminary results presented here represent those available at conclusion of the experiment process by BBN.

  10. Cyber Guerilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, J.; Gevers, R.; Sprengers, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much as Che Guevara’s book Guerilla Warfare helped define and delineate a new type of warfare in the wake of the Cuban revolution in 1961, Cyber Guerilla will help define the new types of threats and fighters now appearing in the digital landscape. Cyber Guerilla provides valuable insight for

  11. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  12. Cyber security for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ruchi; Razdan, Mayuri; Munshi, Prabhat

    2005-01-01

    Cyber Security, cyber terrorism and cyber crime are the buzzwords in security related aspects of information technology. These terms are related to computers and networks that are critical for normal functionality and operations of nuclear power plants. At one end, this inter connected era is giving us the ease to perform various critical operation with a click of command, but on the other end it is giving rise to the new world of terrorism. In today's internet connected world, terrorism has left all the boundaries back and taken the new form, term it cyber terrorism or cyber crime. This paper aims to spread the awareness about cyber terrorism and how it can affect the overall security of nuclear power plants and establishments. (author)

  13. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  14. Cyber Threats/Attacks and a Defensive Model to Mitigate Cyber Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad Hussain Awan; Shazad Memon; Sheeraz Memon; Kamran Taj Pathan; Niaz Hussain Arijo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, every internet user is part of cyber world. In this way, millions of users, knowledge seekers, and service provider organizations are connected to each other, a vast number of common people shifted their everyday activities to cyber world as they can save their time, traffic problem and gets effective and costless services by using various services such as, online banking, social networking sites, government services and cloud services. The use of Cyber services, eBusiness, eCommerc...

  15. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  16. Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2013-01-01

    In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...

  17. Välisriigis toimunud abielulahutuse tunnustamine Eestis : [magistritöö] / Rasmus Kuklane ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Karin Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuklane, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Välisriigis toimunud lahutuse tunnustamine Eestis Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigina (Brüssel II bis määrus) või rahvusvaheliste lepingute alusel (Haagi 1970. a. konventsioon, õigusabilepingud riikide vahel), kohtupraktika analüüs

  18. Cyber Workforce Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    analysts, who most closely coincide with members of the 1B4 occupation skill set . However, adjusting for the local labor markets where approximately 80–85...fewer than 10 years. 2. Cyber Airmen, in particular 1B4s, have the skill sets needed in the labor market : their skills are extremely portable and...professionals collides with a world labor market already experi- encing a dramatic deficit in individuals with these skills . At the same time, the United

  19. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  20. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  1. CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime

    CERN Document Server

    Mehan, Julie E

    2008-01-01

    CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime provides a stark and timely analysis of the increasingly hostile online landscape that today’s corporate systems inhabit, and gives a practical introduction to the defensive strategies that can be employed in response.

  2. Building organisational cyber resilience: A strategic knowledge-based view of cyber security management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Jason

    The concept of cyber resilience has emerged in recent years in response to the recognition that cyber security is more than just risk management. Cyber resilience is the goal of organisations, institutions and governments across the world and yet the emerging literature is somewhat fragmented due to the lack of a common approach to the subject. This limits the possibility of effective collaboration across public, private and governmental actors in their efforts to build and maintain cyber resilience. In response to this limitation, and to calls for a more strategically focused approach, this paper offers a knowledge-based view of cyber security management that explains how an organisation can build, assess, and maintain cyber resilience.

  3. Cyber Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    government. Another way of looking at power in the cyber domain is to consider the three faces or aspects of relational power. 1st Face: (A induces B do...power. For example, on the February 2010 anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, the government slowed the internet to prevent protesters sending films ...all but a few government controlled Web sites. The damage to business and tourism was significant, but the Chinese government was more concerned

  4. APPROACH TO CYBER SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ibikunle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. Cyber-crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Over the past decades, the growth of the internet and its use afforded everyone this opportunity. Google, Wikipedia and Bing to mention a few, give detailed answers to millions of questions every day. Cyberspace is a world that contains just about anything one is searching for. With the advent of these advancements in information accessibility and the advantages and applications of the internet comes an exponentially growing disadvantage- Cyber Crime. Cyber security has risen to become a national concern as threats concerning it now need to be taken more seriously. This paper attempts to provide an overview of Cybercrime and Cyber-security. It defines the concept of cybercrime, identify reasons for cyber-crime and its eradication. It look at those involved and the reasons for their involvement. Methods of stepping up cyber security and the recommendations that would help in checking the increasing rate of cyber-crimes were highlighted. The paper also attempts to name some challenges of cybercrime and present practical and logical solutions to these threats.

  5. Mathematical and Statistical Opportunities in Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan; Campbell, Scott; Bailey, David

    2009-03-23

    The role of mathematics in a complex system such as the Internet has yet to be deeply explored. In this paper, we summarize some of the important and pressing problems in cyber security from the viewpoint of open science environments. We start by posing the question 'What fundamental problems exist within cyber security research that can be helped by advanced mathematics and statistics'? Our first and most important assumption is that access to real-world data is necessary to understand large and complex systems like the Internet. Our second assumption is that many proposed cyber security solutions could critically damage both the openness and the productivity of scientific research. After examining a range of cyber security problems, we come to the conclusion that the field of cyber security poses a rich set of new and exciting research opportunities for the mathematical and statistical sciences.

  6. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying...... the security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  7. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  8. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  9. Rezension: World Wide War: Angriff aus dem Internet/Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It von Richard A. Clarke und Robert K. Knake/by Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Je breiter der Infrastruktur-Anschluss eines Landes an das World Wide Web, desto größer die Angriffsfläche im Fall eines Netzkriegs. Die Messung der virtuellen Kampfkraft erfolgt auf Basis von drei Faktoren: Offensivkraft, Defensivfähigkeit und die Abhängigkeit vom Internet. Die USA verfügen als "Supermacht" zwar über die größte virtuelle Offensivkraft, gleichzeitig steht die Nation Cyberangriffen sehr verwundbar gegenüber. Dagegen sind in Nordkorea kaum Systeme vom Internet abhängig. Obwohl die offensiven Netzkriegskapazitäten Nordkoreas verhältnismäßig gering sind, präsentiert sich die virtuelle Kampfkraft des nordkoreanischen Regimes in Bestform. Die Verwundbarkeit ziviler Systeme, insbesondere der Energieversorgung, muss in direkter Korrelation mit deren Anknüpfung an das Internet betrachtet werden. The more broadly connected a country’s infrastructure and energy distribution, the greater its vulnerability in the event of a cyber war. Measuring this virtual fighting power is based on three factors: offensive and defensive strength, as well as dependency on the Internet. As a superpower, the USA has the greatest virtual offensive strength available. At the same time, the nation is most susceptible to cyber attacks and therefore most vulnerable. By contrast, North Korea’s offensive cyber fighting power is relatively small, but its overall cyber war capabilities are cutting-edge. The vulnerability of civil systems, especially power supply, must be viewed in direct correlation to their connection to the Internet.

  10. Medical Differential Diagnosis (MDD) as the Architectural Framework for a Knowledge Model: A Vulnerability Detection and Threat Identification Methodology for Cyber-Crime and Cyber-Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley-Ware, Lakita D.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses a real world cyberspace problem, where currently no cross industry standard methodology exists. The goal is to develop a model for identification and detection of vulnerabilities and threats of cyber-crime or cyber-terrorism where cyber-technology is the vehicle to commit the criminal or terrorist act (CVCT). This goal was…

  11. Cyber risk in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Linert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the cyber risk in banking industry. Its main goal is to stress the imporatance of cyber risk both verbally and numericaly and review the approach of banks to this risk. The first part of this thesis specifies what cyber risk is and how it fits among other operational risks, presents the common cyber-attacks and archetypes of cyber criminals, later it delves into the cyber risk in Czech Republic and at the end of this part it mentions the legislation that covers ...

  12. Automating cyber offensive operations for cyber challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, I

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available with regards to attack automation. 2. Background on cyber games CTF exercises are offensive and defensive cyber training exercises whereby teams compete against one another to obtain flags or tokens hidden on various servers. In some cases these flags... are located on an opponent’s servers, which results in teams being required to attack adversary servers while maintaining defences on their own services (The National Cyber League 2013). These challenges are often time based and victors are determined based...

  13. Information Assurance Cyber Ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Jane

    2003-01-01

    .... The goals of the Cyber Ecology project were to: (1) enable and demonstrate the discovery of noel IA technologies for the detection and mitigation of damage due to cyber attack through the application of ecological models, (2...

  14. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  15. Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Ozturk; Gizem Akcan

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students w...

  16. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation's cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested - both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  17. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  18. Training the Cyber Warrior

    OpenAIRE

    Fulp, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper suggests the major educational components of a curriculum that is designed to educate individuals for job assignments as Information Assurance professionals - also known as: cyber warriors. It suggests a minimum common body of knowledge for all cyber warriors along with two major specialization categories: cyber tacticians and cyber strategists. The paper describes the distinction between tactician and strategist and offers a rough outline of the education each should receive.

  19. Plethora of Cyber Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani

    2011-01-01

    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  20. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  1. Evaluation of cyber legislations: trading in the global cyber village

    OpenAIRE

    Jahankhani, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    The menace of organised crime and terrorist activity grows ever more sophisticated as the ability to enter, control and destroy our electronic and security systems grows at an equivalent rate. Cyber-crime (organised criminal acts using microchip and software manipulation) is the world's biggest growth industry and is now costing an estimated $220 billion loss to organisations and individuals, every year. There are serious threats to nations, governments, corporations and the most vulnerable g...

  2. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathu Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  3. Cyber security analytics, technology and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Neittaanmäki, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the Internet and more broadly cyberspace has had a tremendous impact on all parts of society. Governments across the world have started to develop cyber security strategies and to consider cyberspace as an increasingly important international issue. The book, in addition to the cyber threats and technology, processes cyber security from many sides as a social phenomenon and how the implementation of the cyber security strategy is carried out. The book gives a profound idea of the most spoken phenomenon of this time. The book is suitable for a wide-ranging audience from graduate to professionals/practitioners and researchers. Relevant disciplines for the book are  Telecommunications / Network security, Applied mathematics / Data analysis, Mobile systems / Security, Engineering / Security of critical infrastructure and Military science / Security.

  4. ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  5. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sajal K; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide reach of the Internet allows malicious cyber criminals to coordinate and launch attacks on both cyber and cyber-physical infrastructure from anywhere in the world. This purpose of this handbook is to introduce the theoretical foundations and practical solution techniques for securing critical cyber and physical infrastructures as well as their underlying computing and communication architectures and systems. Examples of such infrastructures include utility networks (e.g., electrical power grids), ground transportation systems (automotives, roads, bridges and tunnels), airports a

  6. Cyber terrorism and cyber-crime – threats for cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ackoski, Jugoslav; Dojcinovski, Metodija

    2012-01-01

    This paper has aim to give contribution in supporting efforts against cyber threats recognized as a cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Also, it has aim to show future challenges related to cyber security and their emerging threats – cyber war, cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Accelerate weapon development called ICT (Information Communication Technology) which is developed every day faster and faster, and development of human conscious on higher level about consequences of ICT enormous pene...

  7. What good cyber resilience looks like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  8. NATIONAL SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF CYBER THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO AMIGO TOSSI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyber threat is one of the main risks for security in developing countries, as well in States on the development path, such as ours. This phenomena is a challenge to national security, that needs the adoption of a paramount approach in its analysis, that have to consider all the aspects that had transformed the actors and malevolent actions in this environment in one of the most important challenges to the security of governmental as well as private organizations all over the world. States, hackers, cyber activists, and cyber criminals have been main actors in several situations that had shaped a new dimension for international and national security. The purpose of this article is to propose topics that could be included in the national assessment of cyber threats to the Chilean national security, based upon several conceptual definitions, cyber attacks already executed to state and military organization’s in Chile, and lastly, considerations over cyber threats included in the National Security Strategies of some western powers.

  9. Cyber Security : Home User's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Cyber security is important to understand for home users. New technology allows for new cyber threats to emerge and new solutions must be considered to counter them. Nearly every device is connected to the Internet and this opens new possibilities and threats to cyber security. This Bachelor's thesis explores the different aspects of cyber security and suggests solutions to different cyber security issues found. The different aspects of cyber security under research here include personal ...

  10. Cyber Epidemic Models with Dependences

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Maochao; Da, Gaofeng; Xu, Shouhuai

    2016-01-01

    Studying models of cyber epidemics over arbitrary complex networks can deepen our understanding of cyber security from a whole-system perspective. In this paper, we initiate the investigation of cyber epidemic models that accommodate the {\\em dependences} between the cyber attack events. Due to the notorious difficulty in dealing with such dependences, essentially all existing cyber epidemic models have assumed them away. Specifically, we introduce the idea of Copulas into cyber epidemic mode...

  11. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  12. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  13. A Cyber Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    door for an attack. These medium-potential cyber tools can present the pathway to espionage or attack when weaponized.18 It is important to...facilitate espionage or up to and including destruction of the system.27 Cyber attack falls on the right end of the spectrum. Before the definition for...warfare or war. Congruent with international laws on war, there is delineation between an act of espionage and act of war. Advancements in cyber

  14. Cyber-bombing ISIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Teglskov Jacobsen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    It has become a conventional wisdom in strategic studies that the development and use of cyber weapons should be kept secret, as the effectiveness of these tools is dependent on opponents being unaware of a particular cyber weapon’s characteristics. Why, then, has the US military repeatedly publi...... the enemy’s trust in his own IT-infrastructure, and command and control systems, (3) signal “cyber strength” to third parties, and (4) establish norms regarding how to use cyber weapons in accordance with International Humanitarian Law....

  15. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Benjamin, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinones, Luis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paz, Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  16. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Benjamin, Jacob; Wright, Virginia L.; Quinones, Luis; Paz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  17. Strengthening cyber policy research centres in the Global South (Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, they are increasingly confronted with cyber threats (such as crime ... including human rights, security, innovation, and the interplay of these issues ... Micro-enterprises are the most common types of business in the developing world.

  18. Adult Basic Education and the Cyber Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the author expresses her greatest concerns regarding learning in the cyber world: the appropriateness of online learning for courses with sensitive subject matter, the comfort level of nontraditional learners in this new setting, and the inability as an instructor to fully engage with the learner in real time. As an adult…

  19. Multi sensor national cyber security data fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swart, I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available in a real world system. The data examined will then be applied to a case study that will show the results of applying available open source security information against the model to relate to the current South African cyber landscape....

  20. SASTRA CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Fitriani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital era started when the internet technology spread to the developing countries including Indonesia. The flourish of cyber literature leads to the debate on the quality of the work of literature. Above all, the existence of literature sites (cyber literature becomes an important alternative for writers and literary activist in Indonesia.

  1. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  2. REKONSTRUKSI PEMBENTUKAN NATIONAL CYBER DEFENSE SEBAGAI UPAYA MEMPERTAHANKAN KEDAULATAN NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khalimatus Sa'diyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety against cybercrime has become the world’s attention, but not all countries in the world is giving greater attention to the problem of cybercrime by having the rule and unless the developed countries and some developing countries. The purpose of this research is in order to find, examine and analyze the efforts of the Indonesia Government in the protection of State secrets information and data, also to research the forms of Indonesia Government resistance against cyber war. Find a reconstruction of national cyber defense formation or cyber army in an attempt to defend the sovereignty of the country. In Act No. 3 of 2002 on State Defense, it has been established that the threat in the country’s defense system consists of a military threat and non-military threat, which is including cyber threats. One of the negative effects of the cyber world development via the internet among other things is a crime in violation of the law cybercrime, where when the escalation widely spread, it could have threatened the country’s sovereignty, territorial integrity or the safety of the nation. In an effort to combat against the attacks in this virtual world, will require an agency that is in charge of being the world’s bulwark cyber or cyber defense.

  3. Cyber-physical securi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  4. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  5. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  6. Cyber Crime & Cyber War – "Part of the Game": Cyber Security, Quo Vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-01-01

    Welche Rolle spielt Cyber Crime gegenwärtig? Was unterscheidet Cyber Crime von Cyber War? Wie muss Cyber Security gestaltet sein, um effektiven Schutz nachhaltig zu gewährleisten? Cyber Crime-Aktivitäten kennzeichnen sich häufig durch eine einfache Zugänglichkeit von betrügerischem Know-How und technischen Hilfsmitteln. Bedingt durch eine schleppende und mangelhafte Umsetzung von koordinierten Gegenmaßnahmen, resultieren Cyber-Delikte in einem Low-Risk und High-Reward Szenario für Cyber-Krimi...

  7. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aspects come into play that may have an influence on the manner in which the military reacts to cyber attacks (Wilson 2007): ? new national security policy issues; ? consideration of psychological operations used to affect friendly nations... relationship between modern cyber space, cyber warfare and traditional legislation. As a starting point, cyber warfare is defined for the purpose of this article as the use of exploits in cyber space as a way to intentionally cause harm to people, assets...

  8. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  9. International Cyber Incident Repository System: Information Sharing on a Global Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Amanda L.; Evans, PhD, Nathaniel; Tanzman, Edward A.; Israeli, Daniel

    2017-02-02

    According to the 2016 Internet Security Threat Report, the largest number of cyber attacks were recorded last year (2015), reaching a total of 430 million incidents throughout the world. As the number of cyber incidents increases, the need for information and intelligence sharing increases, as well. This fairly large increase in cyber incidents is driving the need for an international cyber incident data reporting system. The goal of the cyber incident reporting system is to make available shared and collected information about cyber events among participating international parties. In its 2014 report, Insurance Industry Working Session Readout Report-Insurance for CyberRelated Critical Infrastructure Loss: Key Issues, on the outcomes of a working session on cyber insurance, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security observed that “many participants cited the need for a secure method through which organizations could pool and share cyber incident information” and noted that one underwriter emphasized the importance of internationally harmonized data taxonomies. This cyber incident data reporting system could benefit all nations that take part in reporting incidents to provide a more common operating picture. In addition, this reporting system could allow for trending and anticipated attacks and could potentially benefit participating members by enabling them to get in front of potential attacks. The purpose of this paper is to identify options for consideration for such a system in fostering cooperative cyber defense.

  10. Development on Guidance of Cyber Security Exercise for the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyundoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber threats and attacks are increasing rapidly against infrastructure including energy and utilities industry over the world. Because of lack of human resource and incident response system to prevent or defend increased cyber threats, many governments and major national infrastructures perform cyber security exercises to improve capabilities of cyber security incident response. Accordingly there are exponential growth in the number of cyber security exercises over the past decade with the trend expecting to accelerate in the coming years. Even though there were many cyber security exercises in the Nuclear Facilities, this exercise was first which focused on mitigation and recovery of the system of the Nuclear Facility against cyber incident. So many insufficient items were deduced such as absence of a procedure for mitigation and recovery of cyber incident. These procedures should be developed and established through 3rd phase of Cyber Security Plan (CSP) and other technical complement actions under regulatory body’s guidance. Also developed and existed procedures should be regularly performed to make cyber incident response team and related people rapidly response against cyber incident through exercises or other training. The insufficient items come from the exercise should be reflected to developed and existed procedures by periods.

  11. Development on Guidance of Cyber Security Exercise for the Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyundoo

    2016-01-01

    Cyber threats and attacks are increasing rapidly against infrastructure including energy and utilities industry over the world. Because of lack of human resource and incident response system to prevent or defend increased cyber threats, many governments and major national infrastructures perform cyber security exercises to improve capabilities of cyber security incident response. Accordingly there are exponential growth in the number of cyber security exercises over the past decade with the trend expecting to accelerate in the coming years. Even though there were many cyber security exercises in the Nuclear Facilities, this exercise was first which focused on mitigation and recovery of the system of the Nuclear Facility against cyber incident. So many insufficient items were deduced such as absence of a procedure for mitigation and recovery of cyber incident. These procedures should be developed and established through 3rd phase of Cyber Security Plan (CSP) and other technical complement actions under regulatory body’s guidance. Also developed and existed procedures should be regularly performed to make cyber incident response team and related people rapidly response against cyber incident through exercises or other training. The insufficient items come from the exercise should be reflected to developed and existed procedures by periods

  12. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  13. Cyber space bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to t...

  14. Operationalizing Army Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    killed just under 3,000 people and cost the U.S. economy somewhere between three and five trillion dollars. The Japanese attacked with a state... economy , and military readiness. The challenge is to design an Army Cyber force that can support the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) national...still keeps the intelligence and signal functions separate in most units today from battalion to echelon above Corps ( EAC ). There are many past reasons

  15. Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of market capitalization after a cyber security incident Financial Geer, 2001 Gordon and Loeb, 2005 Willemson, 2006 Determine the return on security...thoughtheir vulnerability may be less. That is because the return on investment for protecting agiven information set is a function both of its vulnerability...can ensure that it is investing properly to provide cyber resilience to its systems. The study investigated ways to inform future investment

  16. Metaphors for cyber security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  17. Developing the cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours scales

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, LR; Spenser, KA

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalisations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through two studies, the current research developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours scales. In Study 1 393 (122 male, 171 female), and in Study...

  18. Establishing a Cyber Warrior Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Scott

    2004-01-01

    Cyber Warfare is widely touted to be the next generation of warfare. As America's reliance on automated systems and information technology increases, so too does the potential vulnerability to cyber attack...

  19. CENTER FOR CYBER SECURITY STUDIES

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Cyber Security Studies is to enhance the education of midshipmen in all areas of cyber warfare, to facilitate the sharing of expertise...

  20. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  1. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  2. Special Operations And Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Cyber weapons have multiple functions and can be used for espionage or OPE. It is important to highlight the similarities between the intelligence...James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, emphasized the importance of cyber operations as he identified cyber as the third major hazard facing...support the development of the capacity and capability of foreign security forces and their supporting institutions.”52 The DOD’s Cyber Strategy states

  3. Maritime Cyber Security University Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Cyber Security University Research Phase I - Final Report...Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. May 2016 Report No. CG-D-06-16 Maritime Cyber Security...Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security University

  4. Preparing South Africa for cyber crime and cyber defense

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa... legislation and a lack of cyber defense mechanisms. As a starting point, cyber warfare for the purpose of this article is defined as the use of exploits in cyber space as a way to intentionally cause harm to people, assets or economies (Owen 2008). It can...

  5. Impact of a Participatory Cyber Crime Prevention Programme on Secondary School Students' Attainment in Crime Prevention Concepts in Civic Education and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosun, Peter Adewale; Ige, Olugbenga Adedayo; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is considered by many to be a cyber crime hot spot, and is often ranked among the world's top cyber crime committing countries (e.g. advanced fee fraud is also known as Nigerian scams and 419 scams--419 is a section under the Nigerian Criminal Code Act that prohibits obtaining goods by false pretences). We designed a cyber crime prevention…

  6. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Xuan; Xue, Ke; Wan, Xiqiong; Yang, Zhenyi; Xu, Duo; Ivanović, Mirjana; Yu, Xueer

    2015-01-01

    Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) emotional space.

  7. Neural Cognition and Affective Computing on Cyber Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterized by its customary symbol system and simple and vivid expression patterns, cyber language acts as not only a tool for convenient communication but also a carrier of abundant emotions and causes high attention in public opinion analysis, internet marketing, service feedback monitoring, and social emergency management. Based on our multidisciplinary research, this paper presents a classification of the emotional symbols in cyber language, analyzes the cognitive characteristics of different symbols, and puts forward a mechanism model to show the dominant neural activities in that process. Through the comparative study of Chinese, English, and Spanish, which are used by the largest population in the world, this paper discusses the expressive patterns of emotions in international cyber languages and proposes an intelligent method for affective computing on cyber language in a unified PAD (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance emotional space.

  8. Cyber Security: Rule of Use Internet Safely?

    OpenAIRE

    -, Maskun

    2013-01-01

    International Journal Cyber security plays on important role to guarantee and protect people who use internet in their daily life. Some cases take place around the world that people get inconvenience condition when they access and use internet. Misuse of internet becomes a current issue which some cases take place including a university. Advantages of using internet in the university of course assist the student to get some information in internet. However, they have to be protected in ord...

  9. Preliminary results in implementing a model of the world economy on the CYBER 205: A case of large sparse nonsymmetric linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyld, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief description of the Model of the World Economy implemented at the Institute for Economic Analysis is presented, together with our experience in converting the software to vector code. For each time period, the model is reduced to a linear system of over 2000 variables. The matrix of coefficients has a bordered block diagonal structure, and we show how some of the matrix operations can be carried out on all diagonal blocks at once.

  10. Training organizational supervisors to detect and prevent cyber insider threats: two approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee H. Andrews

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber insider threat is intentional theft from, or sabotage of, a cyber system by someone within the organization. This article explores the use of advanced cognitive and instructional principles to accelerate learning in organizational supervisors to mitigate the cyber threat. It examines the potential advantage of using serious games to engage supervisors. It also posits two systematic instructional approaches for this training challenge – optimal path modelling and a competency-based approach. The paper concludes by discussing challenges of evaluating training for seldom occurring real world phenomena, like detecting a cyber-insider threat.

  11. A smart configuration of computer as a prevention from hacking and cyber espionage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a modern business world, IT systems are frequently exposed to attacks, business espionage and the other cyber incidents. Many software tools of nowadays got a remote access option to another computer which is suitable for a cyber espionage as well as a hacker's attack monitoring. As one of the most reliable measures here, we would mention a smart configuration of computer which offers a protection from these cyber threats. In this article, we plan to explain the cases that exist in the practice and provide some useful tips which would suggest how to prevent cyber incidents at home as well as within a business environment.

  12. Framework for an African policy towards creating cyber security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, IZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security is a GLOBAL issue. The rest of the world needs Africa to be aware and ready. Furthermore, Africa can only be aware and ready if it is internally organised and collaborates effectively with the rest of the world. The African continent...

  13. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  14. ‘Walled’ activism: transnational social movements and the politics of Chinese cyber-public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyiri, P.D.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines China's cyber-activism in relation to the politics of making a transnational, Chinese public sphere in both the virtual world and real-life locations. By conceptualising Chinese cyber-activism as 'walled' activism, this article describes an invisible yet effective 'wall'

  15. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  16. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  17. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunae [ChungNam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis

  18. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunae; Kim, Kyung doo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis about

  19. Automated Cyber Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    affect one’s cyber system by searching for viable attack plans1, and examining its effect on the system. It is a labour - intensive exercise as it...Both Satisfaction and Optimization Problems,” AI Magazine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 85-87, 2001. [183] S. Milton, Machine Learning methods for

  20. ARMY CYBER STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    content/?q=historic-cyber-unit-begins- daily-action . 14 John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army, HQDA General Order 2014-02, Affirmation of Secretary of...support-plays-role-in-tactical-operations/75545442/. McHugh , John M., Secretary of the Army, HQDA General Order 2014-02, Affirmation of Secretary of

  1. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  2. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  3. Cyber warfare: critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.; Osinga, F.; Soeters, J.

    2012-01-01

    Next to sea, land, air and space, ‘cyber space’ appears to be the fifth operational domain for the military. This manmade and virtual sphere brings along opportunities and threats. In this book, academics of the Netherlands Defence Academy as well as specialists and military professionals from other

  4. Literature Review on Modeling Cyber Networks and Evaluating Cyber Risks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, Andjelka; Campbell, Philip L

    2018-04-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulations and Analysis Center (NISAC) conducted a literature review on modeling cyber networks and evaluating cyber risks. The literature review explores where modeling is used in the cyber regime and ways that consequence and risk are evaluated. The relevant literature clusters in three different spaces: network security, cyber-physical, and mission assurance. In all approaches, some form of modeling is utilized at varying levels of detail, while the ability to understand consequence varies, as do interpretations of risk. This document summarizes the different literature viewpoints and explores their applicability to securing enterprise networks.

  5. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  6. Economic Analysis of Cyber Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallaher, Michael P; Rowe, Brent R; Rogozhin, Alex V; Link, Albert N

    2006-01-01

    .... However, few organizations attempt such analysis for their cyber security mechanisms. Key performance and evaluation metrics are not available, so organizations rely on qualitative assessments...

  7. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  8. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Cyber Battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliJabar Rashidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect cyberspace against cyber-attacks we need cyber situation awareness framework for the implementation of our cyber maneuvers. This article allows execution cyber maneuvers with dynamic cyber battlefield simulator. Cyber battlefield contains essential information for the detection of cyber events, therefore, it can be considered most important and complicated factor in the high-level fusion. Cyber battlefield by gather detail data of cyberspace elements, including knowledge repository of vulnerability, tangible and intangible elements of cyberspace and the relationships between them, can provide and execute cyber maneuvers, penetration testing, cyber-attacks injection, attack tracking, visualization, cyber-attacks impact assessment and risk assessment. The dynamic maker Engine in simulator is designed to update the knowledge base of vulnerabilities, change the topology elements, and change the access list, services, hosts and users. Evaluation of simulator do with qualitative method of research and with create a focus group.

  10. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  11. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    leak paths”) and determine if firewalls and router access control lists are violating network policy. Visualization tools are provided to help analysts...with which a supply agent may not be familiar. In this environment, errors in requisition are easy to make, and they are costly : an incomplete cyber...establishing an email network and recommend a firewall and additional laptops. YMAL would also match mission details like the deployment location with

  12. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, SCADA systems were considered safe from cyber attacks and were not designed for security. The situation...operational data that could result in public safety concerns.43 In 2013 Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet found over 2,500 SCADA systems in Norway used for ...a. Siberian Pipeline Explosion (1982) In 1982, intruders planted a Trojan horse in the SCADA system that controls the Siberian Pipeline . This is the

  13. DNSSEC for cyber forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Shulman, Haya; Waidner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Domain Name System (DNS) cache poisoning is a stepping stone towards advanced (cyber) attacks. DNS cache poisoning can be used to monitor users activities for censorship, to distribute malware and spam and to subvert correctness and availability of Internet clients and services. Currently, the DNS infrastructure relies on challenge-response defences against attacks by (the common) off-path adversaries. Such defences do not suffice against stronger, man-in-the-middle (MitM), adversaries. Howev...

  14. CYBER SECURITY FOR AIRPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Manimaran Govindarasu; Doug W. Jacobson; Brent M. Phares

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, government organizations and business enterprises are heavily relying on interconnected computer systems to manage a variety of public services including energy, transportation, water, etc. While this increased connectivity has many operational advantages benefitting the public, they have also become vulnerable to cyber attacks such as Corporate Security Breaches, Spear Phishing, and Social Media Fraud. The aviation sector is one the critical infrastructure systems...

  15. US Cyber Challenge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Computers (General Term), Information Systems or Information Technology 0 6 5 1 1 13 Criminal Justice 0 0 0 1 0 1 Economics 0 0 1 0 0 1 Electrical...Assurance or Computer Security 8 6 15 10 7 46 Information Technology 4 1 9 1 4 19 Nanotechnology 0 1 0 0 0 1 Networking or Network Security 7 1 2 2 4...FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE US CYBER CHALLENGE RESEARCH CENTER FOR INTERNET SECURITY, INC FEBRUARY

  16. Fighting cyber crime through cyber forensics first responder training

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, JP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available behind traces that are of interest to cyber forensic scientists. Cyber forensics is the science of analysing traces in order to extract evidence for use in court or at formal hearings. This rapid rise in the use of ICT for criminal purposes necessitated...

  17. Information Cyberspace and Future Cyber Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Babulak

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The current Internet combines very complex communications infrastructures, while connecting users globally and at the same time creating information cyberspace systems. Large companies such as Philips are working on communications technologies that will facilitate fully automated households (i.e., Cyber Homes. Today, people are using are using small digital pagers and phones with embedded computers and displays, palm-size computers such as Palm Pilot, notebook-size panel computers and wall-size displays. Current research and development trends in the field of Telecommunications and computing industries continues towards a human centric computing, smart spaces, smart devices, clothing, fully automated houses etc. This new technology creates environment where computers are everywhere and provide online access to information at any time to anyone. In this paper, the author discusses new technological trends directions in the Internet, E-commerce and Automation Industries, while presenting his own vision on application of ubiquitous computing in the future cyber home automation. In support of creating future fully automated cyber homes, the author promotes creation of interdisciplinary and multinational research and development teams world-wide.

  18. Assuring Integrity of Information Utility in Cyber-Learning Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Stein, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cyber-learning project for the World Wide Web developed by faculty and librarians at the University of Delaware that combined discovery learning with problem-based learning to develop critical thinking and quality management for information. Undergraduates were to find, evaluate, and use information to generate an Internet marketing…

  19. H8 @ Skul: Cyber World Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The cover of a "Chicago Tribune Magazine" says it all about the most recent manifestation of an ancient phenomenon--bullying. The article represents two trends that present new challenges to counselors, teachers, and administrators -- especially in middle and junior high schools: Girls are bullying more than ever before and it's gone electronic.…

  20. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  1. Cyber Bullying and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the emotional and physiological effects of cyber bullying on the university students. The primary objective of this investigation is to identify the victims of cyber bullying and critically analyze their emotional state and frame of mind in order to provide them with a workable and feasible intervention in fighting cyber…

  2. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  3. Cyber Security Applications: Freeware & Shareware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss some assignments using freeware/shareware instructors can find on the Web to use to provide students with hands-on experience in this arena. Also, the college, Palm Beach State College, via a grant with the U.S. Department of Labor, has recently purchased a unique cyber security device that simulates cyber security attacks…

  4. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    State University .” “’Information Troops’ -- a Russian Cyber Command?” 2011 3rd International Conference on Cyber Conflict, C. Czosseck, E. Tyugu, T...www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/technology/13cyber.html?_r=0. 36 Ibid. 37 Joseph Mann, “Expert: Cyber-attacks on Georgia websites tied to mob , Russian government

  5. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  6. Evaluation of a Cyber Security System for Hospital Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faysel, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cyber security systems use simulated data in evaluating their detection capabilities. The proposed cyber security system utilizes real hospital network connections. It uses a probabilistic data mining algorithm to detect anomalous events and takes appropriate response in real-time. On an evaluation using real-world hospital network data consisting of incoming network connections collected for a 24-hour period, the proposed system detected 15 unusual connections which were undetected by a commercial intrusion prevention system for the same network connections. Evaluation of the proposed system shows a potential to secure protected patient health information on a hospital network.

  7. Developing a Conceptual Framwork for Modeling Deviant Cyber Flash Mob: A Socio-Computational Approach Leveraging Hypergraph Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Al-khateeb; Nitin Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    In a Flash Mob (FM) a group of people get together in the physical world perform an unpredicted act and disperse quickly. Cyber Flash Mob (CFM) is the cyber manifestation of flash mob coordinated primarily using social media. Deviant Cyber Flash Mob (or, DCFM) is a special case of CFM, which is categorized as the new face of transnational crime organizations (TCOs). The DCFM phenomenon can be considered as a form of a cyber-collective action that is defined as an action aiming to improve grou...

  8. Design of a cyber security awareness campaign for internet Cafés users in rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, WA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available very low cyber literacy rates. A consequence of these two factors is that many Internet users access the Internet without understanding or even realising the dangers of the cyber world. Proactive measures need to be developed to ensure that these new...

  9. Stuxnet and the Future of Cyber War

    OpenAIRE

    Farwell, James P.; Rohozinski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    The discovery in June 2010 that a cyber worm dubbed 'Stuxnet' had struck the Iranian nuclear facility at Natanz suggested that, for cyber war, the future is now. Yet more important is the political and strategic context in which new cyber threats are emerging, and the effects the worm has generated in this respect. Perhaps most striking is the confluence between cyber crime and state action. States are capitalising on technology whose development is driven by cyber crime, and perhaps outsourc...

  10. Predicting Cyber Events by Leveraging Hacker Sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, Ashok; Lerman, Kristina; Ferrara, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Recent high-profile cyber attacks exemplify why organizations need better cyber defenses. Cyber threats are hard to accurately predict because attackers usually try to mask their traces. However, they often discuss exploits and techniques on hacking forums. The community behavior of the hackers may provide insights into groups' collective malicious activity. We propose a novel approach to predict cyber events using sentiment analysis. We test our approach using cyber attack data from 2 major ...

  11. Technical Aspects of Cyber Kill Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Tarun; Mallari, Rao Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in targeted cyber-attacks has increased the interest of research in the field of cyber security. Such attacks have massive disruptive effects on rganizations, enterprises and governments. Cyber kill chain is a model to describe cyber-attacks so as to develop incident response and analysis capabilities. Cyber kill chain in simple terms is an attack chain, the path that an intruder takes to penetrate information systems over time to execute an attack on the target. This paper broa...

  12. Literature Review on Cyber Security Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENTÜRK, Hakan; ÇİL, Celal Zaim; SAĞIROĞLU, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Severe financial losses incurred by cyber security attacks with increasing complexity and frequency, as well as booming cyber security sector offering variety of products as investment options have led the focus of the research in the field to the economic dimension of cyber security. The need for determination of methods to be used when making cyber security investment decisions under budget constraints have become prominent. In five sections as the cyber security investment strategies, risk...

  13. Report of the 2017 IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern digitized world has led to the emergence of a new paradigm on global information networks and infrastructures known as Cyberspace and the studies of Cybernetics, which bring seamless integration of physical, social and mental spaces. Cyberspace is becoming an integral part of our daily life from learning and entertainment to business and cultural activities. As expected, this whole concept of Cybernetics brings new challenges that need to be tackled. The 2017 IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress (CyberSciTech 2017 provided a forum for researchers to report their research findings and exchange ideas. The congress took place in Orlando, Florida, USA during 6–10 November 2017. Not counting poster papers, the congress accepted over fifty papers that are divided into nine sessions. In this report, we provide an overview of the research contributions of the papers in CyberSciTech 2017.

  14. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Doo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats.

  15. The cyber security threat stops in the boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Tim

    The attitude that 'it won't happen to me' still prevails in the boardrooms of industry when senior executives consider the threat of targeted cyber intrusions. Not much has changed in the commercial world of cyber security over the past few years; hackers are not being challenged to find new ways to steal companies' intellectual property and confidential information. The consequences of even major security breaches seem not to be felt by the leaders of victim companies. Why is this so? Surely IT security practitioners are seeking new ways to detect and prevent targeted intrusions into companies' networks? Are the consequences of targeted intrusions so insignificant that the captains of industry tolerate them? Or do only others feel the pain of their failure? This paper initially explores the failure of cyber security in industry and contends that, while industry leaders should not be alone in accepting responsibility for this failure, they must take the initiative to make life harder for cyber threat actors. They cannot wait for government leadership on policy, strategy or coordination. The paper then suggests some measures that a CEO can adopt to build a new corporate approach to cyber security.

  16. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Doo

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats

  17. Students' perspectives on cyber bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

  18. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  19. Cyber essentials a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Every year, thousands of computer systems in the UK are compromised. The majority fall victim to easily preventable cyber attacks, carried out with tools which are freely available on the Internet.   Cyber Essentials is the UK Government's reaction to the proliferation of these attacks. It requires that organisations put basic security measures in place, enabling them to reliably counter the most common tactics employed by cyber criminals. From 1 October 2014, all suppliers bidding for a range of government ICT contracts - in particu

  20. Cyber-campaigning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    sites and Facebook sites are popular among candidates but other features such as blogs, feeds, newsletter, video uploads, SMS and twitter are used by less than half the candidates. Second, only age and possibly education seem to matter when explaining the uptake of cyber-campaigning. The prominent...... candidates are not significantly more likely to use cyber-campaigning tools and activities. Third, the analysis of the effect of cyber-campaigning shows that the online score has an effect on the inter-party competition for personal votes, but it does not have a significant effect when controlling for other...

  1. Cyber Security: US - Chinese Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Debnárová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with cyber relation of the United States of America and the People's republic of China. The aim of this diploma thesis is to answer the following questions: What kind of cyber threat for the United States does China represent? How is China's cyber strategy characterised? How do USA react on this threat and what are the gaps in this reaction? The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter deals with definition of cyberwarfare and its perception in Chinese...

  2. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  3. Bio-inspiring cyber security and cloud services trends and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Awad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent research in cyber security, and reports how organizations can gain competitive advantages by applying the different security techniques in real-world scenarios. The volume provides reviews of cutting–edge technologies, algorithms, applications and insights for bio-inspiring cyber security-based systems. The book will be a valuable companion and comprehensive reference for both postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who are taking a course in cyber security. The volume is organized in self-contained chapters to provide greatest reading flexibility.  

  4. A smart configuration of computer as a prevention from hacking and cyber espionage

    OpenAIRE

    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    In a modern business world, IT systems are frequently exposed to attacks, business espionage and the other cyber incidents. Many software tools of nowadays got a remote access option to another computer which is suitable for a cyber espionage as well as a hacker's attack monitoring. As one of the most reliable measures here, we would mention a smart configuration of computer which offers a protection from these cyber threats. In this article, we plan to explain the cases that exist in the pra...

  5. Hybrid ports: the role of IoT and Cyber Security in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chiappetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The next future will be played on a cyber level that imposes the need to merge “physical” with “digital in all fields”: phygital will be the future of current world, in many sectors, primarily in the transportation fields. Nowadays ports are doing several investment to provide technical solution to attract freight flows, are they ready to provide an answer to the cyber threat? This paper wish to present an overview of the main implications related to the cyber threats and maritime transports.

  6. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Colleen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Sterbentz, Dane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Wright, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  7. Cyber-Terrorism: Modem Mayhem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    .... The arrival of the information age has created a new menace cyber terrorism. This threat recognizes no boundaries, requires minimal resources to mount an attack, and leaves no human footprint at ground zero...

  8. Cyber security in digitalized nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Kwang Young; Yi, Woo June [KoRTS Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    This paper analyzer the cyber security issues pertaining to networks and general systems, and provides cyber security activity model. For this, the importance of security, and the domestic and international trends of cyber security are surveyed in order to introduce the strategies and countermeasures of cyber security which should be interfaced with Quality Assurance (QA) plan Based on the result of cyber security model introduced in this paper, activities for cyber security, work load, necessary resources and process for activities, and duration could be estimated hopefully.

  9. Cyber security in digitalized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Kwang Young; Yi, Woo June

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzer the cyber security issues pertaining to networks and general systems, and provides cyber security activity model. For this, the importance of security, and the domestic and international trends of cyber security are surveyed in order to introduce the strategies and countermeasures of cyber security which should be interfaced with Quality Assurance (QA) plan Based on the result of cyber security model introduced in this paper, activities for cyber security, work load, necessary resources and process for activities, and duration could be estimated hopefully

  10. Cyber attacks, countermeasures, and protection schemes — A state of the art survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shabut, Antesar M.; Lwin, K.T.; Hossain, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of cyber-attacks (fraudulent online activities to acquire users’ sensitive information via email, during online transactions, live video streaming, online gaming and browsing) are launched every day against Internet users across the world. To prevent these attacks, researchers have responded with a number of protection systems. Currently, the methods which cyber-attackers use to conduct attacks is associated with exploiting humans. Such attacks are recorded more frequently than befo...

  11. Preparing South Africa for Cyber Crime and Cyber Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie Grobler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international scope of the Internet, the fast technological advances, the wide reach of technological usage and the increase in cyber-attacks require the South African administrative and legislative system to both intersect largely with the application and implementation of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any lagging administrative and legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive and enforceable treaties facilitating international cooperation with regard to cyber defense. The result is that many developing countries in particular, are either not properly aware, not well prepared, or adequately protected by both knowledge and legislation, in the event of a cyber-attack on a national level. Even if these countries realize the threats, the time to react is of such a long nature due to consultation and legislative processes, that the legal systems provide little support to ensure timeous and necessary counter-measures. This article will address this problem by looking at the impact of technological revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa at present does not have a coordinated approach in dealing with Cybercrime and does not have a comprehensive Cyber defense strategy in place. The structures that have been established to deal with Cyber security issues are inadequate to holistically deal with these issues. The development of interventions to address cybercrime requires a partnership between business, government and civil society. This article will provide an approach to

  12. Cyber bullying: Child and youth spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2017-01-01

    Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth...

  13. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    awareness (Endsley, 1995), and thus stands a good chance of benefiting from similar study. It should be noted that cyber situation awareness as a...models of the environment, divided across multiple types of cyber operations (Tyworth, Giacobe, Mancuso, McNeese, & Hall, 2013). Given the... Attention Switching in Cyber Security Dr. Christopher Wickens Colorado State University Cyber-security analysts at whatever level they serve

  14. Insurability of Cyber Risk: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biener, Christian; Eling, Martin; Wirfs, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequacy of insurance for managing cyber risk. To this end, we extract 994 cases of cyber losses from an operational risk database and analyse their statistical properties. Based on the empirical results and recent literature, we investigate the insurability of cyber risk by systematically reviewing the set of criteria introduced by Berliner (1982). Our findings emphasise the distinct characteristics of cyber risks compared with other operational risks and bring to li...

  15. Cyber operations as nuclear counterproliferation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Roscini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent malware that allegedly targeted Iran’s nuclear programme, this article discusses the legality of inter-state cyber operations as measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons approaching the problem from the perspective of the law of State responsibility, in particular the circumstances precluding wrongfulness. After examining the role that cyber attacks and cyber exploitation can play in preventing nuclear proliferation, the article explores whether cyber operat...

  16. Comparing models of offensive cyber operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grant, T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available would be needed by a Cyber Security Operations Centre in order to perform offensive cyber operations?". The analysis was performed, using as a springboard seven models of cyber-attack, and resulted in the development of what is described as a canonical...

  17. 75 FR 26171 - Cyber Security Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Internet users rely are becoming increasingly susceptible to operator error and malicious cyber attack. For... susceptibility to operator error and malicious cyber attack, Federal entities, frequently in cooperation with the... transfers from cyber threats, such as espionage, disruption, and denial of service attacks. Specifically...

  18. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  19. Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Gadalla, Tahany; Daciuk, Joanne; Solomon, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Little research has been conducted that comprehensively examines cyber bullying with a large and diverse sample. The present study examines the prevalence, impact, and differential experience of cyber bullying among a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students (N = 2,186) from a large urban center. The survey examined technology use, cyber bullying behaviors, and the psychosocial impact of bullying and being bullied. About half (49.5%) of students indicated they had been bullied online and 33.7% indicated they had bullied others online. Most bullying was perpetrated by and to friends and participants generally did not tell anyone about the bullying. Participants reported feeling angry, sad, and depressed after being bullied online. Participants bullied others online because it made them feel as though they were funny, popular, and powerful, although many indicated feeling guilty afterward. Greater attention is required to understand and reduce cyber bullying within children's social worlds and with the support of educators and parents.

  20. Generating realistic environments for cyber operations development, testing, and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Murphy, John P.

    2012-06-01

    Training eective cyber operatives requires realistic network environments that incorporate the structural and social complexities representative of the real world. Network trac generators facilitate repeatable experiments for the development, training and testing of cyber operations. However, current network trac generators, ranging from simple load testers to complex frameworks, fail to capture the realism inherent in actual environments. In order to improve the realism of network trac generated by these systems, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the level of realism in generated trac with respect to the environment being mimicked. We categorize realism measures into statistical, content, and behavioral measurements, and propose various metrics that can be applied at each level to indicate how eectively the generated trac mimics the real world.

  1. Cyber-activism and Waves of Communication Agitation: Ethnographic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Aguilar-Forero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present the results of a multi-sited, collaborative and experimental ethnographic study that took place between 2012 and 2014. It was focused the communication practices of the organization Sons and Daughters for Identity and Justice and Against Forgetting and Silence (H.I.J.O.S. in Spanish. In particular, the analysis in this article focuses on the characteristics of the cyber activism of the Bogota based chapter of H.I.J.O.S. as an example of the politicized appropriation of distinctive online platforms by this group to share content, coordinate activities and for the resolution and transformation of internal conflicts. The analysis, developed in dialogue with key concepts from the anthropology of virtual worlds, attempts to promote reflection on the necessary displacements and the challenges of ethnographic fieldwork, in the context of the study of cyber activism in the contemporary world.

  2. Preparing for the Cyber Battleground of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    market . 23. Cade Metz, “Mavericks Invent Future Internet Where Cisco Is Meaningless,” Wired, 16 April 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/04/nicira/; and...growing due to the cyberspace domain’s exponential nature, the trajectory of market forces in the civilian world, and the strategic integration by...consumers also seem to not yet be dissuaded by security concerns. Market -Driven Cyber Dependency These characteristics and conditions present a paradox

  3. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  4. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  5. Legal Issues in Cyber Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    Imagine this scenario: Two states are in armed conflict with each other. In order to gain an advantage, one side launches a cyber-attack against the opponent’s computer network. The malicious malware paralyze the military computer network, as intended, but the malware spreads into the civilian...... system with physical damage to follow. This can happen and the natural question arises: What must be considered lawful targeting according to the international humanitarian law in cyber warfare? What steps must an attacker take to minimize the damage done to unlawful targets when conducting an offensive...... operation? How can the attacker separate military targets from civilian targets in cyber space? This paper addresses these questions and argues that a network (civilian or military) consist of several software components and that it is the individual components that is the target. If the components are used...

  6. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  7. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  8. Lecture 13: Control System Cyber Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Today, the industralized world lives in symbiosis with control systems: it depends on power distribution, oil production, public transport, automatic production lines. While the convenience is at hand, still too many control systems are designed without any security in mind, lack basic security protections, and are not even robust enough to withstand basic attacks. The Stuxnet worm attacking Siemens PLCs in 2010 was another close call. Attackers currently enjoy hacking control systems, and aim to switch lights off. This presentation shall recap the current situation and outline why the presenter is still waiting for a change in paradigm. Stefan Lüders, PhD, graduated from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and joined CERN in 2002. Being initially developer of a common safety system used in all four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, he gathered expertise in cyber-security issues of control systems. Consequently in 2004, he took over responsibilities in securing CERN's accelerator and...

  9. Security analysis of cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, Cyber-Physical System (CPS) has become an important research direction of academic circles and scientific and technological circles at home and abroad, is considered to be following the third wave of world information technology after the computer, the Internet. PS is a multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, deep integration of open systems, Involving the computer, communication, control and other disciplines of knowledge. As the various disciplines in the research theory and methods are significantly different, so the application of CPS has brought great challenges. This paper introduces the definition and characteristics of CPS, analyzes the current situation of CPS, analyzes the security threats faced by CPS, and gives the security solution for security threats. It also discusses CPS-specific security technology, to promote the healthy development of CPS in information security.

  10. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach...

  11. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  12. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  13. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach. ...

  14. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  15. CyberArts Showcase features artistic exploration of CAVE technology, live web cast

    OpenAIRE

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Experience a 21st-century exploration of the place where art and science/technology meet, where reality and cyber worlds collide. The CyberArts Showcase, an innovative, virtual art museum of student works that uses technology to create inventive, interactive worlds of digital art, will be held from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. on Friday, April 15, at Torgersen Hall on Virginia Tech's campus. Roberto Bocci, multimedia artist and professor of digital art at Georgetown University will open the event.

  16. Cyber bullying: Child and youth spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth’s spirituality may be affected when they are cyber bullied. This article discusses the accumulative results from different South African institutes that have researched the cyber bullying effects on children and adolescents. These results point to the spiritual effects that children and youth may experience as a result of cyber bullying. This article proposes that spirituality may prevent cyber bullying and even help children and youth heal from the trauma caused by cyber bullying. This article contributes in starting a conversation that may result in more specific research being done on how the spiritual lives of children and adolescents may be affected through the trauma caused by cyber bullying.

  17. IAEA puts cyber security in focus for nuclear facilities in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2015-01-01

    Later in 2015 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will convene a special conference to discuss computer security, in the wake of cyber attacks on global financial institutions and government agencies that were increasingly in the news. According to the IAEA, the prevalence of IT security incidents in recent years involving the Stuxnet malware 'demonstrated that nuclear facilities can be susceptible to cyber attack'. The IAEA said this and other events have significantly raised global concerns over potential vulnerabilities and the possibility of a cyber attack, or a joint cyber-physical attack, that could impact on nuclear security. The IAEA has correctly identified that the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, 'continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber attack'. The agency's Vienna conference, to be held in June, will review emerging trends in computer security and areas that may still need to be addressed. The meeting follows a declaration of ministers of IAEA member states in 2013 that called on the agency to help raise awareness of the growing threat of cyber attacks and their potential impact on nuclear security. The conference is being organised 'to foster international cooperation in computer security as an essential element of nuclear security', the IAEA said. Details of the IAEA's 'International Conference on Computer Security in a Nuclear World: Expert Discussion and Exchange' are on the 'meetings' section of the agency's web site.

  18. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  19. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  20. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  1. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  2. Cyber security issues in online games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, online gaming has become a way of entertainment for many young people in the modern era. However, in recent years, cyber security issues in online games have emerged in an endless stream, which have also caused great attention of many game operators. Common cyber security problems in the game include information disclosure and cyber-attacks. These problems will directly or indirectly cause economic losses to gamers. Many gaming companies are enhancing the stability and security of their network or gaming systems in order to enhance the gaming user experience. This article has carried out the research of the cyber security issues in online games by introducing the background and some common cyber security threats, and by proposing the latent solution. Finally, it speculates the future research direction of the cyber security issues of online games in the hope of providing feasible solution and useful information for game operators.

  3. "Making Kind Cool": Parents' Suggestions for Preventing Cyber Bullying and Fostering Cyber Kindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior. Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…

  4. For the Common Defense of Cyberspace: Implications of a US Cyber Militia on Department of Defense Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    the Common Defense of Cyberspace: Implications of a US Cyber Militia on Department of Defense Cyber Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...20130423/ NEWS/304230016/Navy-wants-1-000-more-cyber-warriors. 33 Edward Cardon , “Army Cyber Capabilities” (Lecture, Advanced Operations Course...Finally, once a cyber security professional is trained, many argue, to include the head of Army’s Cyber Command, Lieutenant General Edward Cardon

  5. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  6. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism. PMID:28366962

  7. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Al Neyadi; Alia Al Kaabi; Laila Al Kaabi; Mariam Al Ghufli; Maitha Al Shamsi; Dr. Muhammad Khan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being ...

  8. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    reverse engineering, security, malware , blackhat) were labeled as cyber and posts on non- cyber topics (e.g., astronomy, electronics, beer, biology, mu...firewall, hash, infect, inject, install, key, malicious, malware , network, obfuscate, overflow, packet, password, payload, request, risk, scan, script...cyber vulnerabilities (e.g., malware , overflow, attack). The keyword system lacked the keywords used in Heartbleed discussions, and thus suffered from

  9. Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to Secure Cyberspace (NSSC) is as it lists three strategic objectives:4 1) Prevent cyber attacks against America’s critical infrastructures; 2...House, “National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace,” (Washington, DC: The White House, 2003) Trey Herr, "PrEP: A framework for malware & cyber weapons...David Kuipers and Mark Fabro. “Control Systems Cyber Security : Defense in Depth Strategies,” [United States: Department of Energy, 2006]: 4

  10. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  11. Cyber-Warfare: Jus Post Bellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    average data breach continues to increase, according to a report from Ponemon Institute (2014); there was a 201 dollars associated cost per...How much does cyber/ data breach insurance cost? Data Breach Insurance. Retrieved from http://databreachinsurancequote.com/cyber- insurance/cyber...insurance- data - breach -insurance-premiums/ Maxwell, D. (2013, Apr 11). What to make of North Korea. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com

  12. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  13. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  14. Dampak Media Sosial dalam Cyber Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Hidajat, Monica; Adam, Angry Ronald; Danaparamita, Muhammad; Suhendrik, Suhendrik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to review two journals about social media effect for cyberbullying. First Journal is written by Eddie Fisher with the title From Cyber Bullying to Cyber Coping: The Misuse of Mobile Technology and Social Media and Their Effects on People’s Lives and the second journal is written by ReginaldH. Gonzales with the title Social Media as a Channel and its Implications on Cyber Bullying. First Journal focus on condition and cyber bullying state by interview respondent...

  15. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  16. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  17. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and Mathematics at the Royal Institute of Tech- nology, Stockholm, Sweden; and Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg , Germany . viii ix SUMMARY...and analysis to influence policy debate and bridge the gap between military and academia. The Center for Strategic Leadership and Development...provide an overview of four different national approaches to cyber defense: those of Nor- way, Estonia, Germany , and Sweden. While provid- ing a

  18. Cyber Infrastructure Protection. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    danger of contamination across these systems has grown. Second, cyber attacks have become less eco- nomically or politically neutral than in previous... food for thought on how this norm has shaped our ongoing collective treatment of it going forward. Through the enactment of FOIA in 1966, the push to... Malaysia and other parts of Southeast Asia, where there are fewer legal risks for the buyers, sellers, and operators.35 THEORIZING THE STRUCTURAL

  19. Modeling Cyber Physical War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    games share similar constructs. We also provide a game-theoretic approach to mathematically analyze attacker and defender strategies in cyber war...Military Practice of Course-of-Action Analysis 4 2. Game-Theoretic Method 7 2.1 Mathematical Model 7 2.2 Strategy Selection 10 2.2.1 Pure...officers, hundreds of combat and support vehicles, helicopters, sophisticated intelligence and communication equipment and specialists , artillery and

  20. Building An Adaptive Cyber Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    until other structures can be brought to bear .40 Policymakers have been deliberately unclear as to what threshold is necessary to authorize a military...partners AU/ACSC/SMITH, FI/AY16 to bring all available resources to bear against domestic cyber threats and their perpetrators.57 FBI led and...Apr 2016). 58 Mandiant, APT1. 59 Crowdstrike Global Intelligence Team, Crowdstrike Intelligence Report: Putter Panda . https://www.google.com/url?sa=t

  1. Cyber Vigilance: The Human Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    2013): 502. 1~ Andy Field. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (Sage Publications. 2009). l<· Thomas E. Nygren. ··Psychometric Properties of...based solely on computer network analysis." Though the algorithms and analytic techniques used in these systems vary considerably, most intrusion...IDS. cyber-defenders use a variety of tools, including hand-sorting, to discriminate attacks from false positives. T hi s effort involves search

  2. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  3. Using Robots and Contract Learning to Teach Cyber-Physical Systems to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, T. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are a genre of networked real-time systems that monitor and control the physical world. Examples include unmanned aerial vehicles and industrial robotics. The experts who develop these complex systems are retiring much faster than universities are graduating engineering majors. As a result, it is important for undergraduates…

  4. Grid Manufacturing : A Cyber-Physical Approach with Autonomous Products and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Each period of time has its own revolution, and with each revolution comes its own organisational model. We find ourselves in the 4th industrial revolution, where the internet of things connects autonomous embedded systems that live both in the virtual 'cyber' world, and in the real 'physical'

  5. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  6. Learning Management Platform for CyberCIEGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    CLE is a platform that allows academic and research collaboration and it is built on open pedagogy and open standard [16]. In those situations...C. Irvine, “Active learning with the CyberCIEGE video game,” in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test, 2011

  7. Cyber-Cops: Angels on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Curtis Sliwa, founder of the Guardian Angels citizens' safety patrol, discusses the development of the Cyber Angels, an online citizens' patrol group that monitors Internet communication. Cyber Angels voluntarily look for and report any illegal activity conducted over the Internet, such as pyramid scams, transmission of stolen credit card and…

  8. Maritime Cyber Security University Research: Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Cyber Security University Research Phase I - Final Report...Appendices Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. May 2016 Report No. CG-D-07-16 Maritime ...Macesker Executive Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security

  9. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rise of cyber-attacks has become a growing challenge. Cyber space has become a battleground of threats ranging from malware to phishing, spam and password theft. Cybersecurity solutions mainly try to take a defensive stance and build a...

  10. Self-Development for Cyber Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT), Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Measurement and...from career fields with varying degrees of intersection with cyber warfare including: signals intelligence , all source intelligence , and...leverage them in support of cyber warfare operations. All Source Intelligence Ability to request, analyze, synthesize, and fuse intelligence from

  11. Strategies for Resolving the Cyber Attribution Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    involvement in cyber espionage and Internet censorship . The United States’ policies for responding to cyber events are still being developed...operational arm, although the United States does not currently support it.45 The IMPACT Global Response Centre, based in Cyberjaya, Malaysia , was set up

  12. Developing Cyber Foraging Applications for Portable Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Locusts cyber foraging framework. Cyber foraging is the opportunistic use of computing resources available in the nearby environment, and using such resources thus fall into the category of distributed computing. Furthermore, for the resources to be used efficiently, paral...

  13. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  14. Ten national cyber security strategies: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Besseling, K. van; Spoelstra, M.; Graaf, P. de

    2013-01-01

    A number of nations developed and published a national cyber security strategy (NCSS). Most of them were published in the period 2009 - 2011. Despite the fact that each of these NCSS intends to address the cyber security threat, large differences exist between the NCSS approaches. This paper

  15. Kanttekeningen bij de Europese cyber security strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Smulders, A.C.M.; Kamphuis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In februari presenteerde de Europese Unie de Europese cyber security strategie en begeleidende concept richtlijn. The Hague Security Delta (HSD) is verheugd dat de Nederlandse Nationale Cyber Security Strategie nu ook op Europees niveau navolging krijgt. Toch plaatsen we een paar kantekeningen.

  16. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  17. Cybercom Chief Details U.S. Cyber Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Security Robots Lasers RSS Feed Cybercom Chief Details U.S. Cyber Threats - December 2, 2014 Navy Adm . Rogers, the commander of U.S. Cyber Command, director of the National Security Agency and chief of the Framework for Cyber Sharing But before Cybercom can help commercial companies deal with cyber criminals and

  18. Cyber-Imageability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferracina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing an environment triggers a two-way exchange between the environment and its observer, a process that bridges materiality and immateriality by creating what Kevin Lynch calls an “environmental image”. Such an image consists in a “generalized mental picture of the exterior physical world that is held by an individual” and it is critical in contributing to the subject’s ability to engage his/her environment, from orientation and way-finding to social interaction and emotional mooring.

  19. Cyber-Imageability

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Ferracina

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing an environment triggers a two-way exchange between the environment and its observer, a process that bridges materiality and immateriality by creating what Kevin Lynch calls an “environmental image”. Such an image consists in a “generalized mental picture of the exterior physical world that is held by an individual” and it is critical in contributing to the subject’s ability to engage his/her environment, from orientation and way-finding to social interaction and emotional mooring...

  20. Cyber-angel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Serafin, Stefania

    2004-01-01

    or divinities). They may take different shapes and attributes in different cultures, but they have in common some refined abilities to read and perceive informations from the subtle world:Among other, they are able to read in peoples mind and see their aura not visible to ordinary sightsas well as their etheric...... collective unconsciousness.As such, it is possible to present the installation in many different places with various spiritual belief by only changing some superficial attributes.Originally, the installation is meant to be produced and shown in Petersborg and located at a pedestrian bridge not to crowded....

  1. Developing a Conceptual Framwork for Modeling Deviant Cyber Flash Mob: A Socio-Computational Approach Leveraging Hypergraph Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-khateeb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a Flash Mob (FM a group of people get together in the physical world perform an unpredicted act and disperse quickly. Cyber Flash Mob (CFM is the cyber manifestation of flash mob coordinated primarily using social media. Deviant Cyber Flash Mob (or, DCFM is a special case of CFM, which is categorized as the new face of transnational crime organizations (TCOs. The DCFM phenomenon can be considered as a form of a cyber-collective action that is defined as an action aiming to improve group's conditions (such as, status or power. In this paper, we conduct a conceptual analysis of the DCFMs and model the factors that lead to success or failure with groundings in collective action and collective identity formation theories. Mathematical constructs of hypergraph are leveraged to represent the complex relations observed in the DCFM social networks. The model's efficacy is demonstrated through a test scenario.

  2. Dampak Media Sosial dalam Cyber Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hidajat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to review two journals about social media effect for cyberbullying. First Journal is written by Eddie Fisher with the title From Cyber Bullying to Cyber Coping: The Misuse of Mobile Technology and Social Media and Their Effects on People’s Lives and the second journal is written by ReginaldH. Gonzales with the title Social Media as a Channel and its Implications on Cyber Bullying. First Journal focus on condition and cyber bullying state by interview respondents in law terms. Second journal focus on handling cyber bullying case at social media. Social medial cause few cases of cyberbullying increasing because of its characteristic that possible to spread information easily and fast. Socialization proper use of social media needs to be done to improve public awareness about the dangers of misuse of social media.

  3. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  4. China's Cyber Initiatives Counter International Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior to its historic 2015 “no hack” pact for commercial advantage with the United States, Beijing has been engaged drafting and passing legislation, most with specific cyber components, to enhance its security posture while protecting its economic interests. This approach is in stark contrast to United States efforts that have demonstrated a focus on “acting globally, thinking locally” philosophy wherein most of its cyber efforts have been outwardly facing and are distinct from other security considerations. This paper suggests that by strengthening its domestic front with a legal framework, Beijing is preparing itself to counter any foreign initiative contrary to Beijing’s plans (e.g., cyber norms of behavior, cyber sanctions, etc. by being able to exert legal measures against foreign interests in country, thereby preserving its cyber sovereignty.

  5. Us and them: identifying cyber hate on Twitter across multiple protected characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Burnap, Peter; Williams, Matthew Leighton

    2016-01-01

    Hateful and antagonistic content published and propagated via the World Wide Web\\ud has the potential to cause harm and suffering on an individual basis, and lead to\\ud social tension and disorder beyond cyber space. Despite new legislation aimed at\\ud prosecuting those who misuse new forms of communication to post threatening,\\ud harassing, or grossly offensive language - or cyber hate - and the fact large social\\ud media companies have committed to protecting their users from harm, it goes ...

  6. Cyber-Physical Architecture Assisted by Programmable Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Hernan, Jose; Sahay, Rishikesh; De Cicco, Luca; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    2018-01-01

    Cyber-physical technologies are prone to attacks, in addition to faults and failures. The issue of protecting cyber-physical systems should be tackled by jointly addressing security at both cyber and physical domains, in order to promptly detect and mitigate cyber-physical threats. Towards this end, this letter proposes a new architecture combining control-theoretic solutions together with programmable networking techniques to jointly handle crucial threats to cyber-physical systems. The arch...

  7. Cyber risk: a big challenge in developed and emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Maria Cristina; Brogi, Marina; Gandolfi, Gino

    2016-01-01

    The dependence on cyberspace has considerably increased over time, as such, people look at risk associated with cyber technology. This chapter focuses on the cyber risk issue. The authors aim to describe the global state of the art and point out the potential negative consequences of this type of systemic risk. Cyber risk increasingly affects both public and private institutions. Some of the risks that entities face are the following: computer security breaches, cyber theft, cyber terrorism, ...

  8. Cyber Operations Between Russia and Ukraine During Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pavlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When the Ukraine crisis started in 2013, discussions about possible cyber warfare appeared. Debates about the usage of cyber tools in war conflicts have already been considered for the last few years and conflicts where actors possess these capacities emphasize the importance to analyze this phenomenon. This article examines cyber warfare between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukraine crisis and aims to analyze incidents in the cyber domain with considerations cyber war on a theoretical background.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Based Anomaly Detection for Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jason Wright; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Resiliency and security in critical infrastructure control systems in the modern world of cyber terrorism constitute a relevant concern. Developing a network security system specifically tailored to the requirements of such critical assets is of a primary importance. This paper proposes a novel learning algorithm for anomaly based network security cyber sensor together with its hardware implementation. The presented learning algorithm constructs a fuzzy logic rule based model of normal network behavior. Individual fuzzy rules are extracted directly from the stream of incoming packets using an online clustering algorithm. This learning algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental test-bed mimicking the environment of a critical infrastructure control system.

  10. Development of Cyber Security Scheme for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. B.; Choi, Y. S.; Cho, J. W. (and others)

    2009-12-15

    Nuclear I and C system is considered to be safe on the cyber threat because of the use of exclusive communication network and operating system. But the trend of open architecture and standardization on the equipment of I and C system, it is not safe on the cyber threat such as hacking and cyber terror. It is needed to protect nuclear I and C systems by the cyber attack, Countermeasures of the cyber security is required a lot of time and endeavors because there are many factors on the environment of cyber security and cyber attack. For the nuclear cyber security, we should make structural framework and eliminate cyber vulnerabilities by the analysis of cyber environment. The framework for the cyber security includes planning, embodiment of security technologies, security audit, security management and security maintenance. In this report, we examined IT security technology and the trend of standard in the industrial I and C system, and proposed a method to construct cyber security for the nuclear power plant. We analysed the threat of cyber security, vulnerability and cyber risk, then we present a method for the cyber security structure and the countermeasures.

  11. Development of Cyber Security Scheme for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. B.; Choi, Y. S.; Cho, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear I and C system is considered to be safe on the cyber threat because of the use of exclusive communication network and operating system. But the trend of open architecture and standardization on the equipment of I and C system, it is not safe on the cyber threat such as hacking and cyber terror. It is needed to protect nuclear I and C systems by the cyber attack, Countermeasures of the cyber security is required a lot of time and endeavors because there are many factors on the environment of cyber security and cyber attack. For the nuclear cyber security, we should make structural framework and eliminate cyber vulnerabilities by the analysis of cyber environment. The framework for the cyber security includes planning, embodiment of security technologies, security audit, security management and security maintenance. In this report, we examined IT security technology and the trend of standard in the industrial I and C system, and proposed a method to construct cyber security for the nuclear power plant. We analysed the threat of cyber security, vulnerability and cyber risk, then we present a method for the cyber security structure and the countermeasures

  12. What kind of cyber security? Theorising cyber security and mapping approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Fichtner

    2018-01-01

    Building on conceptual work on security and cyber security, the paper explores how different approaches to cyber security are constructed. It outlines structural components and presents four common approaches. Each of them suggests a different role for the actors involved and is motivated and justified by different values such as privacy, economic order and national security. When a cyber security policy or initiative is chosen by policymakers, the analysis of the underlying approach enhances...

  13. Anonymous As a Cyber Tribe: A New Model for Complex, Non-State Cyber Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    personas. Only then can cyber strategists exercise the required amount of cultural relativism needed to influence complex, and sometimes disturbing...that runs counter to their professional ethic ? When cyber tribes employ atrocity to create cultural barriers, how will planners remain focused on...as a cyber actor’s motivation? Meeting these challenges requires new levels of cultural relativism —the understanding of a “culture or a cultural

  14. SCADA system vulnerabilities to cyber attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W. T. [Cyber Security Consulting (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    The susceptibility to terrorist attacks of computer-based supervisory control (SCADA) systems that are used to monitor and control water distribution systems, oil and gas pipelines and the electrical grid, is discussed. The discussion includes ways in which SCADA systems may be attacked and remedial actions that may be taken to reduce or eliminate the possibility of such attacks. Attacks may take the form of causing the system to generate false data to divert attention from impending system disasters, or commandeer the system to seriously disable it, or cause damage to the process or equipment being controlled by sending improper control commands. SCADA systems are also vulnerable to internal threats, either from an accidental action that results in damage, or an intentional action, as for example by a disgruntled employee, or ex-employee, usually by way of reprogramming an RTU or PLC by accessing the polling/communications circuit. Recent SCADA systems are much more susceptible to concerted cyber attacks because of the adoption of IT technologies and standards into the design of such systems. (Older systems are more likely to be unique designs, hence less susceptible to attack). As far as protection of SCADA systems is concerned, there are no technologies that would prevent a technologically sophisticated terrorist or disgruntled employee from doing major damage to the system, however, the IT world has developed a range of technologies for the protection of IT assets, and many of these same technologies can also be used to safeguard modern SCADA systems.

  15. Behavioural Profiling in Cyber-Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perno, Jason; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    Computer systems have evolved from standalone systems, over networked systems, to cyber-physical systems. In all stages, human operators have been essential for the functioning of the system and for understanding system messages. Recent trends make human actors an even more central part of computer...... systems, resulting in what we call "cyber-social systems". In cyber-social systems, human actors and their interaction with a system are essential for the state of the system and its functioning. Both the system's operation and the human's operating it are based on an assumption of each other's behaviour...

  16. Perceptions of Popularity-Related Behaviors in the Cyber Context: Relations to Cyber Social Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Wright

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledging that adolescents are active users of electronic technology, little is known about their perceptions concerning how such technologies might be used to promote their social standing among their peer group and whether these perceptions relate to their cyber social behaviors (i.e., cyber aggression perpetration, cyber prosocial behavior. To address this gap in the literature, the present study included 857 seventh graders (M age: 12.19; 50.8% female from a large Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on face-to-face social behaviors, cyber social behaviors, perceived popularity, social preference, and their perceptions of characteristics and activities related to the cyber context which might be used to promote popularity. Findings revealed four activities and characteristics used to improve adolescents’ social standing in the peer group, including antisocial behaviors, sociability, prosocial behaviors, and technology access. Using antisocial behaviors in the cyber context to promote popularity was related to cyber aggression perpetration, while controlling for gender, social preference, and perceived popularity. On the other hand, sociability and prosocial behaviors in the cyber context used to improve popularity as well as technology access were associated with cyber prosocial behavior. A call for additional research is made.

  17. Cyber security level assignment for research reactor digital instrumentation and control system architecture using concept of defense in depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jaek Wan

    2012-01-01

    Due to recent aging of the analog instrumentation of many nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors, the system reliability decreases while maintenance and testing costs increase. In addition, it is difficult to find the substitutable analog equipment s due to obsolescence. Therefore, the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have changed from analog system to digital system due to these facts. With the introduction of digital systems, research reactors are forced to care for the problem of cyber attacks because I and C systems have been digitalized using networks or communication systems. Especially, it is more issued at research reactors due to the accessibility of human resources. In the real world, an IBM researcher has been successful in controlling the software by penetrating a NPPs network in U.S. on July 2008 and acquiring the control right of nuclear facilities after one week. Moreover, the malignant code called 'stuxnet' impaired the nearly 1,000 centrifugal separators in Iran according to an IAEA report. The problem of cyber attacks highlights the important of cyber security, which should be emphasized. Defense.in.depth (DID) is a significant concept for the cyber security to work properly. DID institutes and maintains a hardy program for critical digital asset (CDA) by implementing multiple security boundaries. In this work, we assign cyber security levels to a typical digital I and C system using DID concept. This work is very useful in applying the concept of DID to nuclear industry with respect to cyber security

  18. Cyber security level assignment for research reactor digital instrumentation and control system architecture using concept of defense in depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jaek Wan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Due to recent aging of the analog instrumentation of many nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors, the system reliability decreases while maintenance and testing costs increase. In addition, it is difficult to find the substitutable analog equipment s due to obsolescence. Therefore, the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have changed from analog system to digital system due to these facts. With the introduction of digital systems, research reactors are forced to care for the problem of cyber attacks because I and C systems have been digitalized using networks or communication systems. Especially, it is more issued at research reactors due to the accessibility of human resources. In the real world, an IBM researcher has been successful in controlling the software by penetrating a NPPs network in U.S. on July 2008 and acquiring the control right of nuclear facilities after one week. Moreover, the malignant code called 'stuxnet' impaired the nearly 1,000 centrifugal separators in Iran according to an IAEA report. The problem of cyber attacks highlights the important of cyber security, which should be emphasized. Defense.in.depth (DID) is a significant concept for the cyber security to work properly. DID institutes and maintains a hardy program for critical digital asset (CDA) by implementing multiple security boundaries. In this work, we assign cyber security levels to a typical digital I and C system using DID concept. This work is very useful in applying the concept of DID to nuclear industry with respect to cyber security.

  19. The implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law: analysing the distinction between cybercrime, cyber attack, and cyber warfare in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Faga, Hemen Philip

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL) with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and t...

  20. Closing the Cyber Gap: Integrating Cross-Government Cyber Capabilities to Support the DHS Cyber Security Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    identifies and eliminates the actors who seek to target our cyber 152 “2013 Data Breach Investigations Report,” Verizon Enterprise Solutions, accessed...future. 360 “2013 Data Breach Investigations Report,” Verizon Enterprise Solutions, accessed September 29, 2013, http://www.verizonenterprise.com/DBIR...critical system owners and worldwide cyber security teams.382 381 Data Breach on the Rise: Protecting Personal Information from Harm: Hearing

  1. Development of a cyber security risk model using Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jinsoo; Son, Hanseong; Khalil ur, Rahman; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Cyber security is an emerging safety issue in the nuclear industry, especially in the instrumentation and control (I and C) field. To address the cyber security issue systematically, a model that can be used for cyber security evaluation is required. In this work, a cyber security risk model based on a Bayesian network is suggested for evaluating cyber security for nuclear facilities in an integrated manner. The suggested model enables the evaluation of both the procedural and technical aspects of cyber security, which are related to compliance with regulatory guides and system architectures, respectively. The activity-quality analysis model was developed to evaluate how well people and/or organizations comply with the regulatory guidance associated with cyber security. The architecture analysis model was created to evaluate vulnerabilities and mitigation measures with respect to their effect on cyber security. The two models are integrated into a single model, which is called the cyber security risk model, so that cyber security can be evaluated from procedural and technical viewpoints at the same time. The model was applied to evaluate the cyber security risk of the reactor protection system (RPS) of a research reactor and to demonstrate its usefulness and feasibility. - Highlights: • We developed the cyber security risk model can be find the weak point of cyber security integrated two cyber analysis models by using Bayesian Network. • One is the activity-quality model signifies how people and/or organization comply with the cyber security regulatory guide. • Other is the architecture model represents the probability of cyber-attack on RPS architecture. • The cyber security risk model can provide evidence that is able to determine the key element for cyber security for RPS of a research reactor

  2. Information fusion for cyber-security analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Karabatis, George; Aleroud, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights several gaps that have not been addressed in existing cyber security research. It first discusses the recent attack prediction techniques that utilize one or more aspects of information to create attack prediction models. The second part is dedicated to new trends on information fusion and their applicability to cyber security; in particular, graph data analytics for cyber security, unwanted traffic detection and control based on trust management software defined networks, security in wireless sensor networks & their applications, and emerging trends in security system design using the concept of social behavioral biometric. The book guides the design of new commercialized tools that can be introduced to improve the accuracy of existing attack prediction models. Furthermore, the book advances the use of Knowledge-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) to complement existing IDS technologies. It is aimed towards cyber security researchers. .

  3. HYBRID THREATS, CYBER WARFARE AND NATO'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bachmans

    cyber'1 and kinetic responses to international terrorism have increasingly .... joint action and coordination is highlighted by the fact that the government in the scenario did ...... Qaeda), that man should live in the same technological conditions as.

  4. CYBER-DIGITAL PLAGIARISM: AN AWARENESS APPROACH*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lehobye

    Plagiarism, as opposed to cyber-ethics, is the practice of claiming or implying original authorship, in whole or in part, by incorporating ... the "Borrowing, purchasing, or otherwise obtaining work composed by someone else and submitting it ...

  5. Realizing Scientific Methods for Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2012-07-18

    There is little doubt among cyber security researchers about the lack of scientic rigor that underlies much of the liter-ature. The issues are manifold and are well documented. Further complicating the problem is insufficient scientic methods to address these issues. Cyber security melds man and machine: we inherit the challenges of computer science, sociology, psychology, and many other elds and create new ones where these elds interface. In this paper we detail a partial list of challenges imposed by rigorous science and survey how other sciences have tackled them, in the hope of applying a similar approach to cyber security science. This paper is by no means comprehensive: its purpose is to foster discussion in the community on how we can improve rigor in cyber security science.

  6. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  7. Evaluating cyber security awareness in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available broadband capability and knowledge transfer within rural communities. To evaluate the current level of cyber security awareness, a series of exploratory surveys have been distributed to less technologically resourced entities in rural and deep rural...

  8. International co-operation in cyber resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielstra, A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Duijnhoven, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    All stakeholders in cyber security and resilience have obligations; it is time to end the period of loose, non-binding collaborations, say Annemarie Zielstra, Eric Luiijf and Hanneke Duijnhoven, in this call for nations to work more closely together

  9. APPROACH TO CYBER SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Ibikunle; Odunayo Eweniyi

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. Cyber-crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Over the past decades, the growth of the internet and its use afforded everyone this opportunity. Google, Wikipedia and Bing to mention a few, give detaile...

  10. TCIA Secure Cyber Critical Infrastructure Modernization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia Labs) tribal cyber infrastructure assurance initiative was developed in response to growing national cybersecurity concerns in the the sixteen Department of Homeland Security (DHS) defined critical infrastructure sectors1. Technical assistance is provided for the secure modernization of critical infrastructure and key resources from a cyber-ecosystem perspective with an emphasis on enhanced security, resilience, and protection. Our purpose is to address national critical infrastructure challenges as a shared responsibility.

  11. Automated Big Traffic Analytics for Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yuantian; Ruan, Zichan; Pan, Lei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Xiang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Network traffic analytics technology is a cornerstone for cyber security systems. We demonstrate its use through three popular and contemporary cyber security applications in intrusion detection, malware analysis and botnet detection. However, automated traffic analytics faces the challenges raised by big traffic data. In terms of big data's three characteristics --- volume, variety and velocity, we review three state of the art techniques to mitigate the key challenges including real-time tr...

  12. The Rise of the Autonomous Cyber Criminal

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Are we on the threshold of a new evolution of cyber crime? There has been numerous discussions and SciFi themes that have centered around truly autonomous online criminal behavior. This talk will look at the myths and realities surrounding the potential for automated systems to turn to the "dark side" and become uber cyber criminals, and what if anything we can do to prevent or at least detect this type of criminal behavior.

  13. Critical infrastructure cyber-security risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridopoulos, T.; Maraslis, K.; Tryfonas, T.; Oikonomou, G.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional IT cyber-security risk management methods are based on the evaluation of risks calculated as the likelihood of cyber-security incidents occurring. However, these probabilities are usually estimations or guesses based on past experience and incomplete data. Incorrect estimations can lead to errors in the evaluation of risks that can ultimately affect the protection of the system. This issue is also transferred to methods used in Industrial Control Systems (ICSs), as they are mainly...

  14. Cyber security in ports: Business as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Moerel, Lokke; Dezeure, Freddy

    2017-01-01

    Our paper summarizes the risks and provides concrete and pragmatic proposals to increase substantially the cyber maturity and resilience in the ports by organizing training and awareness raising, fostering cooperation and information exchange both between the stakeholders in the ports and across the ports and integrating the cyber risk into the physical security risk management processes and structures already in place within the ports. This also involves a higher degree of oversight by the P...

  15. National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Soldiers. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) commander, Lieutenant General Edward Cardon stated that Guard will begin to build combat power with...90 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review, 15. 91 Ibid. 92 Edward C. Cardon , "ARMY.MIL, The Official Homepage of the United

  16. Commercial and Industrial Cyber Espionage in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Argaman; Gabi Siboni

    2014-01-01

    Cyberspace is especially suited to the theft of business information and to espionage. The accessibility of information, along with the ability to remain anonymous and cover one’s tracks, allows various entities to engage in the theft of valuable information, an act that can cause major damage. Israel, rich in advanced technology and a leader in innovation-based industries that rely on unique intellectual property, is a prime target for cyber theft and commercial cyber attacks. This article e...

  17. Human organ trafficking in the cyber space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletić Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated growth of the information-communication technology use brought about cyber crime as a new form of crime connected with the misuse of computer network. Human trafficking and human organ trafficking are changing in line with the state-of-art technological achievements i.e. becoming more and more characteristic of cyber space. Passing appropriate regulations at both national and international levels presents an important step in solving the problem of human organ trafficking through Internet.

  18. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  19. IAEA puts cyber security in focus for nuclear facilities in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Later in 2015 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will convene a special conference to discuss computer security, in the wake of cyber attacks on global financial institutions and government agencies that were increasingly in the news. According to the IAEA, the prevalence of IT security incidents in recent years involving the Stuxnet malware 'demonstrated that nuclear facilities can be susceptible to cyber attack'. The IAEA said this and other events have significantly raised global concerns over potential vulnerabilities and the possibility of a cyber attack, or a joint cyber-physical attack, that could impact on nuclear security. The IAEA has correctly identified that the use of computers and other digital electronic equipment in physical protection systems at nuclear facilities, as well as in facility safety systems, instrumentation, information processing and communication, 'continues to grow and presents an ever more likely target for cyber attack'. The agency's Vienna conference, to be held in June, will review emerging trends in computer security and areas that may still need to be addressed. The meeting follows a declaration of ministers of IAEA member states in 2013 that called on the agency to help raise awareness of the growing threat of cyber attacks and their potential impact on nuclear security. The conference is being organised 'to foster international cooperation in computer security as an essential element of nuclear security', the IAEA said. Details of the IAEA's 'International Conference on Computer Security in a Nuclear World: Expert Discussion and Exchange' are on the 'meetings' section of the agency's web site.

  20. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  1. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  2. Intelligent methods for cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Reformat, Marek; Alajlan, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Cyberwarfare has become an important concern for governmental agencies as well businesses of various types.  This timely volume, with contributions from some of the internationally recognized, leaders in the field, gives readers a glimpse of the new and emerging ways that Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning methods can be applied to address problems related to cyberwarfare. The book includes a number of chapters that can be conceptually divided into three topics: chapters describing different data analysis methodologies with their applications to cyberwarfare, chapters presenting a number of intrusion detection approaches, and chapters dedicated to analysis of possible cyber attacks and their impact. The book provides the readers with a variety of methods and techniques, based on computational intelligence, which can be applied to the broad domain of cyberwarfare.

  3. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: an approach to South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives...

  4. A Social Cyber Contract Theory Model for Understanding National Cyber Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierens, R.H.; Klievink, A.J.; van den Berg, J.

    2017-01-01

    Today’s increasing connectivity creates cyber risks at personal, organizational up to societal level. Societal cyber risks require mitigation by all kinds of actors where government should take the lead due to its responsibility to protect its citizens. Since no formal global governance exists, the

  5. Changing the face of cyber warfare with international cyber defense collaboration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . The result is that many countries are not properly prepared, nor adequately protected by legislation, in the event of a cyber attack on a national level. This article will address the international cyber defense collaboration problem by looking at the impact...

  6. Cyber Victimization and Perceived Stress: Linkages to Late Adolescents' Cyber Aggression and Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined multiple sources of strain, particular cyber victimization, and perceived stress from parents, peers, and academics, in relation to late adolescents' (ages 16-18; N = 423) cyber aggression, anxiety, and depression, each assessed 1 year later (Time 2). Three-way interactions revealed that the relationship between Time 1…

  7. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    Security of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against malicious cyber attacks is an important yet challenging problem. Since most cyber attacks happen in erratic ways, it is usually intractable to describe and diagnose them systematically. Motivated by such difficulties, this thesis presents a set of theories and algorithms for a cyber-secure architecture of the CPS within the control theoretic perspective. Here, instead of identifying a specific cyber attack model, we are focused on analyzing the system's response during cyber attacks. Firstly, we investigate the detectability of the cyber attacks from the system's behavior under cyber attacks. Specifically, we conduct a study on the vulnerabilities in the CPS's monitoring system against the stealthy cyber attack that is carefully designed to avoid being detected by its detection scheme. After classifying three kinds of cyber attacks according to the attacker's ability to compromise the system, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which such stealthy cyber attacks can be designed to cause the unbounded estimation error while not being detected. Then, the analytical design method of the optimal stealthy cyber attack that maximizes the estimation error is developed. The proposed stealthy cyber attack analysis is demonstrated with illustrative examples on Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system applications. Secondly, in an attempt to study the CPSs' vulnerabilities in more detail, we further discuss a methodology to identify potential cyber threats inherent in the given CPSs and quantify the attack severity accordingly. We then develop an analytical algorithm to test the behavior of the CPS under various cyber attack combinations. Compared to a numerical approach, the analytical algorithm enables the prediction of the most effective cyber attack combinations without computing the severity of all possible attack combinations, thereby greatly reducing the

  8. Cyber Terrorism demands a Global Risks and Threats Strategic Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The world is in the third wave of development, which is digital managed and networked. Information, which creates the knowledge is transferring thorough the Internet by exponential function. The rapid advancement of the computer technology has a great influence over the development of the critical information infrastructure, thus changing the safety environment and the national values and interests. This advancement produces threats and risks from computer perspective which are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and particularly in cyber terrorism. The main aim of this paper is based on a thorough analysis of what is scientifically known and practiced when nowadays critical information infrastructure is in the focus of the cyber terrorism. The rapid IT development demands changes in the strategic management focus. As a result of a time-consuming theoretical and empirical research this paper suggests a methodology for strategic managing of: threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The proposed methodology is seen as a mean to increase the human security conscious in every sense of the word, and to promote the need for rules, procedures and standards establishment from the aspect of the strategic management in the new information epoch concerning. In addition, through a scientific discourse, a short attempt is made to relate Macedonian reality with the phenomenon mentioned above. The most fundamental set phrase is that the efficiency and promptly made decisions during strategic planning are a projection of the systematic organization of functions and models for managing the risks and threats of the critical information infrastructure. Hence, this paper could be seen as a perspective when taking in consideration the regional strategic management, and the cyber space vital functioning. (author)

  9. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  10. The Soft Side of Cyber Security - Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously.......The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously....

  11. Towards cyber safety education in primary schools in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available , but also increases users' vulnerability to malware infection, cyber-bullying, identity theft and cyber terrorism (Dlamini, Taute, & Radebe, 2011). Africa mainly consists of developing countries which are characterised by limited knowledge, expertise....e. hacking, malware and spyware.  Content-related risks, i.e. exposure to illicit or inappropriate content.  Harassment-related threats, i.e. cyber-bullying, cyber-stalking and other forms of unwanted contact.  Risk of exposing information, i...

  12. KYPO – A Platform for Cyber Defence Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Čeleda Pavel; Čegan Jakub; Vykopal Jan; Tovarňák Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Correct and timely responses to cyber attacks are crucial for the effective implementation of cyber defence strategies and policies. The number of threats and ingenuity of attackers is ever growing, as is the need for more advanced detection tools, techniques and skilled cyber security professionals. KYPO – Cyber Exercise & Research Platform is focused on modelling and simulating complex computer systems and networks in a virtualized and separated environment. The platform enables realist...

  13. Middle School Students' Perceptions of and Responses to Cyber Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Grabe, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the nature and extent of middle school students' (n = 665) experiences with cyber bullying. Approximately one in five students reported being cyber bullied in the past year, with 55% of those students being repeatedly victimized within the past 30 days. Female students were more likely to be involved in cyber bullying (victim,…

  14. Psychological Impact of Cyber-Bullying: Implications for School Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Jennifer; Beran, Tanya; Dittrick, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-bullying is a significant problem for children today. This study provides evidence of the psychological impact of cyber-bullying among victimized children ages 10 to 17 years (M = 12.48, SD = 1.79) from 23 urban schools in a western province of Canada (N = 239). Students who were cyber-bullied reported high levels of anxious,…

  15. Scheduling and development support in the Scavenger cyber foraging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2010-01-01

    Cyber foraging is a pervasive computing technique where small mobile devices offload resource intensive tasks to stronger computing machinery in the vicinity. One of the main challenges within cyber foraging is that it is very difficult to develop cyber foraging enabled applications. An applicati...

  16. Work Package 2 Report - Cyber resilience for the shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahay, Rishikesh; Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the current state of the research performed as a part of the CyberShip project for its Work Package 2. This work package aims at defining a CyberShip model and KPIs for cyber resilience. This is a project funded by the Danish Maritime Fund (DMF) with the objective of proposing...

  17. Development of cyber training system for nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Taek; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Eui Jin; Lee, Han Young; Choi, Nan Young

    2002-02-01

    This report describes on technical contents related cyber training system construct on KAERI Nuclear Training Center, and on using cases of cyber education in domestic and foreign countries. Also realtime training system through the internet and cyber training management system for atomic fields is developed. All users including trainee, course managers and lecturers can use new technical for create new paradigm

  18. Cyber armies: the unseen military in the grid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aschmann, M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available power and/or civilian force within the cyber domain that has the ability to launch cyber-attacks and collect information in order to gain strategic military advantage on a national level. Selected cyber armies are compared to portray the impact...

  19. Cyber-Bullying: Creating a Culture of Respect in a Cyber World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Susan; Martin, Michelle E.

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, many incidents revolved around student-on-student violence, usually involving guns. Schools implemented many programs to keep guns and gangs out of schools. In the 21st Century, school violence is taking on a new and more insidious form. New technologies have made it easier for bullies to gain access to their victims. This form of…

  20. Construction of a Cyber Attack Model for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varuttamaseni, Athi; Bari, Robert A.; Youngblood, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The consideration of how one compromised digital equipment can impact neighboring equipment is critical to understanding the progression of cyber attacks. The degree of influence that one component may have on another depends on a variety of factors, including the sharing of resources such as network bandwidth or processing power, the level of trust between components, and the inclusion of segmentation devices such as firewalls. The interactions among components via mechanisms that are unique to the digital world are not usually considered in traditional PRA. This means potential sequences of events that may occur during an attack may be missed if one were to only look at conventional accident sequences. This paper presents a method where, starting from the initial attack vector, the progression of a cyber attack can be modeled. The propagation of the attack is modeled by considering certain attributes of the digital components in the system. These attributes determine the potential vulnerability of a component to a class of attack and the capability gained by the attackers once they are in control of the equipment. The use of attributes allows similar components (components with the same set of attributes) to be modeled in the same way, thereby reducing the computing resources required for analysis of large systems.

  1. BODY AS ECHOES: CYBER ARCHIVING OF DAZU ROCK CARVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-W. Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available “Body As Echoes: Cyber Archiving of Dazu Rock Carvings (BAE project in short” strives to explore the tangible/intangible aspects of digital heritage conservation. Aiming at Dazu Rock Carvings - World Heritage Site of Sichuan Province, BAE project utilizes photogrammetry and digital sculpting technique to investigate digital narrative of cultural heritage conservation. It further provides collaborative opportunities to conduct the high-resolution site survey for scholars and institutions at local authorities. For preserving and making sustainable of the tangible cultural heritage at Dazu Rock Carvings, BAE project cyber-archives the selected niches and the caves at Dazu, and transform them into high-resolution, three-dimensional models. For extending the established results and making the digital resources available to broader audiences, BAE project will further develop interactive info-motion interface and apply the knowledge of digital heritage from BAE project to STEM education. BAE project expects to bridge the platform for archeology, computer graphics, and interactive info-motion design. Digital sculpting, projection mapping, interactive info-motion and VR will be the core techniques to explore the narrative of digital heritage conservation. For further protecting, educating and consolidating “building dwelling thinking” through digital heritage preservation, BAE project helps to preserve the digital humanity, and reach out to museum staffs and academia. By the joint effort of global institutions and local authorities, BAE project will also help to foster and enhance the mutual understanding through intercultural collaborations.

  2. Cyber Security Scenarios and Control for Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilaykumar Kiran SANGANI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world advances towards the computing era, security threats keeps on increasing in the form of malware, viruses, internet attack, theft of IS assets / technology and a lot more. This is a major concern for any form of business. Loss in company’s status / liability / reputation is a huge downfall for a running business. We have witnessed the attacks getting carried out; large firm’s data getting breached / government bodies’ sites getting phished / attacked. These huge entities have technology expertise to safeguard their company’s interest against such attacks through investing huge amounts of capital in manpower and secure tools. But what about SMEs? SMEs enrich a huge part of the country’s economy. Big organizations have their own security measures policy which ideally is not applied when it comes to a SME. The aim of this paper is to come out with an Information Security Assurance Cyber Control for SMEs (ISACC against common cyber security threats implemented at a cost effective measure.

  3. Body as Echoes: Cyber Archiving of Dazu Rock Carvings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.-W.

    2017-08-01

    "Body As Echoes: Cyber Archiving of Dazu Rock Carvings (BAE project in short)" strives to explore the tangible/intangible aspects of digital heritage conservation. Aiming at Dazu Rock Carvings - World Heritage Site of Sichuan Province, BAE project utilizes photogrammetry and digital sculpting technique to investigate digital narrative of cultural heritage conservation. It further provides collaborative opportunities to conduct the high-resolution site survey for scholars and institutions at local authorities. For preserving and making sustainable of the tangible cultural heritage at Dazu Rock Carvings, BAE project cyber-archives the selected niches and the caves at Dazu, and transform them into high-resolution, three-dimensional models. For extending the established results and making the digital resources available to broader audiences, BAE project will further develop interactive info-motion interface and apply the knowledge of digital heritage from BAE project to STEM education. BAE project expects to bridge the platform for archeology, computer graphics, and interactive info-motion design. Digital sculpting, projection mapping, interactive info-motion and VR will be the core techniques to explore the narrative of digital heritage conservation. For further protecting, educating and consolidating "building dwelling thinking" through digital heritage preservation, BAE project helps to preserve the digital humanity, and reach out to museum staffs and academia. By the joint effort of global institutions and local authorities, BAE project will also help to foster and enhance the mutual understanding through intercultural collaborations.

  4. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    system force and structure reliance – are discovered and tantamount with EU nations. Thusly I indicated reason viewpoints and figures of security of data structures it additionally relates to the reason of estimation of transient dangers of security of frameworks for that I begin my proposal with one of the fundamental class of data security which is Cyber security. Keyword : Cyber Security, IT

  5. Cyber bullying prevention: intervention in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shinn Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.

  6. Cyber bullying prevention: intervention in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.

  7. Cyber security for greater service reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, P. [N-Dimension Solutions Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Service reliability in the electricity transmission and distribution (T and D) industry is being challenged by increased equipment failures, harsher climatic conditions, and computer hackers who aim to disrupt services by gaining access to transmission and distribution resources. This article discussed methods of ensuring the cyber-security of T and D operators. Weak points in the T and D industry include remote terminal units; intelligent electronic devices; distributed control systems; programmable logic controllers; and various intelligent field devices. An increasing number of interconnection points exist between an operator's service control system and external systems. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) standards specify that cyber security strategies should ensure that all cyber assets are protected, and that access points must be monitored to detect intrusion attempts. The introduction of new advanced metering initiatives must also be considered. Comprehensive monitoring systems should be available to support compliance with cyber security standards. It was concluded that senior management should commit to a periodic cyber security re-assessment program in order to keep up-to-date.

  8. On a simulation study of cyber attacks on vehicle-to-infrastructure communication (V2I) in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Song, Houbing; Lu, Chao

    2015-05-01

    An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is one typical cyber-physical system (CPS) that aims to provide efficient, effective, reliable, and safe driving experiences with minimal congestion and effective traffic flow management. In order to achieve these goals, various ITS technologies need to work synergistically. Nonetheless, ITS's reliance on wireless connectivity makes it vulnerable to cyber threats. Thus, it is critical to understand the impact of cyber threats on ITS. In this paper, using real-world transportation dataset, we evaluated the consequences of cyber threats - attacks against service availability by jamming the communication channel of ITS. In this way, we can have a better understanding of the importance of ensuring adequate security respecting safety and life-critical ITS applications before full and expensive real-world deployments. Our experimental data shows that cyber threats against service availability could adversely affect traffic efficiency and safety performances evidenced by exacerbated travel time, fuel consumed, and other evaluated performance metrics as the communication network is compromised. Finally, we discuss a framework to make ITS secure and more resilient against cyber threats.

  9. Cyber-bullying prevention in primary school: School leaders’ understanding of cyber-bullying prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Vestvik, Svitlana

    2011-01-01

    This master‟s thesis is about cyber-bullying prevention in primary school. My reason for choosing this issue was a desire to get a greater insight into cyber-bullying as a phenomenon. In addition, I found it interesting to find how the principals can work systematically for prevention and reduction of cyber-bullying incidents in schools, with the purpose of offering pupils a good psycho-social environment as enshrined in the Education Act, Section 9a-3. My attention was focused on understa...

  10. What kind of cyber security? Theorising cyber security and mapping approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fichtner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Building on conceptual work on security and cyber security, the paper explores how different approaches to cyber security are constructed. It outlines structural components and presents four common approaches. Each of them suggests a different role for the actors involved and is motivated and justified by different values such as privacy, economic order and national security. When a cyber security policy or initiative is chosen by policymakers, the analysis of the underlying approach enhances our understanding of how this shapes relationships between actors and of the values prioritised, promoted and inscribed into the concerned technologies.

  11. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  12. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  13. The world is polluted with leaked cyber data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Ivan D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Data breaches are becoming more common and numerous every day, where huge amount of data (corporate and personal) are leaked more frequently than ever. Corporate responses to data breaches are insufficient, when commonly remediation is minimal...

  14. Cyber security deterrence and it protection for critical infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Martellini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The experts of the International Working Group-Landau Network Centro Volta (IWG-LNCV) discuss aspects of cyber security and present possible methods of deterrence, defense and resilience against cyber attacks. This SpringerBrief covers state-of-the-art documentation on the deterrence power of cyber attacks and argues that nations are entering a new cyber arms race. The brief also provides a technical analysis of possible cyber attacks towards critical infrastructures in the chemical industry and chemical safety industry. The authors also propose modern analyses and a holistic approach to resil

  15. Cyber Threats for Organizations of Financial Market Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgievna Miloslavskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the global informatization era the reliable and efficient financial market infrastructure of the Russian Federation (RF FMI plays an important role in the financial system and economy of the country. New cyber risks have acquired the status of the FR FMI systemic risk’s components, the importance of which is constantly growing due to the increase in the possible consequences of their implementation. The article introduces the basic concepts of cyber security, cyber space and cyber threats for the RF FMI and analyzes the specific features of cyber attacks against the RF FMI organizations.

  16. Review on Cyber Security Programs for NPP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Se [KEPRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Increased history records of cyber security (CS) attacks and concerns for computers and networks technical mishaps pull out cyber security to open places. In spite of secrete nature of security, transparent and shared knowledge of many security features are more required at modern plant floors. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), US Government and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested to develop cyber security plans and enforce their implementing to the NPPs. [KINS; CFR; RG 5.71] This paper reviews various cyber security guidelines and suggests an applicable cyber security program development models during the life cycle of NPP's Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems

  17. Review on Cyber Security Programs for NPP Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Eung Se

    2010-01-01

    Increased history records of cyber security (CS) attacks and concerns for computers and networks technical mishaps pull out cyber security to open places. In spite of secrete nature of security, transparent and shared knowledge of many security features are more required at modern plant floors. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), US Government and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested to develop cyber security plans and enforce their implementing to the NPPs. [KINS] [CFR] [RG 5.71] This paper reviews various cyber security guidelines and suggests an applicable cyber security program development models during the life cycle of NPP's Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems

  18. Cyber physical systems role in manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, A. R.; Gupta, Ragini; Nabulsi, Ahmad Al

    2018-04-01

    Empowered by the recent development in single System-on-Chip, Internet of Things, and cloud computing technologies, cyber physical systems are evolving as a major controller during and post the manufacturing products process. In additional to their real physical space, cyber products nowadays have a virtual space. A product virtual space is a digital twin that is attached to it to enable manufacturers and their clients to better manufacture, monitor, maintain and operate it throughout its life time cycles, i.e. from the product manufacturing date, through operation and to the end of its lifespan. Each product is equipped with a tiny microcontroller that has a unique identification number, access code and WiFi conductivity to access it anytime and anywhere during its life cycle. This paper presents the cyber physical systems architecture and its role in manufacturing. Also, it highlights the role of Internet of Things and cloud computing in industrial manufacturing and factory automation.

  19. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  20. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  1. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  2. The cyber threat, trophy information and the fortress mentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Tim

    2011-10-01

    'It won't happen to me' is a prevalent mindset among senior executives in the private and public sectors when considering targeted cyber intrusions. This is exacerbated by the long-term adoption of a 'fortress mentality' towards cyber security, and by the attitude of many of our cyber-security professionals, who speak a different language when it comes to communicating cyber-security events to senior executives. The prevailing approaches to cyber security have clearly failed. Almost every week another serious, targeted cyber intrusion is reported, but reported intrusions are only the tip of the iceberg. Why have we got it so wrong? It must be acknowledged that cyber security is no longer the domain of cyber-security experts alone. Many more of us at various levels of leadership must understand, and be more deeply engaged in, the cyber-security challenge if we are to deal with the threat holistically and effectively. Governments cannot combat the cyber threat alone, particularly the so-called advanced persistent threat; they must work closely with industry as trusted partners. Industry will be the 'boots on the ground' in cyber security, but there are challenges to building this relationship, which must be based on sound principles.

  3. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  4. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  5. Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, R; Lekshmi, R; Kumar, M; Bonato, Anthony; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This book contains cutting-edge research material presented by researchers, engineers, developers, and practitioners from academia and industry at the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models (ICC3) organized by PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during December 19–21, 2013. The materials in the book include theory and applications for design, analysis, and modeling of computational intelligence and security. The book will be useful material for students, researchers, professionals, and academicians. It will help in understanding current research trends and findings and future scope of research in computational intelligence, cyber security, and computational models.

  6. Securitization of cyber space in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Juknevičiūtė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The key question of this thesis was to find out how did the cyber space securitization process in Lithuania was carried out. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether the cyber space in the Lithuanian public and official discourses was securitized during the period of 2013 - 2015. In order to achieve the goals of this thesis, the following tasks were raised 1) using the theory of securitization determine the process of threat construction and the way securitization occurs; 2) determine w...

  7. SEKSUALITAS CYBER: SEX SEBAGAI KESENANGAN DAN KOMODITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Rianto

    2016-02-01

    Tulisan ini ingin mengeksplorasi lebih jauh bagaimana seksualitas hadir dalam dunia cyber. Meskipun konstruksi seksualitas manusia seumuran manusia itu sendiri, tapi konstruksi atau representasinya akan sangat ditentukan oleh konteks sosialnya. Karakter-karakter yang berbeda dari dunia cyber dimana otoritas politik dan gatekeeper tidak berperan secara signifikan akan mempengaruhi konstruksi atas seksualitas. Studi ini menemukan bahwa seks lebih dipahami sebagai sebuah kesenangan dan komoditas. Berbagai reportasi pelaku seksual menggambarkan bagaimana kesenangan akan hubungan seksual dipuja sedemikian rupa. Seiring pemujaan seksualitas sebagai kesenangan itu, adalah seks sebagai komoditas, yang diwujudkan dalam bentuk berbagai penawaran atau iklan untuk menjual layanan seks yang mereka sediakan.

  8. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  9. The Implications of Transnational Cyber Threats in International Humanitarian Law: Analysing the Distinction Between Cybercrime, Cyber Attack, and Cyber Warfare in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faga Hemen Philip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and the implications of targeting non-state perpetrators under IHL. It concludes that current international law constructs are inadequate to address the implications of transnational cyber threats; the author recommends consequential amendments to the laws of war in order to address the challenges posed by transnational cyber threats.

  10. Approaches to Enhancing Cyber Resilience: Report of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Workshop IST-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    2017, at the University of Bundeswehr. Despite continual progress in managing risks in the cyber domain, anticipation and prevention of all possible...participants of the workshop saw as particularly important: 1) fundamental properties of cyber resilience, 2) approaches to measuring and modeling cyber...resilience. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cybersecurity, cyber resilience, risk management , cyber metrics, mission modeling, systems engineering, dynamic defense

  11. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  12. Considerations on Cyber Security Assessments of Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Han, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Kang, Mingyun

    2015-01-01

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has prepared the regulatory standard RS-015 based on RG 5.71. RS-015 defines the elements of a cyber security program to be established in nuclear facilities and describes the security control items and relevant requirements. Cyber security assessments are important initial activities in a cyber security program for NPPs. Cyber security assessments can be performed in the following key steps: 1) Formation of a cyber security assessment team (CSAT); 2) Identification of critical systems and critical digital assets (CDAs); 3) Plant compliance checks with the security control requirements in RS-015. Through the assessments, the current status of security controls applied to NPPs can be found out. The assessments provide baseline data for remedial activities. Additional analyses with the results from the assessments should be performed before the implementation of remedial security controls. The cyber security team at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has studied how to perform cyber security assessments for NPPs based on the regulatory requirements. Recently, KAERI's cyber security team has performed pilot cyber security assessments of a Korean NPP. Based on this assessment experience, considerations and checkpoints which would be helpful for full-scale cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs and the implementation of remedial security controls are discussed in this paper. Cyber security assessment is one of important and immediate activities for NPP cyber security. The quality of the first assessment will be a barometer for NPP cyber security. Hence cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs should be performed elaborately

  13. Considerations on Cyber Security Assessments of Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Han, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Cheol Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Mingyun [E-Gonggam Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has prepared the regulatory standard RS-015 based on RG 5.71. RS-015 defines the elements of a cyber security program to be established in nuclear facilities and describes the security control items and relevant requirements. Cyber security assessments are important initial activities in a cyber security program for NPPs. Cyber security assessments can be performed in the following key steps: 1) Formation of a cyber security assessment team (CSAT); 2) Identification of critical systems and critical digital assets (CDAs); 3) Plant compliance checks with the security control requirements in RS-015. Through the assessments, the current status of security controls applied to NPPs can be found out. The assessments provide baseline data for remedial activities. Additional analyses with the results from the assessments should be performed before the implementation of remedial security controls. The cyber security team at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has studied how to perform cyber security assessments for NPPs based on the regulatory requirements. Recently, KAERI's cyber security team has performed pilot cyber security assessments of a Korean NPP. Based on this assessment experience, considerations and checkpoints which would be helpful for full-scale cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs and the implementation of remedial security controls are discussed in this paper. Cyber security assessment is one of important and immediate activities for NPP cyber security. The quality of the first assessment will be a barometer for NPP cyber security. Hence cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs should be performed elaborately.

  14. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  15. Computational intelligence for decision support in cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    This book is dedicated to applied computational intelligence and soft computing techniques with special reference to decision support in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), where the physical as well as the communication segment of the networked entities interact with each other. The joint dynamics of such systems result in a complex combination of computers, software, networks and physical processes all combined to establish a process flow at system level. This volume provides the audience with an in-depth vision about how to ensure dependability, safety, security and efficiency in real time by making use of computational intelligence in various CPS applications ranging from the nano-world to large scale wide area systems of systems. Key application areas include healthcare, transportation, energy, process control and robotics where intelligent decision support has key significance in establishing dynamic, ever-changing and high confidence future technologies. A recommended text for graduate students and researche...

  16. Model-implementation fidelity in cyber physical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book puts in focus various techniques for checking modeling fidelity of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), with respect to the physical world they represent. The authors' present modeling and analysis techniques representing different communities, from very different angles, discuss their possible interactions, and discuss the commonalities and differences between their practices. Coverage includes model driven development, resource-driven development, statistical analysis, proofs of simulator implementation, compiler construction, power/temperature modeling of digital devices, high-level performance analysis, and code/device certification. Several industrial contexts are covered, including modeling of computing and communication, proof architectures models and statistical based validation techniques. Addresses CPS design problems such as cross-application interference, parsimonious modeling, and trustful code production Describes solutions, such as simulation for extra-functional properties, extension of cod...

  17. Examining relationship between being cyber bully/ cyber victim and social perceptual levels of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Mustafa; Sarı, Sinan Volkan; Şafak, Zekeriya

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between being cyber- bully / cyber-victim and social perception levels in adolescents. In this study, descriptive method was employed. The sample of the study consited of 300 students whom attending different high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 school years. 159 students of the sample were boys (% 53) and 141 students were girls (% 47). Cyberbullying Scale and Social Comparision Scale were used to collect the data. Pearson correlation coefficie...

  18. Let Slip the Dogs of (CYBER) War: Progressing Towards a Warfighting U.S. Cyber Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    requirements, nor a headquarters building (it is currently housed within NSA facilities on Fort George G. Meade , MD).22 In addition, the DOD cyber...Information Conflict: National Security Law in Cyberspace (Falls Church, VA: Aegis Research Corporation, 2000); Herbert Lin, “Offensive Cyber Operations...this legislation was pocket-vetoed by then President George H.W. Bush due to a lack of consistency between the stated intent of the oversight

  19. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin TOFAN; Maria Lavinia ANDREI; Lavinia Mihaela DINCÄ‚

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, di...

  20. Game based cyber security training: are serious games suitable for cyber security training?

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Maurice; Al-Sherbaz, Ali; Victoria, Bloom

    2016-01-01

    Security research and training is attracting a lot of investment and interest from governments and the private sector. Most efforts have focused on physical security, while cyber security or digital security has been given less importance. With recent high-profile attacks it has become clear that training in cyber security is needed. Serious Games have the capability to be effective tools for public engagement and behavioural change and role play games, are already used by security profession...

  1. Cyber Security as Social Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Dechesne, Francien

    2014-01-01

    Lessons from previous experiences are often overlooked when deploying security-sensitive technology in the real world. At the same time, security assessments often suffer from a lack of real-world data. This appears similar to general problems in technology assessment, where knowledge about

  2. Study on Nuclear Facility Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Lee, Cheol-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Cyber security awareness and training, which is a part of operational security controls, is defined to be implemented later in the CSP implementation schedule. However, cyber security awareness and training is a prerequisite for the appropriate implementation of a cyber security program. When considering the current situation in which it is just started to define cyber security activities and to assign personnel who has responsibilities for performing those activities, a cyber security awareness program is necessary to enhance cyber security culture for the facility personnel to participate positively in cyber security activities. Also before the implementation of stepwise CSP, suitable education and training should be provided to both cyber security teams (CST) and facility personnel who should participate in the implementation. Since such importance and urgency of cyber security awareness and training is underestimated at present, the types, trainees, contents, and development strategies of cyber security awareness and training programs are studied to help Korean nuclear facilities to perform cyber security activities more effectively. Cyber security awareness and training programs should be developed ahead of the implementation of CSP. In this study, through the analysis of requirements in the regulatory standard RS-015, the types and trainees of overall cyber security training programs in nuclear facilities are identified. Contents suitable for a cyber security awareness program and a technical training program are derived. It is suggested to develop stepwise the program contents in accordance with the development of policies, guides, and procedures as parts of the facility cyber security program. Since any training programs are not available for the specialized cyber security training in nuclear facilities, a long-term development plan is necessary. As alternatives for the time being, several cyber security training courses for industrial control systems by

  3. Study on Nuclear Facility Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Lee, Cheol-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security awareness and training, which is a part of operational security controls, is defined to be implemented later in the CSP implementation schedule. However, cyber security awareness and training is a prerequisite for the appropriate implementation of a cyber security program. When considering the current situation in which it is just started to define cyber security activities and to assign personnel who has responsibilities for performing those activities, a cyber security awareness program is necessary to enhance cyber security culture for the facility personnel to participate positively in cyber security activities. Also before the implementation of stepwise CSP, suitable education and training should be provided to both cyber security teams (CST) and facility personnel who should participate in the implementation. Since such importance and urgency of cyber security awareness and training is underestimated at present, the types, trainees, contents, and development strategies of cyber security awareness and training programs are studied to help Korean nuclear facilities to perform cyber security activities more effectively. Cyber security awareness and training programs should be developed ahead of the implementation of CSP. In this study, through the analysis of requirements in the regulatory standard RS-015, the types and trainees of overall cyber security training programs in nuclear facilities are identified. Contents suitable for a cyber security awareness program and a technical training program are derived. It is suggested to develop stepwise the program contents in accordance with the development of policies, guides, and procedures as parts of the facility cyber security program. Since any training programs are not available for the specialized cyber security training in nuclear facilities, a long-term development plan is necessary. As alternatives for the time being, several cyber security training courses for industrial control systems by

  4. Cyber safety education in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available on the potential risks that are faced when using Internet communication tools, such as the social media, chat rooms, online gaming, email and instant messaging [1],[2] When users are educated about these risks, the users' vulnerability to malware attacks, cyber-bullying...

  5. Cyber safety education in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available on the potential risks that are faced when using Internet communication tools, such as the social media, chat rooms, online gaming, email and instant messaging [1],[2] When users are educated about these risks, the users' vulnerability to malware attacks, cyber-bullying...

  6. Cyber terrorism prevention and counteraction workshop review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastukhov, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Training Course (ATC ) on Cyber Terrorism Prevention and Counteraction workshop, held in Kiev on September 27-29, 2010, allowed the participants to share their experiences with experts from Ukraine, a Partnership for Peace country. The participants exchanged their ideas on the ways

  7. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  8. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    automatically filter cyber discussions from Stack Exchange, Reddit, and Twitter posts written in English. Criminal hackers often use social media...monitoring hackers on Facebook and in private chat rooms. As a result, system administrators were prepared to counter distributed denial-of-service

  9. Cyber security in ports : Business as usual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerel, Lokke; Dezeure, Freddy

    2017-01-01

    Our paper summarizes the risks and provides concrete and pragmatic proposals to increase substantially the cyber maturity and resilience in the ports by organizing training and awareness raising, fostering cooperation and information exchange both between the stakeholders in the ports and across the

  10. Cyber-physical augmentation : An exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, R.W.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous technologies provide many product innovation opportunities for industrial design engineers, such as creating user centered cyber-physical systems with adaptive capabilities to individual users and environments. The exploration discussed in this paper aims to uncover needs to know for

  11. A framework for cyber security test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyungsoo; Song, Jaegu; Jung, Sungmin; Lee, Jungwoon; Lee, Cheolkwon

    2014-01-01

    The person in charge of I and C cyber security must not only perform real-time security inspections but also have the capabilities for performing vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, in order for vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability scanning and penetration testing are intended to find vulnerabilities in a digital system in order to make it more secure, and to determine whether it is vulnerable to attacks. In the IT sector, automated vulnerability scanning and penetration testing tools are being developed and continually researched. However, for a NPP I and C systems in which the method of communication is mixed (TCP/IP and serial), it is difficult to use the existing tools. This paper describes the penetration test framework for the IT sector, which is one of the cyber security test methods available. It concludes by discussing the need to develop a new penetration method for performing cyber security testing for NPP I and C systems, as well as the need for the NPP I and C test-bed. Security vulnerabilities need to be identified and continuously managed through vulnerability scans and assessments. For known vulnerabilities, the vulnerabilities of the target system can be periodically managed via a vulnerability database. These activities such as fuzzing, penetration testing, etc. must not affect the availability or the integrity of the NPP I and C systems. It is desired that a NPP I and C cyber security test-bad environment that exactly models the actual system must be first constructed and then penetration testing done

  12. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  13. Wat maakt cyber security anders dan informatiebeveiliging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, J.

    2015-01-01

    De termen “informatiebeveiliging” en “cyber security” worden vaak door elkaar gebruikt soms met dezelfde, soms met een afwijkende betekenis. Velen spreken vandaag de dag ook over cyberspace, bijvoorbeeld als een nieuw (door de mens gecreëerd) vijfde domein naast de bestaande domeinen land, water,

  14. A framework for cyber security test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsoo; Song, Jaegu; Jung, Sungmin; Lee, Jungwoon; Lee, Cheolkwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The person in charge of I and C cyber security must not only perform real-time security inspections but also have the capabilities for performing vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, in order for vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability scanning and penetration testing are intended to find vulnerabilities in a digital system in order to make it more secure, and to determine whether it is vulnerable to attacks. In the IT sector, automated vulnerability scanning and penetration testing tools are being developed and continually researched. However, for a NPP I and C systems in which the method of communication is mixed (TCP/IP and serial), it is difficult to use the existing tools. This paper describes the penetration test framework for the IT sector, which is one of the cyber security test methods available. It concludes by discussing the need to develop a new penetration method for performing cyber security testing for NPP I and C systems, as well as the need for the NPP I and C test-bed. Security vulnerabilities need to be identified and continuously managed through vulnerability scans and assessments. For known vulnerabilities, the vulnerabilities of the target system can be periodically managed via a vulnerability database. These activities such as fuzzing, penetration testing, etc. must not affect the availability or the integrity of the NPP I and C systems. It is desired that a NPP I and C cyber security test-bad environment that exactly models the actual system must be first constructed and then penetration testing done.

  15. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  16. Smart Cyber Infrastructure for Big Data processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, M.X.; Cushing, R.; Oprescu, A.M.; Koning, R.; Grosso, P.; Meijer, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of research cyber infrastructure is rapidly changing. There is a move towards virtualized and programmable infrastructure. The cloud paradigm enables the use of computing resources in different places and allows for optimizing workflows in either bringing computing to the data or the

  17. Pennsylvania Cyber School Funding: Follow the Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Marsh, Rose M.

    2009-01-01

    Cyber charter schools are public charter schools which are entirely online and typically serve all grades from pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. Pennsylvania implemented widespread charter school legislation as early as 1997. This has offered a great number of Pennsylvanians options in their public schooling. One of these options has been…

  18. DRDC Support to Exercise Cyber Storm III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    d’intervention fédéraux portant sur les incidents cybernétiques sont encore relativement peu élaborés et insuffisamment développés et un examen des plans examinés...9 2.7 CSIII Ethics Protocol...30 Annex C .. Exercise Cyber Storm III Ethics

  19. Cyber Attacks and Energy Infrastructures: Anticipating Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the likelihood of cyber-attacks against European energy infrastructures and their potential consequences, particularly on the electricity grid. It also delivers a comparative analysis of measures taken by different European countries to protect their industries and collaborate within the European Union. The energy sector experiences an unprecedented digital transformation upsetting its activities and business models. Our energy infrastructures, sometimes more than a decade old and designed to remain functional for many years to come, now constantly interact with light digital components. The convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing and analytics reveals untapped opportunities at every step of the energy value chain. However, the introduction of digital elements in old and unprotected industrial equipment also exposes the energy industry to the cyber risk. One of the most compelling example of the type of threat the industry is facing, is the 2015 cyber-attack on the Ukraine power grid, which deprived about 200 000 people of electricity in the middle of the winter. The number and the level of technical expertise of cyber-attacks rose significantly after the discovery of the Stuxnet worm in the network of Natanz uranium enrichment site in 2010. Energy transition policies and the growing integration of renewable sources of energy will intensify this tendency, if cyber security measures are not part of the design of our future energy infrastructures. Regulators try to catch up and adapt, like in France where the authorities collaborate closely with the energy industry to set up a strict and efficient regulatory framework, and protect critical operators. This approach is adopted elsewhere in Europe, but common measures applicable to the whole European Union are essential to protect strongly interconnected energy infrastructures against a multiform threat that defies frontiers

  20. CyberTEAM Interactive Epicenter Locator Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Y.; Hayden, K.; Lehmann, M.; Kilb, D.

    2008-12-01

    News coverage showing collapsed buildings, broken bridges and smashed cars help middle school students visualize the hazardous nature of earthquakes. However, few students understand how scientists investigate earthquakes through analysis of data collected using technology devices from around the world. The important findings by Muawia Barazangi and James Dorman in 1969 revealed how earthquakes charted between 1961 and 1967 delineated narrow belts of seismicity. This important discovery prompted additional research that eventually led to the theory of plate tectonics. When a large earthquake occurs, people from distances near and far can feel it to varying degrees. But how do scientists examine data to identify the locations of earthquake epicenters? The scientific definition of an earthquake: "a movement within the Earth's crust or mantle, caused by the sudden rupture or repositioning of underground material as they release stress" can be confusing for students first studying Earth science in 6th grade. Students struggle with understanding how scientists can tell when and where a rupture occurs, when the inner crust and mantle are not visible to us. Our CyberTEAM project provides 6th grade teachers with the opportunity to engage adolescents in activities that make textbooks come alive as students manipulate the same data that today's scientists use. We have developed an Earthquake Epicenter Location Tool that includes two Flash-based interactive learning objects that can be used to study basic seismology concepts and lets the user determine earthquake epicenters from current data. Through the Wilber II system maintained at the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) Web site, this project retrieves seismic data of recent earthquakes and makes them available to the public. Students choose an earthquake to perform further explorations. For each earthquake, a selection of USArray seismic stations are marked on a Google Map. Picking a station on the

  1. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  2. Prevention is Better than Prosecution: Deepening the Defence against Cyber Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes that effectively and efficiently addressing cyber crime requires a shift in paradigm. For businesses and government departments alike the focus should be on prevention, rather than the prosecution of cyber criminals. The Defence in Depth strategy poses a practical solution for achieving Information Assurance in today’s highly networked environments. In a world where “absolute security” is an unachievable goal, the concept of Information Assurance poses significant benefits to securing one of an organization’s most valuable assets: Information. It will be argued that the approach of achieving Information Assurance within an organisation, coupled with the implementation of a Defence in Depth strategy can ensure that information is kept secure and readily available and provides a competitive advantage to those willing to invest and maintain such a strategy.

  3. Reliability of Cyber Physical Systems with Focus on Building Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mohamed, Nader

    2016-01-01

    with our focus CPS, i.e. building management systems (BMS), which are not always safety critical per se, but under special circumstances they can become such. This certainly depends on the purpose of the building. We can easily imagine BMS of hospital buildings as safety-critical, but also BMS of buildings......Cyber-physical systems are slowly emerging to dominate our world. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are systems that tightly integrates users, devices and software. Whereas many of these systems are obviously safety-critical systems, some of them become so under special circumstances. This is the case...... that store sensitive materials and equipment that could be of biological nature or encompassing sensitive technology that would need special temperature, humidity and light settings. For this reason, in this paper we would like to emphasize on the importance of reliability of CPS in general, with a special...

  4. Anomaly-based online intrusion detection system as a sensor for cyber security situational awareness system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Almost all the organisations and even individuals rely on complex structures of data networks and networked computer systems. That complex data ensemble, the cyber domain, provides great opportunities, but at the same time it offers many possible attack vectors that can be abused for cyber vandalism, cyber crime, cyber espionage or cyber terrorism. Those threats produce requirements for cyber security situational awareness and intrusion detection capability. This dissertation conc...

  5. Recommendations for Model Driven Paradigms for Integrated Approaches to Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Human Cognitive Modeling in Cyber Security 13 4.1 Models of Human in the Cyber Detection Loop 14 4.2 Perception and Representation of the Cyber ...paradigm applied to cyber operations is likely to benefit traditional disciplines of cyber defense such as security , vulnerability analysis, intrusion...and simulation for full range of cyber specialties, not only for training and rehearsal. • Encourage participation of commercial companies , in NATO

  6. A Cyber Proving Ground: The Search for Cyber Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attractive to a variety of participants would need to em- brace cutting-edge, “massively multiplayer online role-playing game” ( MMORPG ) tech- nology with...Alfonso.indd 64 1/27/10 1:30:59 PM Spring 2010 | 65 Views & Analyses developing a viable CPG on par with the MMORPG World of Warcraft or the virtual...Most  MMORPGs , like World of Warcraft, have  rules against botting since it gives certain players an  unfair advantage over others, particularly in

  7. Mission Assurance Modeling and Simulation: A Cyber Security Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Gerald; Roberts, David; Poole, Donold; Aquino, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cyber security modeling and simulation roadmap to enhance mission assurance governance and establish risk reduction processes within constrained budgets. The term mission assurance stems from risk management work by Carnegie Mellon's Software Engineering Institute in the late 19905. By 2010, the Defense Information Systems Agency revised its cyber strategy and established the Program Executive Officer-Mission Assurance. This highlights a shift from simply protecting data to balancing risk and begins a necessary dialogue to establish a cyber security roadmap. The Military Operations Research Society has recommended a cyber community of practice, recognizing there are too few professionals having both cyber and analytic experience. The authors characterize the limited body of knowledge in this symbiotic relationship. This paper identifies operational and research requirements for mission assurance M&S supporting defense and homeland security. M&S techniques are needed for enterprise oversight of cyber investments, test and evaluation, policy, training, and analysis.

  8. Cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide history of cyber attacks targeting at nuclear facilities. • Provide cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants. • Provide possible countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants. - Abstract: With the introduction of new technology based on the increasing digitalization of control systems, the potential of cyber attacks has escalated into a serious threat for nuclear facilities, resulting in the advent of the Stuxnet. In this regard, the nuclear industry needs to consider several cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants, including regulatory guidelines and standards for cyber security, the possibility of Stuxnet-inherited malware attacks in the future, and countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants against possible cyber attacks

  9. Designing Fuzzy Rule Based Expert System for Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The state of cyber security has begun to attract more attention and interest outside the community of computer security experts. Cyber security is not a single problem, but rather a group of highly different problems involving different sets of threats. Fuzzy Rule based system for cyber security is a system consists of a rule depository and a mechanism for accessing and running the rules. The depository is usually constructed with a collection of related rule sets. The aim of this study is to...

  10. Recommendations on Future Operational Environments Command Control and Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that today a nation's telecommunication networks, critical infrastructure, and information systems are vulnerable to growing number of attacks in cyberspace. Cyber space contains very different problems involving various sets of threats, targets and costs. Cyber security is not only problem of banking, communication or transportation. It also threatens core systems of army as command control. Some significant recommendations on command control (C2) and cyber security h...

  11. Cognitive Task Analysis Based Training for Cyber Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Huang , Zequn; Shen , Chien-Chung; Doshi , Sheetal; Thomas , Nimmi; Duong , Ha

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Innovative Methods; International audience; Cyber attacks have been increasing significantly in both number and complexity, prompting the need for better training of cyber defense analysts. To conduct effective training for cyber situation awareness, it becomes essential to design realistic training scenarios. In this paper, we present a Cognitive Task Analysis based approach to address this training need. The technique of Cognitive Task Analysis is to capture and represent knowledge ...

  12. 7 Key Challenges for Visualization in Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Daniel M.; Endert, Alexander; Kidwell, Dan

    2014-12-02

    In this paper we present seven challenges, informed by two user studies, to be considered when developing a visualization for cyber security purposes. Cyber security visualizations must go beyond isolated solutions and “pretty picture” visualizations in order to make impact to users. We provide an example prototype that addresses the challenges with a description of how they are met. Our aim is to assist in increasing utility and adoption rates for visualization capabilities in cyber security.

  13. Intervention in National and Private Cyber Space and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Wrange, Pål

    2013-01-01

    In international law discourse on cyber attacks, there has been much focus on the threshold for the use of force. Cyber attacks or intrusions which do not reach the threshold of the use of force have been held to be unproblematic. However, such intrusions -- including many measures amounting to cyber espionage or counter-terrorism -- will often constitute illegal interventions into the sovereignty of another state, or constitute violations of human rights.Unfortunately, states have not been v...

  14. Decision support systems for cyber-risk supervision in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Košak, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Cyber risk has been increasing due to fast development of information technology, increased using of smart gadgets, advanced way of communication, changing habits of users, and inventiveness of cyber criminals. Nowadays, cyber criminals are highly motivated professionals who are frequently financed by wealthy criminal organizations, or even states, and have clear goals and strategies. False working of critical systems might have important consequences for the whole society, therefore the ...

  15. Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Limnéll, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    The debate on both the impacts of cyber attacks and how to response to attacks is active but precedents are only a few. Strategies and political speeches are always (at least partially) declaratory and vague by nature, and beyond these declarations the practical reality of cyber security as a matter of national security issue is challenging. At the same time cyber issues have catapulted into the highest of the high politics, cyberpolitics, and the line of digital and physical is blurring in m...

  16. Early Warnings of Cyber Threats in Online Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Sapienza, Anna; Bessi, Alessandro; Damodaran, Saranya; Shakarian, Paulo; Lerman, Kristina; Ferrara, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a system for automatically generating warnings of imminent or current cyber-threats. Our system leverages the communication of malicious actors on the darkweb, as well as activity of cyber security experts on social media platforms like Twitter. In a time period between September, 2016 and January, 2017, our method generated 661 alerts of which about 84% were relevant to current or imminent cyber-threats. In the paper, we first illustrate the rationale and workflow of our system,...

  17. Hyper-connectivity : intricacies of national and international cyber securities

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examined the three core themes: the role of education in cyber security, the role of technology in cyber security, and the role of policy in cyber security, the areas in which the papers are published. The associated works are published in referred journals, peer reviewed book chapters, and conference proceedings. Research can be found in the following outlets: 1. Security Solutions for Hyperconnectivity and the Internet of Things; 2. Developing Next-Generation Countermeasures for...

  18. Operating Nuclear Power Stations in a Regulated Cyber Security Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, E.

    2014-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued 10CFR73.54 to implement a regulated Cyber Security Program at each operating nuclear reactor facility. Milestones were implemented December 31, 2012 to mitigate the attack vectors for the most critical digital assets acknowledged by the industry and the NR C. The NRC inspections have begun. The nuclear Cyber Security Plan, implemented by the site Cyber Security Program (Program), is an element of the operating license at each facility. (Author)

  19. A Cyber Situational Awareness Model for Network Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    amount of unnecessary data and focus on the most important information that can help them better guarantee cyber security of their systems. 14. SUBJECT...the most important information that can help them better guarantee cyber security of their systems. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although there are many well-established cyber security tools and techniques available to

  20. Cyber Threats for Organizations of Financial Market Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Georgievna Miloslavskaya; Svetlana Alexandrovna Tolstaya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: In the global informatization era the reliable and efficient financial market infrastructure of the Russian Federation (RF FMI) plays an important role in the financial system and economy of the country. New cyber risks have acquired the status of the FR FMI systemic risk’s components, the importance of which is constantly growing due to the increase in the possible consequences of their implementation. The article introduces the basic concepts of cyber security, cyber space and cyb...

  1. Cyber warfare:terms, issues, laws and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Seviş, Kamile Nur; Şeker, Ensar

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown us the importance of cybersecurity. Especially, when the matter is national security, it is even more essential and crucial. Increasing cyber attacks, especially between countries in governmental level, created a new term cyber warfare. Creating some rules and regulations for this kind of war is necessary therefore international justice systems are working on it continuously. In this paper, we mentioned fundamental terms of cyber...

  2. Bayesian Network Models in Cyber Security: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, S.; Pieters, W.; Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Lipmaa, Helger; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Matulevicius, Raimundas

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian Networks (BNs) are an increasingly popular modelling technique in cyber security especially due to their capability to overcome data limitations. This is also instantiated by the growth of BN models development in cyber security. However, a comprehensive comparison and analysis of these models is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature and identify 17 standard BN models in cyber security. We analyse these models based on 9 different criteri...

  3. Cyber-Physical Systems Security: a Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lun, Yuriy Zacchia; D'Innocenzo, Alessandro; Malavolta, Ivano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Due to the tight cyber-physical coupling and to the potentially disrupting consequences of failures, security here is one of the primary concerns. Our systematic mapping study sheds some light on how security is actually addressed when dealing with cyber-physical systems. The provided systematic map of 118 selected studies is based on, for instance, application fields, various system components, relate...

  4. Cyber Assurance - what should the IT auditor focus on?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cyber risici og Cyber sikkerhed er ny emner på ledelsens dagsorden angående IT Governance og sikkerhed. IT revisor skal være opmærksom på risic og kontroler samt trustler fra internettet. Denne præsentation forklarer, hvordan IT revisor skal reagere på cyber risici og sikkerhed. Præsentationen vi...

  5. Operating Nuclear Power Stations in a Regulated Cyber Security Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, E.

    2014-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued 10CFR73.54 to implement a regulated Cyber Security Program at each operating nuclear reactor facility. Milestones were implemented December 31, 2012 to mitigate the attack vectors for the most critical digital assets acknowledged by the industry and the NR C. The NRC inspections have begun. The nuclear Cyber Security Plan, implemented by the site Cyber Security Program (Program), is an element of the operating license at each facility. (Author)

  6. The relationship between Cyber-Loafing and internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Keser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers’ internet addiction level and cyber-loafing activities. This study was conducted as a survey study. Participants of the study was Computer Education and Instructional Technology department students (n=139 at Ankara University. “Cyber loafing activity Scale” originally developed by Blanchard and Henle (2008, adopted to Turkish by Kalayci (2010 and updated by Yasar (2013 and “Internet Addiction Scale” developed by Sahin and Korkmaz (2011 was used as data collection instruments. To analyze the data descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis H, and Spearman Rho Correlation coefficients was used. There were significant differences between the gender groups both in cyber-loafing activities and internet addiction levels. Male preservice teacher had higher internet addiction levels and cyber-loafing activity scores in average. However there were not significant differences between different groups based on grade level, period of internet usage, perceived internet ability, both for cyber-loafing activities and internet addiction levels. There were a moderate positive relationships between internet addiction and individual cyber-loafing, and search cyber-loafing. There were also a small positive relationships between internet addiction and social cyber-loafing. There was not a significant relationship between internet addiction and news cyber-loafing.

  7. Cyber Warfare: Raising Information Security to a Top Priority

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapp, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... For example, there is the growing availability of low-cost cyber weaponry on the Internet as modern societies increasingly rely on information infrastructures, and civilian organizations become...

  8. Cyber-Mobbing als verletzender Sprechakt im Sinne Judith Butlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Luckner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, inwiefern Cyber-Mobbing unter Bezugnahme auf Judith Butlers sprach- bzw. diskurstheoretisches Konzept als verletzender Sprechakt verstanden werden kann. Zu diesem Zweck werden in einem ersten Schritt die Besonderheiten von Cyber-Mobbing aufgezeigt und im Anschluss daran ein für diesen Text geeigneter Cyber-Mobbing-Begriff formuliert. Daraufhin erfolgt eine interpretative Auseinandersetzung mit der Butlerschen Konzeption verletzender Sprechakte, bevor anschließend anhand wesentlicher Schnittstellen herausgearbeitet wird, inwiefern Cyber-Mobbing als ein solcher verletzender sprachlicher Akt begriffen werden kann. Resümierend werden die zentralen Ergebnisse der Ausarbeitung zusammengefasst und es wird danach gefragt, welche Konsequenzen bzw. Folgen sich hieraus für ein mögliches verändertes Verständnis von Cyber-Mobbing ergeben.This Paper argues whether cyber bullying can be understood as violating speach act with reference to Judith Butler by starting with a definition of cyber bullying (respectively the term cyber 'mobbing' which is used synonymously in German speaking countries and an outline of Butler's theory. After that, the question of a new or different understanding of cyber bullying and its consequences is discussed.

  9. The energy sector exposed to the cyber-threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Technologies of information and communication (TICs) are present at all stages of energy production, transport and distribution, and this development is an opportunity for a better resources allocation, but also makes physical infrastructures more vulnerable to cyber-crime. The example of a cyber-attack against Ukrainian utilities in 2015 showed that this threat is an actual one, and the author outlines how energy companies are particularly vulnerable to these threats for cultural, historical and organisational reasons. Some simulations already assessed the huge costs of a cyber-attack against these infrastructures. The author then discusses the perspective and possibilities of development of a cyber-safety in Europe

  10. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  11. Ilves wants closer cooperation on cyber-crime

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud iga-aastasel Trilateraalse Komisjoni konverentsil kutsus president Toomas Hendrik Ilves NATOt ja Euroopa Liitu üles koostööle küberkaitse arendamisel. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 07.04.2011 - 10.04.2011

  12. UVI Cyber-security Workshop Workshop Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuykendall, Tommie G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allsop, Jacob Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boumedine, Marc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carter, Cedric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galvin, Seanmichael Yurko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Han Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler Jake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nauer, Kevin S.; Potts, Beth A.; Ta, Kim Thanh; Trasti, Jennifer; White, David R.

    2015-07-08

    The cybersecurity consortium, which was established by DOE/NNSA’s Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program (MSIPP), allows students from any of the partner schools (13 HBCUs, two national laboratories, and a public school district) to have all consortia options available to them, to create career paths and to open doors to DOE sites and facilities to student members of the consortium. As a part of this year consortium activities, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Virgin Islands conducted a week long cyber workshop that consisted of three courses; Digital Forensics and Malware Analysis, Python Programming, and ThunderBird Cup. These courses are designed to enhance cyber defense skills and promote learning within STEM related fields.

  13. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M; Kirkland, A; Cockayne, D; Meyer, R

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  14. Cyber Insurance for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao; Niyato, Dusit; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Ping; Poor, H. Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless networks (HWNs) composed of densely deployed base stations of different types with various radio access technologies have become a prevailing trend to accommodate ever-increasing traffic demand in enormous volume. Nowadays, users rely heavily on HWNs for ubiquitous network access that contains valuable and critical information such as financial transactions, e-health, and public safety. Cyber risks, representing one of the most significant threats to network security an...

  15. Cyber Bullying Prevention: Intervention in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanstr?m, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four...

  16. Quantifying risk for decentralized offensive cyber operations

    OpenAIRE

    Klipstein, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Includes supplementary material. Reissued 7 Sep 2017 with corrections to committee titles. Computer networks and the amount of information stored within government computer networks have become ubiquitous. With the possible decentralization of authorities to conduct offensive cyber operations, leaders and their respective staffs of organizations below the national level cannot adequately assess risks and consequences of these ope...

  17. DSB Task Force on Cyber Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. Statements, opinions, conclusions, and recommendations in this report do not...that does not rely exclusively on trust; and continue research and development (R&D) investments of DoD agencies for a technology-enabled strategy...subcontracts. Such reporting requirements are inconsistent and no DoD system at present collects event information on cyber-physical attacks of electronic

  18. Cyber Capabilities for Global Strike in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Internet’s Cyber Future.” Charlie Rose Show (MSNBC), 19 February 2009. Rosin, Col Randolph. “To Kill a Mockingbird : The Deconstruction of Information...http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=182 (accessed: 6 February 2012). 75 Colonel Randolph Rosin, “To Kill a Mockingbird : The...functional effects” are analogous to conventional “ kill mechanisms.”67 The simplest warfare functional effect in cyberspace is deliberate disruption of

  19. Fighting Through a Logistics Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    cumulative cost of cyber-attacks was more than the combined global black market cost of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. These alarming figures raised...the country to its knees. The Luftwaffe was uncontested in the Battle of Britain until radar’s ability to detect inbound aircraft provided the...manifest information in IGC and provides inbound passenger manifest data to the aerial port of debarkation (APOD) and other receiving activities for

  20. ECIS - Adaptation to CDC CYBER system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.P.K.; Rego, R.A.; Lemos, B.J.K.C.

    1981-01-01

    The implantation of ECIS computer code, elaborated for BOURROUGHS 6700 computer of USP (Universidade de Sao Paulo), in the CDC CYBER 170/730 computer is presented. The ECIS code calculates cross section by coupled channel method. Some problems were calculated to verify the compactibility of results obtained from BOURROUGHS 6700 version with the version. The problems calculated by new version and the carried out modifications, are described (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Cyber anthropology or anthropology in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-03-01

    As a variety of anthropology, cyber anthropology is considered to be the fastest growing sub branch in the science. It is based on synergic effects of multimedia systems and hypermedia, using their comparative advantages. One of the least researched fields of cyber anthropology is the relationship of individuals and social groups with a multimedia document in terms of their perception of such subject. This is because the foundation of social-informatics perception in the society is created based on the evidence of a real life, whereas here the perception is established at the level of virtual, i.e. online life. The rhetorical question here is whether an identical content causes the same or different user reactions, depending on whether it was perceived offline or online, i.e. to what extend does the medium (and not the information content) dictate the user perception. In this respect the research titled "Perception of online museum content creators and actual habits of Croatian online museum visitors" can be a "case study" for the impact of "cyber potential" on the classic anthropological paradigm.

  2. CyberKnife radiosurgery: Precision without incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enja Siva Prasad Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery system is an innovative, effective, frameless, non-invasive substitute for conventional surgical treatment of cancer. It works on the principle of stereotaxy. It is used for the treatment of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors, intracranial lesions, tumors of lung, spine, prostate, and kidney, recurrent cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, arteriovenous malformation, and trigeminal neuralgia. It has an advantage over other systems like Gamma knife radiosurgery and linear accelerator (LINAC-based systems, as it is frameless, has submillimeter accuracy, does not affect the normal cells adjacent to the lesion, and tracks the lesion in synchronization with the patient′s respiratory rate. The future of CyberKnife encompasses possibilities such as incremental improvements in accuracy and better shaping of the field of radiation and would certainly allow extension of radiosurgery as an effective substitute for chemotherapy. This paper aims to review and highlight the immense potential that CyberKnife holds in the field of dentistry in treating disorders of the head and neck region, thereby ensuring enhanced longevity for the patients.

  3. Competitive Cyber-Insurance and Internet Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Nikhil; Schwartz, Galina; Felegyhazi, Mark; Walrand, Jean

    This paper investigates how competitive cyber-insurers affect network security and welfare of the networked society. In our model, a user's probability to incur damage (from being attacked) depends on both his security and the network security, with the latter taken by individual users as given. First, we consider cyberinsurers who cannot observe (and thus, affect) individual user security. This asymmetric information causes moral hazard. Then, for most parameters, no equilibrium exists: the insurance market is missing. Even if an equilibrium exists, the insurance contract covers only a minor fraction of the damage; network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Second, we consider insurers with perfect information about their users' security. Here, user security is perfectly enforceable (zero cost); each insurance contract stipulates the required user security. The unique equilibrium contract covers the entire user damage. Still, for most parameters, network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Although cyber-insurance improves user welfare, in general, competitive cyber-insurers fail to improve network security.

  4. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  5. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T. [University of Idaho

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  6. Traumaculture and Telepathetic Cyber Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkall, Jacquelene

    This paper explores the interactive CD-ROM No Other Symptoms: Time Travelling with Rosalind Brodsky, usingtelepathetic socio-psychological, psychoanalytic and narrative theories. The CD-ROMexists as a contemporary artwork and published interactive hardcover book authored by painter and new-media visual artist Suzanne Treister. The artwork incorporates Treister's paintings, writing, photoshop, animation, video and audio work with narrative structures taken from world history, the history of psychoanalysis, futurist science and science fiction, family history and biography.

  7. 5. Combating Cyber Racism: Analisis Komparatif Terhadap Implementasi Protokol Tambahan Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime Tentang Cyber Racism (CETS 189) Di Amerika Serikat Dan Australia Tahun 2012-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Charlina, Riani; Utama, Tri Cahya; Farabi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In this globalization era, technological advances undeniably encouraged the developmentof the scope of crime along with the development of science. The phenomenon of crimecommitted in cyberspace, known as cybercrime, is one of the most dangerous crimes thatare currently faced by most people in the world. One of those crimes is racism incyberspace or what so-called cyber racism. The United States and Australia are the twolargest countries out of the Council of Europe member countries which com...

  8. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  9. Adolescents and Cyber Bullying: The Precaution Adoption Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John

    2016-01-01

    A survey of adolescents (N = 1,488) documented Facebook use and experience with cyber bullying. The study found that 84% of adolescents (middle school through college undergraduates) use Facebook, and that most users log on daily. While 30% of the sample reported being cyber bullied, only 12.5% quit using the site, and only 18% told a parent or…

  10. Cyber Bullying in ADHD and Asperger Syndrome Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Fedina, Cristin

    2011-01-01

    Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study…

  11. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  12. CHDS Speaker: Hackers Critical to Defeating Cyber Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2014-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security News and Stories, PRESS RELEASES Hackers are potential resources that can aid in the fight against cyber-terror far better than government bureaucrats, says internationally known security researcher Robi Sen. Sure, sophisticated cyber-criminal hackers and organizations...

  13. Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Update Will Enable Autonomous Driving. Retrieved August 6, 2015, from http://spectrum.ieee.org/: http://spectrum.ieee.org/ cars -that-think...Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles 1 UNCLASSIFIED Cyber Security Considerations for... Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Sebastian C Iovannitti 4/1/2016 Submitted to Lawrence Technological University College of Management in

  14. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyber extension system focuses the overall development of the livestock farmers including production, management, marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt ...

  15. Cyber Mentoring in an Online Introductory Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamunur; Sarkar, Jyotirmoy

    2018-01-01

    Students in an online statistics course were prone to become increasingly disengaged as the semester progressed. In Spring 2015, we took a proactive measure to retain student engagement by introducing a cyber mentoring session. We describe the framework, operation and effectiveness of cyber mentoring in improving students' learning experience and…

  16. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  17. Addressing the spectre of cyber terrorism: a comparative perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries ...

  18. Hurtful Cyber-Teasing and Violence: Who's Laughing out Loud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.; Westerman, David

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to specifically examine the affect of teasing by way of technology (cyber-teasing) and the importance of the redressive component of a tease. A triangulated approach was used here to gain better insight into the concept of "hurtful" cyber-teasing between romantic partners. A pretheoretical model was developed…

  19. Security Evaluation of the Cyber Networks under Advanced Persistent Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APTs) pose a grave threat to cyberspace, because they deactivate all the conventional cyber defense mechanisms. This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the security of the cyber networks under APTs. For this purpose, a dynamic model capturing the APT-based

  20. Bayesian Network Models in Cyber Security: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, S.; Pieters, W.; Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Lipmaa, Helger; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Matulevicius, Raimundas

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian Networks (BNs) are an increasingly popular modelling technique in cyber security especially due to their capability to overcome data limitations. This is also instantiated by the growth of BN models development in cyber security. However, a comprehensive comparison and analysis of these

  1. Cyber Bullying @ Schools: What Do Turkish Adolescents Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Cigdem; Yildirim, Ali; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Cyber bullying is an emerging form of peer bullying, becoming prominent especially over the past decade. The aim of this study was to investigate through interviews the perceptions of Turkish high school students about cyber bullying. The sample consisted of six male and one female high school students all aged 15 years who identified as being…

  2. Students Perception of Cyber Crime in Edo State: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the perception of students toward committing cyber crime the study will determine the level of success and the gender mostly prone to commit this crime. The study employed the use of descriptive survey to find out students perception towards cyber crime in Edo State. A sample of 500 students ...

  3. Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia: Challenges and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    54 | Air & Space Power Journal Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia Challenges and Controversies © Dr. Stephen J. Cimbala* Disclaimer: The views and...into here. 11. Mazanec, “International Order in Cyberspace,” 83. 12. Joel Brenner, Glass Houses: Privacy , Secrecy, and Cyber Insecurity in a Transparent

  4. Understanding human factors in cyber security as a dynamic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, H.J.; Vliet, A.J. van; Ven, J.G.S. van de; Jol, S.C.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    The perspective of human factors is largely missing from the wider cyber security dialogue and its scope is often limited. We propose a framework in which we consider cyber security as a state of a system. System change is brought on by an entity’s behavior. Interventions are ways of changing

  5. Drie nationale cyber security strategieën vergeleken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Onafhankelijk van elkaar brachten Frankrijk, Duitsland en Nederland hun nationale cyber security strategieën vrijwel tegelijk uit. De strategieën hebben overeenkomsten, maar tonen ook grote verschillen. De drie landen onderkennen een urgente noodzaak om cyber security aan te pakken, maar hebben

  6. Scavenger: Transparent Development of Efficient Cyber Foraging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2010-01-01

    delivering efficient, mobile use of remote computing resources through the use of a custom built mobile code execution environment and a new dual-profiling scheduler. One of the main difficulties within cyber foraging is that it is very challenging for application programmers to develop cyber foraging...

  7. The Relationship between Cyber-Loafing and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Hafize; Kavuk, Melike; Numanoglu, Gulcan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers' internet addiction level and cyber-loafing activities. This study was conducted as a survey study. Participants of the study was Computer Education and Instructional Technology department students (n = 139) at Ankara University. "Cyber loafing activity…

  8. Cyber Bullying: Overview and Strategies for School Counsellors, Guidance Officers, and All School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2008-01-01

    Cyber bullying or bullying via information and communications technology tools such as the internet and mobile phones is a problem of growing concern with school-aged students. Cyber bullying actions may not take place on school premises, but detrimental effects are experienced by victims of cyber bullying in schools. Tools used by cyber bullies…

  9. Cyber power crime, conflict and security in cyberspace

    CERN Document Server

    Ghernaouti, Solange

    2013-01-01

    Most books on cybercrime are written by national security or political experts, and rarely propose an integrated and comprehensive approach to cybercrime, cyber-terrorism, cyber-war and cyber-security. This work develops approaches to crucial cyber-security issues that are non-political, non-partisan, and non-governmental. It informs readers through high-level summaries and the presentation of a consistent approach to several cyber-risk related domains, both from a civilian and a military perspective. Explaining fundamental principles in an interdisciplinary manner, it sheds light on the societal, economic, political, military, and technical issues related to the use and misuse of information and communication technologies.

  10. Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation: Workshop Discussion Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaard, Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deccio, Casey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fritz, David Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tarman, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on August 11, 2017 entitled "Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation," which focused on identifying and addressing research gaps within the field of cyber experimentation , particularly emulation testbeds . This report mainly documents the discussion toward the end of the workshop, which included research gaps such as developing a sustainable research infrastructure, exp anding cyber experimentation, and making the field more accessible to subject matter experts who may not have a background in computer science . Other gaps include methodologies for rigorous experimentation, validation, and uncertainty quantification, which , if addressed, also have the potential to bridge the gap between cyber experimentation and cyber engineering. Workshop attendees presented various ways to overcome these research gaps, however the main conclusion for overcoming these gaps is better commun ication through increased workshops, conferences, email lists, and slack chann els, among other opportunities.

  11. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  12. CYBER COUNSELING ASSISTED WITH FACEBOOK TO REDUCE ONLINE GAME ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Prasetiawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber counseling is divided into various shapes, one form is the use of facebook. Guidance and counseling teacher in schools can implement the cyber counseling assited with facebook to reduce online game addiction the students who are more likely to prefer to communicate by text relationship, and students who do not feel comfortable with counseling services by face to face. Problems of children who are addicted Online Games at school require a relief to effort with Group Counseling assited with facebook services for addressing and alleviating the problems experienced, both personal and social through cyber counseling. The positive impact of service delivery cyber counseling assited with facebook is not out of the role from well counselors as providers to service with the active role of students while finding information on social media like Facebook, so socializing continually needs to be implemented further Keyword : Cyber Counseling, Facebook, Online Game Addiction

  13. CYBER COUNSELING ASSISTED WITH FACEBOOK TO REDUCE ONLINE GAME ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Prasetiawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber counseling is divided into various shapes, one form is the use of facebook. Guidance and counseling teacher in schools can implement the cyber counseling assited with facebook to reduce online game addiction the students who are more likely to prefer to communicate by text relationship, and students who do not feel comfortable with counseling services by face to face. Problems of children who are addicted Online Games at school require a relief to effort with Group Counseling assited with facebook services for addressing and alleviating the problems experienced, both personal and social through cyber counseling. The positive impact of service delivery cyber counseling assited with facebook is not out of the role from well counselors as providers to service with the active role of students while finding information on social media like Facebook, so socializing continually needs to be implemented furtherKeyword : Cyber Counseling, Facebook, Online Game Addiction

  14. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  15. Rapid Delivery of Cyber Capabilities: Evaluation of the Requirement for a Rapid Cyber Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the features of specificity, global scope, and emphasis on the electromagnetic spectrum. Cyberspace nodes physically reside in all domains...135 Rivet Joint, EC-130 Compass Call and the latest MC-12 Liberty aircraft. They also have a handful of cyber support programs within their

  16. A Cyber-ITS Framework for Massive Traffic Data Analysis Using Cyber Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic data is commonly collected from widely deployed sensors in urban areas. This brings up a new research topic, data-driven intelligent transportation systems (ITSs, which means to integrate heterogeneous traffic data from different kinds of sensors and apply it for ITS applications. This research, taking into consideration the significant increase in the amount of traffic data and the complexity of data analysis, focuses mainly on the challenge of solving data-intensive and computation-intensive problems. As a solution to the problems, this paper proposes a Cyber-ITS framework to perform data analysis on Cyber Infrastructure (CI, by nature parallel-computing hardware and software systems, in the context of ITS. The techniques of the framework include data representation, domain decomposition, resource allocation, and parallel processing. All these techniques are based on data-driven and application-oriented models and are organized as a component-and-workflow-based model in order to achieve technical interoperability and data reusability. A case study of the Cyber-ITS framework is presented later based on a traffic state estimation application that uses the fusion of massive Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS data and GPS data. The results prove that the Cyber-ITS-based implementation can achieve a high accuracy rate of traffic state estimation and provide a significant computational speedup for the data fusion by parallel computing.

  17. Adolescents' Cyber Aggression Perpetration and Cyber Victimization: The Longitudinal Associations with School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on cyber aggression is advancing, revealing many risk factors associated with the involvement in these behaviors. Academic correlates, particularly academic performance, have received some attention, with few studies utilizing longitudinal designs. The present study examined these associations among 673 8th graders (51% female) from…

  18. Preventing a Cyber Dresden: How the Evolution of Air Power can Guide the Evolution of Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    non-military cyber issues including non-state actors such as terrorists, and organized crime syndicates . This delineation will be drawn upon later...Future with Alvin Toffler,” USA Today available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/ columnists /toffler/toff05.htm accessed 5 January 2011. 29

  19. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Poole, Stephen W; Ma, Chris Y T; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K Y

    2016-04-01

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities, expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical subinfrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures, are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. The analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Developing the Cyber Defenders of Tomorrow with Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competitions (CCDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Anna; Manson, Daniel P.; Zhu, Jake

    2010-01-01

    With the projected higher demand for Network Systems Analysts and increasing computer crime, network security specialists are an organization's first line of defense. The principle function of this paper is to provide the evolution of Collegiate Cyber Defense Competitions (CCDC), event planning required, soliciting sponsors, recruiting personnel…

  1. Development of Cyber Theater titled "PINOCCHIO" and Cyber Theater Scenario Language: CTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuda

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, most of children haven't read the Fairy Tales or tales of old Japan because the high technology video games are more exciting than most of picture books. But they must be effective to bring up the children's cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity. And we have heard from teachers of elementary schools that most of themes of computer education in school are the operation of Painting Tool or Game Software. To improve these problems and to aid the courses of computer-based education in elementary school, we developed new educational support tool named Cyber Theater. Cyber Theater provides the capability of easy making the 3D-CG animation of children's story by using Script language named CTSL (Cyber Theater Scenario Language. We hope schoolteachers will be able to use Cyber Tales as teaching materials in elementary schools. We also hope that upper-aged students (including junior high school students are able to make their original CG-animation stories as the Creative Lesson.

  2. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  3. Game Based Cyber Security Training: are Serious Games suitable for cyber security training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Hendrix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Security research and training is attracting a lot of investment and interest from governments and the private sector. Most efforts have focused on physical security, while cyber security or digital security has been given less importance. With recent high-profile attacks it has become clear that training in cyber security is needed. Serious Games have the capability to be effective tools for public engagement and behavioural change and role play games, are already used by security professionals. Thus cyber security seems especially well-suited to Serious Games. This paper investigates whether games can be effective cyber security training tools. The study is conducted by means of a structured literature review supplemented with a general web search.While there are early positive indications there is not yet enough evidence to draw any definite conclusions. There is a clear gap in target audience with almost all products and studies targeting the general public and very little attention given to IT professionals and managers. The products and studies also mostly work over a short period, while it is known that short-term interventions are not particularly effective at affecting behavioural change.

  4. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  5. Cyber security information exchange to gain insight into the effects of cyber threats and incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, F.; Smulders, A.C.M.; Kerkdijk, H.

    2015-01-01

    The last couple of years we have seen an increase in interests and initiatives in establishing threat intelligence sharing communities, and on the development of standards and platforms for automated cyber security information sharing. These initiatives are focused on helping organisations to

  6. Cyber Warfare as a Form of Conflict: Evaluation of Models of Cyber Conflict as a Prototype to Conceptual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Samuel P.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2007, what has been incorrectly called the first cyber war and since then referred more correctly as a cyber riot, an attack on the domain name systems and the various servers of Estonia occurred. It was perpetrated by ethnic Russians living in Estonia who were incensed by the movement of a bronze war memorial for Russian soldiers to a…

  7. Selection of the best security controls for rapid development of enterprise-level cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Tytarenko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited State-supported cyber attacks, cyber espionage campaigns, and hacktivist movements have forced many states to accelerate their cyber defense development in order to achieve at least a minimum level of protection against expanding threats of cyber space. As with any other development effort, cyber capability development requires resources of time, money, and people, which in most cases are very restricted. To rapidly build up the first ...

  8. A Study Of Cyber Security Challenges And Its Emerging Trends On Latest Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, G. Nikhita; Reddy, G. J. Ugander

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security plays an important role in the field of information technology .Securing the information have become one of the biggest challenges in the present day. When ever we think about the cyber security the first thing that comes to our mind is cyber crimes which are increasing immensely day by day. Various Governments and companies are taking many measures in order to prevent these cyber crimes. Besides various measures cyber security is still a very big concern to many. This paper ma...

  9. Developing standard exercises and statistics to measure the impact of cyber defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Berninger, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    CHDS State/Local As companies seek protection from cyber attacks, justifying proper levels of investment in cyber security is essential. Like all investments, cyber defense costs must be weighed against their expected benefits. While some cyber investment models exist that can relate costs and benefits, these models are largely untested with experimental data. This research develops an experimental framework and statistics for testing and measuring the efficacy of cyber mitigation methods,...

  10. Cyber Attacks: Emerging Threats to the 21st Century Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Vasilescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the notion of cyber attack as a concept for understanding modern conflicts. It starts by elaborating a conceptual theoretical framework, observing that when it comes to cyber attacks, cyber war and cyber defense there are no internationally accepted definitions on the subject, mostly because of the relative recency of the terms. The second part analyzes the cyber realities of recent years, emphasizing the most advertised cyber attacks in the international mass media: Estonia (2007 and Georgia (2008, with a focus on two main lessons learned: how complicated is to define a cyber war and how difficult to defend against it. Crucial implications for world’s countries and the role of NATO in assuring an effective collective cyber defense are analyzed in the third part. The need for the development of strategic cyber defense documents (e.g. NATO Cyber Defense Policy, NATO Strategic Concept is further examined. It is suggested that particular attention should be paid to the development of a procedure for clearly discriminating between events (cyber attacks, cyber war, cyber crime, or cyber terrorism, and to a procedure for the conduct of nation’s legitimate military/civil cyber response operations.

  11. Cyber fraud tactics, techniques and procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Written and edited by known experts in the field, the content is indeed of high quality and very informative. The logical structure and writing style are excellent, which is a challenging task when there are so many contributors. The book is a must-read for several reader categories. I strongly recommend some of the technical chapters to advanced undergraduate and graduate computer science students. Law students can use the book to grasp the necessary technical background material for investigating cyber fraud. Finally, it is also for readers who wish to learn about the current state of

  12. Cyber integrated MEMS microhand for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam; Frazier, Athena; Pepen, Michael; Lu, Yen-Wen; Yang, Shanchieh Jay

    2009-05-01

    Anthropomorphous robotic hands at microscales have been developed to receive information and perform tasks for biological applications. To emulate a human hand's dexterity, the microhand requires a master-slave interface with a wearable controller, force sensors, and perception displays for tele-manipulation. Recognizing the constraints and complexity imposed in developing feedback interface during miniaturization, this project address the need by creating an integrated cyber environment incorporating sensors with a microhand, haptic/visual display, and object model, to emulates human hands' psychophysical perception at microscale.

  13. Cyber security assessment of a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; Stefanini, Alberto [Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra (Italy); Guidi, Luca [Enel Ingegneria e Innovazione, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Critical infrastructures and systems are today exposed not only to traditional safety and availability problems, but also to new kinds of security threats. These are mainly due to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) into such complex systems. In this paper we present the outcomes of an exhaustive ICT security assessment, targeting an operational power plant, which consisted also of the simulation of potential cyber attacks. The assessment shows that the plant is considerably vulnerable to malicious attacks. This situation cannot be ignored, because the potential outcomes of an induced plant malfunction can be severe. (author)

  14. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  15. Cyber safety education in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available . The baseline curriculum was built on a selection of publicly available videos from YouTube.com and ThinkYouKnow.co.uk that can be used in a classroom environment to educate children on various cyber-safety issues. Three "curriculum tables" for age groups 7... and fun to the learners, it was decided that only cartoon videos with an applicable educational message would be used. Thus, the core presentation resource for each lesson was envisaged to be a cartoon video from the online video- sharing website, YouTube...

  16. Computer network security and cyber ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Kizza, Joseph Migga

    2014-01-01

    In its 4th edition, this book remains focused on increasing public awareness of the nature and motives of cyber vandalism and cybercriminals, the weaknesses inherent in cyberspace infrastructure, and the means available to protect ourselves and our society. This new edition aims to integrate security education and awareness with discussions of morality and ethics. The reader will gain an understanding of how the security of information in general and of computer networks in particular, on which our national critical infrastructure and, indeed, our lives depend, is based squarely on the individ

  17. A Survey of Cyber Ranges and Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    2012. [8] S. W. Neville and K. F. Li , "The Rational for Developing Larger-scale 1000+ Machine Emulation-Based Research Test Beds," WAINA 2009, pp...2002, pp. 6-2671-2676, 6-2678-6- 2682 vol. 6. [20] P. Pederson, D. Lee, G. Shu, D. Chen, Z. Liu, N. Li , and L. Sang, "Virtual Cyber- Security Testing...attacks with applications in homeland defense training." AeroSense 2003. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003. [54] Zhou, Mian

  18. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srinivas Panguluri; William Phillips; John Cusimano

    2011-01-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion:cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages.This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages.Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks.Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are:1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks,2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized,3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards,and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards.The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards,conducting a gap analysis,performing vulnerability/risk analysis,and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements.Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years.Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive,substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy,procedure,training and awareness.Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  19. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  20. CyberGIS software: a synthetic review and integration roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaowen [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Anselin, Luc [Arizona State University; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Cosby, Christopher [University Navstar Consortium, Boulder, CO; Goodchild, Michael [University of California, Santa Barbara; Liu, Yan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Nygers, Timothy L. [University of Washington, Seattle

    2013-01-01

    CyberGIS defined as cyberinfrastructure-based geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a new generation of GIS representing an important research direction for both cyberinfrastructure and geographic information science. This study introduces a 5-year effort funded by the US National Science Foundation to advance the science and applications of CyberGIS, particularly for enabling the analysis of big spatial data, computationally intensive spatial analysis and modeling (SAM), and collaborative geospatial problem-solving and decision-making, simultaneously conducted by a large number of users. Several fundamental research questions are raised and addressed while a set of CyberGIS challenges and opportunities are identified from scientific perspectives. The study reviews several key CyberGIS software tools that are used to elucidate a vision and roadmap for CyberGIS software research. The roadmap focuses on software integration and synthesis of cyberinfrastructure, GIS, and SAM by defining several key integration dimensions and strategies. CyberGIS, based on this holistic integration roadmap, exhibits the following key characteristics: high-performance and scalable, open and distributed, collaborative, service-oriented, user-centric, and community-driven. As a major result of the roadmap, two key CyberGIS modalities gateway and toolkit combined with a community-driven and participatory approach have laid a solid foundation to achieve scientific breakthroughs across many geospatial communities that would be otherwise impossible.

  1. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  2. Impact modeling and prediction of attacks on cyber targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan

    2010-04-01

    In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.

  3. Emulation Platform for Cyber Analysis of Wireless Communication Network Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldridge, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Wireless networking and mobile communications is increasing around the world and in all sectors of our lives. With increasing use, the density and complexity of the systems increase with more base stations and advanced protocols to enable higher data throughputs. The security of data transported over wireless networks must also evolve with the advances in technologies enabling more capable wireless networks. However, means for analysis of the effectiveness of security approaches and implementations used on wireless networks are lacking. More specifically a capability to analyze the lower-layer protocols (i.e., Link and Physical layers) is a major challenge. An analysis approach that incorporates protocol implementations without the need for RF emissions is necessary. In this research paper several emulation tools and custom extensions that enable an analysis platform to perform cyber security analysis of lower layer wireless networks is presented. A use case of a published exploit in the 802.11 (i.e., WiFi) protocol family is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the described emulation platform.

  4. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  5. Model Based Cyber Security Analysis for Research Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sho, Jinsoo; Rahman, Khalil Ur; Heo, Gyunyoung; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    The study on the qualitative risk due to cyber-attacks into research reactors was performed using bayesian Network (BN). This was motivated to solve the issues of cyber security raised due to digitalization of instrumentation and control (I and C) system. As a demonstrative example, we chose the reactor protection system (RPS) of research reactors. Two scenarios of cyber-attacks on RPS were analyzed to develop mitigation measures against vulnerabilities. The one is the 'insertion of reactor trip' and the other is the 'scram halt'. The six mitigation measures are developed for five vulnerability for these scenarios by getting the risk information from BN

  6. Survey of Cyber Security Intrinsic for a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoo Rark; Lee, Jae Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Federal agencies are facing a set of emerging cyber security threats that are the result of increasingly sophisticated methods of attack and the blending of once distinct types of attack into more complex and damaging forms. Spam, phishing, and spyware, while once viewed as discrete consumer challenges, are being blended to create substantial threats to large enterprises, including federal systems and digital I and C of a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) is one of them. The cyber security policy for a NPP has been established for years by KINS, but its scope is very broad and conceptual. We will describe several important cyber security issues for a NPP in the applicative boundary.

  7. Survey of Cyber Security Intrinsic for a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo Rark; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Federal agencies are facing a set of emerging cyber security threats that are the result of increasingly sophisticated methods of attack and the blending of once distinct types of attack into more complex and damaging forms. Spam, phishing, and spyware, while once viewed as discrete consumer challenges, are being blended to create substantial threats to large enterprises, including federal systems and digital I and C of a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) is one of them. The cyber security policy for a NPP has been established for years by KINS, but its scope is very broad and conceptual. We will describe several important cyber security issues for a NPP in the applicative boundary

  8. Cyber procedures for a business environment in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a practical experience, it is getting clear that medium and small enterprises as well as some foreign companies in Serbia suffer the serious lack of cyber security procedures. In a business environment of our country, there is a strong need for a comprehensive and systematized document that would suggest how to resolve any cyber situation from the practice. The document would comply with employer's interests and assure a secure working process of employees, at same glance. In this overview, we will attempt to define basic guidelines in sense of cyber procedures.

  9. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  10. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  11. Medical cyber-physical systems: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Shi, Fuqian; Fong, Simon James; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2018-03-10

    Medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) are healthcare critical integration of a network of medical devices. These systems are progressively used in hospitals to achieve a continuous high-quality healthcare. The MCPS design faces numerous challenges, including inoperability, security/privacy, and high assurance in the system software. In the current work, the infrastructure of the cyber-physical systems (CPS) are reviewed and discussed. This article enriched the researches of the networked Medical Device (MD) systems to increase the efficiency and safety of the healthcare. It also can assist the specialists of medical device to overcome crucial issues related to medical devices, and the challenges facing the design of the medical device's network. The concept of the social networking and its security along with the concept of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are addressed. Afterward, the CPS systems and platforms have been established, where more focus was directed toward CPS-based healthcare. The big data framework of CPSs is also included.

  12. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  13. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc., and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure. Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corresponding changes in HF/E: (1 information becomes a tool, goal, mean and environment of a human activity, (2 it becomes a part of the human nature and this makes him/her unprotected, (3 human psycho-physiological status becomes not only a basis of effective performance, but an object of control and support, and means of a human security and safety should be a part of information habitat, (4 networking environment becomes an independent actor in a human activity. Accompanying cyber-security challenges and tasks are discussed, as well as types of networking threats and Human View regarding the cyber security challenges.

  14. A cyber platform development for performance assesment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chang Seong; Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Kyung Jong; Yang, Tae Chun; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Suk Ho; Baek, Sung Woong; Kim, Hyung Sung; Lee, Bong Geun

    2006-02-01

    With the increase of social concern from the local government, social pressure group, and NGO, it is imperative to provide them an easy and convincing system for the safety of radiation disposal. Also, it is required to increase public relations with them more pro actively. Especially using the internet technology, it is necessary to demonstrate the program and experience the safety of radiation disposal by themselves. The objective of this research is to develop a cyber-based performance assessment program for the radiation disposal which is fit for Korea environment. This research covers the following four areas. Development of cyber R and D platform, implementation of virtual reality and pre processor and post processor of MDPSA. This research results can be used as a PR database for the central and local government. Using the web-based system, any person or interest group can plug in the system and experience the safety and clarity of the atomic energy and radiation disposal. Also, within the KAERI, research-related knowledge can be stored as a structured format. This enables the sharing, reusability, transparency, reliability and transferability of research results, and promotes the efficiency of research efforts within and outside of research team

  15. [Cyber-bullying in adolescents: associated psychosocial problems and comparison with school bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber

  16. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  17. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Human Side of Cyber Conflict: Organizing, Training, and Equipping the Air Force Cyber Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    requisite skills . Given the unwillingness of “helicopter parents” to let their children fail, exercise independence, or suffer from low self - esteem , the...DCO require skill sets from the intelligence, operations, and communications career fields to operationalize cyberspace and thus create effects that...discussions with hacker communities , indicate that creative thinking skills differentiate the best from the rest in cyber operations. Therefore, we

  19. An Integrated Cyber Security Risk Management Approach for a Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Ibrahim Kure

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical system (CPS is a combination of physical system components with cyber capabilities that have a very tight interconnectivity. CPS is a widely used technology in many applications, including electric power systems, communications, and transportation, and healthcare systems. These are critical national infrastructures. Cybersecurity attack is one of the major threats for a CPS because of many reasons, including complexity and interdependencies among various system components, integration of communication, computing, and control technology. Cybersecurity attacks may lead to various risks affecting the critical infrastructure business continuity, including degradation of production and performance, unavailability of critical services, and violation of the regulation. Managing cybersecurity risks is very important to protect CPS. However, risk management is challenging due to the inherent complex and evolving nature of the CPS system and recent attack trends. This paper presents an integrated cybersecurity risk management framework to assess and manage the risks in a proactive manner. Our work follows the existing risk management practice and standard and considers risks from the stakeholder model, cyber, and physical system components along with their dependencies. The approach enables identification of critical CPS assets and assesses the impact of vulnerabilities that affect the assets. It also presents a cybersecurity attack scenario that incorporates a cascading effect of threats and vulnerabilities to the assets. The attack model helps to determine the appropriate risk levels and their corresponding mitigation process. We present a power grid system to illustrate the applicability of our work. The result suggests that risk in a CPS of a critical infrastructure depends mainly on cyber-physical attack scenarios and the context of the organization. The involved risks in the studied context are both from the technical and

  20. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and Insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong L.

    2016-11-06

    The Stuxnet attack at the Natanz facility is an example of a targeted and successful cyber attack on a nuclear facility. Snowden's release of National Security Agency documents demonstrated the consequences of the insider threat. More recently, the United States tried to attack North Korea but failed, South Korea was attempting to attack North Korea, and both applied Stuxnet-like approaches. These sophisticated targeted attacks differ from web-site hacking events that are reported almost daily in the news mainly because targeted attacks require detailed design and operation information of the systems attacked and/or are often carried out by insiders. For instance, in order to minimize disruption of facilities around the world, Stuxnet remained idle until it recognized the specific configuration of the Natanz facility, demonstrating that the attackers possessed extremely detailed information about the facility. Such targeted cyber attacks could become a national-level military weapon and be used in coercion of hostile countries.

  1. Panel summary of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) opportunities with information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Grewe, Lynne L.; Brooks, Richard; Yu, Wei; Kwasinski, Andres; Thomopoulos, Stelios; Salerno, John; Qi, Hairong

    2017-05-01

    During the 2016 SPIE DSS conference, nine panelists were invited to highlight the trends and opportunities in cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) with information fusion. The world will be ubiquitously outfitted with many sensors to support our daily living thorough the Internet of Things (IoT), manage infrastructure developments with cyber-physical systems (CPS), as well as provide communication through networked information fusion technology over the internet (NIFTI). This paper summarizes the panel discussions on opportunities of information fusion to the growing trends in CPS and IoT. The summary includes the concepts and areas where information supports these CPS/IoT which includes situation awareness, transportation, and smart grids.

  2. Cyber-security: industrials must stop denying the risk of cyber-attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausermann, L.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of cyber-attacks of industrial sites is real. Recently the Anvers port and the Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan pipeline have been attacked. In both cases hackers succeeded: they were able to track sea containers in which drug was concealed and recover it in the Anvers port and in the case of the pipeline the hackers took control of the control system and were able to trigger a huge explosion by shunning security systems and allowing damaging pressure surges. The massive use of digital systems and of automated systems in various industrial sectors has led to huge network of inter-connected smart devices whose purpose is not to process data but to monitor and control. All these devices and equipment are controlled by software whose weaknesses and fault lines multiply the risk of cyber-attacks even for 'closed' networks. While the total hacking of a nuclear power plant is highly unlikely, real threats exist and must be taken into account. Innovative solutions based on the mapping of the fluxes of the system and combined with an inventory of all its weaknesses may pave the way towards cyber-security. (A.C.)

  3. Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid (TCIPG) Final Technical Report - November 20, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, William H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sauer, Peter W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Valdes, Alfonso [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Scaglione, Anna [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Smith, Sean W [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Hauser, Carl [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid project (TCIPG) was funded by DOE and DHS for a period of performance that ran from October 1, 2009 to August 31 2015. The partnership included the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (lead institution) and partner institutions Arizona State University (replacing original partner UC Davis when faculty moved), Dartmouth College, and Washington State University. TCIPG was a unique public-private partnership of government, academia, and industry that was formed to meet the challenge of keeping our power grid secure. TCIPG followed from the earlier NSF-funded TCIP project, which kicked off in 2005. At that time, awareness of cyber security and resiliency in grid systems (and in control systems in general) was low, and the term “smart grid” was not in wide use. The original partnership was formed from a team of academic researchers with a shared vision for the importance of research in this area, and a commitment to producing more impactful results through early involvement of industry. From the TCIPG standpoint, “industry” meant both utilities (investor-owned as well as cooperatives and municipals) and system vendors (who sell technology to the utility sector). Although TCIPG was a university-led initiative, we have from the start stressed real-world impact and partnership with industry. That has led to real-world adoption of TCIPG technologies within the industry, achieving practical benefits. This report summarizes the achievements of TCIPG over its period of performance.

  4. Toward Managing & Automating CyberCIEGE Scenario Definition File Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johns, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... These scenarios are written CyberCIEGE Scenarios Definition Language. Unfortunately, the trade-off for flexibility, extendibility and fully customizable Scenarios is syntax complexity in the Scenarios definition language...

  5. Advanced Course in Engineering (ACE) - Cyber Security Boot Camp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Older, Susan

    2008-01-01

    .... ACE achieved its stated objectives by completely immersing students in the cyber-security discipline for ten weeks, through a combination of intense coursework, open-ended problems, and internship...

  6. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  7. Effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.; Starman, R. [EWA Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation addressed some of the requirements for effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs. The paper discussed the hype regarding cyber attacks, and presented the Canadian reality (as viewed by CanCERT). An assessment of security concerns was also presented. Recent cyber attacks on computer networks have raised fears of unsafe energy networks. Some experts claim the attacks are linked to terrorism, others blame industrial spying and mischief. Others dismiss the notion that somebody could bring down a power grid with a laptop as being far-fetched. It was noted that the cyber security threat is real, and that attacks are becoming more sophisticated as we live in a target rich environment. The issue of assessing vulnerabilities was discussed along with the selection of safeguards such as improving SCADA systems and the latest encryption methods to prevent hackers from bringing down computer networks. 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  8. Call for Expressions of Interest: Strengthening cyber policy centres ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... cyber policy themes, and the capacity and drive to augment work in the other ... to improve their research, policy influence, and organizational performance. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  9. Cyber Security Training and Awareness Through Game Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cone, Benjamin D; Thompson, Michael F; Irvine, Cynthia E; Nguyen, Thuy D

    2006-01-01

    Although many of the concepts included in staff cyber-security awareness training are universal, such training often must be tailored to address the policies and requirements of a particular organization...

  10. A Video Game for Cyber Security Training and Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cone, Benjamin D; Irvine, Cynthia E; Thompson, Michael F; Nguyen, Thuy D

    2006-01-01

    Although many of the concepts included in cyber security awareness training are universal, such training often must be tailored to address the policies and requirements of a particular organization...

  11. Your employees: the front line in cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, D

    2016-01-01

    First published in The Chemical Engineer and reproduced by Crest - Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats, 26/01/2016 (https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/employees-front-line-cyber-security/)

  12. Detection and Modeling of Cyber Attacks with Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Jasiul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an approach to develop and verify a method of formal modeling of cyber threats directed at computer systems. Moreover, the goal is to prove that the method enables one to create models resembling the behavior of malware that support the detection process of selected cyber attacks and facilitate the application of countermeasures. The most common cyber threats targeting end users and terminals are caused by malicious software, called malware. The malware detection process can be performed either by matching their digital signatures or analyzing their behavioral models. As the obfuscation techniques make the malware almost undetectable, the classic signature-based anti-virus tools must be supported with behavioral analysis. The proposed approach to modeling of malware behavior is based on colored Petri nets. This article is addressed to cyber defense researchers, security architects and developers solving up-to-date problems regarding the detection and prevention of advanced persistent threats.

  13. Cyber Attacks During the War on Terrorism: A Predictive Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vatis, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Just as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 defied what many thought possible, cyber attacks could escalate in response to United States and allied retaliatory measures against the terrorists...

  14. Cyber-physical system design with sensor networking technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Zeadally, Sherali

    2016-01-01

    This book describes how wireless sensor networking technologies can help in establishing and maintaining seamless communications between the physical and cyber systems to enable efficient, secure, reliable acquisition, management, and routing of data.

  15. Game Theoretic Solutions to Cyber Attack and Network Defense Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jr., , Jose B; Blasch, Erik; Kruger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    .... The protection and defense against cyber attacks to computer network is becoming inadequate as the hacker knowledge sophisticates and as the network and each computer system become more complex...

  16. An ontological knowledge base for cyber network attack planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chan, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern warfare it is no longer sufficient to only focus on physical attacks and counter-measures; the threat against cyber networks is becoming increasingly significant. Modern military forces have to provide counter measures against...

  17. Process flows for cyber forensic training and operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, JP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development and testing of Cyber First Responder Process Flows is discussed. A generic process flow framework is presented and design principles and layout characteristics as well as important points within the process flows...

  18. Gendered alternative to cyber fraud participation: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gendered alternative to cyber fraud participation: an assessment of technological driven crime in Lagos State, Nigeria. Ajibade Ebenezer Jegede, Ayotunde Oluwadamilola Elegbeleye, Elizabeth Ibunkunoluwa Olowookere, Bankole Roberts Olorunyomi ...

  19. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  20. The cyber security of French nuclear installations: stakes and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Notably due to the development of the number of connected objects, nuclear installations, their supply chain and all the actors of the chain value are exposed to cyber risks, even if a recent study noticed that successful cyber attacks involving nuclear plants are rare, but real. Thus, the threat is actual and growing, and the IAEA is already working with Interpol on this issue. The author then describes how French actors (EDF, Areva, CEA) have introduced cyber-resilience to better anticipate and identify actual threats and critical vulnerabilities in order to protect infrastructures. He comments some strengthened regulatory measures introduced for the French nuclear sector, and continuous improvements brought in the field of cyber security. He shows that handling these risks is also an opportunity to develop crisis management tools through the development of a specific know-how which also has an industrial value