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Sample records for toenail selenium levels

  1. Toenail selenium levels and prevalence of dyslipidaemia among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiyoung; Morris, J Steven; Park, Kyong

    2017-09-01

    Multiple studies have elucidated the antioxidant properties of Se, which are now well known among the nutrition and biomedical science communities. Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the possible association between Se exposure and risk of metabolic disease, such as lipid dysregulation; however, there is limited epidemiological data on this topic. The present study aimed to investigate associations between toenail Se levels and dyslipidaemia or individual lipid levels, and to examine the effect of dietary supplement use on these associations. We analysed baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area, including 232 men and 269 women. Information on demographic, dietary and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. Se levels in toenail specimens were measured using neutron activation analysis. Fasting blood lipid levels were measured during medical examinations. After adjusting for multiple confounding variables, we observed no association between toenail Se levels and dyslipidaemia or individual lipid profiles. However, the association was modified by dietary supplement use. Among the supplement users, higher toenail Se levels were associated with a higher prevalence of lipid dysregulation, whereas non-users exhibited a lower prevalence of lipid dysregulation. Associations between toenail Se levels, lipid levels and dyslipidaemia may be influenced by taking dietary supplements. Future large-scale, prospective cohort studies should be conducted to further evaluate the association between Se levels in the body and metabolic health effects in light of increasing rates of dietary supplement use.

  2. Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Bode, P.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial have suggested a protective effect of selenium against prostate cancer. Few other prospective studies have been conducted to confirm or refute this. The association between prostate cancer and baseline toenail selenium level was evaluated in the Netherlands

  3. Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; for the EURAMIC Study Group

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of adipose tissue alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and toenail selenium and their determinants. Design: Control subjects from multicentre case-control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction and cancer of the breast. Subjects and setting: 686 male and 339

  4. Toenail mercury and dyslipidemia: Interaction with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2017-01-01

    Although compelling evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies exist, limited studies have examined the association between chronic mercury exposure and dyslipidemia. Particularly, data are sparse regarding the influence of selenium on this association of mercury with dyslipidemia in humans. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations of toenail mercury with dyslipidemia and its components, and to examine whether selenium in toenails modifies these associations. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area in South Korea, including 232 men and 269 women. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were quantified using neutron activation analysis, and fasting serum lipid measurements were obtained through the medical examination. Odds ratios of the prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia in correlation with mercury levels were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The mean levels of toenail mercury were 0.47μg/g for men and 0.34μg/g for women. After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest tertile of toenail mercury levels had 4.08 (95% CI 1.09-15.32, p for trend=0.02) times higher risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and 2.24 (95% CI 1.15-4.37, p for trend=0.004) times higher risk of dyslipidemia than those in the lowest tertile. Selenium is a significant effect-modifier for these associations; the highest tertile of toenail mercury were significantly associated with a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.04-26.38) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.16-7.66) compared to the lowest tertile at toenail selenium levels ≤0.685μg/g, while these associations became weak and non-significant, showing OR 0.98 and 95% CI 0.25-3.80 for hypercholesterolemia and OR 1.99 and 95% CI 0.73-5.45 for dyslipidemia at toenail selenium levels >0.685μg/g. We

  5. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: → Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g). → Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. → Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. → Smoking

  6. Association between Toenail Mercury and Metabolic Syndrome Is Modified by Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in the Yeungnam area. Participants included 232 men and 269 women, aged 35 years or older, who had complete data regarding demographic, lifestyle, diet, toenail mercury and selenium levels, and health. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were measured using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The metabolic biomarker levels were obtained through biannual medical checkups. Results: Higher toenail mercury levels were associated with habitual consumption of whale and shark meats, older age, obesity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher household income. Multivariable analysis showed a positive association between toenail mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome. In addition, this association was significantly stronger at lower selenium levels and was weaker at higher selenium levels. Conclusion: The possible harmful effects of mercury on metabolic syndrome may be attenuated by high levels of selenium. Future studies are needed to suggest optimal dietary guidelines regarding fish and selenium intakes, particularly for Asians with high levels of fish intake.

  7. Self-organizing maps classification of epidemiological data and toenail selenium content monitored on cancer and healthy patients from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakovski, Stefan L; Zukowska, Joanna; Bode, Peter; Bizuk, Marek K; Kowalczyk, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with epidemiological multivariate statistical analysis of cancer and health patients from Pomeranian and Lubuskie Voivodships, Poland. The anthropometric and epidemiologic data include 8 parameters: toenail selenium concentration, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, taking of Se supplements, health state, and family history of cancer. The self-organizing maps (SOM) are used for simultaneous classification of parameters and patients with relation to cancer diagnosis. Three different patterns (groups) of patients with cancer diagnosis are outlined: (i) older, smoking men with low toenail selenium concentration; (ii) older smoking women with family relation to cancer and toenail selenium deficiency; (iii) middle, aged nonsmokers with high level of selenium toenail concentration. The simultaneous classification of parameters and patients makes it possible to determine discriminating parameters for each pattern and relations between parameters. The relation of each parameter to cancer disease is discussed as special attention is paid to toenail selenium deficiency. More than 80% of patients with cancer diagnosis possess toenail selenium deficiency, accompanied by old age and smoking.

  8. Toenail selenium status and the risk of Barrett's esophagus: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Driessen, A.L.C.; Huysentruyt, C.J.R.; Keulemans, Y.C.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods: Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55-69

  9. Serum and urinary selenium levels in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1986-04-01

    Information concerning selenium status in thermal injury patients is limited. Therefore, both serum selenium concentration and 24 h urinary excretion of selenium were evaluated throughout the hospital course for 23 patients with partial and full skin thickness thermal burns. Serum selenium levels were depressed throughout the hospital course in the majority of patients, and only two patients' serum selenium levels had reached the normal range by discharge. Urinary selenium losses were essentially within normal range throughout the same period and thus were not responsible for the observed depression in serum selenium levels. A possible antagonistic relationship between selenium and silver is discussed.

  10. White Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the leg. When... Ingrown Toenail What Is ... Terms and Conditions | Site Map 8725 West Higgins Road, Suite 555, Chicago, IL 60631-2724 Phone: (773) ...

  11. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the leg. When... Ingrown Toenail What Is ... Terms and Conditions | Site Map 8725 West Higgins Road, Suite 555, Chicago, IL 60631-2724 Phone: (773) ...

  12. Selenium levels in neoplastic breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, O I; Babalola, O O; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Lawal, O O; Adesunkanmi, A R; Agbakwuru, E A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this prospective case controlled study was to evaluate the tissue levels of selenium in patients with cases of fibroadenoma, cancer of the breast and in the controls in order to relate them to the occurrence of breast diseases. Consecutive consenting patients who had histologically confirmed breast cancer and fibroadenoma attending the General surgical outpatients departments of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, were recruited for the study. One gram of core disease breast tissues was taken for Selenium level estimation. There were 127 female subjects;. 95 (74.8%) cases of fibroadenoma and 32 (25.2%) of breast cancer. While breast cancer was common on the left, fibroadenoma was more common on the right breast (? = 8.994; p=0.011). The median tissue level of selenium in patients with fibroadenoma was 0.0272 mg/g with a range of 0.0124 to 0.0576 mg/g and that of the cancer patients was 0.0178 mg/g with a range 0.0072 to 0.0436 mg/g. These were statistically significantly different ( p=0.001). Factors affecting tissue selenium level include age (pbreast cancer (pbreast mass (p=0.023), previous delivery (p=0.004), age at last confinement (p=0.007), parity (pbreast cancer than in fibroadenoma; Tissue selenium inhibits carcinogenesis; low tissue level of selenium therefore may be a factor in the development of breast cancer.

  13. Toenail paronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Adam; Thornton, James; Singh, Dishan

    2016-12-01

    Paronychia is an inflammation of the tissues alongside the nail. It may be acute or chronic and can be seen in isolation or in association with an ingrowing toenail. Acute paronychial infections develop when a disruption occurs between the seal of the nail fold and the nail plate, providing a portal of entry for invading organisms. The treatment of paronychia associated with an ingrowing toenail is aimed at treating the causal toenail. In paronychia not associated with an ingrowing toenail, antibiotics may cure an early infection but surgical drainage of an abscess is often required. In this case, an intra-sulcal approach is preferable to a nail fold incision. Chronic paronychia is less common in the feet than in the hands. It is a form of contact dermatitis and is frequently non-infective, however the chronically irritated tissue may become secondarily colonised by fungi. A dermatology consultation should be obtained for suspected chronic paronychia. Patients with chronic paronychia that is unresponsive to standard treatment should be investigated for unusual causes, such as malignancy. An algorithm for the treatment of paronychia is presented in this review. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating Nigerian women: Should Routine Selenium Supplementation be advocated? ... However, there was a non significant increase immediately after birth. In the breast milk, selenium concentration significantly decreased (P<0.0001) as lactation progressed.

  15. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  16. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and α 1 -microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91μg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32μg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66μg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84μg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28μg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (μg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (μg/g)

  17. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  18. Relationship between soil contents and plasma levels of selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South - South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and ...

  19. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Su

    Full Text Available Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status.A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17 mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and <1.04 mmol/L for Low-HDLC according to Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Logistic models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, medication use for cardiovascular diseases were used to examine the relationship between selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia.Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465 μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p < 0.0001. Compared with the lowest selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of

  20. Male infertility: decreased levels of selenium, zinc and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Silver; Mändar, Reet; Mahlapuu, Riina; Viitak, Anu; Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the level of zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant status in following populations of men: severe inflammation in prostate (>10(6) white blood cells in prostate secretion; n=29), severe leukocytospermia, (>10(6) white blood cells in semen; n=31), mild inflammation, (0.2-1M white blood cells in semen or prostate secretion; n=24), non-inflammatory oligozoospermia (n=32) and healthy controls (n=27). Male partners of infertile couples had reduced level of antioxidative activity, selenium and zinc in their seminal plasma. Most importantly, reduced selenium levels were evident in all patient groups regardless of inflammation status. Therefore, these patients might gain some benefit from selenium supplementation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  2. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Selenium (Se) was discovered in 1817 in pyrite from copper mines in Sweden. It is a trace element in Earth’s crust, with an abundance of three to seven orders of magnitude less than the major rock-forming elements. Commercial use of selenium began in the United States in 1910, when it was used as a pigment for paints, ceramic glazes, and red glass. Since that time, it has had many other economic uses—notably, in the 1930s and 1940s, when it was used in rectifiers (which change alternating current to direct current), and in the 1960s, when it began to be used in the liner of photocopier drums. In the 21st century, other compounds have replaced selenium in these older products; modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.In Earth’s crust, selenium is found as selenide minerals, selenate and selenite salts, and as substitution for sulfur in sulfide minerals. It is the sulfide minerals, most commonly those in porphyry copper deposits, that provide the bulk of the selenium produced for the international commodity market. Selenium is obtained as a byproduct of copper refining and recovered from the anode slimes generated in electrolytic production of copper. Because of this, the countries that have the largest resources and (or) reserves of copper also have the largest resources and (or) reserves of selenium.Because selenium occurs naturally in Earth’s crust, its presence in air, water, and soil results from both geologic reactions and human activity. Selenium is found concentrated naturally in soils that overlie bedrock with high selenium concentrations. Selenium mining, processing, use in industrial and agricultural applications, and disposal may all contribute selenium to the environment. A well-known case of selenium contamination from agricultural practices was discovered in 1983 in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in California. There

  3. Toenail cerium levels and risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: The EURAMIC and heavy metals study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Aracena, J.; Riemersma, R.A.; Veer, van 't P.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The association between cerium status and risk of first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was examined in a case-control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Cerium in toenails was assessed by neutron activation analysis in 684 cases and 724 controls aged 70years or younger. Mean

  4. Serum selenium and zinc levels in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Young; Shim, Hongjin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gil

    2014-04-01

    The authors designed this study to determine how serum selenium and zinc affect the outcomes of critically ill surgical patients. The medical records of 162 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) from October 2010 to July 2012 and managed for more than 3 days were retrospectively investigated. Overall, the mean patient age was 61.2 ± 15.0 years, and the median ICU stay was 5 (3-115) days. The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.0 ± 8.0. Eighteen (11.1%) of the study subjects died in ICU. mean selenium levels were 83.5 ± 23.8 ng/dL in the survivor group and 83.3 ± 29.6 ng/dL in the nonsurvivor group, and corresponding mean zinc levels were 46.3 ± 21.7 and 65.6 ± 41.6 μg/dL, respectively. Mean selenium concentrations were significantly different in patients with and without shock (77.9 ± 25.4 and 87.2 ± 23.1 ng/dL, P = .017). Furthermore, mean serum selenium was lower in patients with sepsis than in traumatic or simply postoperative patients (P selenium and zinc levels on critically ill surgical patients, a large-scale prospective study is needed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of or treat cognitive decline in elderly people. Thyroid disease The thyroid gland has high amounts of selenium ... can help treat or reduce the risk of thyroid disease is not clear. More research is needed to ...

  6. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  7. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...

  8. Selenium levels in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls in lower Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, I; Hartmann, T; Brustbauer, R; Minear, G; Dam, K

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases; genetic as well as environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per unit weight. Selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. We investigated a possible difference of selenium serum levels as a marker of nutritional selenium supply between patients with AIT in central Lower Austria and a matched group of healthy persons living in the same region. Selenium serum levels in the patients with AIT were 98.0 ± 15.6 μg/l. A significant difference to the matched group of normal persons, whose selenium serum levels were 103.2 ± 12.4 μg/l, could not be detected by the t-test (p>0.05). We considered the serum selenium levels to be indicators of selenium supply (by alimentation). A serum level of 120-160 μg/l of selenium represents the normal range. According to this, most patients and control persons showed mild to moderate selenium deficiency (80-120 μg/l selenium). Although our data present slightly higher selenium levels in normal persons than in patients with AIT, this weak and statistically insignificant trend is not sufficient to support the conclusion of a link between inadequate selenium supply and autoimmune thyroid disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Zinc and Selenium levels in Motor Mechanics, Paints Sprayers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This work was designed to determine zinc and Selenium levels in Motor Mechanics, Paints Sprayers, Smokers, Lubricant Workers and BatteryWorkers exposed to lead in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 100 exposed subjects were used for the study. The subjects were aged 25-30 years.

  10. Cobalt and Zinc in Toenails of Some Kano Inhabitants | Ayodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of Co and Zn concentrations in toenails of 42 volunteers with a mean age of 25.01 ± 11.46 years and resident in Kano for at least six months were assayed by atomic absorption (AAS). .Significantly high levels of Co and Zn were present in the toenails of some individuals with a mean Co of 75.72 ...

  11. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...

  12. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  13. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F

    2014-09-01

    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of different selenium levels on production performance and biochemical parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for animal and human. Supplementation of Se usually in livestock diet has been proved as effective element. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of selenium yeast on growth performance, slaughter performance, immune trait, oxidation resistance, meat quality and selenium content in tissue of broilers to comprehensively evaluate the effect of selenium. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres (AA broilers were selected and feeded with the diets of treatments supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, l.0 and 2.0 mg/kg organic selenium respectively. The trial period was 42 days and divided into two periods. Our results showed that effect of different levels of selenium on growth performance, slaughter performance, the immune status, drip loss and flesh had not significant difference (P>0.05. The activities of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, total superoxide dismutase (TSOD, the abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical (OH•, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and the content of GSH were significantly increased along with selenium level (P<0.05, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased with organic selenium level (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that organic selenium had no obvious effect on production performance of broilers, but significantly influenced the broiler oxidation resistance.

  15. The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Serum Selenium Levels in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Kose, Engin; Guzel, Orkide

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum selenium levels in children receiving olive oil-based ketogenic diet (KD) for intractable seizures for at least 1 year. Out of 320 patients who were initiated on KD, patients who continued receiving KD for at least 12 months were enrolled. Sixteen patients who had selenium deficiency at the time of starting KD were excluded. Finally, a total of 110 patients (mean age 7.3 ± 4.2 years) were included. Serum selenium levels were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Selenium deficiency was defined as a serum selenium level ketogenic diet suggests that patients on this highly prescriptive dietary treatment need close monitoring of this trace element.

  16. Level of selenium intake the region of algiers ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Tahtat, D.; Aklil, K.; Azbouche, A.; Mozai, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this present work, we have measured the selenium content in different food frequently consumed in the region of Algiers, a nutritional deficiency in selenium may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the function mainly as a protection agent against the toxic effects of free radicals, selenium are related to its presence at the active site of the enzyme glutathion peroxidase. Freeze-dried samples of food were put in cell and measured by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). We have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories (private employers, high commissioned officers, medium commissioned officers, workers, maneuvers ), on the basis of data given by government agencies. We have determined as mean daily consumption of selenium by people in region of Algiers was 130 ug per day

  17. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao Zhidong [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Degang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Tang Xun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Dafang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu Yonghua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yhhu@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 {+-} 0.013 {mu}g/g in soil, 0.017 {mu}g/L {+-} 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 {+-} 0.002 {mu}g/g in rice, and 0.034 {+-} 0.012 {mu}g/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 {+-} 28.35 {mu}g/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 {mu}g/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 {mu}g/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 {mu}g/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 {mu}g/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index ({beta} = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC ({beta} = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure ({beta} = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride ({beta} = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  18. Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jae Hyo; Shin, Dong Gue; Kwon, Yujin; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Sang Soo; Yoon, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We conducted this study to study the clinical correlation between the characteristics of gastric cancer and serum selenium and zinc levels. Materials and Methods The following data were measured in the baseline serum selenium and zinc levels of 74 patients with curative gastrectomy subsequent to confirmed gastric cancer, from March 2005 to August 2012. Results Among the 74 gastric cancer patients, 53 patients were male. Mean serum selenium and zinc levels were 118.7?33.1 ug/L and 72.2...

  19. Determining Selenium Serum Level in Healthy Young Couples by Furnace Atomic Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani nodoushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metal ions are required for various vital body functions and metabolism. Selenium is an active element in selenoproteins and plays an important role in public health, though the increase of its concentration in the body can cause toxicity. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate the serum selenium status of individuals of a society. This study was conducted to determine serum level of selenium in healthy young couples. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 60 young couples who were chosen in 2013 via convenience sampling. The participants' general health was determined using a GHQ28 questionnaire and their serum selenium concentration was measured by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS software utilizing descriptive statistics. Results: The participants' mean age was 23.18 ± 4.31 years. The 44.6% of subjects had university degrees, 35.7% were reported to have diploma and 19.6% were under diploma. The mean serum selenium level was obtained as 89.1 ± 24.2 µg/l in males, and 80.5 ± 20.7 µg/l in females. The data analysis revealed a statistically significant difference of the serum selenium at the 95% confidence level in regard with participants' gender and education level. Conclusion: The present study showed that the mean serum selenium of participants lay in the lower part of its normal range. Regarding the role of selenium in human health and prevention of disease, nutrition education is recommended for taking selenium-rich foods to enhance community health and to prevent disease progression

  20. Status and interrelationship of toenail elements in Pacific children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatela, Shamshad; Ward, Neil I; Zeng, Irene Suilan; Paterson, Janis

    2018-03-01

    Elemental deficiencies or in excess effects growth and development. Pacific population are at a disadvantage due to food insecurity as compared to New Zealand European households. This study aims to evaluate the status and interrelationship of elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) in nine-year-old Pacific children who were part of the Pacific Island Families Study living in New Zealand. This observational study included 278 eligible nine-year-old children. Essential elements (including calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc, molybdenum), non-essential and toxic elements (arsenic, aluminum, antimony, boron, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel,) were determined in toenails and after acid digestion, analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to identify differences in the groups of elements and the inter-correlations between elements. The mean calcium (868μg/g Ca), selenium (0.35μg/g Se) and zinc (129μg/g Zn) concentrations were lower while the mean cadmium (0.21μg/g Cd) lead (0.86μg/g Pb) and mercury (0.72μg/g Hg) concentrations were higher than the optimal health requirements. Ethnic differences in relation to toenail elemental concentrations were observed for aluminium and iron. Gender differences were observed for aluminium, antimony, arsenic and lead. Selenium and molybdenum were inversely associated with mercury. Manganese, zinc and calcium were positively associated. This research contributes to the understanding of the elemental concentrations for Pacific children by using tissue samples from toenails, which improves the completeness of sampling than other tissues and provides a longer exposure time frame. The study also reports several inter-correlations between essential, non-essential and toxic elements in Pacific Island population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Interplay between Selenium Levels and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. We previously reported that the long-term growth of young WI-38 cells with high (supplemented, moderate (control, or low (depleted concentrations of selenium in the culture medium impacts their replicative lifespan, due to rapid changes in replicative senescence-associated markers and signaling pathways. In order to gain insight into the molecular link between selenium levels and replicative senescence, in the present work, we have applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on 2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE to the study of young and presenescent cells grown in selenium-supplemented, control, or depleted media. Applying a restrictive cut-off (spot intensity ±50% and a p value < 0.05 to the 2D-DIGE analyses revealed 81 differentially expressed protein spots, from which 123 proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry. We compared the changes in protein abundance for three different conditions: (i spots varying between young and presenescent cells, (ii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in young cells, and (iii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in presenescent cells. Interestingly, a 72% overlap between the impact of senescence and selenium was observed in our proteomic results, demonstrating a strong interplay between

  2. Serum Levels of Selenium, Zinc, Copper and Magnesium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Free radicals have harmful effects on cells and tissues and are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases including bronchial asthma. Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) are trace elements required for the antioxidant enzymes and hence the optimal functions of ...

  3. 2. Serum Selenium levels in Essential hypertension among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases . Selenium a co-factor of antioxidant enzyme is found incorporated in some antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. (GPx). Antioxidant enzymes are crucial in prevention of oxidative stress ...

  4. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc and selenium levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus at Medani Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H Z; Elbashir, L M; Hamdan, S Z; Elhassan, E M; Adam, I

    2014-10-01

    Gestational diabetes is a common medical disorder in pregnancy. There is a growing body of evidence of the association between zinc, selenium status and diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted at Medani Hospital, Sudan, to compare zinc and selenium levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women (controls). The two groups (31 in each arm) were well-matched in age, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin and body mass index. Zinc and selenium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences in the median (interquartile) zinc (498.9 [395-703] vs 486.4 [404-667] μg/l, p = 0.905) and selenium (164.4 [61-415] vs 204 [68-541] μg/l, p = 0.838) values between the two groups. There were no significant correlations between zinc and selenium, or between these trace elements and body mass index, gestational age and blood glucose levels.

  6. Relationship between drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations among a cohort of Nova Scotians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijie M; Dummer, Trevor J B; Adams, Aimee; Murimboh, John D; Parker, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water is associated with increased cancer risk. The relationship between arsenic body burden, such as concentrations in human toenails, and arsenic in drinking water is not fully understood. We evaluated the relationship between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenail clippings among a cohort of Nova Scotians. A total of 960 men and women aged 35 to 69 years provided home drinking water and toenail clipping samples. Information on water source and treatment use and covariables was collected through questionnaires. Arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenail clippings and anthropometric indices were measured. Private drilled water wells had higher arsenic concentrations compared with other dug wells and municipal drinking water sources (Pwater arsenic levels ≥1 μg/l, there was a significant relationship between drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations (r=0.46, Pwater, obese individuals had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic in toenails compared with those with a normal weight. Private drilled water wells were an important source of arsenic exposure in the study population. Body weight modifies the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and toenail arsenic concentrations.

  7. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...

  8. Significance of fingernail and toenail mercury concentrations as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury exposure in relation to segmental hair mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing M; Domingo, José L; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition for detecting prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations were measured in 54 paired samples of fingernails, toenails, maternal blood, and maternal hair (1cm incremental segments from the scalp toward the tip) collected at 4th weeks of (early) pregnancy, and the same specimens and cord blood collected at parturition. Strong correlations were observed between Hg concentrations in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy (r=0.923, pMercury concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition represented strong correlations with those in cord blood (r=0.803, pMercury in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy reflected the maternal Hg body burden level approximately 5 months retroactively. At parturition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails also showed strong correlations with those in cord blood. In addition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails at parturition reflected more recent MeHg exposure, compared with those at early pregnancy. These results suggest that fingernails and toenails at parturition are useful biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure for mothers and fetuses, especially during the third-trimester of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between serum levels of testosterone, zinc and selenium in infertile males attending fertility clinic in Nnewi, south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluboyo, A O; Adijeh, R U; Onyenekwe, C C; Oluboyo, B O; Mbaeri, T C; Odiegwu, C N; Chukwuma, G O; Onwuasoanya, U F

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, male infertility and sub-fertility have increased, which is attributable to many factors. Some trace elements such as zinc and selenium have been shown to play a role in reproduction. The study was designed to determine the serum levels of zinc, selenium and testosterone in infertile males attending fertility clinic in Nnewi. We investigated fifty apparently infertile males (subjects) and twenty apparently healthy fertile males (controls) between the ages of twenty five and fifty five years. The serum levels of zinc and selenium were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while the serum level of testosterone was determined using Enzyme Immunoassay techniques. The results showed that there were significant differences in the mean serum zinc, selenium and testosterone when compared between the two groups. The results also showed a strong positive correlation between serum levels of zinc and selenium, a negative correlation between serum levels of testosterone and zinc, and a strong positive correlation between serum testosterone and selenium in the infertile males. We therefore conclude that there is a relationship between the serum levels of zinc, selenium and testosterone in infertile males and that these parameters be considered when investigating cases of infertility in males.

  10. Elemental analysis of Korean adult toenail using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Ha; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The elemental contents in a toenail as a biological sample may depend on the dietary habit and health status. In this study, the inorganic elements in Korean adult toenail were determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Toenail samples were collected from Korean adults, and the total number of samples was 50. The collected samples were pretreated and analyzed using INAA facilities at the HANARO research reactor. 15 elements, i.e., Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Se, V, and Zn in the toenail samples were determined and evaluated for the level of elemental concentration. Finally, correlation between 15 elements was examined. It is found that Mn-V, Na-Cl, Br-K, and Cr-Fe seem to be in close correlation. (author)

  11. Laser treatment for toenail fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M.; McDowell, Brian A.; Strisower, John

    2009-02-01

    An infrared pulsed laser was used to irradiate toenails with visible signs of bacterial/fungal infections. Seventeen subjects with both great toes involved were recruited in a podiatric private practice. Toes were randomized to receive either a single treatment or no treatment. The treatment was tolerated by all subjects without anesthesia and there were no occurrences of serious adverse effects. Eleven out of 14 (79%) treated toes improved. Improvement ranged from 2.1 to 6.1 mm over 90 days following a single treatment. There was a highly significant difference (pnail bed clearing.

  12. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  13. Effects of different medical treatments on serum copper, selenium and zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal, Suleyman; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çolak, Mesut; Bulut, Vedat; Flores-Arce, Manuel F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the changes in serum selenium, zinc, and copper in patients being treated for rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-two patients and 52 healthy controls were included in the study. The copper level was higher and those of selenium and zinc were lower in the patients relative to controls. Treatment with methotrexate elevated the zinc levels, but not zinc and selenium. Treatments with salazopyrin, corticosteroids, chloroquine, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs did not change the levels of any of the elements studied. The decrease in zinc and selenium levels and elevation in copper levels observed in the patients probably resulted from the defense response of organism and are mediated by inflammatory-like substances.

  14. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  15. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  16. Zinc, copper, and selenium tissue levels and their relation to subcutaneous abscess, minor surgery, and wound healing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Martin, Alicia; Jorgensen, Lars N; Sampson, Barry; Ågren, Magnus S

    2013-06-01

    Trace element involvement in wounds left to heal by secondary intention needs clarification. We have previously reported faster healing of wounds following acute surgery compared with elective excision of pilonidal sinus disease. The effect of topical zinc on the closure of the excisional wounds was mediocre compared with placebo. In contrast, parenteral zinc, copper, and selenium combined appear effective for wound healing in humans. We have investigated zinc, copper, and selenium with respect to (a) impact of acute versus chronic pilonidal sinus and (b) regional concentrations within granulating wounds treated topically with placebo or zinc in 42 (33 males) pilonidal disease patients. Baseline serum and skin concentrations of copper correlated (r S = 0.351, p = 0.033, n = 37), but not of zinc or selenium. Patients with abscesses had elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and copper levels (+29 %; p Selenium levels were increased in wound edge compared to wound base (p = 0.003). Topical zinc oxide treatment doubled (p zinc concentrations in the three tissue localizations without concomitant significant changes of copper or selenium levels. In conclusion, copper and selenium are mobilized to injured sites possibly to enhance host defense and early wound healing mechanisms that are complementary to the necessity of zinc for matrix metalloproteinase activity.

  17. A "Pedi" Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C Adams

    Full Text Available Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p<0.0001 with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution. Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54; however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p<0.0001. Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90% for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63. This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice.

  18. Associations between Diet and Toenail Arsenic Concentration among Pregnant Women in Bangladesh: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-I. D. Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and at Postpartum Month 1, using a locally-validated dish-based semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Toenail As concentration was analyzed by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between natural log-transformed consumption of individual food items and temporally matched natural log-transformed toenail As concentration were quantified using general linear models that accounted for As concentration in the primary drinking water source and other potential confounders. The analysis was stratified by As in drinking water (≤50 μg/L versus >50 μg/L and the time of dietary assessment (Gestation Week 28 versus Postpartum Week 1. Interestingly, toenail As was not significantly associated with consumption of plain rice as hypothesized. However, toenail As was positively associated with consumption of several vegetable, fish and meat items and was negatively associated with consumption of rice, cereal, fruits, and milk based food items. Further studies in pregnant women are needed to compare As metabolism at different levels of As exposure and the interaction between dietary composition and As absorption.

  19. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  20. Assessment of tolerant sunfish populations (Lepomis sp.) inhabiting selenium-laden coal ash effluents - 1. Hematological and population level assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohner, T.W.; Reash, R.J.; Willet, V.E.; Rose, L.A. [American Electrical Power Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Services Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Sunfish were collected from coal ash effluent-receiving streams and Ohio River watershed reference sites to assess the effects of exposure to low-level selenium concentrations. Selenium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were statistically higher in tissue samples from exposed fish than in reference fish. Leukopenia, lymphocytosis, and neutropenia were evident in exposed fish and were indicative of metal exposure and effect. White blood cell counts and percent lymphocyte values were significantly correlated with liver selenium concentrations. Plasma protein levels were significantly lower in exposed fish than in fish from the Ohio River, indicating that exposed fish may have been nutritionally stressed. Condition factors for fish from the ash pond-receiving streams were the same as, or lower than, those of fish from the reference sites. There was no evidence that the growth rate of fish in the receiving streams differed from that of fish in the reference streams. Despite liver selenium concentrations which exceeded reported toxicity thresholds and evidence of significant hematological changes, there were no significant differences in fish condition factors, liver-somatic indices, or length-weight regressions related to selenium.

  1. Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinceti, Marco; Venturelli, Marianna; Sighinolfi, Chiara; Trerotoli, Paolo; Bonvicini, Francesca; Ferrari, Angela; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Serio, Gabriella; Bergomi, Margherita; Vivoli, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    A role of cadmium exposure in prostate cancer etiology has been suggested by epidemiologic and laboratory studies, but conclusive evidence on this topic is still lacking. We investigated the relation between cadmium exposure, estimated by determining toenails cadmium levels, and prostate cancer risk in forty patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and fifty-eight hospital controls recruited in two provinces from southern and northern Italy. We found an excess cancer risk in subjects in the third and fourth (highest) quartiles of toenail cadmium concentration (odds ratio 1.3 and 4.7, respectively) compared with subjects in the bottom quartile. Results were basically unchanged when limiting the analysis to each province or entering toenail cadmium concentrations as continuous values in the regression model (P = 0.004). Despite the limited statistical stability of the point estimates, these findings appear to support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure increases prostate cancer risk

  2. Selenium and antioxidant levels decreased in blood of children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khaled; Farghaly, Hikma S; Badry, Reda; Othman, Hisham A K

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that the imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems might be involved in the pathophysiology of breath-holding spells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant status in children with breath-holding spells compared to healthy children. In a case control study, 67 children with breath-holding spells were compared with 60 healthy children. Malondialdehyde values of the patients were significantly higher than those in control. Levels of selenium, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase of the patient group are significantly lower than those in control. The present study gives helpful data about oxidant-antioxidant systems alterations in breath-holding spells in such a large patient group. These data give support to the hypothesis of the imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems, and selenium deficiency might be involved in the pathophysiology of breath-holding spells, suggesting the role of this system dysregulation in breath-holding spells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Zinc, copper, and selenium tissue levels and their relation to subcutaneous abscess, minor surgery, and wound healing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Martin Moreno, Alicia; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    was mediocre compared with placebo. In contrast, parenteral zinc, copper, and selenium combined appear effective for wound healing in humans. We have investigated zinc, copper, and selenium with respect to (a) impact of acute versus chronic pilonidal sinus and (b) regional concentrations within granulating...... wounds treated topically with placebo or zinc in 42 (33 males) pilonidal disease patients. Baseline serum and skin concentrations of copper correlated (r S = 0.351, p = 0.033, n = 37), but not of zinc or selenium. Patients with abscesses had elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and copper levels (+29......Trace element involvement in wounds left to heal by secondary intention needs clarification. We have previously reported faster healing of wounds following acute surgery compared with elective excision of pilonidal sinus disease. The effect of topical zinc on the closure of the excisional wounds...

  4. Growth hormone inhibition causes increased selenium levels in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a possible new approach to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collipp, P J; Kelemen, J; Chen, S Y; Castro-Magana, M; Angulo, M; Derenoncourt, A

    1984-01-01

    Nine children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were given Sanorex (mazindol), a growth hormone inhibitor, daily for 6 months. There was no significant change in their muscle function, but there was a significant reduction in weight gain and in levels of growth hormone, somatomedin C, hair zinc, serum zinc, and serum LDH. Selenium and glutathione peroxidase in the serum increased significantly. Thirteen other children with growth hormone deficiency had a significant reduction in hair selenium following growth hormone administration. These results show a significant relationship between growth hormone and selenium nutritional status and confirm our previous reports indicating an effect of growth hormone on zinc nutritional status. It is possible that prolonged therapy with a growth hormone inhibitor would attenuate the course and improve the longevity of patients with muscular dystrophy. PMID:6492089

  5. Association between serum selenium level and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Liang; Yang, Tu-Bao; Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-Hua; Zeng, Chao

    2016-05-04

    The association between serum selenium levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is controversial. We performed a systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies to investigate the association in the present study. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. A pooled odds ratio (OR) and related 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) for T2DM between the highest and lowest serum selenium categories, and a non-linear dose-response relationship between selenium and T2DM were estimated. A total of five studies (of 13,460 participants) were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The pooled OR indicated that there was a significantly higher prevalence of T2DM in the highest category of blood selenium compared with the lowest (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.56, P = 0.033). Moreover, a significant non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between serum selenium levels and T2DM (P 132.5 μg/l). The positive association between serum selenium levels and T2DM existed in populations with relatively low levels and high levels of serum selenium, indicating a likely U-shaped non-linear dose-response relationship between serum selenium and T2DM.

  6. Effect of different levels of selenium and vitamin E on blood biochemical parameters in the Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein zadeh adamnejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-administration of vitamin E and selenium has positive effects on growth performance of avian species, but their effect is not fully elicited in the Japanese quail. Also, controversial reports exist for the effect of vitamin E and selenium on avian performance. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of selenium (0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and vitamin E (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg in the diet of the Japanese quail. Birds received mesh diet from the start of the study, then selenium and vitamin E were added on day 17. At the end of the study, after food deprivation for 6 hours, Japanese quail (1 male and 1 female were selected and blood samples collected for biochemical investigations and determination of glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. There was significant decrease in cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels and significant decrease in albumin and total protein levels on day 35 (p

  7. [Interaction of plasma selenium levels and D12S304 gene site in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease analyzed by multifactor dimensionality reduction software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhiguang; Liu, Li; Guo, Xiong

    2011-07-01

    To explore the interaction of plasma selenium levels and D12S304 gene site in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Case-control design was taken to compare the difference of plasma selenium levels and genotype of D12S304 between KBD patients and non-patients, and the interactions were analyzed by MDR software. Plasma selenium levels was lower in the case group than in the control group, while the D12S304 gene site was not different between the two groups, and no interaction between plasma selenium and genotype was observed. There was no interaction between plasma selenium and genotype at D12S304. Enlarging sample size or selecting another gene site might be needed in exploring the gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of KBD.

  8. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol, -tocopherol and selenium in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-09

    Aug 9, 2014 ... 2) at 3000g for 5 minutes. The plasma obtained was separated into plane serum bottles and stored frozen (-200C) until analysed. Determination of selenium and tocopherols. Plasma selenium was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) using a direct method described by. Kaneko.[14].

  9. Selenium protection against toxicity from cadmium and mercury studied at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, U; Danersund, A; Lindvall, A

    1996-02-01

    Interaction between selenium and the heavy metals cadmium and mercury was studied in an experimental rat model (Sprague-Dawley). The rats were administered either one single trace element or combinations of selenium and cadmium as well as selenium and mercury. Salts of these trace elements were administered intraperitoneally daily during thirty days. Thereafter the animals were sacrificed and kidneys and livers excised rapidly. Thin sections were produced by a cryotome and subsequently freeze-dried. Nuclear microscopy of the sections showed that in the combination groups there was a co-localization of selenium and the heavy metals. None of the expected pathological signs of cadmium and mercury toxicity were observed. The conclusion was that selenium exerted a protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and mercury through mechanisms still to be unveiled.

  10. Effects of selenium-rich yeast supplementation on the plasma progesterone levels of postpartum dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachiro Kamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of the pre- and postpartum supplementation of cows with Se on their plasma P4 concentrations after calving were investigated. Methods Thirty-four Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the postpartum recovery of the luteal function in cows. Selenium-rich yeast (containing 300 ppm selenium was mixed with total mixed ration fed to 17 pregnant cows from 30 days before they were due to calve (10 g yeast daily to 100 days after calving (20 g yeast daily. The control cows (n = 17 were fed the same amount of ordinary yeast. The cows’ plasma progesterone concentrations were determined every two days using an enzyme immunoassay after calving. Results Feed intake (total digestive nutrient, crude protein, milk production, body weight and the biochemical properties of blood plasma did not differ between the two groups; however, the plasma selenium concentrations of the supplemented animals were significantly greater than those of the controls at and after calving. The postpartum plasma progesterone concentrations of the selenium-yeast-supplemented group increased earlier than those of the control group. Moreover, during the estrus cycle after the 3rd ovulation or ovulation with estrus between 60 to 80 days after calving, the selenium-supplemented cows exhibited greater progesterone concentrations than the control cows. Conclusion Selenium supplementation promotes the postpartum progesterone production of cows.

  11. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.

  12. [Changes in serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper in patients on a ketogenic diet using Ketonformula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hiejima, Ikuko; Miyajima, Tomoko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    Ketogenic diets tend to cause trace mineral deficiencies. Ketonformula is a foumula for a ketogenic diet developed by Meiji Co Ltd in Japan. No reports are available on the trace mineral deficiencies associated with a use of Ketonformula. We monitored the serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper as well as the amount of the daily intake of these minerals before and at 6 months after the initiation of the ketogenic diet with Ketonformula in six patients with intractable epilepsy associated with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. The median serum selenium concentration decreased from 7.0 (range, 6.5-12.3) microg/dl to 6.2 (5.4-10.9) microg/dl as a result of the 6-month-treatment with Ketonformula (p selenium intake decreased from 17.8 (15.0-27.0) microg/day at the baseline to 5.5 (5.0-22.0) microg/day after 6 months on the diet (p zinc concentration increased slightly (from 66.0 (46.0-84.0) microg/dl to 68.0 (46.0-71.0) microg/dl), but the difference was not significant. The median daily zinc intake, however, significantly decreased from 4.2 (3.7-6.0) mg/day to 2.2 (2.0-3.0) mg/day (p selenium concentrations and daily enteral intakes of selenium, zinc, and copper after 6 months on Ketonformula suggested that patients on this ketogenic formula needs close monitoring as well as supplementation of these trace minerals.

  13. Selenium, zinc, and copper plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia: relationship with metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Dorđević, Brižita; Milovanović, Srđan; Škrivanj, Sandra; Pavlović, Zoran; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the plasma selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels and to evaluate their possible association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in patients with schizophrenia. The study group consisted of 60 patients with schizophrenia and 60 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical analysis of fasting blood were performed in all subjects. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher plasma Cu concentrations compared with controls (0.97 ± 0.31 vs. 0.77 ± 0.32 mg/L, p = 0.001). The plasma Cu concentration showed a positive correlation with plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure in the patient groups (r s = 0.263, p < 0.05 and r s = 0.272, p < 0.05, respectively). The plasma Se level correlated positive with MetS score (r s = 0.385, p < 0.01), waist circumference (r s = 0.344, p < 0.05), plasma glucose (r s = 0.319, p < 0.05), and triglyceride concentrations (r s = 0.462, p < 0.001) in patients with schizophrenia. Plasma Zn did not correlate with any of the MetS components. These results suggest that alterations in plasma Cu and Se levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia could be associated with metabolic risk factors.

  14. Comparison of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, hydroxyproline and selenium levels in patients with vitiligo and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology and pathophysiologic mechanism of vitiligo are still unclear. The relationship between increased oxidative stress due to the accumulation of radicals and reactive oxygen species and the associated changes in blood and epidermal component of vitiliginous skin have been reported many times. We investigated the possible changes of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, selenium, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo in order to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and HPLC was used for measurement of selenium concentrations. Results: Our results showed increased malondialdehyde, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in plasma of vitiligo group ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Support of antioxidant system via nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes may be useful to prevent of melanocyte degeneration which occur due to oxidative damage in vitiligo.

  15. Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meliker, Jaymie R; Meeker, John D; Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2012-01-01

    The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case-control study in southeastern Michigan. Total arsenic in water and arsenic species in urine were determined using ICP-MS: arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As[III]), arsenate (As[V]), methylarsenic acid (MMA[V]), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA[V]). The sum of As[III], As[V], MMA[V], and DMA[V] was denoted as SumAs. Dietary information was obtained through a self-reported food intake questionnaire. Log(10)-transformed drinking water arsenic concentration at home was a significant (Pwater were removed and further improved when analyses were applied to individuals who consumed amounts of home drinking water above the median volume (R(2)=0.40, Pwater was 0.42. Results show that arsenic exposure from drinking water consumption is an important determinant of urinary arsenic concentrations, even in a population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic in drinking water, and suggest that seafood intake may influence urinary DMA[V] concentrations.

  16. Selenium plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: comparison between North and Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Pinto, Milena Barcza; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Suellen Regina Geraldo; Farage, Najla Elias; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Mafra, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil. The objective of this work was to compare the Se status in hemodialysis (HD) patients from North and Southeast of Brazil. Thirty-eight patients from Southeast region (22 men and 16 women, 15% diabetic, 53.5 ± 26.4 yrs) were compared to 40 patients from North region (28 men and 12 women, 22.5% diabetic, 63.5 ± 11.9 yrs). Se in plasma was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. The plasma Se levels in patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 11.9 μg/L) when compared to patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 μg/L) (p region present higher plasma Se levels when compared to the patients from Southeast of Brazil. However, independently of the region, HD patients presented Se deficiency.

  17. Selenium and aflatoxin levels in raw Brazil nuts from the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ariane M; Scussel, Vildes M

    2007-12-26

    Whereas selenium (Se) is an important antioxidant in human metabolism to prevent cancer, aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic. Brazil nuts from Eastern and Western Amazon regions were evaluated to find any relationship between Se and aflatoxins levels. A total of 80 (in-shell and shelled) nuts samples were collected directly from different forest sites and analyzed for Se by atomic emission spectrometry and aflatoxins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for Se was 2.0 mg/kg, and LOQ for total aflatoxins was 0.390 microg/kg. Nut Se levels from the Eastern region were higher than the Western, in addition to the aflatoxins. The moisture content (mc) and water activity (aw) of the raw nuts from the two regions did not present a significant difference, for either in-shell or shelled. The mc was 24.5% (minimum of 20.1% and maximum of 30.4%) and 22.1% (minimum of 14.6% and maximum of 28.9%) and a w of 0.85 for both regions. Further studies need to be carried out to discover the role of Se on fungi growth stress and aflatoxin production mechanisms.

  18. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  19. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  20. Study of some antioxidant enzymes and selenium levels in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex of clinical, chemical and metabolic disturbances that resulted from chronic reduction in renal function. Despite of many investigations on the pathogenesis of CRF, much remains unexplained. Studies of disorders of oxidative metabolism have indicated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of symptoms and complications of this disease. Therefore, selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in 25 children (15 males and 10 females) with advanced CRF. They were diagnosed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6-17 years with mean of 11.4 ± 3.54 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects (8 males and 7 females) matched in age were served as controls. This study revealed a very high significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The level of plasma Se concentration in patients was very highly significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between Se and total protein and albumin. Furthermore, there were negative correlations between Se, SOD, GSH-Px and both of blood urea and serum creatinine among uremic children. It could be concluded that plasma Se concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) in uremic children could be helpful in identifying the progress of kidney impairment and the response of the treatment

  1. The Circulating Levels of Selenium, Zinc, Midkine, Some Inflammatory Cytokines, and Angiogenic Factors in Mitral Chordae Tendineae Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Birsen; Akdemir, Ramazan; Vatan, M Bulent; Cinemre, F Behice; Cinemre, Hakan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Bahtiyar, Nurten; Buyukokuroglu, M Emin; Gurol, Gonul; Ogut, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Chordae tendineae rupture process is associated with increased production of inflammatory and angiogenesis mediators in connective tissues, which contributes to chronic inflammation and pathogenesis of degenerative chordae. A few trace elements are known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether zinc, selenium, midkine (MK), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels are associated with inflammation and angiogenesis processes in the context of a potential etiology causing aggravation of mitral regurgitation and/or ruptured chordae tendineae. Seventy-one subjects comprising 34 patients with mitral chordae tendineae rupture (MCTR) and 37 healthy controls diagnosed on the basis of their clinical profile and transthoracic echocardiography were included in this study. The levels of GSH, MK, selenium, and zinc were found to be lower in the patients group when compared to control group. There were no significant difference in plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF-A, and PDGF-BB levels between two groups. There were positive significant correlations between MK and GSH, MK, and selenium levels in patients with MCTR. According to our data in which selenium, zinc, MK, and GSH decreased in MCTR patients, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and trace element levels may contribute to etiopathogenesis of mitral regurgitation and/or ruptured chordae tendineae.

  2. Selenium supplementation modulates zinc levels and antioxidant values in blood and tissues of diabetic rats fed zinc-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Wided; Kechrid, Zine; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Flores-Arce, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated to a reduction of antioxidant defenses that leads to oxidative stress and complications in diabetic individuals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of selenium on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and tissue zinc levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. The rats were divided into two groups; the first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet, while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. Half of each group was treated orally with 0.5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Tissue and blood samples were taken from all animals after 28 days of treatment. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain and food intake of the zinc-deficient diabetic animals were lower than that of zinc-adequate diabetic animals. Inadequate dietary zinc intake increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver lipid peroxidation levels. In contrast, serum protein, reduced glutathione, plasma zinc and tissue levels were decreased. A zinc-deficient diet led also to an increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and liver glutathione-S-transferase and to a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione peroxidase. Selenium treatment ameliorated all the values approximately to their normal levels. In conclusion, selenium supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant led to an improvement of insulin activity, significantly reducing the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes.

  3. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Valdes, M.; Torboli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-04-15

    The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether...... this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic...... arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium...

  6. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Correlation of Selenium and Zinc Levels to Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes in Thai HIV-infected Children without Severe HIV Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Kerr, Stephen; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chomtho, Sirinuch; van der Lugt, Jasper; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in antioxidants contribute to immune dysregulation and viral replication. Objective To evaluate the correlation of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels on the treatment outcomes in HIV-infected children. Design HIV-infected Thai children 1–12 years old, CD4 15–24%, without severe HIV symptoms were included. Se and Zn levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at baseline and 48 weeks. Deficiency cut-offs were Seselenium and ART treatment outcomes were found. Higher pre-ART Zn levels were associated with significant increases in CD4 percent at 48 weeks. PMID:22713768

  8. Different levels of prenatal zinc and selenium had different effects on neonatal neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yu, XiaoDan; Fu, HuanHuan; Li, LuanLuan; Ren, TianHong

    2013-07-01

    Either deficient or excessive of essential nutrients had adverse effects. Effects of different levels of prenatal zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) on fetal neurobehavioral development remain unclear. To determine the effects of different cord serum levels of Zn and Se on neurobehavioral development in neonates and to explore possible threshold level of Zn and Se based on fetal neurodevelopment, we conducted this epidemiological research. In the multi-center study, we investigated these questions in 927 mother-newborn pairs in Shanghai, China, from 2008 through 2009. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of Zn and Se were measured and Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) tests were conducted. The median cord serum Zn and Se concentrations were 794.3 μg/L and 63.1 μg/L, respectively. A nonlinear relationship was observed between cord serum Zn and NBNA after adjusting for potential confounders. NBNA score decreased with increasing Zn levels after 794.3 μg/L (adjusted β=-3.0, 95% CI: -3.6 to -2.4, p<0.001). Additionally, an invert U-shape with a threshold Se of 100 μg/L was observed between cord serum Se and NBNA. The adjusted regression coefficient was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.6-5.2, p<0.001) for Se<100 μg/L while -3.6 (95% CI: -6.1 to -1.1, p<0.01) for Se≥100 μg/L. Of the 927 infants, 50% had a high level Zn (≥794.3 μg/L) and 8.6% had a high level Se (≥100 μg/L). High levels of both Zn and Se mainly had adverse effects on behavior and passive tone (p<0.001). Taken together, our study suggested that a threshold of cord blood Zn and Se was existed for fetal neurodevelopment and the prevalence of excessive Zn was high. Thus, the supplementation of Zn during pregnancy should be considered with caution in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc and selenium levels in selected and ethnic/regional foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, I.; Lane, H.W.; Warren, D.C.; Whaley, B.S. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA))

    Zinc and/or selenium contents of 73 foods, many of them regional favorites, were reported. Trace element concentrations of foods were determine on homogenates and expressed in terms of portion size (common serving size) and 100 g wet weight. Zinc analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry; selenium was monitored spectrofluorometrically. On a 100-g wet-weight basis, some of the better sources of zinc included cheddar and Swiss cheese, wheat crackers, and granola bar; among ethnic/regional foods, beef burrito, chili, cornbread, enchiladas, okar, shrimp gumbo, pecan pie, and turnip greens provide from 0.8 to 1.5 mg of zinc/portion size. Among the best sources of selenium were foods prepared with or milk products and local favorites including burrito, chicken enchilada, Gulf Coast red drum fish, shrimp gumbo, and taco. No foods analyzed were outstanding zinc sources, i.e. a food(s) that would provide a significant amount of the daily zinc requirement; in contrast, several foods were outstanding selenium sources.

  10. The effects of different levels of vitamin-E and organic selenium on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results of the present study, it could be concluded that utilization of organic selenium plus vitamin E in diets was effective for improving the performance and immune system of laying hens. Keywords: Vitamin-E, selenomethionine, laying hen, performance, immune system.

  11. Association between selenium plasma levels and muscle function in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B Stockler-Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a well-known antioxidant with a critical role in the proper functioning of nervous and muscle functions. In the last decade, many authors have suggested that Se may be a potent protective agent for neurons and myocytes through selenoprotein expression in the brain, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Low Se status has been associated with reduced coordination, motor speed and muscle strength. Reduced muscle function is common in hemodialysis (HD patients; however, no study evaluated the association between muscle function and Se levels in HD patients. The objective of this study was to correlate muscle function with Se plasma levels in HD patients. Twenty HD patients (12 men, 54.5±15.2 yr; 81.7±52.8 months on HD from RenalCor Clinic at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. Blood samples were collected during fasting, before a regular HD session. The Se plasma levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation (Hitachi, Z-500 and handgrip strength (HGS was measured three times with a mechanical dynamometer (Jamar after HD sessions in the non-fistula side and the highest value was used for analysis. HGS values less than the 10th percentile of an age-, gender- and regional specific reference were considered as muscle function loss. Plasma Se levels (31.9±14.8 μg/L were below the normal range (60-120 μg/L and all patients were Se deficient. HGS values were significantly greater in males (31.0±11.5 kg vs 14.0±6.8 kg for females (p=0.001 and the muscle function loss was observed in 50% of patients and, those with muscle function loss presented low Se levels (26.5±12.1 μg/L when compared to patients with preserved muscle function (39.12±14.5 μg/L (p=0.05. These data suggest that Se can have an important role on muscle function in HD patients. However, more research is needed to better understand this possible relationship in CKD patients.

  12. Total antioxidant status of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium levels in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuonghae, Patrick O; Aberare, Lewis O; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Osazuwa, Favour; Dirisu, John O; Ogbuzulu, Johanna; Omoregie, Richard; Igbinuwen, Moses

    2011-05-01

    Frequent exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) is common and could be a risk factor for liver dysfunction in those occupationally exposed. A possible association between PMS fumes and plasma total antioxidant status as well as plasma levels of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium using a rodent model could provide new insights into the pathology of the liver where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant status and plasma levels of zinc, copper, selenium and manganese in those occupationally exposed using rodent model. 25 albino Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. The animals were divided into five groups of five rats in each group. Group 1 rats were not exposed to PMS fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the determination of plasma total antioxidant status as well as plasma levels of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium. Results showed significant increases in means of plasma copper (69.70±0.99 for test and 69.20±1.02 for control, P levels of zinc (137.40±4.06 for test and 147.80±2.52 for control) and manganese (65.75±1.02 for test and 70.00±0.71 for control) showed significant decrease (P level of total antioxidant status (TAS) did not differ significantly in exposed rats when compared with the control group. This study showed that frequent exposure to PMS fumes may lead to increase plasma levels of copper and selenium probably due to liver dysfunction and decrease in plasma levels of zinc and manganese probably as a result of interference in their metabolic pathway of the exposed groups.

  13. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, Melanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 μg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 μg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 μg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 μg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 μg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 μg/g, 1.9-1437 μg/g) and Sr (38.7 μg/g, 3.3-173 μg/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  14. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, Melanie, E-mail: lemire.melanie@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Fillion, Myriam [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando [Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee [Instituto de Biofisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 {mu}g/g; range: 0.4-158.4 {mu}g/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 {mu}g/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 {mu}g/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 {mu}g/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 {mu}g/g, 1.9-1437 {mu}g/g) and Sr (38.7 {mu}g/g, 3.3-173 {mu}g/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  15. 78 FR 22442 - Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... children, has been linked to selenium deficiency. Keshan disease occurs in areas of China where the population has severe selenium deficiency. Chronic selenium toxicity (selenosis) has also been observed in... adult values on the basis of body weight and with a factor allowed for growth (Ref. 2). Although...

  16. Selenium plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: Comparison between North and Southeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stockler-Pinto,Milena Barcza; Malm,Olaf; Azevedo,Suellen Regina Geraldo; Farage,Najla Elias; Dorneles,Paulo Renato; Cozzolino,Silvia Maria Franciscato; Mafra,Denise

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil. Objective: The objective of ...

  17. Lower serum levels of selenium, copper, and zinc are related to neuromotor impairments in children with konzo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumoko, G M-M; Sadiki, N H; Rwatambuga, A; Kayembe, K P; Okitundu, D L; Mumba Ngoyi, D; Muyembe, J-J T; Banea, J-P; Boivin, M J; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2015-02-15

    We assessed the relationship between key trace elements and neurocognitive and motor impairments observed in konzo, a motor neuron disease associated with cassava cyanogenic exposure in nutritionally challenged African children. Serum concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, selenium, and neurotoxic lead, mercury, manganese, cadmium, and cobalt were measured in 123 konzo children (mean age 8.53 years) and 87 non-konzo children (mean age 9.07 years) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Concentrations of trace elements were compared and related to performance scores on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II) for cognition and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test, 2nd edition (BOT-2) for motor proficiency. Children with konzo had low levels of selenium, copper, and zinc relative to controls. Selenium concentration significantly correlated with serum 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane (Spearman r=0.75, p<0.01) and BOT-2 scores (r=0.31, p=0.00) in children with konzo. Elemental deficiency was not associated with poor cognition. Mean (SD) urinary level of thiocyanate was 388.03 (221.75) μmol/l in non-konzo compared to 518.59 (354.19) μmol/l in konzo children (p<0.01). Motor deficits associated with konzo may possibly be driven by the combined effects of cyanide toxicity and Se deficiency on prooxidant mechanisms. Strategies to prevent konzo may include dietary supplementation with trace elements, preferentially, those with antioxidant and cyanide-scavenging properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low levels of methylmercury induce DNA damage in rats: protective effects of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotto, Denise; Barcelos, Gustavo R.M.; Antunes, Lusania M.G.; Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Valentini, Juliana [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Angeli, Jose Pedro F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this study we examined the possible antigenotoxic effect of selenium (Se) in rats chronically exposed to low levels of methylmercury (MeHg) and the association between glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and DNA lesions (via comet assay) in the same exposed animals. Rats were divided into six groups as follows: (Group I) received water; (Group II) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day); (Group III) received Se (2 mg/L drinking water); (Group IV) received Se (6 mg/L drinking water); (Group V) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day) and Se (2 mg/L drinking water); (Group VI) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day) and Se (6 mg/L drinking water). Total treatment time was 100 days. GSH-Px activity was determined spectrophotometrically and DNA damage was determined by comet assay. Mean GSH-Px activity in groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI were, respectively: 40.19{+-}17.21; 23.63{+-}6.04; 42.64{+-}5.70; 38.50{+-}7.15; 34.54{+-}6.18 and 41.39{+-}11.67 nmolNADPH/min/gHb. DNA damage was represented by a mean score from 0 to 300; the results for groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI were, respectively: 6.87{+-}3.27; 124.12{+-}13.74; 10.62{+-}3.81; 13.25{+-}1.76; 86.87{+-}11.95 and 76.25{+-}7.48. There was a significant inhibition of GSH-Px activity in group II compared with group I (P<0.05). Groups V and VI did not show a difference in enzyme activity compared with groups III and IV, showing the possible protective action of Se. Comet assay presented a significant difference in DNA migration between group II and group I (P<0.0001). Groups V and VI showed a significant reduction in MeHg-induced genotoxicity (P < 0.001) when compared with group II. A negative correlation (r = -0.559, P<0.05) was found between GSH-Px activity and DNA lesion, showing that the greater the DNA damage, the lower the GSH-Px activity. Our findings demonstrated the oxidative and genotoxic properties of MeHg, even at low doses. Moreover, Se co-administration reestablished GSH-Px activity and reduced DNA damage. (orig.)

  19. Phytoremediation of selenium using transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; LeDuc, Danika L

    2009-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient for many organisms but also toxic at higher concentrations. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are serious problems worldwide. Owing to the similarity of selenium to sulfur, plants readily take up and assimilate selenate via sulfur transporters and enzymes and can even volatilize selenium. Selenium accumulating or volatilizing plants may be used for phytoremediation of selenium pollution and as fortified foods. Several transgenic approaches have been used successfully to further enhance plant selenium accumulation, tolerance, and volatilization: upregulation of genes involved in sulfur/selenium assimilation and volatilization, methylation of selenocysteine, and conversion of selenocysteine to elemental Se. Lab and field trials with different transgenic plants have yielded promising results, showing up to ninefold higher levels of selenium accumulation and up to threefold faster volatilization rates.

  20. Copper and selenium levels in women with second-trimester induced abortion in Mazandaran, 2009: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoleikha Atarod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Missed abortion is the most common dangerous condition in pregnancy. An abortion can occur due to maternal complications, chronic disease, endocrine disorders, abortificient drugs, radiation, heavy metals and toxins. The study population consisted of 43 aborted patients and 43 normal pregnant females, referred to Imam Khomeini hospital. 10 mL blood was taken and centrifuged to isolate the patients’ serum. Then, the samples were analyzed to determine the copper and selenium levels, using atomic absorption spectrometry. All data were statistically analyzed by T-test and Mann-Whitney methods. As a result, we found a significant decrease in serum copper level in cases compared with controls. Also the results showed an insignificant decrease in serum selenium levels in the patients compared to the healthy women. According to the results, deficiency of the essential heavy metals may be a probable reason for missed abortion occurrence. These deficiencies can be related to malnutrition, decreased consumption of essential metals and supplementary compounds in pregnancy, lack of regular laboratory monitoring. Thus, consuming supplements in Iranian pregnant women can be helpful in completing a successful pregnancy.

  1. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  2. The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzinger Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn and selenium (Se, and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children distributed as follows: control group (n = 687, benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults; malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults. Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C. Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease. The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED as well as from healthy active athletes. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 and 10:30 a.m. All patients lived in Innsbruck. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14.0. The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients. Results Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies. The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se. Low Se levels in the control group were found in 12%. Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 ± 23.1 μg/l and 59.3 ± 20.1 μg/l, respectively as well as in

  3. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, James C.W.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Chan, Simon K.F.; Lam, Michael H.W.; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  4. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, James C.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790-8556 (Japan); Chan, Simon K.F. [Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong, (China); Lam, Michael H.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Martin, Michael [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-12-15

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles.

  5. Selenium essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sams, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to migrate from Selenium RC or any other automation tool to Selenium WebDriver, then this book is for you. Knowledge of automation tools is necessary to follow the examples in this book.

  6. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron levels and mortality in patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in Western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoglu, Hilal; Sezer, Ustun; Akin, Mehmet; Okyay, Dilek; Ayoglu, Ferruh; Can, Murat; Kucukosman, Gamze; Piskin, Ozcan; Aydin, Bengu; Cimencan, Murat; Gur, Abdullah; Turan, Isil

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the changing levels of selenium, copper, zinc and iron in patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome and their influence on mortality. The prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital in Zonguldak city in the western Black Sea region of Turkey from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Blood samples were taken on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days to measure serum selenium, copper, zinc and iron levels. Patients' demographic data, presence of additional diseases and mortality were recorded. Of the 57 patients, 28(49.1%) were female and 29(50.9%) were male, with an overall mean age of 60.3±19.4 years, mean height of 166.1±11.4cm, mean weight of 76.5±17.5kg. Copper and zinc levels were in the normal range, while selenium and iron levels were lower than the limit values at all measuring periods. There was no significant difference between first and other days in accordance with element levels (p>0.05). Baseline copper levels in patients with malignancy were lower than patients without malignancy (pselenium levels of those who died were lower than the other patients (pSelenium and iron levels were decreased in patients with sepsis-systemic inflammatory response syndrome and copper levels were lower in patients with malignancy, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (pzinc levels of the patients. Reduced basal selenium levels of patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were associated with mortality.

  7. INTERIGIONAL VARIABILITY OF THE HUMAN SELENIUM STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work was evaluation of factors affecting interregional variability of the human selenium status.Discussion. Essentiality of selenium to human beings determines the priority of the selenium status evaluation in different regions of the world. At the same time interregional variability of the human selenium status biomarkers are often underestimated. Among factors affecting the human selenium status geochemical characteristic of soils and anthropogenic influence are proved to be the most significant. The importance of seas and oceans are emphasized as important sources of the element. Examples of great interregional variability of the human selenium status are indicated and the importance of complex approach for evaluation of ecological risks connected with inadequate selenium consumption are emphasized. Such an approach should combine the data of selenium distribution in soils, levels of selenium bio concentration by different plants species, selenium content in water, food products and in human biological fluids and tissues. Difficulties in the human selenium status optimization are shown to be typical in regions with significant geochemical variations and intensive anthropogenic loading.Conclusions. High interregional variability of the human selenium status determines the necessity of complex approach in revealing ecological risks connected with selenium deficiency of excess in the environment both in regions with high utilization of local food products and in large industrial regions and towns and also in conditions of separate specific industrial production. 

  8. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  9. Serum levels of calcium, selenium, magnesium, phosphorus, chromium, copper and iron--their relation to zinc in rats with induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Belviranli, Muaz

    2013-06-01

    There is an important relation between thyroid hormones and zinc. Establishment of low zinc levels in hypothyroidism and high levels in hyperthyroidism is a significant proof of this relation. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in serum levels of some elements and their relation to zinc in rats with hypothyroidism. Thirty adult male rats of Sprague-Dawley type were divided into 3 equal groups: group 1, control; group 2, sham-hypothyroidism group supplemented with 10 mg/kg serum physiologic i.p. for 4 weeks; and group 3, hypothyroidism group supplemented with 10 mg/kg propylthiouracil i.p. for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all animals by decapitation and serum calcium, phosphorus, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc levels were analyzed using an atomic emission apparatus. Group 3 had lower calcium, selenium and zinc levels, and higher chromium, copper, iron and phosphorus levels (p zinc levels in hypothyroidism.

  10. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, and cardiac troponin I in serum of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, Ayşegül; Kara, Hasan; Kıyıcı, Aysel; Oztürk, Bahadır; Akyürek, Fikret

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and troponin I (TnI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on admission to our emergency department in comparison to healthy control subjects. Patients with diagnosed ACS (n = 100) were included in the study group. Control subjects (n = 100) were selected from healthy volunteers in the same age range. Venous blood samples were obtained to evaluate the levels of Se, Zn, Cu, and TnI (on admission for the ACS group). Serum Se, Zn, and Cu levels were significantly less in the ACS group compared to the control group (p <0.001, p <0.01, and p <0.001, respectively). The serum TnI level was significantly greater in the ACS group compared to the control group (p <0.05). The serum Se level in the ACS group correlated significantly with the TnI level (r = -0.211, p = 0.035). These results indicate that Se, Zn, and Cu deficiencies may be risk factors for ACS, and a decreased serum Se level in patients with ACS might reflect the degree of myocardial necrosis.

  11. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  12. Pancreatic cancer risk and levels of trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F. S.; Porta, Miquel; Silverman, Debra T.; Milne, Roger L.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brian P.; Pumarega, José A.; López, Tomàs; Carrato, Alfredo; Guarner, Luisa; Real, Francisco X.; Malats, Núria

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Knowledge on the etiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) is scant. The best established risk factor for EPC is tobacco smoking. Among other carcinogens, tobacco contains cadmium, a metal previously associated with an increased risk of EPC. We evaluated the association between concentrations of trace elements in toenails and EPC risk. Methods The study included 118 EPC cases and 399 hospital controls from Eastern Spain. Levels of twelve trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression. Results Significantly increased risks of EPC were observed among subjects whose concentrations of cadmium (OR=3.58, 95%CI 1.86–6·88; Ptrend=5×10−6), arsenic (OR=2.02, 95%CI 1.08–3.78; Ptrend=0.009), and lead (OR=6.26, 95%CI 2.71–14.47; Ptrend=3×10−5) were in the highest quartile. High concentrations of selenium (OR=0.05, 95%CI 0.02–0.15; Ptrend=8×10−11) and nickel (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.12–0.59; Ptrend=2×10−4) were inversely associated with risk of EPC. Conclusion We report novel associations of lead, nickel, and selenium toenail concentrations with pancreas cancer risk. Furthermore, results confirm previous associations with cadmium and arsenic. These novel findings, if replicated in independent studies, would point to an important role of trace elements in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22184070

  13. Changes in serum selenium, copper, zinc levels and cu/zn ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, T Ulukavak; Ciftci, B; Yis, O; Guney, Y; Bilgihan, A; Ogretensoy, M

    2003-10-01

    The effectiveness and success of antituberculosis therapy is mainly measured by its ability to identify the organism in the sputum. In certain cases, available tuberculosis tests are not satisfactory and do not provide enough information on the effectiveness of antituberculosis therapy. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are the essential elements that play a crucial role in the immune system. The serum levels of these elements vary in many diseases including tuberculosis. In this study, we investigate whether the serum levels of Cu, Zn, and Se change during antituberculosis therapy. We have included 22 pulmonary tuberculosis cases that were newly diagnosed with positive sputum and 18 healthy subjects. At the beginning and 2 mo after therapy, serum levels of Cu, Zn, and Se were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Despite Se and Cu levels not being affected during the treatment, we found that there was a significant increase in the levels of Zn and a decrease in the Cu/Zn ratio. Serum Zn levels and the Cu/Zn ratio could be used as a valuable laboratory tool for the clinicians to assess response to therapy or effectiveness of the ongoing antituberculosis therapy.

  14. Serum levels of copper, selenium and manganese in forestry workers testing IgG positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Simona; Giorgianni, Concetto; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Brecciaroli, Renato; Catanoso, Rosaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Spatari, Giovanna; Gangemi, Silvia; Abbate, Carmelo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the alterations in the trace levels of serum copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in forestry workers testing immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive for Brucella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. The study was conducted on a sample of 758 subjects (560 male and 198 female). All the subjects underwent medical examinations, which investigated particularly the presence of clinical signs compatible with zoonoses, and routine blood tests from venous blood sample, which tested previous immunisation versus cited microorganisms and serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Mn. The subjects were divided according to IgG positivity versus the cited microorganisms. The group of subjects with IgG positive versus Brucella showed statistically significant higher Cu levels than controls, while the Mn levels were not; the group of subjects with IgG positive versus Rickettsia showed higher levels of all three tested metals. The concentration of the examined metals did not show statistically significant difference between IgG-positive subjects versus subjects with Borrelia compared to controls. These data could confirm the role of both Cu and Se  in the regulation of immune response.

  15. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on the blood levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Pinto, M B; Mafra, D; Farage, N E; Boaventura, G T; Cozzolino, S M F

    2010-01-01

    In patients who have undergone hemodialysis, large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and, at higher concentrations, ROS are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of selenium is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region. We evaluated the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on blood levels of Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in patients on hemodialysis. A total of 81 patients on hemodialysis (52.0±15.2 y old, average time on dialysis 82.3±91.4 mo, body mass index 24.9±4.4 kg/m(2)) from the RenalCor and RenalVida Clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. All patients received one nut (around 5 g, averaging 58.1 μg Se/g) a day for 3 mo. The Se concentrations in the nuts and in plasma and erythrocytes were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation (Hitachi, Z-500). GSH-Px levels were measured using Randox commercial kits. Plasma Se (18.8±17.4 μg/L) and erythrocyte (72.4±37.9 μg/L) levels were below the normal range before nut supplementation. After supplementation, the plasma level increased to 104.0±65.0 μg/L and erythrocytes to 244.1±119.5 μg/L (P<0.0001). The activity of GSH-Px also increased after supplementation, from 46.6±14.9 to 55.9±23.6 U/g of hemoglobin (P<0.0001). Before supplementation, 11% of patients had GSH-Px activity below the normal range (27.5-73.6 U/g of hemoglobin). After supplementation, all patients showed GSH-Px activity within the normal range. The data revealed that the investigated patients presented Se deficiency and that the consumption of only one Brazil nut a day (5 g) during 3 mo was effective to increase the Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in these patients, thus improving their antioxidant status. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc

  16. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  17. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA) Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsella, James S; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Bonetti, Sandra J; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-04-30

    The environmental levels of selenium (Se) are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries-Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek-located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA). There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SeO₄ 2- , SeO₃ 2- and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO₄. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca 2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg 2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg 2+ the Ca 2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg 2+ is thus to raise the Ca 2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca 2+ levels.

  18. Frequency and type of toenail tumors in the dromedary camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    total of 275 dromedary camels (16 males and 259 females) of local “Arabiyat” breed suffering from different types and degrees of severity of toenail tumors were surgically treated. Histopathological examination of the tissue samples removed from 50 tumor-like growths (2 males and 48 females) revealed three types of ...

  19. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  20. Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

    2011-12-01

    Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n = 57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n = 57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40 L-NEG and 33 L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32 L-NEG and 34 L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P < 0.05) levels of myocardial copper, lower (P < 0.05) levels of hepatic magnesium and higher (P < 0.05) levels of myocardial and hepatic sodium were detected in the L-POS cases. Although lower (P < 0.05) levels of hepatic selenium were detected in L-POS group, all were within the normal range. Analysis of feed samples (n = 22) revealed that selenium levels in all the samples were above the legal limit (0.3 ppm) for pigs. Vitamin E levels in all feed samples were above 20 IU/kg. Among the 66 pigs subjected to PCR detection, there were 19, 4, 13, 8, 2 and 1 animals positive for porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, pan-herpes virus, porcine enterovirus, pan-pestivirus and porcine parvovirus, respectively. Clear evidence of viral association with L-POS was lacking. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    investigated site-specific cancers, investigators provided little evidence of any effect of selenium supplementation. Two RCTs with 19,009 participants indicated that colorectal cancer was unaffected by selenium administration (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.43), as were non-melanoma skin cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.30 to 4.42; 2 studies, 2027 participants), lung cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.50; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), breast cancer (RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.44 to 9.55; 1 study, 802 participants), bladder cancer (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.52; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), and prostate cancer (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 4 studies, 18,942 participants). Certainty of the evidence was high for all of these cancer sites, except for breast cancer, which was of moderate certainty owing to imprecision, and non-melanoma skin cancer, which we judged as moderate certainty owing to high heterogeneity. RCTs with low risk of bias suggested increased melanoma risk.Results for most outcomes were similar when we included all RCTs in the meta-analysis, regardless of risk of bias. Selenium supplementation did not reduce overall cancer incidence (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.14; 5 studies, 21,860 participants) nor mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.32; 2 studies, 18,698 participants). Summary RRs for site-specific cancers showed limited changes compared with estimates from high-quality studies alone, except for liver cancer, for which results were reversed.In the largest trial, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Trial, selenium supplementation increased risks of alopecia and dermatitis, and for participants with highest background selenium status, supplementation also increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. RCTs showed a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with supplementation. A hypothesis generated by the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial - that individuals with low blood selenium levels could reduce their risk of cancer (particularly prostate cancer) by

  2. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    .69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.91, N = 8) and cancer mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93, N = 6) associated with higher selenium exposure. Gender-specific subgroup analysis provided no clear evidence of different effects in men and women (P value 0.47), although cancer incidence was lower in men (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05, N = 6) than in women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77, N = 2). The most pronounced decreases in risk of site-specific cancers were seen for stomach, bladder and prostate cancers. However, these findings have limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity that complicate interpretation of the summary statistics. Some studies suggested that genetic factors may modify the relation between selenium and cancer risk-a hypothesis that deserves further investigation. In RCTs, we found no clear evidence that selenium supplementation reduced the risk of any cancer (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.17, two studies, N = 4765) or cancer-related mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.32, two studies, N = 18,698), and this finding was confirmed when the analysis was restricted to studies with low risk of bias. The effect on prostate cancer was imprecise (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.14, four studies, N = 19,110), and when the analysis was limited to trials with low risk of bias, the interventions showed no effect (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14, three studies, N = 18,183). The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer was increased (RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.17, three studies, N = 1900). Results of two trials-the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Trial (SELECT)-also raised concerns about possible increased risk of type 2 diabetes, alopecia and dermatitis due to selenium supplements. An early hypothesis generated by NPCT that individuals with the lowest blood selenium levels at baseline could reduce their risk of cancer, particularly of prostate cancer, by increasing selenium intake has not been

  3. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  4. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on plasma levels of selenium in hemodialysis patients: 12 months of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Lobo, Julie; Moraes, Cristiane; Leal, Viviane O; Farage, Najla E; Rocha, Ariana V; Boaventura, Gilson T; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Malm, Olaf; Mafra, Denise

    2012-07-01

    Large amounts of reactive oxygen species are produced in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and, at higher concentrations, reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of Se is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region. The objective of this work was to determine if Se plasma levels in HD patients submitted to a program of supplementation during 3 months with 1 Brazil nut by day could be sustained after 12 months. A total of 21 HD patients (54.2 ± 15.2 years old; average time on dialysis, 82.3 ± 51.6 months; body mass index, 24.4 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) from the RenalCor Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were followed up 12 months after the supplementation study ended. The Se plasma levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. The Se Plasma levels (17.3 ± 19.9 μg/L) were below the normal range (60 to 120 μg/L) before nut supplementation, and after 3 months of supplementation, the levels increased to 106.8 ± 50.3 μg/L (P nutritional status. Se levels 12 months after the supplementation period were not as low as presupplementation levels but yet significantly lower, and we needed to motivate patients to adopt different dietary intake patterns. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmark, Birgitta; Zethelius, Björn; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue

  6. Association of Serum Selenium, Zinc and Magnesium Levels with Glycaemic Indices and Insulin Resistance in Pre-diabetes: a Cross-Sectional Study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Charu; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Agarwal, Ashish; Ahmad, Afzal; Hegde, Anupama; Srikantiah, Rukmini Mysore

    2017-01-01

    A growing understanding of antioxidant mechanisms and insulin-like actions of trace elements selenium and zinc has rekindled researchers' interest towards their role in diabetes mellitus, nutritional management of which concentrates predominantly on macronutrient intake. However, selenium studies limiting largely to diabetes have yielded inconsistent results with sparse knowledge in the pre-diabetes population. This hospital-based cross-sectional study screened 300 people who came to the institutional hospital laboratory with fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin requisition over a period of 6 months. Thirty-five pre-diabetes subjects aged 25-45 years and 35 age-matched healthy controls were selected as per inclusion criteria and clinical history. Serum selenium was estimated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, zinc and magnesium by colorimetric end-point methods and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin resistance was calculated using a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 calculator. Data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16 employing an independent sample t test for intergroup comparison of means and Pearson's correlation for correlation analysis. Serum mineral levels in the pre-diabetes group (selenium 63.01 ± 17.6 μg/L, zinc 55.78 ± 13.49 μg/dL, magnesium 1.37 ± 0.38 mg/dL) were significantly reduced (p selenium 90.98 ± 15.81 μg/L, zinc 94.53 ± 15.41 μg/dL, magnesium 2.12 ± 0.22 mg/dL). A significant negative correlation was seen with glycaemic indices and insulin resistance. This study conducted in pre-diabetes subjects highlights a considerable deficiency of serum selenium, zinc and magnesium observed at a much earlier pre-clinical phase. This coupled with the evidence of a strong inverse association with glycaemic indices and insulin resistance postulates the role of mineral alterations in the pathophysiology of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance.

  7. Toxicology of selenium: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, C G

    1980-09-01

    The concentration of selenium in soil, water, or minerals is site specific. World or regional averages are of little practical value. In one report from the front range area of Colorado, average selenium concentrations in bodies of standing water were from 0.3 to 15.8 micrograms Se per liter of water. In some aquatic organisms there is a strong correlation between the Se content of the water ant that of the body tissues; in others no such correlation obtains. Some organisms bioaccumulate Se by factors as high as 1300 to 3800. In most fish the amount of Se in the flesh seems to depend on the amount in the food taken in; there are exceptions, however. Aquatic organisms from seleniferous regions bioconcentrate selenium so as to reach total body levels of 60 micrograms Se per gram or up to 100 micrograms Se per gram of liver. There seems to be no evidence for "biomagnification" of selenium by aquatic organisms. Selenium exerts a strong protective action against the poisoning effects of many heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, for example) and of some organic toxicants (paraquat, for example) in birds, mammals, and man. Data on man are sketchy. Selenium is released into the environment from the burning of coal. No identifiable hazard to man or to plants and animals useful to man can, at this time, be attributed to this source. Selenium is poisonous to man and animal in large amounts. It is a necessary micronutrient for many animals in small amounts; it may also be a needed micronutrient for man, but the data are sparse. The usual American diet contains adequate selenium for human health. Occupational selenium poisoning is mostly accidental and rare.

  8. Dietary iodine and selenium affected the mRNA expression levels of skin monodeiodinase (II, III) in Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Li, Jianyun; Zhu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Jiaping; Yang, Jie; Jia, Zhihai

    2013-03-01

    Livestock are frequently provided nutrient-depleted diets, which can negatively impact animal health and productivity. In our previous trial, we found that iodine (I) supplementation (not selenium (Se)) could increase cashmere production. In order to explore the role of I and Se in cashmere growth, we investigated the effects of dietary I and Se supplementation in Liaoning cashmere goats. Serum thyroid hormone status and the mRNA expression levels of skin monodeiodinase (MDII, MDIII) were measured during the cashmere fiber growth period. Forty-eight 2.5-year-old Liaoning cashmere goats (38.6 ± 2.65 kg BW) were divided into six equal groups, and their diets were supplemented with I (0, 2, or 4 mg/kg DM) and Se (0 or 1 mg/kg DM) in a 2 × 3 factorial treatment design. The six treatment groups were: I(0)Se(0), I(2)Se(0), I(4)Se(0), I(0)Se(1), I(2)Se(1), and I(4)Se(1). Concentrations of I and Se in the basal diet (group I(0)Se(0)) were 0.67 and 0.09 mg/kg DM, respectively. The trial started in September of 2009 and lasted 70 days. For every measured parameter, supplemental Se had no significant effect on thyroid hormones, but improved the mRNA expression levels of skin MDIII (P cashmere goat feedstock may be an effective means of increasing cashmere production through thyroid hormones regulating the mRNA expression of skin MDII.

  9. JV Task 77 - Health Implications of Mercury - Selenium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralstion; Laura Raymond

    2007-12-15

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) commonly results from eating fish containing bioaccumulated methylmercury (MeHg). However, conflicting observations and conclusions have arisen from the ongoing human studies of MeHg exposure from fish consumption. Resolving these uncertainties has important implications for human health since significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. Selenium (Se), an important nutrient that is abundant in ocean fish, has a potent protective effect against Hg toxicity. This protective effect was thought to be due to the high binding affinities between Hg and Se resulting in Se sequestration of Hg to prevent its harmful effects. However, it is imperative to consider the opposing effect of Hg on Se physiology. Crucial proteins that require Se normally protect the brain and hormone-producing glands from oxidative damage. MeHg is able to cross all biological barriers and enter cells in these tissues, where its high Se affinity results in Se sequestration. Sequestration in association with Hg prevents Se from participating in proteins that perform essential antioxidant activities. Supplemental dietary Se is able to replace Se sequestered by Hg and maintain normal antioxidant protection of brain and glands. The goal of this research project was to assess the potency of normal dietary levels of Se in protection against MeHg toxicity. Results from this project indicate that MeHg toxicity is only evident in situations resulting in Hg occurring in high molar excess of Se. Additionally, the common method of MeHg risk assessments using measurements of toenail and blood levels of Hg was shown to provide an accurate reflection of Hg exposure but did not accurately indicate risk of toxicity resulting from that exposure. Instead, Hg:Se molar ratios are proposed as a superior means of assessing risks associated with MeHg exposure.

  10. Cadmium, Zinc, and Selenium Levels in Carcinoma of the Human Prostate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarafanov, Andrey; Centeno, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    .... The objectives are: 1) to establish reliability of using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate tissue for analysis of Zn, Se and Cd tissue by comparing their levels in the fresh specimen...

  11. Levels and ages of selenium and metals in sedimentary cores of Ise Bay as determined by 210-Pb dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Chikuma, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Ise Bay is connected with estuaries of Nagoya harbor which is one of the most active industrial areas in Japan. Nagoya harbor estuaries are recipient of a large quantity of municipal and industrial discharge. The land boundaries of estuaries are sites of the manufacturing industries and they are utilized by oil tankers and cargo vessels. Accumulation of various kinds of metal such as selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and chromium have occurred in sediments for many years. The authors have carried out an extensive investigation on the selenium pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries. The input of selenium to Ise Bay has occurred ever since the industrial activity was established in Nagoya city. Investigators have reported the sedimentary record of metals of Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Seto Inland Sea. Some investigators reported the pollution caused by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in sediments of Ise Bay, but did not mention metals. The authors determined metals including selenium in sedimentary core samples. The ages of those samples were already estimated by 210-Pb dating technique

  12. The effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal glutathione peroxidase activities and aqueous humor selenium levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yis, Ozgür; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Kamil; Yis, Nilgün Safak; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2002-06-01

    The formation of free oxygen radicals has been demonstrated in the corneal tissue after 193 nm laser irradiation. Cornea has several defense mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage. One of them, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalyzes the destruction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide. Selenium is a trace element which is incorporated into the selenoenzyme GPx. In the present study, the effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal GPx activities and aqueous humor selenium concentrations in rabbits was evaluated. Animals were divided into five groups, and all groups were compared: controls (group 1), after epithelial scraping (group 2), transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy(PRK; group 3), superficial traditional PRK (50 microm; group 4) and deep traditional PRK (100 microm; group 5). Corneal GPx activities were measured by a modification of the coupled assay procedure. Aqueous humor selenium concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Corneal GPx activities were significantly lower only in group 5 ( P<0.05), and the selenium concentration in the aqueous humor did not change in any group. Deep corneal photoablation inhibits GPx enzyme activities in the cornea. Therefore, antioxidants may be useful in reducing free radical-mediated complications after excimer laser corneal photoablation.

  13. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  14. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  15. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  16. Copper, selenium and zinc levels after bariatric surgery in patients recommended to take multivitamin-mineral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamargaritis, Dimitris; Aasheim, Erlend T; Sampson, Barry; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is widely performed to improve obesity-related disorders, but can lead to nutrient deficiencies. In this study we examined serum trace element concentrations before and after bariatric surgery. We obtained serum trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method in 437 patients (82% women, median preoperative body-mass index 46.7 kg/m(2) [interquartile range 42-51]) undergoing either gastric banding (22.7%), sleeve gastrectomy (20.1%), or gastric bypass (57.3%) procedures. Trace element data were available for patients preoperatively (n = 44); and 3 (n = 208), 6 (n = 174), 12 (n = 122), 18 (n = 39), 24 (n = 44) and 36 months (n = 14) post-operatively. All patients were recommended to take a multivitamin-mineral supplement after surgery. Copper deficiency was found in 2% of patients before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 0 to 5% with no significant change in median concentrations during follow-up (p = 0.68). Selenium deficiency was reported in 2% of patients before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 11 to 15% with a near-significant change in median concentrations (p = 0.056). Zinc deficiency was reported in 7% before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 7 to 15% with no significant change in median concentrations (p = 0.39). In bariatric surgery patients recommended to take multivitamin-mineral supplements, serum copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were mostly stable during the first years after bariatric surgery. There was a possible tendency for selenium concentrations to decline during the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of manganese and mercury in toenail in vivo using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Specht, Aaron J; Weisskopf, Marc G; Weuve, Jennifer; Nie, Linda H

    2018-03-01

    Toenail is an advantageous biomarker to assess exposure to metals such as manganese and mercury. Toenail Mn and Hg are in general analyzed by chemical methods such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In this project, a practical and convenient technology-portable X-ray florescence (XRF)-is studied for the noninvasive in vivo quantification of manganese and mercury in toenail. The portable XRF method has advantages in that it does not require toenail clipping and it can be done in 3 min, which will greatly benefit human studies involving the assessment of manganese and mercury exposures. This study mainly focused on the methodology development and validation which includes spectral analysis, system calibration, the effect of toenail thickness, and the detection limit of the system. Manganese- and mercury-doped toenail phantoms were made. Calibration lines were established for these measurements. The results show that the detection limit for manganese is 3.65 μg/g (ppm) and for mercury is 0.55 μg/g (ppm) using 1 mm thick nail phantoms with 10 mm soft tissue underneath. We conclude that portable XRF is a valuable and sensitive technology to quantify toenail manganese and mercury in vivo.

  19. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  20. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  1. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in patients with Behçet's disease: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, A; Ozsoy, E; Biberoğlu, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanoğlu, A; Yis, M O; Atahan, C; Oruk, S

    2003-11-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystemic disease characterized by activation and remission periods. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known; a genetic defect in the immunoregulatory system induced by infectious agents, like viruses and bacteria, is thought to cause the disease. In this study, we examine the serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in Behçet's disease patients and investigate the relationship between these serum levels and the activation of the disease. We conclude that adding vitamin E to the treatment of Behçet's disease patients and its effects on the prognosis of the disease need to be further investigated by controlled studies.

  2. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  3. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  4. Molecular chemoprevention by selenium: A genomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Sinha, Raghu

    2005-01-01

    Basic research and clinical chemoprevention trials support the protective role of selenium in cancer prevention but the mechanisms based on the molecular level remain to be fully defined. This mini-review focuses only on the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium using the genomics approach; target organs discussed here are breast, prostate, colon and lung. The results described here support the utility of microarray technology in delineating the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium. These results are based on studies employing human and rodent cell lines and tissues from animal models ranging from normal to frank cancer. The dose and the form of selenium are determining factors in cancer chemoprevention. The results of the microarray analysis reviewed here indicate that selenium, independent of its form and the target organ examined, alters several genes in a manner that can account for cancer prevention. Selenium can up regulate genes related to phase II detoxification enzymes, certain selenium-binding proteins and select apoptotic genes, while down regulating those related to phase I activating enzymes and cell proliferation. Independent of tissue type, selenium arrests cells in G1 phase of cell cycle, inhibits CYCLIN A, CYCLIN D1, CDC25A, CDK4, PCNA and E2F gene expressions while induces the expressions of P19, P21, P53, GST, SOD, NQO1, GADD153 and certain CASPASES. In addition to those described above, genes such as OPN, which is mainly involved in metastasis and recently reported to be down regulated by selenium, should be considered as potential molecular marker in clinical chemoprevention trials. Collectively, literature data indicate that some of these genes that were altered by selenium are also involved in the development of human cancers described in this review. It appears that androgen receptor status may influence the effect of selenium on gene expression profile in prostate cancer; whether estrogen

  5. Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia

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    Zoran Pavlovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60 and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82, was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L, while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000. Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L.

  6. Effect of selenium supplementation on the level of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the nursing rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, S.P.; Hittner, H.M.; Strength, D.R.; Kretzer, F.; Lane, H.W.

    1986-03-01

    Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity using vitamin E as an antioxidant has been demonstrated. The purpose of this experiment was to study the antioxidant system, GSH-Px, (a selenoenzyme), in the retina. The effect of i.p. administration and dietary Se as selenite or selenomethionine (selmet) on tissue GSH-Px activity was determined in nursing pups. Dams were randomized into 3 dietary treatments (Basal, 0.15 ppm selenite, and 0.15 ppm selmet) and mated. Pups were sacrificed at 0, 7, and 14 days after delivery and GSH-Px was measured in pup eyes, hearts, livers, and kidneys, and dam livers. The pups of the dams consuming the Basal diet were divided into 4 i.p. groups: none, saline, selenite, and selmet (3 ..mu..g Se/kg body wt). The i.p. Se had no effect on GSH-Px activity in eye or heart, but significantly increased GSH-Px activity in liver and kidney with no difference between selenite and selmet. The pups of the dams consuming selenite and selmet diets showed significantly higher GSH-Px activity in all tissues studied than those consuming the Basal diet. For all tissues GSH-Px activity was higher for pups and dams fed selmet than those fed selenite. This research demonstrates that there was a difference in selenium availability between diet and i.p. administration.

  7. The role of selenium in predicting preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghaemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a common disorder that is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality; however its specific etiology has still remained obscure.The first step in preventing preeclampsia is early detection of women at risk. Since there is no valid and reliable screening test, appropriate diagnostic and screening tests are necessary, which are inexpensive, non-invasive and beneficial for pregnant women. Therefore, regarding the role of selenium as an antioxidant in the prevention preeclampsia, this study was designed which aimed to determine the prognostic value of plasma selenium levels in the diagnosis of preeclampsia in primigravida women Methods: In a nested case control design, a sample of 650 normal primigravida women of 24-28 weeks participated in the study. Subjects who involved the case group were followed up for 3 months and 38 were affected by preeclampsia. Blood samples were obtained from these 38patients as well as from 38 subjects as their matched controls. Moreover, the amount of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean level of selenium in blood plasma of the cases was significantly lower than in their matched controls. The present study findings revealed that pregnant women with serum Se < 66.1 μg/L had a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Lower plasma selenium level in women destines to suffering from preeclampsia which confirms the destructive effect of selenium deficiency as an antioxidant in etiopathology of preeclampsia. Measurement of plasma selenium can improve the prediction of preeclampsia; thus, it seems that plasma selenium level test owns an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for predicting preeclampsia.

  8. Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drutel, Anne; Archambeaud, Françoise; Caron, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per gram of tissue because it expresses specific selenoproteins. Since the discovery of myxoedematous cretinism and thyroid destruction following selenium repletion in iodine- and selenium-deficient children, data on links between thyroid metabolism and selenium have multiplied. Although very minor amounts of selenium appear sufficient for adequate activity of deiodinases, thus limiting the impact of its potential deficiency on synthesis of thyroid hormones, selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been emphasized. Most authors attribute the effect of supplementation on the immune system to the regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species and their metabolites. In patients with Hashimoto's disease and in pregnant women with anti-TPO antibodies, selenium supplementation decreases anti-thyroid antibody levels and improves the ultrasound structure of the thyroid gland. Although clinical applications still need to be defined for Hashimoto's disease, they are very interesting for pregnant women given that supplementation significantly decreases the percentage of postpartum thyroiditis and definitive hypothyroidism. In Graves' disease, selenium supplementation results in euthyroidism being achieved more rapidly and appears to have a beneficial effect on mild inflammatory orbitopathy. A risk of diabetes has been reported following long-term selenium supplementation, but few data are available on the side effects associated with such supplementation and further studies are required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants, and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garousi F.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available After its discovery, selenium was most noted for its harmful effects. Selenium was the first element identified to occur in native vegetation at levels toxic to animals. Poisoning of animals can occur through consumption of plants containing toxic levels of selenium. Livestock consuming excessive amounts of selenized forages are afflicted with “alkali disease” and “blind staggers”. Typical symptoms of these diseases include loss of hair, deformed hooves, blindness, colic, diarrhoea, lethargy, increased heart and respiration rates, and eventually death. On the other hand, selenium deficiency in animal feeds can cause “white muscle disease”, a degenerative disease of the cardiac and skeletal muscles. In this regard, this review paper attempts to summarize the essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology.

  10. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  11. Penentuan Keberhasilan Involusi Uterus Sapi Perah Friesian Holstein Berdasarkan Kadar Estrogen Setelah Beberapa Penginjeksian Selenium-Vitamin E (DETERMINATION OF THE SUCCESS UTERINE INVOLUTION IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW BASED ESTROGEN LEVELS AFTER MU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Prasdini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of selenium-vitamin ETM to the increasedlevels of estrogen as a sign of completion uterine involution process in dairy cows Frisian Holstein (FHafter calving. Twenty pragnant FH cows were used in this experiment. The cows devided into four groups.The first group (as control, P0 was not given selenium-vitamin ETM, the second group (P1 was given 0.5mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mL vitamin ETM, the third group (P2 was given 1,5 mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mLvitamin ETM and the fourth group (P3 was given 2 mg/mL selenium + 100 mg/mL vitamin ETM. Theadministration of selenium-vitamin ETM performed at the 7th months of pragnancy, 8th month of pragnancy,two weeks before calving, 7 and 14 days after calving intramuscularly. After calving, the serum of dairycows were taken for analysis of estrogen levels on the 25th day, the 45th, the 65th and current first postpartumestrus in the position of standing heat using Bovine Estrogen ELISA Kit (EST methode . The results of theanalysis of high estrogen levels on day 25, the 45th, the 65th and current first estrus days after giving birthin units of pg / mL found in treatment 3 (P3, which were a 8.94 ± 0.22; 9.64 ± 0.55; 9.86 ± 0.67and 10.14 ±0.84 respectively, but the fastest uterine involution based estrogen levels was in treatment 2 (P2 on the45th day with 9.12 ± 0.94 for the estrogen levels.. The conclusions of the study was the addition of seleniumand vitamin E at the 7th month of pragnancy until the 14th day after calving may significantly affecton theincreased levels of estrogen which indicates the success of uterine involution in dairy cows FH.

  12. Erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase: Its relationship to plasma selenium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, G.; Cellerino, R.; Guidi, G.C.; Moschini, G.; Stievano, B.M.; Tregnaghi, C.

    1977-01-01

    Erythrocytic glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and plasma selenium concentrations were measured in 14 patients: 7 with iron deficiency and 7 with raised serum iron levels. The decreased enzymatic activity in iron deficiency was confirmed. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients with lower serum iron; furthermore there is a significant correlation between serum iron and plasma selenium concentrations. Another correlation even more significant was found between plasma selenium and enzyme activity in all the cases we studied. These data suggests that the importance of iron for GSH-Px activity may be merely due to its relationship with selenium and that plasma selenium concentration may be of critical importance for enzyme activity. (author)

  13. Effect of long-term selenium supplementation on mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayman, Margaret P.; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. Objective: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels. Design: The Denmark PRECISE study was a single......Background: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ∼ 125 μg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained...... for extension of the study and mortality assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with 100, 200, or 300 μg selenium/d as selenium-enriched-yeast or placebo-yeast for 5 years from randomization in 1998-1999 and were followed up for mortality for a further 10 years (through March 31, 2015...

  14. Energy levels, lifetimes, and transition rates for the selenium isoelectronic sequence Pd XIII-Te XIX, Xe XXI-Nd XXVII, W XLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Yang, X.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Zhao, X. H.; Dang, W.

    2017-09-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, oscillator strengths, and electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic quadrupole (M2) transition rates among the 46 fine structure levels belonging to the ([ Ar ] 3d10) 4s2 4p4, ([ Ar ] 3d10) 4s2 4p3 4 d, and ([ Ar ] 3d10) 4 s 4p5 configurations for the selenium isoelectronic sequence Pd XIII-Te XIX, Xe XXI-Nd XXVII, W XLI are reported. These data are determined in the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) approach, in which relativistic effects, main electron correlations within the n = 7 complex, Breit interaction (BI), and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections are included. The many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) method is also employed as an independent calculation to confirm the present accuracy, taking W XLI as an example. Comparisons and analysis are made between the present results and available experimental and theoretical ones, and good agreements are obtained. These accurate data are expected to be useful in nuclear fusion research and astrophysical applications.

  15. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  16. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of selenium in bovine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, Sonia E.; Resnizky, Sara M.; Gil, Susana B.; Pawlak, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The procedure used to determine selenium in bovine plasma by neutron irradiation of the samples, followed by a radiochemical separation, is described. This procedure allows the direct determination of the value of the selenium plasmatic level, instead of the indirect conventional method that determines the blood glutathion peroxidase enzyme, as an indicator of the selenium content in the blood. (author)

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  18. A simple method to treat an ingrowing toenail with a shape-memory alloy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaya; Tabata, Nobuko; Suetake, Takaki; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    An ingrowing toenail has no definitive treatment. Previously, effective methods were complicated but easy ones had less effect. We show both an easy and an effective way with Cu-Al-Mn-based shape-memory alloys (SMAs). They have a characteristic shape which patients themselves can detach easily without any pain. But they also have enough corrective force. Cu-based SMAs cost much less than Ni-Ti-based alloys. Despite not being appropriate for all cases of ingrowing toenails, it is an easy, effective and less costly alternative.

  19. Studies of mercury, arsenic and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples from the Wassa West District of Ghana, using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samlafu, V.B.

    2011-06-01

    This study examines Arsenic, mercury and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples collected from Wassa West District, a mining impacted site in contrast with Akatsi and its environs, a non-mining impacted site using INAA facility at Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), Kwabenya, Accra. Other elements determined alongside the elements of interest were Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cl, I, Br, Au, La, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ni and Ag. An alternative method was developed for the Preconcentration Neutron Activation Analysis using dithizone/CHCl 3 mixture as the chelating agent for very low levels of mercury and arsenic in human blood. Factors that affect dithizone complexation such as PH, and concentration were investigated. Selenium levels in all the matrices were determined by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (HGAAS) technique. Speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was carried out on selected blood samples using HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 as digestion reagent. The precision of the analytical methods used were evaluated by Schewart control chart for internal quality assessment purposes. The results were within the acceptable limits of Xσ. Four certified reference materials namely GBW 09101, DOME-2, Lichen IAEA-336 and Peach leave SRM 1547 were also used to validate the analytical methods for external quality assessment. The results obtained in this work were in good agreement with the certified values. The levels of total mercury in hair ranged from 1.65 μg/g to 20.46 μg/g. Mercury in nail samples ranged from 0.97μg/g to 31.94 μg/g and blood samples ranged from 0.01μg/mL to 0.70 μg/mL in experimental subjects. Mercury levels in control subjects ranged from 0.24 μg/g to 7.15 μg/g in hair, 0.2 μg/g to 1.83 μg/g of mercury in nail and 0.01 μg/mL to 2.38 μg/mL of mercury in blood. Generally the decreasing order of accumulation of mercury in the three matrices in the experimental subjects were as follows nail > hair > blood, while the control subjects had the

  20. 21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reproduction of livestock and poultry; and (5) the manufacture and use of selenium at such levels cannot... follows: (1) In complete feed for chickens, swine, turkeys, sheep, cattle, and ducks at a level not to exceed 0.3 part per million. (2) In feed supplements for limit feeding as follows: (i) Sheep: At a level...

  1. Selenium in Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kryczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves’ disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body’s defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves’ disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy.

  2. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent certain cancers Protect the body from the poisonous effects of heavy metals and other harmful substances ... garlic are also good sources. Meats produced from animals that ate grains or plants found in selenium- ...

  3. Selenium in Camel – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for trace minerals in camels, particularly selenium, are not well-known. Selenium supplementation using a pharmaceutical form or commercial mineral mixture is common practice in camels to address the cardiomyopathy often attributed to selenium deficiency. This supplementation is often empirical and based on estimated needs for cattle. Nowadays the use of selenium in animal foodstuffs is commonplace and further investigation of its metabolism (ingestion, dynamic of storage-destocking, excretion in camels is warranted. The present review aimed to synthesize all the experimental research (comparative selenium status in cow and camel, response to different levels of supplementation at different physiological stages, excretion maternal transfer, experimental toxicosis and field observations (deficiency, supplementation practices undertaken in camels. The results underline the particularity of the unique metabolic profile of the camel and lead to practical recommendations for supplementation in camels, highlighting its relative sensitivity to excess Se intake at lower levels than in cattle. The maximal tolerable dose is 8 mg and the recommended doses range from 2 to 4 mg.

  4. Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Function and Manganese in Air, Blood, Hair, and Toenails in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This study compares manganese (Mn) in air, blood, hair, and toenails and neuropsychological function of 110 women and 76 men, environmentally exposed to Mn in air (Mn-air) in two Ohio towns from a ferromanganese smelter and a soil Mn-packaging facility.Method: Biomark...

  5. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  6. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  7. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Robiin Ferguson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimising the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  8. Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis. PMID:22303312

  9. Selenium supplementation restores the antioxidative capacity and prevents cell damage in bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Regina; Ulmer, Matthias; Zeck, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    signaling, cumulative cell damage, senescence, and tumor development. Selenium-dependent (glutathione peroxidases [GPxs] and thioredoxin reductases [TrxRs]) and selenium-independent (superoxide dismutases [SODs] and catalase [CAT]) enzyme systems regulate cellular ROS steady state levels. SODs process...

  10. ACCUMULATION OF SELENIUM IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of establishing the levels of selenium accumulation in fish Marine has consistently attracted the attention of researchers. This is due, no doubt, with a surprisingly high concentrations of trace elements in fishmuscle mass compared with terrestrial animals and the wide spread lack of public consumption of selenium in most countries of the world. By the ability to accumulate selenium species investigated can be arranged in series: carp < rudd < pike Kutum < perch < carp < mullet < silverside < pike < roach < sprat common < gobies < sprat anchovy << sturgeon. It is known that the main source of selenium to fish is the food, although there is some element passes through the gills during respiration. Comparing the results with data accumulation of selenium muscle tissue of fish from different regions of the world indicates the absence of express selenodefitsita in the Caspian Sea.

  11. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  12. Change of selenium in plasma of dairy cows receiving two levels of sodium-selenite during the transition period

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    A. Giubbiotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the plasma Se content during transition period, 2 groups of 12 dairy cows were monitored the month before and after calving. In stall 1 (S1 cows were tied and individually fed, in stall2 (S2 cows were free and fed TMR. In both stalls cows were supplied with Se as Na-selenite. In S1 3 mg/d of Se were fed mixed with corn silage while, in S2, Se was offered with TMR, in dry period 2 mg/d were added with a mineral-vitamin supplement, in lactation 2.6 mg/d (when DMI was 22.2 kg/d with the concentrate. Forages, the same for both stalls, and concentrates were sampled for chemical composition and Se determination. Cows were checked for milk yield and its content of somatic cells (SCC, health problems, and bled for Se determination in plasma. Average Se intake was higher in S1, in both dry (4.08 vs 2.76 mg/d and lactating (5.80 vs 2.11 mg/d period. Besides the supplementation, differences depended on high Se intake in S1 with the concentrate (increased after calving to 11.5 kg/DM on d 30 and containing 0.24 mg/kg DM of Se. According to the intake, plasma Se content resulted higher in S1 in dry (1.20 vs 0.74 μmol/L and lactating (1.47 vs 0.62 μmol/L cows. In close-up plasma Se decreased in both groups, in first days of lactation increased in S1, while decreased in S2 to level indicating a deficient intake (0.50 μmol/L. These results confirm the link between Se intake and its plasma level. Finally, Se plasma content did not seem related to cow health status during transition period.

  13. State of the immune protection system of brood carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 based on vitamin E and selenium levels in their diet

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    S. Yurchak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the state of the immune system of brood carp, which were fed with a combined feed containing a liposomal preparation with vitamin E and organic compound of selenium microelement during pre-spawning period. Methodology: The study has been performed in three experimental ponds, in which carp females and males were placed after wintering. The first experimental group was fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/mg of the feed and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The second experimental group received the supplement of vitamin E at a concentration of 100 mg.kg and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The control group received the mentioned combined feed without addition of the vitamin-mineral supplement. After termination of 30-day pre-spawning feeding with the combined feed supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, blood samples for biochemical tests were collected from fish of the control and both experimental groups. Findings. It was found that pre-spawning feeding of carp females and males with combined feeds supplemented with the above mentioned vitamin-mineral additive had a positive effect on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish blood. Originality. The effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamin E and microelement Se fed to brood carp during the pre-spawning period on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish peripheral blood was studied for the first time. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in fish breeding centers and full-system fish farms for balanced feeding of brood fish.

  14. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  15. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  16. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Carina; Goetzenich, Andreas; Kraemer, Sandra; Borosch, Sebastian; Manzanares, William; Hardy, Gil; Stoppe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25923656

  17. Solution NMR structure of selenium-binding protein from Methanococcus vannielii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Inyamah, Nwakaego; Stadtman, Thressa C; Tjandra, Nico

    2008-09-19

    Selenium is an important nutrient. The lack of selenium will suppress expression of various enzymes that will lead to cell abnormality and diseases. However, high concentrations of free selenium are toxic to the cell because it adversely affects numerous cell metabolic pathways. In Methanococcus vannielii, selenium transport in the cell is established by the selenium-binding protein, SeBP. SeBP sequesters selenium during transport, thus regulating the level of free selenium in the cell, and delivers it specifically to the selenophosphate synthase enzyme. In solution, SeBP is an oligomer of 8.8-kDa subunits. It is a symmetric pentamer. The solution structure of SeBP was determined by NMR spectroscopy. Each subunit of SeBP is composed of an alpha-helix on top of a 4-stranded twisted beta-sheet. The stability of the five subunits stems mainly from hydrophobic interactions and supplemented by hydrogen bond interactions. The loop containing Cys(59) has been shown to be important for selenium binding, is flexible, and adopts multiple conformations. However, the cysteine accessibility is restricted in the structure, reducing the possibility of the binding of free selenium readily. Therefore, a different selenium precursor or other factors might be needed to facilitate opening of this loop to expose Cys(59) for selenium binding.

  18. Soft-tissue nail-fold excision: a definitive treatment for ingrown toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeskie, Henry; Kovac, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is a common source of morbidity worldwide. The current standard of care focuses on the nail as the causative agent, and, in cases that are resistant to medical management, surgical correction via nail avulsion and phenol matrix ablation is used. Unfortunately, this treatment leads to poor cosmetic results, high rates of recurrence and low patient satisfaction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a case series of 124 consecutive patients who underwent surgical correction of ingrown toenails from 1988 to 2004. We recorded the operative technique and postoperative wound healing via photographs. We assessed outcomes and patient satisfaction using self-reports and 7-point Likert scale questionnaires. Results Our surgical approach involved the excision of excessive nail-fold granulation tissue with preservation of the nail and its matrix. In total, 72.5% of patients were under the age of 29 (69.4% men). Before surgical intervention, 78.8% of patients scored their pain as severe, 69.9% had difficulty wearing normal footwear and 64.3% had difficulty with normal activities because of their ingrown toenails. A total of 212 surgical sites were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 8 years. No recurrences were identified in any patients (100%, n = 124). Overall, 94.3% (n = 116) stated that they were highly satisfied with the procedure. Only 1.6% (n = 2) reported a loss of sensation at the surgical site. Conclusion Surgical correction of ingrown toenails via soft-tissue excision of the nail folds, coupled with preservation of the nail and its matrix, had excellent cosmetic results, no recurrences and high rates of patient satisfaction. PMID:20646404

  19. Winograd Method Versus Winograd Method With Electrocoagulation in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Erdinc

    An important component of the Winograd surgical method for an ingrown toenail is total excision of the associated germinal matrix. However, this might not always be accomplished with the procedure. We hypothesized that the surgical results might be improved by adding electrocoagulation of the germinal matrix to the Winograd method. The objective of the present study was to compare the recurrence, satisfaction, and complication rates of the Winograd method with those of the Winograd method with electrocoagulation. We retrospectively evaluated the records of 102 patients with single Heifetz stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenails who had undergone surgery from January 2013 to October 2014 using 1 of these 2 methods. Of the 102 patients, 50 (49%) underwent the Winograd method and 52 (51%) underwent the Winograd method with electrocoagulation. The mean follow-up period of our patients was 12 (range 6 to 22) months. An ingrown toenail recurred in 3 patients (6%) in the Winograd group and in no patient in the Winograd with electrocoagulation group (p = .04). Among the patients in the Winograd group, 46 (92.0%) were satisfied or very satisfied. Among the patients in the Winograd plus electrocoagulation group, 49 (94.2%) were satisfied or very satisfied (p = .04). No complications developed in either group. In conclusion, the Winograd method for ingrown toenails results in high satisfaction rates, low recurrence rates, and low complication rates. The addition of electrocoagulation of the germinal matrix to the Winograd method could result in even lower recurrence rates, while maintaining high patient satisfaction and without increasing the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Selenium and Ceruloplasmin in Nigerians with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilu M. Karaye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine if selenium deficiency, serum ceruloplasmin and traditional birth practices are risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM, in Kano, Nigeria. This is a case-control study carried out in three hospitals, and PPCM patients were followed up for six months. Critically low serum selenium concentration was defined as <70 µg/L. A total of 39 PPCM patients and 50 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Mean serum selenium in patients (61.7 ± 14.9 µg/L was significantly lower than in controls (118.4 ± 45.6 µg/L (p < 0.001. The prevalence of serum selenium <70 µg/L was significantly higher among patients (76.9% than controls (22.0% (p < 0.001. The mean ceruloplasmin and prevalence of socio-economic indices, multiparity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obesity and twin pregnancy were not different between the groups (p > 0.05. Logistic regression showed that rural residency significantly increased the odds for serum selenium <70 µg/L by 2.773-fold (p = 0.037. Baseline serum levels of selenium and ceruloplasmin were not associated with six-month mortality. This study has shown that selenium deficiency is a risk factor for PPCM in Kano, Nigeria, and is related to rural residency. However, serum ceruloplasmin, customary birth practices and some other characteristics were not associated with PPCM in the study area.

  1. Influence of blood serum selenium on udder health in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium concentration in early lactation on mammary gland health and histological characteristics of the udder. The experiment included 30 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Selenium concentrations in blood and milk serum, and the average somatic cell count in the first and sixth months of lactation were analyzed. After exclusion of the experimental cows from the herd, histological characteristics of the udder were examined (the degree of leukocyte infiltration and the number of granulomas in the parenchyma. The mean selenium concentration in the blood serum was 0.62±0.11 mmol/L and that in the milk serum was 0.12±0.07 mmol/L. Optimal blood levels of selenium were found in 19 cows and suboptimal levels in 11 cows. A significant negative correlation was observed between blood and milk selenium concentrations and somatic cell count in early and mid lactation. There was no relationship between blood selenium concentration, milk selenium concentration and the amount of milk produced. Selenium-deficient cows had a significantly higher milk somatic cell count in early and mid lactation and significantly lower levels of selenium in milk. Upon histological analysis, 120 samples of individual quarters of the udder were grouped according to the degree of leukocyte infiltration and number of granulomas. Results showed that an increase in the degree of leukocyte infiltration and number of granulomas leads to an increase in the proportion of quarters from selenium-deficient cows and a decline in the percentage of quarters from cows exhibiting normal blood selenium concentrations. Selenium has a significant impact on udder health. Changes caused by selenium deficiency occur due to marked inflammation process in the mammary gland.

  2. Selenium homeostasis and induction of thioredoxin reductase during long term selenite supplementation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkhembayar, Suvd; Mollbrink, Annelie; Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    selenium levels was also seen, and the induction of TrxR1 mRNA was seen only during the first three days of treatment, when the levels of selenium in the liver were increasing. Sodium selenite at 1 and 5μg/mL did not affect body weight or relative liver mass. We concluded that long-term treatment...... with selenite did not cause accumulation of selenium and that the activity of TrxR1 in the liver rose with the selenium levels. We therefore suggest that sodium selenite at doses up to 5μg/mL could be used for long-term tumour prevention....

  3. Effect of changes in food groups intake on magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium serum levels during 2 years of dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Tal, Ofra; Canfi, Ayala; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Karpas, Zeev; Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Sheiner, Einat K

    2015-01-01

    Essential elements in serum are related to specific changes in food groups intake. To address the effect of 2-year food intake changes in an intervention study on serum concentrations of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium. Two hundred thirty-one participants, a subgroup of the Dietary Intervention Randomized Control Trial (DIRECT) study (age = 52 years; body mass index = 32.8 kg/m(2); 85% males) randomized to low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets in a 2-year dietary intervention trial were followed for serum concentrations determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Changes in the intake of 11 food groups were evaluated by food frequency questionnaires. Using multivariate regression models, adjusted for age, sex, baseline body weight (kg), and changes in intakes of 11 food groups (g/d), at 12 months, serum element elevations were observed mainly in the low-carbohydrate group: selenium, by increasing consumption of fats and oils (β = 0.415, p = 0.009) and legumes (β = 0.183, p = 0.010) and decreasing fruit intake (β = -0.438, p = 0.030); copper, by increasing consumption of legumes (β = 0.453, p = 0.018) and dairy products (β = 0.320, p = 0.039); magnesium by increasing fish consumption (β = 0.374, p = 0.042) in the low-carbohydrate group and in the entire study population (β = 0.237, p = 0.016); and zinc exclusively in the low-fat group by decreasing consumption of fats and oils (β = -0.575, p = 0.022). At 24 months, serum elements were elevated mainly in the low-fat diet group, mostly by decreasing intake of snacks, sweets, and cakes: zinc (β = -0.570, p = 0.027), copper (β = -0.649, p = 0.012), and selenium (β = -0.943, p low-fat diet group. No significant associations between changes in food groups intake and the 4 elements were found in the Mediterranean diet group. During this 2-year intervention, serum concentrations of 4 essential elements were associated with a diversity of food group intake patterns

  4. Dietary intake of selenium and serum selenium in patients with chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Juan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyse dietary intake of selenium and serum selenium levels in patients with different types of chronic liver diseases, and to explore the relationship between selenium and severity of liver diseases. Methods Seventy-four patients admitted to Beijing YouAn Hospital from August 2008 to October 2014, as well as 16 healthy persons as healthy control (HC group, were recruited in this study. Based on liver disease types, these patients were divided into chronic hepatitis (CH group (n=23, liver cirrhosis (LC group (n=27, and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF group (n=24. Dietary intake of selenium was calculated on admission by dietary assessment software, and serum selenium levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Comparison of continuous data between groups was made by one-way ANOVA; comparison of categorical data between groups was made by χ2 test; the correlation between variables was determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Results The dietary selenium intake in the HC group was 4545±18.10 μg. Compared with the HC group, the CH group, LC group, and ACLF group had insufficient dietary intake of selenium (37.69±11.30 μg, 32.65±13.55 μg, and 28.95±13.30 μg, respectively. Dietary selenium intake gradually decreased with the progression of liver disease. Compared with the HC group, the LC group and ACLF group had significantly lower dietary selenium intake (P=0.004 and 0.000, respectively. Serum selenium in the HC group was 0.17±0.04 μg/ml. Compared with the HC group, the CH group, LC group, and ACLF group had significantly lower serum selenium levels (0.12±0.05 μg/ml, P=0.007; 0.11±0.06 μg/ml, P=0.000; 0.13±0.05 μg/ml, P=0.015. Serum selenium in the LC group was reduced most among these groups. Furthermore, serum selenium was significantly associated with prealbumin level, white blood cell count, and platelet count (r=0.229, P=0.030; r=0.213, P=0.044; r=0.255, P=0

  5. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  6. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  7. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian-Tabrizi M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tertbutyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h. Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages. Conclusions: Nanoparticle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  8. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray JB; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth AH

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf pe...

  9. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with

  10. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Blakely M.; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P 2 =0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r 2 =0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r 2 =0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine

  11. Selenium in food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Conor

    2006-01-01

    ...) to be a carcinogen and banned as an additive in food. Selenium is considered by some to be a serious hazard to the environment and to animal health. Selenium-contaminated water has brought deformity and death to wildlife in nature reserves in western USA. There is even concern that because of selenium contamination of soil, crops supplied to the great cities of California could become unfit for human consumption. In large areas of China, endemic selenium toxicity is a hazard for locals who depend on cr...

  12. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia C.R. Santos; Gabriela Ungureanu; Rui Boaventura; Cidália Botelho

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastew...

  13. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  14. Nuclear-based methods for the study of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Dhani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The essentiality of selenium to the human being and in particular its deficiency state, associated with prolonged inadequate dietary intake, have received considerable attention. In addition, the possible relationship between selenium and cancer and the claim that selenium may possess cancer-prevention properties have focused research effort. It has been observed in a number of studies on laboratory animals that selenium supplementation protects the animals against carcinogen-induced neoplastic growth in various organ sites, reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors, and suppresses the growth of transplanted tumor cells. In these research programs on the relationship between trace element levels and senile dementia and depression and the elemental changes in blood associated with selenium supplementation in a normal group of volunteers, it became obvious that in addition to establishing normal levels of elements in the population of interest, there was a more fundamental requirement for methods to be developed that would allow the study of the distribution of selenium in the body and its binding sites. The authors propose emission tomography and perturbed angular correlation as techniques worth exploring

  15. Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λexcitation = 380 nm, λemission = 519 nm of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level. The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23.

  16. Nutritional deficiency of selenium secondary to weight loss (bariatric) surgery associated with life-threatening cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldery, Rachel; Fielding, George; Rafter, Tony; Pascoe, Andrew L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of vitamins and minerals have been associated with reversible and irreversible cardiomyopathic processes. Selenium deficient dilated cardiomyopathy, first described in 1935 in the Keshan Province of China, was sometimes reversed with selenium supplementation. In the past three decades, selenium deficient cardiomyopathy has re-emerged in western medicine secondary to gastrointestinal disorders, long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and gastrointestinal surgery. This report describes a case of selenium deficient cardiomyopathy secondary to the bariatric (weight loss) surgical operation bilio-pancreatic diversion (Scopinaro procedure). This patient presented with life-threatening heart failure nine months after this surgery, having lost 100 kg of body weight. Multiple nutritional deficiencies were detected and corrected including severely depleted selenium levels. Cardiac function and the clinical scenario improved dramatically over three weeks. Screening patients at risk of malnourishment for selenium deficiency as a potential cause of cardiomyopathy is indicated.

  17. New scientific challenges - the possibilities of using selenium in poultry nutrition and impact on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.

  18. THE LEVELS OF SELENIUM IN CERRADOS PASTURES AND THE EFFECTS OF ITS SUPPLEMENTATION IN PERFORMANCE OF LAMBS NÍVEIS DE SELÊNIO EM PASTAGENS DE CERRADO E EFEITOS DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO SOBRE O DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This experiment was carried out in the Água Limpa Farm, of the University of Brasília, aiming to estimate the level of selenium and its variation during the year in some cultivated pastures of the cerrados region (Andropogon gayanus var. bisquamulatus, Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis. On the other hand, it was determined the effects of the supplementation, through intramuscular applications, in 24 Bergamacia weaned lambs. Pastures samples were collected trying to simulate the animal grazing, at intervals of 84 days, and different chemical methods of determination of selenium were evaluated. The fluorometric method has the best response and the levels of the samples varied from 0.025 to 0.075 ppm. In relation to the lambs, difference in weight gains were not statistically significant (P>0.05.

    KEY-WORDS: Brazilian savannas (“cerrados”; sheep; selenium supplementation.

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Água Limpa, da Universidade de Brasília, e teve como objetivos verificar os níveis estacionais de selênio encontrados nas pastagens de Andropogon gayanus var. bisquamulatus, Brachiaria decunbens e Brachiaria ruziziensis e avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de selênio por via intramuscular em 24 ovinos desmamados da raça Bergamácia. Foram efetuadas quatro coletas de forragem procurando imitar o pastejo dos animais e testados os métodos químicos para análise de selênio. O método fluorométrico foi o mais adequado e determinaram-se os níveis que variaram entre 0,025 e 0,075 ppm para as pastagens estudadas. Com relação aos cordeiros, não se observou efeito significativo para o ganho de peso dos cordeiros (P>0

  19. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P status in adult Danes-8-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Hollenbach, B.; Laurberg, P.

    2009-01-01

    subjects had filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire with information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Mean serum selenium level was 98.7+/-19.8microg/L and median selenoprotein P level was 2.72 (2.18-3.49)mg/L. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P...

  20. A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2013-10-01

    Despite selenium's toxicity in plants at higher levels, crops supply most of the essential dietary selenium in humans. In plants, inorganic selenium can be assimilated into selenocysteine, which can replace cysteine in proteins. Selenium toxicity in plants has been attributed to the formation of non-specific selenoproteins. However, this paradigm can be challenged now that there is increasingly abundant evidence suggesting that selenium-induced oxidative stress also contributes to toxicity in plants. This Botanical Briefing summarizes the evidence indicating that selenium toxicity in plants is attributable to both the accumulation of non-specific selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress. Evidence is also presented to substantiate the claim that inadvertent selenocysteine replacement probably impairs or misfolds proteins, which supports the malformed selenoprotein hypothesis. The possible physiological ramifications of selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress are discussed. Malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress are two distinct types of stress that drive selenium toxicity in plants and could impact cellular processes in plants that have yet to be thoroughly explored. Although challenging, deciphering whether the extent of selenium toxicity in plants is imparted by selenoproteins or oxidative stress could be helpful in the development of crops with fortified levels of selenium.

  1. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  2. Comparison of efficacy of phenol and sodium hydroxide matricectomies for management of ingrown toenails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, A.; Majeed, S.; Arif, A.

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomies in terms of frequency of pain and wound healing in the management of Ingrown Toenails. Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial Place of Duration of Study: Out Patient Department of Surgery Combined Military Hospital Kharian from Aug 2010 to Feb 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 cases with Ingrown Toenails were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 70 each. Cases of Group A and B were subjected to Phenol Matricectomy (PMC) and Sodium Hydroxide Matricectomy (SHMC) respectively. Postoperative pain was comparatively and Southampton Wound Grade for wound healing were analyzed at 2nd and 10th postop day. Results: Mean age of Group A was 28.86 ± 6.423 whereas that of Group B was 28.80 ± 5.997. Group A had 58 (83%) males and 12 (17%) females. Group B had 48 (69%) males and 22 (31%) females. Postoperative pain was comparatively less in group A with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd day (p = 0.014), whereas it was less intense in group B with no statistical significant difference on 10th day (p=0.662). Wound healing was better in group B with statistical difference between two groups on 2nd (p = 0.022) and 10th day (p = 0.024). Group B (91.4%) had more statistically significant efficacy than Group A (71.4%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: SHMC is superior to PMC in reducing pain and improving wound healing for managing Ingrown Toenails. (author)

  3. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  4. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladel, B.; Nedjimi, B.; Mansouri, A.; Tahtat, D.; Belamri, M.; Tchanchane, A.; Khelfaoui, F.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. - Highlights: ► Cereals and cereal products represent a staple food in Algeria. ► The objective of this study is to determine the Se intake in wheat produced locally. ► The concentration of Se in the wheat reflects the level of the Se in regional soils. ► The mean of Se daily consumption is close to the minimal WHO/FAO recommendation.

  5. Daily dietary selenium intake of selected Brazilian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Gonzaga, I.B.; Silva, V.L.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its essential characteristics, the daily dietary selenium intake of individuals should be monitored accurately. Daily selenium intake of different Brazilian population groups based on duplicate portion diet analysis was evaluated and compared with the new estimated average requirement values (EAR), to assess if selenium deficiency or excess could be observed in these groups. Selenium content was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The average daily dietary selenium intake found was 26.3 (±8.3) μg/day for children from the city of Sao Paulo, 37.4 (±16.0) μg/day for children from Belem, 107 (±107) μg/day for children from Macapa, 28.4 (±7.5) μg/day for institutionalized elderly, 32 (±6) μg/day for non-institutionalized elderly and 37 (±17) μg/day for university students from Sao Paulo. Most daily dietary selenium intake range observed were below the EAR values. The values obtained for children groups from Belem and Macapa cities, whose intake levels were much higher than the recommendation, were an exception. (author)

  6. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  7. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  8. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  9. Selenium dynamics in boreal streams: the role of wetlands and changing groundwater tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Björkvald, Louise; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of selenium in 10 catchments of a stream network in northern Sweden were monitored over two years, yielding almost 350 observations of selenium concentrations in streamwater. The export of selenium was found to be systematically greater from forests than from mires. Accounting for atmospheric deposition, which was monitored over four years, there was a net accumulation of selenium in mires, while the export from forest soils was approximately equal to the atmospheric deposition. In forest dominated catchments the concentrations of selenium oscillated rapidly back and forth from high to low levels during spring floods. High selenium concentrations coincided with rising groundwater tables in the riparian forest soils, while low selenium concentrations were associated with receding groundwater. Thermodynamic modeling indicated that precipitation of elemental selenium would occur under reducing conditions in the riparian soils. Since changes in the redox conditions are likely to occur near the transition from the unsaturated to the saturated zone, it is hypothesized that the transport of selenium from forest soils to streams is controlled by redox reactions in riparian soils.

  10. Exploring postoperative outcomes for ingrown toenails. NaOH vs wedge resection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rey, Jorge; Mediavilla-Saldaña, Lazaro; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso

    2014-03-01

    Ingrown (or ingrowing) toenail is a commonly used term for onychocryptosis, in which the nail becomes inserted into the lateral fold of the toe. The resulting effect on a person's health, well-being, and ability to work suggests the importance of clear treatment guidance, but little consensus exists. To explore postoperative recovery after surgery for ingrown toenails using chemical (sodium hydroxide (NaOH)) or mechanical (wedge resection) matricectomy and thus contribute to understanding within the field on which to base treatment guidelines. One hundred sixty-one procedures were undertaken, 94 using NaOH and 67 using wedge resection. Four measures of postoperative recovery were recorded: recurrence, infection, time to discharge, and number of postoperative visits. Patients treated with NaOH had lower rates of recurrence (p = .048) and infection (p = .03) than those treated with wedge resection, and time to discharge was shorter (p = .02), but they had more postoperative visits (p = .003). Low rates of recurrence and infection and short postoperative recovery time were found after both procedures, with a small advantage with treatment with NaOH. The authors argue for the value of clinical intervention using matricectomy in early stages to avoid complications resulting from granulation tissue growth. © 2014 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Selenium, selenoprotein genes and Crohn's disease in a case-control population from Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentschew, Liljana; Bishop, Karen S; Han, Dug Yeo; Morgan, Angharad R; Fraser, Alan G; Lam, Wen Jiun; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Campbell, Bobbi; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-09-01

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn's Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL) (p = 5.91 × 10(-8)). Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum level around 122 ng/mL, making the average CD patient in New Zealand selenium deficient. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 13 were found to significantly interact with serum selenium on CD. After adjustment for multiple testing, a significant interaction with serum selenium on CD was found for three SNPs, namely rs17529609 and rs7901303 in the gene SEPHS1, and rs1553153 in the gene SEPSECS. These three SNPs have not been reported elsewhere as being significantly associated with selenium or CD. It is unclear as to whether lower selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease.

  12. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-03-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  13. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Tang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  15. Hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein B expression: Regulation by selenium status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Mohinder P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.

  16. Efficacy of Dietary Selenium to Counteract Toxicity of Deoxynivalenol in Growing Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Faixová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol on plasma indicators and efficacy of dietary selenium to counteract toxicity of deoxynivalenol in growing broiler chicks. Three groups of broilers were formed with 14 birds in each group. Three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol, 0.4 mg selenium/kg diet, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol, 0.4 mg selenium/kg diet and deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol plus selenium-enriched yeast (1.4 mg selenium/kg diet. After 6 weeks of feeding all birds were sacrifi ced and blood samples for chemical analyses were collected. Plasma calcium, chloride and alanine aminotransferase activity were signifi cantly elevated and magnesium, total proteins, triglycerides and free glycerol were decreased in chicks fed deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet compared with those fed the control diet. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast to the diet reversed plasma levels of calcium, magnesium and alanine aminotransferase activity in chicks induced by dietary deoxynivalenol. Phosphorus, albumin and cholesterol levels and alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were not affected by diets. The inclusion of selenium to DON-contaminated diet, however, did not completely alleviate toxic effect on protein and lipid metabolism by the liver. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast product counteracted most of the plasma indicator alterations caused by deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet in chicks.

  17. Cross sectional study of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Natalie R; Burgert, Stephen L; Murphy, Gwen A; Brockman, John D; White, Russell E; Lando, Justus; Chepkwony, Robert; Topazian, Mark D; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Mwachiro, Michael M

    2017-12-08

    Low serum selenium status has been associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). East Africa is a region of high ESCC incidence and is known to have low soil selenium levels, but this association has not previously been evaluated. In this study we assessed the association of serum selenium concentration and the prevalence of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC, in a cross-sectional study of subjects from Bomet, Kenya. 294 asymptomatic adult residents of Bomet, Kenya completed questionnaires and underwent endoscopy with Lugol's iodine staining and biopsy for detection of ESD. Serum selenium concentrations were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between serum selenium and ESD were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean serum selenium concentration was 85.5 (±28.3) μg/L. Forty-two ESD cases were identified (14% of those screened), including 5 (12%) in selenium quartile 1 (Q1), 5 (12%) in Q2, 15 (36%) in Q3, and 17 (40%) in Q4. Higher serum selenium was associated with prevalence of ESD (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.05-8.74) and this association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.06-14.19). This is the first study to evaluate the association of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in an African population at high risk for ESCC. We found a positive association between higher serum selenium concentration and prevalence of ESD, an association contrary to our original hypothesis. Further work is needed to better understand the role of selenium in the etiology of ESCC in this region, and to develop effective ESCC prevention and control strategies.

  18. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  19. Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morild Inge

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 μg/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is

  20. SELENIUM IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Zayed, A. M.; De Souza, M. P.; Tarun, A. S.

    2000-06-01

    Plants vary considerably in their physiological response to selenium (Se). Some plant species growing on seleniferous soils are Se tolerant and accumulate very high concentrations of Se (Se accumulators), but most plants are Se nonaccumulators and are Se-sensitive. This review summarizes knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of both types of plants, particularly with regard to Se uptake and transport, biochemical pathways of assimilation, volatilization and incorporation into proteins, and mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance. Molecular approaches are providing new insights into the role of sulfate transporters and sulfur assimilation enzymes in selenate uptake and metabolism, as well as the question of Se essentiality in plants. Recent advances in our understanding of the plant's ability to metabolize Se into volatile Se forms (phytovolatilization) are discussed, along with the application of phytoremediation for the cleanup of Se contaminated environments.

  1. Determination of sub-ng g-1 levels of total inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2017-03-01

    A new and simple ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) procedure was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The various analytical variables affecting complex formation and extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The method is based on selective complex formation of As(III) and Se(IV) in the presence of excess As(V) and Se(VI) with toluidine red in the presence of tartaric acid at pH 4.5, and then extraction of the resulting condensation products into the micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether, Brij 35. Under optimised conditions, good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 4-225 and 12-400 ng l - 1 with limits of detection of 1.1 and 3.5 ng l - 1 for As(III) and Se(IV), respectively. The repeatability was better than 3.9% for both analytes (n = 10, 25 ng l - 1 ) while reproducibility ranged from 4.2% to 4.8%. The recoveries of As(III) and Se(IV) spiked at 25-100 ng l - 1 were in the range of 94.2-104.8%. After pre-concentration of a 5.0 ml sample, the sensitivity enhancement factors for As(III) and Se(IV) were 185 and 140, respectively. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) and spiked recovery experiments. The method was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable determination of total As and total Se by HG-AAS after pre-reduction with a mixture of L-cysteine and tartaric acid. Finally, the method was shown to be rapid and sensitive, with good results for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of total As and Se contents (as As(III) and Se(IV)) from food samples.

  2. [Plasma selenium and peripartum cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénac, A; Touré, K; Diarra, M B; Sergeant, C; Jobic, Y; Sanogo, K; Dembele, M; Fayol, V; Simonoff, M

    2004-01-01

    Peripartum heart failure due to unexplained dilated cardiomyopathy is a common disorder as Savannak-Sahelian Africa. One of the many suspected risk factors identified is selenium deficiency. The purpose of this study was to measure plasma selenium levels in patients with peripartum heart failure due to cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Republic of Mali and compare data with healthy Sahalian women with the same obstetrical status. Plasma selenium was measured in a patient group consisting of 28 Malian women presenting peripartum heart failure and in a control group of 28 healthy breast-feeding Nigerien women of comparable age. The criteria for matching the two groups was parity (similar number of deliveries) since multiparity is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The Wilcoxon test (nonparametric) was used to compare the 2 groups considering up value < 0.05 as significant. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients from Mali than in controls from Niger (65 +/- 17 ng/ml vs. 78 +/- 17 ng/ml, p = 0.01). The results of this study showing lower plasma selenium in Bamako patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy than in a matching healthy control population confirms the previous data from the Niamey study.

  3. Uncommon fungi isolated from diabetic patients toenails with or without visible onychomycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avila, Marisela; Gómez-Gómez, Juan Vicente; Texis, Alejandra Paula Espinosa; Imbert-Palafox, José Luis; Becerril-Flores, Marco Antonio; Blasco, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Kodamaea ohmeri and Prototheca wickerhamii are rare pathogens for humans, and even more rare as cause of onychomycosis. This work reports the second case of onychomycosis by K. ohmeri and the fourth of onycoprotothecosis; it was made in public health institutions in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, studying 261 diabetic patients during 2005 and 2006. Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated from toenails of a 51-year-old female patient, and P. wickerhamii from three female patients of 48, 49, and 61 years old, respectively, all of them with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2). Identifications were done by standard microbiological methods and a commercial system. Only one patient infected with P. wickerhamii showed mixed infection with dermatophytes. Out of the total studied DM 2 patients, 1.15% presented onycoprotothecosis and 0.38% onychomycosis by K. ohmeri, high percentages if it is considered that few cases have been reported of K. ohmeri and P. wickerhamii as onychomycosis causal agents.

  4. Prevalence of toenail onychomycosis among diabetics at a primary care facility in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelavathi, M; Azimah, M N; Kharuddin, N F; Tzar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Onychomycosis increases the risk of developing secondary bacterial infection and cellulitis if left untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics and its associated factors. A cross sectional study using universal sampling of all type 1 and 2 diabetic patients attending a primary care facility of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) from January to March 2011 was conducted. Samples were taken from clinically abnormal nails and from the first right toenail in the absence of nail abnormalities and cultured for fungal elements. A total of 151 diabetics participated in the study. The mean patient age was 60.7 +/- 9.1 years. A total of 123 nail samples (81.5%) were culture positive for fungal elements. A positive correlation was found between onychomycosis and increasing age (p = 0.011) and clinically abnormal nails (p types of diabetes or glycemic control. The prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics in our study was high.

  5. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  6. Theoretical predictions of arsenic and selenium species under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan-Pendergast, M.T.; Przybylek, M.; Lindblad, M.; Wilcox, J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Thermochemical properties of arsenic and selenium species thought to be released into the atmosphere during the coal combustion were examined using ab initio methods. At various levels of theory, calculated geometries and vibrational frequencies of the species were compared with experimental data, where available. Through a comparison of equilibrium constants for a series of gaseous arsenic and selenium oxidation reactions involving OH and HO{sub 2}, five thermodynamically favored reactions were found. In addition, it was determined that all favored reactions were more likely to go to completion tinder tropospheric, rather than stratospheric, conditions.

  7. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  8. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-03-26

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic deposition of selenium and cadmium into the hair and other tissues of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Holzbecher, J.; Katz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    To better understand the significance of hair trace-element measurements and their relationships with the trace-element levels in body organs and fluids, a series of controlled animal experiments were conducted in which several trace elements were periodically measured (neutron activation and AA) during a 90-day chronic exposure to selenium and cadmium. Chronic selenium exposure appeared to be reflected by elevated selenium levels in the hair, kidneys, and liver. Chronic cadmium exposure, although reflected by kidney and liver elevation, appeared not to be reflected by corresponding increases in its concentration in the hair

  10. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry; Blot, Phillipe

    1994-01-01

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure

  11. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry [Epidemiological Research Unit, National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Villejuif (France); Blot, Phillipe [Clinique obstetricale Baudelocque, Paris (France)

    1994-12-09

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure.

  12. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium ( 79 Se) and iodine ( 129 I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  13. Dyslipidemia, altered erythrocyte fatty acids and selenium are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects and erythrocytes separated for the determination of fatty acids. Plasma lipids, selenium and vitamin E levels were also measured. There were no differences in BMI, weight and height among the three groups except for systolic BP that was lower in VD (148.3±41.8mmHg) ...

  14. Comparison of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion in the treatment of ingrown toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The present retrospective study compared the efficacy of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion for the treatment of ingrown toenails (onychocryptosis). Two surgical methods were performed in 95 patients with a stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenail. Each patient was examined weekly until healing and then at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. The outcomes measured were surgical duration, healing time, recurrence rate, the incidence of postoperative infection, and cosmetic appearance after surgery. Of the 95 patients (115 ingrown toenails) included in the present study, 39 (41.1%) underwent wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 56 (59%), wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. The mean surgical duration for wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion was 14.9 ± 2.4 minutes and 15.1 ± 3.2 minutes, respectively (p = .73). The corresponding healing times were 2.8 ± 1.2 weeks and 2.7 ± 1.3 weeks (p = .70). Recurrence developed in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and in 4 (4.2%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. In addition, postoperative infection occurred in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 2 (2.1%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. Both of the surgical procedures were practical and appropriate for the treatment of ingrown toenails, being simple and associated with low morbidity and a high success rate. However, cosmetically, wedge resection (Winograd procedure) would be the better choice because the nail plate remains intact. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process.

  16. Selenium concentrations in the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): Substitution of non-lethal muscle plugs for muscle tissue in contaminant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, B.; May, T.

    1995-01-01

    A single muscle plug was collected from each of 25 live razorback suckers inhabiting the Colorado River basin and analyzed for selenium by instrumental neutron activation. Eight fish from Ashley Creek and three from Razorback Bar exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 8 μg/g, a level associated with reproductive failure in fish. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and milt were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and together indicate a possible explanation for the decline of this species in the Colorado River basin. Muscle plugs (<50mg) and muscle tissue (20 g) were collected from dorsal, anterior, and posterior areas of common carp, flannelmouth sucker, and an archived razorback sucker and analyzed for selenium. Concentrations of selenium in muscle plugs were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle tissue from the same location and fish (r=0.97). Coefficients of variation for selenium concentrations in each fish were <6.5% for muscle tissue, but ranged from 1.5 to 32.4% for muscle plugs. Increased variation in muscle plugs was attributed to lower selenium concentrations found in the anterior muscle plugs of flannelmouth suckers. Mean selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and tissue from dorsal and posterior areas and muscle tissue from the anterior area were not significantly different. The non-lethal collection of a muscle plug from dorsal and posterior areas of the razorback sucker and other fish species may provide an accurate assessment of selenium concentrations that exist in adjacent muscle tissue.

  17. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  18. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  19. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    with placebo, by decreasing serum TSH and FT4 concentrations. Based on these findings, selenium supplementation is not warranted under conditions of marginal selenium deficiency. However, a role for selenium supplementation in the treatment of autoimmune thyroid diseases is still unresolved.......OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  20. Overwinter survival of mallards fed selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 g/g selenium in the form of selenomethionine. Mortality in each of these treatments was 0, 10, 25, 95, and 100%, respectively, during a 16-week exposure that started in November. After one week of treatment, body weights were significantly depressed by the 20, 40, and 80-ug/g selenium treatments, but not by 10 :g/g selenium. Four weeks after being returned to an untreated diet, the body weight of birds fed 20 ug/g selenium had increased to the point of being statistically inseparable from the weight of controls. Signs of selenium poisoning in the dead included severe emaciation, mottling of the liver, empty gizzard, and the presence of a yellowish fluid around some organs. Concentrations of selenium in blood were related to dietary treatments, but mortality was not clearly related to a threshold concentration of selenium in blood.

  1. Reproductive status of western mosquitofish inhabiting selenium- contaminated waters in the Grassland Water District, Merced County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study was implemented to determine if western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in the Grassland Water District suffer from impaired reproduction because of seleniferous inflows of agricultural drainwater from the Grassland Bypass Project. During June to July 2001, laboratory trials with pregnant female fish collected from two seleniferous treatment sites exposed to selenium-laden drainwater and two nonseleniferous reference sites yielded fry that averaged >96% survival at birth. In addition, none of the newborn fry exhibited evidence of teratogenesis, a typical consequence of selenium toxicity. Chemical analysis of postpartum female fish and their newborn fry indicated that mosquitofish from seleniferous sites accumulated relatively high body burdens of selenium (3.96 to 17.5 μg selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 5.35 to 29.2 μg selenium/g in their fry), whereas those from nonseleniferous sites contained lower body burdens (0.40 to 2.72 μg selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 0.61 to 4.68 μg selenium/g in their fry). Collectively, these results strongly suggest that mosquitofish inhabiting selenium-contaminated waters are not experiencing adverse reproductive effects at current levels of selenium exposure.

  2. Reproductive status of western mosquitofish inhabiting selenium-contaminated waters in the Grassland water district, Merced county, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M K; Martin, B A; May, T W

    2004-10-01

    This study was implemented to determine if western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in the Grassland Water District suffer from impaired reproduction because of seleniferous inflows of agricultural drainwater from the Grassland Bypass Project. During June to July 2001, laboratory trials with pregnant female fish collected from two seleniferous treatment sites exposed to selenium-laden drainwater and two nonseleniferous reference sites yielded fry that averaged > 96% survival at birth. In addition, none of the newborn fry exhibited evidence of teratogenesis, a typical consequence of selenium toxicity. Chemical analysis of postpartum female fish and their newborn fry indicated that mosquitofish from seleniferous sites accumulated relatively high body burdens of selenium (3.96 to 17.5 microg selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 5.35 to 29.2 microg selenium/g in their fry), whereas those from nonseleniferous sites contained lower body burdens (0.40 to 2.72 microg selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 0.61 to 4.68 microg selenium/g in their fry). Collectively, these results strongly suggest that mosquitofish inhabiting selenium-contaminated waters are not experiencing adverse reproductive effects at current levels of selenium exposure. Copyright 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  3. Reduced selenium-binding protein 1 in breast cancer correlates with poor survival and resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of selenium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Supplemental dietary selenium is associated with reduced incidence of many cancers. The antitumor function of selenium is thought to be mediated through selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1. However, the significance of SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer is still largely unknown. A total of 95 normal and tumor tissues assay and 12 breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. We found that SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer tissues is reduced compared to normal control. Low SELENBP1 expression in ER(+ breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor survival (p<0.01, and SELENBP1 levels progressively decreased with advancing clinical stages of breast cancer. 17-β estradiol (E2 treatment of high SELENBP1-expressing ER(+ cell lines led to a down-regulation of SELENBP1, a result that did not occur in ER(- cell lines. However, after ectopic expression of ER in an originally ER(- cell line, down-regulation of SELENBP1 upon E2 treatment was observed. In addition, selenium treatment resulted in reduced cell proliferation in endogenous SELENBP1 high cells; however, after knocking-down SELENBP1, we observed no significant reduction in cell proliferation. Similarly, selenium has no effect on inhibition of cell proliferation in low endogenous SELENBP1 cells, but the inhibitory effect is regained following ectopic SELENBP1 expression. Furthermore, E2 treatment of an ER silenced high endogenous SELENBP1 expressing cell line showed no abolishment of cell proliferation inhibition upon selenium treatment. These data indicate that SELENBP1 expression is regulated via estrogen and that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of selenium treatment is dependent on the high level of SELENBP1 expression. Therefore, the expression level of SELENBP1 could be an important marker for predicting survival and effectiveness of selenium supplementation in breast cancer. This is the first study to reveal the importance of monitoring SELENBP1 expression

  4. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Lahiri, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  5. Enrichment of meat products with selenium by its introduction to mixed feed compounds for birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sobolev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a biologically active microelement, contained in a number of hormones and enzymes. In a bird or animal organism selenium performs the following functions: strengthens the immune system, stimulates formation of antibodies, macrophages and interferons. Also, it is a powerful antioxidant agent. It stimulates processes of metabolism in the organism, protects the organism against toxic manifestations of cadmium, lead, thalium and silver; stimulates reproductive function, decreases acute development of inflammatory processes; stabilizes functioning of the nervous system; normalizes functioning of the endocrine system. Furthermore, it stimulates synthesis of hemoglobin, takes part in secretion of erythrocutes, neutralizes toxins, prevents and stops development of malignant tumors. It also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system of an animal organism: prevents myocardosis and decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of selenium in the organism causes (depending upon the extent of deficiency either physiological changes within the regulatory norm, significant disorders of the metabolism, or specific diseases. Around 75 different diseases and symptoms of pain are related to selenium deficiency. In most countries, the level of selenium consumption remains low (20–40 µg/day. There are several ways of improving of the selenium consumption of a population: consumption of selenium as a medication or dietary supplement, producing selenium-enriched bread, growing greens and vegetables rich in selenium, producing selenium-enriched beverages, products of animal origin, which would be rich in selenium. In the scientific-agricultural sphere studies have been made on the influence of adding different doses (0.2–0.6 mg/kg of selenium in mixed feeds and peculiarities of its depositing and distribution in the muscle tissues of young growth of different species of poultry. It has been found that feeding broiler

  6. Effect of vitamin E and selenium and different types of milk on health and growth of organic goat kids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Govaerts, W.

    2012-01-01

    Newborn goat kids are low in blood levels of vitamin E and selenium. Not known is how this affects health and growth of the kids. In a study on an organic farm 40 kids were allotted to 4 groups. Parenteral administration of 0.5 ml vitamin E and selenium solution (treated groups) or 0.5 ml salt

  7. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  8. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  9. Entrapped elemental selenium nanoparticles affect physicochemical properties of selenium fed activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Seder-Colomina, Marina; Jordan, Norbert; Dessi, Paolo; Cosmidis, Julie; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Weiss, Stephan; Farges, François; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-09-15

    Selenite containing wastewaters can be treated in activated sludge systems, where the total selenium is removed from the wastewater by the formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles, which are trapped in the biomass. No studies have been carried out so far on the characterization of selenium fed activated sludge flocs, which is important for the development of this novel selenium removal process. This study showed that more than 94% of the trapped selenium in activated sludge flocs is in the form of elemental selenium, both as amorphous/monoclinic selenium nanospheres and trigonal selenium nanorods. The entrapment of the elemental selenium nanoparticles in the selenium fed activated sludge flocs leads to faster settling rates, higher hydrophilicity and poorer dewaterability compared to the control activated sludge (i.e., not fed with selenite). The selenium fed activated sludge showed a less negative surface charge density as compared to the control activated sludge. The presence of trapped elemental selenium nanoparticles further affected the spatial distribution of Al and Mg in the activated sludge flocs. This study demonstrated that the formation and subsequent trapping of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the activated sludge flocs affects their physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  11. Determination of molybdenum and selenium in bioenvironmental samples using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Samra, A.; Morris, J.S.; Koirtyohann, S.R.; Vogt, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the increasing interest as to their roles in biological systems, a procedure has been developed by which molybdenum and selenium can be determined at nanogram levels in these types of samples. Results from the analysis of orchard leaves and bovine liver are presented. The samples are packaged in pre-cleaned quartz vials prepared from GE-204 tubing. If both selenium and molybdenum are to be determined, the samples are irradiated for 40 or more hours at a thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After the samples have decayed for approximately 48 hours the vials are unpackaged, cleaned in aqua-regia, and broken. The irradiation period can be reduced to 24 hours if molybdenum is to be determined individually or if the selenium content is known to be 1 microgram or more. The sample is digested with carriers and the selenium is then distilled as a volatile selenium halide. Elemental selenium is precipitated by reduction with SO 2 produced through the protonation of the hydrogen sulfite ion and subsequent decomposition of the resulting sulfurous acid. The 401 keV summation peak of 75 Se is normally used for quantitative determination. The chemical yield is determined by drying and weighing the elemental selenium

  12. Selenium, Selenoprotein Genes and Crohn’s Disease in a Case-Control Population from Auckland, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD, whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL (p = 5.91 × 10−8. Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum level around 122 ng/mL, making the average CD patient in New Zealand selenium deficient. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tested, 13 were found to significantly interact with serum selenium on CD. After adjustment for multiple testing, a significant interaction with serum selenium on CD was found for three SNPs, namely rs17529609 and rs7901303 in the gene SEPHS1, and rs1553153 in the gene SEPSECS. These three SNPs have not been reported elsewhere as being significantly associated with selenium or CD. It is unclear as to whether lower selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease.

  13. Selenium, Selenoprotein Genes and Crohn’s Disease in a Case-Control Population from Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentschew, Liljana; Bishop, Karen S.; Han, Dug Yeo; Morgan, Angharad R.; Fraser, Alan G.; Lam, Wen Jiun; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Campbell, Bobbi; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2012-01-01

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL) (p = 5.91 × 10−8). Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum level around 122 ng/mL, making the average CD patient in New Zealand selenium deficient. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 13 were found to significantly interact with serum selenium on CD. After adjustment for multiple testing, a significant interaction with serum selenium on CD was found for three SNPs, namely rs17529609 and rs7901303 in the gene SEPHS1, and rs1553153 in the gene SEPSECS. These three SNPs have not been reported elsewhere as being significantly associated with selenium or CD. It is unclear as to whether lower selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease. PMID:23112913

  14. Is the selenium drinking water standard justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, M G; Calabrese, E J

    1979-08-01

    Four cases are presented which suggest that the present U.S.E.P.A. drinking water standard for selenium of 10 micrograms/L in inappropriate. The rationale upon which this standard is based is that selenium is carcinogenic, induces dental caries formation, and is highly toxic to animals. However, a critical assessment of this literature can not support these claims. Case no. 1 demonstrates that there is insufficient evidence to classify selenium as a carcinogen. Data derived from the three respective groups of researchers claiming a carcinogenic effect induced by selenium are obscure due to 1) the inability to accurately identify malignancies, 2) the apparent opposite effects of different selenium compounds, and 3) the lack of proper controls. Case no. 2 reviews recent evidence that selenium reduces the incidence of cancer in laboratory animals and in man, an effect which can probably be attributed to the antioxidant properties of selenium compounds. Case no. 3 provides evidence which does not permit the classification of selenium as a cariogenic element. Epidemiological studies supporting such a claim are inadequate since they lack properly matched control groups. Animal data do not support this link as well. Case no. 4 is a review of studies which clearly demonstrate the essentiality of selenium, an aspect of selenium metabolism that was not considered when the 10 micrograms/L standard was promulgated. In light of the four cases presented and an assessment of selenium toxicity in man, it is concluded that the 10 micrograms/L standard can not be justified. Instead, it is suggested that 50 micrograms/L selenium should provide sufficient protection from the toxic effects of this element. This is consistent with the current state of knowledge with respect to the potential adverse health effects associated with selenium.

  15. Genome-wide association study of serum selenium concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jian; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this ...

  16. Teenage patients with ingrown toenails: Treatment with partial matrix excision or segmental phenolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korkmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingrown toenails (IT is a very common problem leading to significant associated morbidity. The articles related to phenolization for matrix removal in teenagers with IT are not enough in the foot surgery literature. Aims: To compare the postoperative recovery periods, complication rate, and tolerability of partial matrix excision and segmental phenolization in teenagers with IT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (13-17 years with 48 IT were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with partial matrix excision (Group I and segmental phenolization (Group II. We assessed the recurrence rates, postoperative complications, duration of analgesic usage, and time to return to daily activities. Results: There was no significant difference between the demographic and clinical data of the two groups. Three patients in Group I and two patients in Group II experienced moderate pain postoperatively. These patients used analgesics for 3 days. The rates of postoperative complications and recurrences between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference ( P = 0.688. The time to return to normal daily activities was significantly shorter in Group II patients than in Group I patients ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Partial matrix excision is a very safe model of therapy in the surgical treatment of teenagers with IT. It has low recurrence rate and minimal postoperative morbidity. We concluded that segmental phenolization is also as safe as partial matrix excision in the treatment of IT and patients return to their daily activities in less time with this treatment modality.

  17. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  18. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  19. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  20. Meaning and resource of selenium in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    KRATOCHVÍLOVÁ, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis concentrates on functions of selenium in human nutrition. Selenium is an essential trace element of importance to human health. Its availability depends on the concentration of selenium in the soil. The average income of selenium in the Czech population are usually 36 g/day per individuals. Excess or insufficient selenium intakes can result in adverse effects on human health. The most important sources of selenium in the diets of most people are meat, fish, eggs, milk, cerea...

  1. Dyshomeostasis of Serum Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Copper, Zinc, and Selenium Levels in Elderly Physically Disabled Persons: an AHAP-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Simin; Parsian, Hadi; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Noreddini, Hajighorban; Mosapour, Abbas; Bijani, Ali; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2015-08-01

    The percentage of elderly persons is rapidly growing. Physical disability is one of the main age-related diseases which affect life quality. There are some studies that suggest the oxidative stress and trace elements are involved in physical disability in elderly persons, but the results are inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of aforementioned parameters in elderly physically disabled patients vs. healthy ones. According to the Katz questionnaire form, 44 subjects with physical disability and 66 age-gender-matched healthy subjects were selected from Amirkola Health and Aging Project (AHAP). The results indicated that patient group had lower serum Zn, Se, and total antioxidant levels than the control group (p < 0.001), whereas serum total oxidant level and Cu to Zn ratio (CZr) were higher in control group than in healthy one (p < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between Zn, Se, total antioxidant, and bone mineral density of femur (BMD.F) with activities of daily living (ADL) score (p < 0.01); meanwhile, a negative correlation between CZr and total oxidant with ADL score was observed (p < 0.01). Serum total oxidant level and CZr index had the highest area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis among the included parameters for discrimination of physically disabled patients than the normal ones. Decrease in serum Zn and Se levels, low BMD, and increase in CZr and oxidative stress were observed in physically disabled patients. It seems that CZr is more reliable parameter than the others to discriminate the physically disabled patients than the healthy persons.

  2. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project'ale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all new selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as might be expected the reagent makeup costs dominate the overall costs, and range from 0.22 to 0.29 mills/kWh. For oxidation air flow rate

  3. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

  4. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: Variation within species and relevance to risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 may be at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. PMID:23541437

  5. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  6. Copper, selenium and zinc content of canned and noncanned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The levels of copper, selenium and zinc in beverages purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The zinc levels ranged from 0.0 - 1.34 mg/L for the canned and 0.01 - 1.11 mg/L for the ...

  7. Selenium supplementation improves the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Moosa; Sohrabi, Zahra; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Geramizadeh, Bita; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. These patients have high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation which can subsequently induce malnutrition. Selenium levels have been found to be decreased in HD patients. As selenium deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory response, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory markers and the nutritional status of HD patients. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients on stable HD for at least 3 months without any acute illness or active infections were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive one selenium (200 µg) or placebo capsule daily for 12 weeks. Serum levels of lipoproteins, malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP), homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin as well as the subjective global assessment (SGA) score, malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment phase. The primary outcome was a change in the nutritional status measured by the SGA score from the baseline towards the end of the treatment phase of the study. The SGA score and MIS decreased significantly in the selenium group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001 for both). Moreover, serum levels of MDA decreased significantly in the selenium group compared with increasing levels in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Selenium supplementation also hindered an increase in IL-6 levels compared with the placebo group (P = 0.016). There were no significant differences between the selenium and placebo groups in terms of changes in serum levels of lipoproteins, HSCRP, homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin or Hb levels. This study shows that selenium may be an effective complementary supplement for reducing the severity of malnutrition in HD patients through alleviating oxidative stress and

  8. Selenium in ruminant nutrition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, C B; Miller, S M

    1975-10-01

    The early interest in selenium related primarily to its toxicity, but since 1957 the element has been recognized as a dietary essential. The dietary requirement for selenium by most species is about .1 ppm. Deficiencies of selenium in cattle and sheep have been confirmed under natural grazing conditions in many countries of the world. Overt signs of inadequacy such as white muscle disease (nutritional muscular dystrophy) occur primarily in young calves or lambs born to selenium deficient dams. Infertility has increased in ewes grazing pastures low in selenium. In general, signs of deficiency have not occurred in older animals such as finishing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows. Subclinical deficiencies of selenium are not determined easily, however, and thus an inadequacy of the element may be limiting maximum animal performance under certain circumstances of drylot feeding. The current nutritional status of ruminant animals in many geographical areas and involving various feeding programs with this element has not been established. The recent widespread deficiency problems with nonruminants suggest that such an assessment should be made. Concentration of selenium in tissue, particularly in the liver, has been used in establishing selenium status of the animal. With lambs glutathione peroxidase activity in certain tissues may be a more accurate indicator of selenium adequacy than is selenium content of the tissue. Supplemental sodium selenite and sodium selenate by either oral administration or parenteral injection have prevented clinical signs of selenium deficiency and animal losses in both ruminant and nonruminant animals. Heavy pellets containing elemental selenium for placement in the rumen have proved effective. In general, organic forms of selenium are absorbed more readily by animals than are inorganic compounds. The dietary requirements for selenium and its metabolism are influenced by many nutrient interrelationships, including its interactions with

  9. Selenium and vitamin E enriched diet increases NK cell cytotoxicity in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia O. Latorre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies has shown that antioxidants, fatty acids and trace minerals may modulate different immune cell activities, and that their deficiency may be associated with diseases and impaired immune responses. In innate immunity, natural killer (NK cells have a central role, killing virally infected and cancerous cells, and also secreting cytokines that shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched diets in selenium plus vitamin E and/or canola oil on complete blood count and on NK cell cytotoxicity from blood lymphocytes of Nellore bulls. Bulls that received selenium plus vitamin E had (P=0.0091 higher NK cell cytotoxicity than control bulls. This result positively correlated with serum selenium levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed immunostimulatory effects of selenium plus vitamin E on NK cell cytotoxicity of Nellore bulls.

  10. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  11. A Critical Role for Cysteine 57 in the Biological Functions of Selenium Binding Protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qi; Ansong, Emmanuel; Diamond, Alan M; Yang, Wancai

    2015-11-18

    The concentration of selenium-binding protein1 (SBP1) is often lower in tumors than in the corresponding tissue and lower levels have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. SBP1 binds tightly selenium although what role selenium plays in its biological functions remains unknown. Previous studies indicated that cysteine 57 is the most likely candidate amino acid for selenium binding. In order to investigate the role of cysteine 57 in SBP1, this amino acid was altered to a glycine and the mutated protein was expressed in human cancer cells. The SBP1 half-life, as well as the cellular response to selenite cytotoxicity, was altered by this change. The ectopic expression of SBP1(GLY) also caused mitochondrial damage in HCT116 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that cysteine 57 is a critical determinant of SBP1 function and may play a significant role in mitochondrial function.

  12. Expression profiling indicating low selenium-sensitive microRNA levels linked to cell cycle and cell stress response pathways in the CaCo-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark J; Rotjanapun, Kunjana; Hesketh, John E; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-05-01

    Se is an essential micronutrient for human health, and fluctuations in Se levels and the potential cellular dysfunction associated with it may increase the risk for disease. Although Se has been shown to influence several biological pathways important in health, little is known about the effect of Se on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) molecules regulating these pathways. To explore the potential role of Se-sensitive miRNA in regulating pathways linked with colon cancer, we profiled the expression of 800 miRNA in the CaCo-2 human adenocarcinoma cell line in response to a low-Se (72 h at <40 nm) environment using nCounter direct quantification. These data were then examined using a range of in silico databases to identify experimentally validated miRNA-mRNA interactions and the biological pathways involved. We identified ten Se-sensitive miRNA (hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-99b-5p, hsa-miR-302d-3p, hsa-miR-373-3p, hsa-miR-483-3p, hsa-miR-512-5p and hsa-miR-4454), which regulate 3588 mRNA in key pathways such as the cell cycle, the cellular response to stress, and the canonical Wnt/β-catenin, p53 and ERK/MAPK signalling pathways. Our data show that the effects of low Se on biological pathways may, in part, be due to these ten Se-sensitive miRNA. Dysregulation of the cell cycle and of the stress response pathways due to low Se may influence key genes involved in carcinogenesis.

  13. Comparison of Selenium Treatments of Crops in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments with spring and winter barley and ryegrass were carried out to compare the effect of fertilizers enriched with selenate or selenite with foliar application on the selenium (Se) concentrations in the crops. Application of about 20 g Se/ha given as selenate or about 100 g as selen......Field experiments with spring and winter barley and ryegrass were carried out to compare the effect of fertilizers enriched with selenate or selenite with foliar application on the selenium (Se) concentrations in the crops. Application of about 20 g Se/ha given as selenate or about 100 g...... as selenite in a PK fertilizer and about 5 g Se/ha sprayed on the plants increased the Se-concentrations from insufficient levels to levels that met the animal nutritional requirement. Ryegrass obtained sufficient Se concentrations at lower levels of added Se than did the barley. Toxic concentrations did...

  14. [Administration of selenium in lymphedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasseroller, R

    1997-09-15

    To investigate the effectiveness and dosage of selenium in the treatment of lymphedema. Intensive treatment with decongestive physical therapy in combination with sodium selenite shows significant improvement in the reduction of the volume of the limb and in the histophysiology of secondary lymphedema after mastectomy or Wertheim-operation. The incidence of skin infections decreased significantly. The anti-inflammatory effect should be considered in the treatment of lymphedema.

  15. Selenium determination by fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorenti, A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75 Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  16. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study...... in Europe to assess the relation of plasma selenium to asthma. The network compared 569 cases in 14 European centres with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 576 controls from the same centres with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12......-analysis of the results from the centres showed no overall association between asthma and plasma selenium [odds ratio (OR)/10 microg/l increase in plasma selenium: 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.21] though there was a significantly protective effect in Lodz (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.78) and a marginally...

  17. Combustion characteristics and retention-emission of selenium during co-firing of torrefied biomass and its blends with high ash coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Habib; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Abbas, Qumber; Zhou, Chuncai

    2017-12-01

    The combustion characteristics, kinetic analysis and selenium retention-emission behavior during co-combustion of high ash coal (HAC) with pine wood (PW) biomass and torrefied pine wood (TPW) were investigated through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and laboratory-based circulating fluidized bed combustion experiment. Improved ignition behavior and thermal reactivity of HAC were observed through the addition of a suitable proportion of biomass and torrefied. During combustion of blends, higher values of relative enrichment factors in fly ash revealed the maximum content of condensing volatile selenium on fly ash particles, and depleted level in bottom ash. Selenium emission in blends decreased by the increasing ratio of both PW and TPW. Higher reductions in the total Se volatilization were found for HAC/TPW than individual HAC sample, recommending that TPW have the best potential of selenium retention. The interaction amongst selenium and fly ash particles may cause the retention of selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  19. Serum selenium level in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Ali Kelani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study supports a significant association between deficient serum Se concentration with cut-off value of up to 84 ng/ml and MI. Strikingly, the most predictor of MI is serum Se, followed by total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein, and hypertension.

  20. Learning selenium testing tools with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Gundecha, Unmesh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a quality testing professional, or a software or web application developer looking to create automation test scripts for your web applications, with an interest in Python, then this is the perfect guide for you. Python developers who need to do Selenium testing need not learn Java, as they can directly use Selenium for testing with this book.

  1. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Hrda, P.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Hill, M.; Jiranek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential component of selenoproteins, enzymes with extensive regulatory and protective effect in organism. Immunological effects of Se are documented and are distinct even above concentrations necessary for maximal activity of selenoenzymes. Therefore, we investigated effect of supplementation by 100 μg of yeast-bound Se on concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies TPOAb and TgAb in the group of 253 seniors living in the Asylum Houses of South Bohemia. Increase of serum selenium from 59 to 150 μg Se/L serum in supplemented group and from 59 to 72 μg Se/L serum in group with placebo were detected by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and proved increased Se intake during the trial. Autoantibodies were analyzed by ELISA at the beginning of the trial and after 1 year. Statistical evaluation of results in whole groups (regardless of increased autoantibodies) by ANOVA manifested significant decrease of TPOAb and TgAb in non-supplemented group while supplementation did not effect serum autoantibodies concentrations. Evaluation of groups of seniors created from those with increased autoantibodies, ANOVA demonstrated decrease of TPOAb in both groups but Se supplementation did not affect the decrease. In opposite, TgAb increased significantly and Se supplementation led to higher increase of TgAb. Recent results of possibility to decrease serum concentration of TPOAb proved this effect only for high TPOAb concentrations and for higher Se supplements. From this point of view, it is necessary to conduct subsequent trials with the patients with autoimmune thyreoiditis with different levels of autoantibodies and detect also serum Se levels. (author)

  2. Plant selenium hyperaccumulation- Ecological effects and potential implications for selenium cycling and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Jason B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2018-04-25

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation occurs in ~50 plant taxa native to seleniferous soils in Western USA. Hyperaccumulator tissue Se levels, 1000-15,000 mg/kg dry weight, are typically 100 times higher than surrounding vegetation. Relative to other species, hyperaccumulators also transform Se more into organic forms. We review abiotic and biotic factors influencing soil Se distribution and bioavailability, soil being the source of the Se in hyperaccumulators. Next, we summarize the fate of Se in plants, particularly hyperaccumulators. We then extensively review the impact of plant Se accumulation on ecological interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of Se hyperaccumulators on local community composition and Se cycling. Selenium (hyper)accumulation offers ecological advantages: protection from herbivores and pathogens and competitive advantage over other plants. The extreme Se levels in and around hyperaccumulators create a toxic environment for Se-sensitive ecological partners, while offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through these dual effects, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition in their local environment, as well as Se cycling. The implied effects of Se hyperaccumulation on community assembly and local Se cycling warrant further investigations into the contribution of hyperaccumulators and general terrestrial vegetation to global Se cycling and may serve as a case study for how trace elements influence ecological processes. Furthermore, understanding ecological implications of plant Se accumulation are vital for safe implementation of biofortification and phytoremediation, technologies increasingly implemented to battle Se deficiency and toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    . Concentration of Ca, Cl, Na and Fe significantly increased in the blood of supplemented ewes. Addition of selenium in feed mixture of ewes had influence on significant increase of serum urea and triglycerides and increasing trend of glucose. In the lambs was determined significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, globulin, HDL, and HCO3 -, a significant increase in urea, albumin and LDL levels with the addition of selenium in feed mixture. Inorganic source of selenium influenced on a significant increase of pO2 in the blood of ewes and increasing trend in lambs. Strong ion difference (SID and the z-value in the blood of lambs, average age of 23 days, were significantly decreased with the addition of inorganic selenium in the feed mixture. Inorganic selenium supplement in the feed mixture of pregnant ewes influenced a significant increase in the anion gap. It was determined a slight increase in activity of AST and LDH and a decrease in serum CK of ewes supplemented with selenium, while in the lambs organic and inorganic selenium supplements influenced on a significant decrease of AST, GGT and CK. Selenium supplementation of high pregnant ewes had influence on the growth of the concentration of T3 and T4 in the blood. Inorganic selenium supplement in lactating ewes influenced a significant increase in concentration of T3. In the lambs, average age 23 days, selenium supplement had influence increase of concentrations of T3 and T4, while aged 63 days had influence on increase T3 and decrease T4. The highest concentration of selenium in milk was determined in ewes that had supplement of organic selenium in the rations. A significant positive correlation between selenium concentration and GSH-Px in the blood of ewes and lambs was determined with the addition of organic selenium in feed mixture. Also, positive correlation was determined between the concentration of selenium in whole blood of ewes and their lambs, which was significant with supplementation of organic selenium

  4. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  5. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  6. Automated determinations of selenium in thermal power plant wastewater by sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. The Role of Selenium in Human Immunity | Chisenga | Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... including selenium deficiency, so it has been postulated that selenium has a role in immune function. Immune dysfunction, susceptibility to viral infections and increased mortality are some of the outcomes associated with selenium deficiency. Key Words: Selenium; Human; Cell-mediated immunity; Innate immunity; HIV; ...

  8. Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

  9. Modeling food web structure and selenium biomagnification in Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William A; Potts, Jaimie; Taylor, Anne M; Batley, Graeme E; Krikowa, Frank; Chariton, Anthony A; Gruber, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    As a consequence of coal-fired power station operations, elevated selenium concentrations have been reported in the sediments and biota of Lake Macquarie (New South Wales, Australia). In the present study, an ecosystem-scale model has been applied to determine how selenium in a seagrass food web is processed from sediments and water through diet to predators, using stable isotopes (δ(13) C and δ(15) N) to establish the trophic position of organisms. Trophic position, habitat, and feeding zone were examined as possible factors influencing selenium bioaccumulation. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.2 μg/g dry weight in macroalgae species to 12.9 μg/g in the carnivorous fish Gerres subfasciatus. A mean magnification factor of 1.39 per trophic level showed that selenium is biomagnifying in the seagrass food web. Habitat and feeding zone influenced selenium concentrations in invertebrates, whereas feeding zone was the only significant factor influencing selenium concentrations in fish. The sediment-water partitioning coefficient (Kd ) of 4180 showed that partitioning of selenium entering the lake to particulate organic material (POM) is occurring, and consequently availability to food webs from POM is high. Trophic transfer factors (invertebrate = 1.9; fish = 1.2) were similar to those reported for other water bodies, showing that input source is not the main determinant of the magnitude of selenium bioaccumulation in a food web, but rather the initial partitioning of selenium into bioavailable POM. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:608-617. © 2014 SETAC. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Selenium, copper and zinc in seminal plasma of men with varicocele, relationship with seminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, María Isabel; Abdala, Lyzeth; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Greaves, Eduardo D

    2011-12-01

    Varicocele has been associated with decrease in seminal parameters. Selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are trace elements essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and play a critical role as antioxidant defense system enzymes. Se, Cu, and Zn are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. However, there is little information about Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations in semen in patients with varicocele and its association with seminal parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of Se, Cu, and Zn in semen of patients with varicocele and the relationship with seminal parameters. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used for the fist time in the seminal fluid analysis. The concentration of selenium in men with varicocele was smaller than the normozoospermic group, while no differences were observed for both concentrations of zinc and copper. A significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium concentration was observed. Selenium in seminal plasma correlates with a good spermatozoa concentrations, motility, and morphology. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between zinc levels and sperm count. In conclusion, a decrease in selenium concentration was associated with detriment of seminal parameters. A study should be conducted to evaluate the benefits of both zinc and selenium supplementation to improve seminal parameters in patients with varicocele.

  11. Advances towards using finger/toenail dosimetry to triage a large population after potential exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoming; Gui Jiang; Matthews, Thomas P.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swarts, Steven G.; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Wilcox, Dean E.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate retrospective dosimetry is of critical importance and strategic value for the emergency medical response to a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. One technique that has the potential for rapid and accurate dosimetry measurements is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of relatively stable radiation-induced signals (RIS) in fingernails and toenails. Two approaches are being developed for EPR nail dosimetry. In the approach using ex vivo measurements on nail clippings, accurate estimation of the dose-dependent amplitude of the RIS is complicated by the presence of mechanically-induced signals (MIS) that are generated during the nail clipping. Recent developments in ex vivo nail dosimetry, including a thorough characterization of the MIS and an appreciation of the role of hydration and the development of effective analytic techniques, have led to improvements in the accuracy and precision of this approach. An in vivo nail dosimetry approach is also very promising, as it eliminates the problems of MIS from the clipping and it has the potential to be an effective and efficient approach for field deployment. Two types of EPR resonators are being developed for in vivo measurements of fingernails and toenails.

  12. Effect of selenium supplementation for protection of salivary glands from iodine-131 radiation damage in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Haiyoung; Lee, Sang Mi; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Lee, Hakmin; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soon; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Jeong Won

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined whether selenium supplementation during iodine-131 ( 131 I) treatment had a radio-protective effect on salivary glands. Sixteen patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients after total thyroidectomy, before 131 I treatment, were divided into two groups; 8 patients in the selenium group and 8 patients in the control group. Patients in the selenium group received 300νg of selenium orally for 10 days, from 3 days before to 6 days after 131 I treatment. The control group received a placebo over the same period. To assess salivary gland function, salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Serum amylase and whole blood selenium levels were measured before and 2 days and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Using salivary gland scintigraphy, maximum uptake ratio (MUR), maximum secretion percentage (MSP), and ejection fraction (EF) of each salivary gland were calculated. Baseline clinical characteristics, baseline amylase and selenium levels, and parameters of baseline salivary gland scintigraphy were not significantly different between selenium and control groups (P>0.05). On a blood test performed 2 days after 131 I treatment, the selenium group showed a significantly higher whole blood selenium level (P=0.008) and significantly lower serum amylase level (P=0.009) than the control group. On follow-up salivary gland scintigraphy, the control group showed significantly decreased, MUR of the bilateral parotid and left submandibular glands, MSP of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and EF of the left submandibular glands (Pgland and EF of the left submandibular gland (Psalivary glands damage by 131 I radiation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  13. The impact of GPX1 on the association of groundwater selenium and depression: a Project FRONTIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh A; Phillips, Jack A; Mauer, Cortney; Edwards, Melissa; Balldin, Valerie Hobson; Hall, James R; Barber, Robert; Conger, Tori L; Ho, Eric J; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2013-01-04

    Prior animal model and human-based studies have linked selenium concentrations to decreased risk for depression; however, this work has not focused on household groundwater levels or specific depressive symptoms. The current study evaluated the link between groundwater selenium levels and depression. We also sought to determine if a functional polymorphism in the glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) gene impacted this link. We used a cross-sectional design to analyze data from 585 participants (183 men and 402 women) from Project FRONTIER, a study of rural health in West Texas. Residential selenium concentrations were estimated using Geospatial Information System (GIS) analyses. Linear regression models were created using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) total and subfactor scores as outcome variables and selenium concentrations as predictor variables. Analyses were re-run after stratification of the sample on GPX1 Pro198Leu genotype (rs1050454). Selenium levels were significantly and negatively related to all GDS and subfactor scores accounting for up to 17% of the variance beyond covariates. Selenium was most strongly protective against depression among homozygous carriers of the C allele at the Pro198Leu polymorphism of the GPX1 gene. Analyses also point towards a gene-environmental interaction between selenium exposure and GPX1 polymorphism. Our results support the link between groundwater selenium levels and decreased depression symptoms. These findings also highlight the need to consider the genetics of the glutathione peroxidase system when examining this relationship, as variation in the GPX1 gene is related to depression risk and significantly influences the protective impact of selenium, which is indicative of a gene-environment interaction.

  14. The impact of GPX1 on the association of groundwater selenium and depression: a project FRONTIER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Leigh A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior animal model and human-based studies have linked selenium concentrations to decreased risk for depression; however, this work has not focused on household groundwater levels or specific depressive symptoms. The current study evaluated the link between groundwater selenium levels and depression. We also sought to determine if a functional polymorphism in the glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 gene impacted this link. Methods We used a cross-sectional design to analyze data from 585 participants (183 men and 402 women from Project FRONTIER, a study of rural health in West Texas. Residential selenium concentrations were estimated using Geospatial Information System (GIS analyses. Linear regression models were created using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30 total and subfactor scores as outcome variables and selenium concentrations as predictor variables. Analyses were re-run after stratification of the sample on GPX1 Pro198Leu genotype (rs1050454. Results Selenium levels were significantly and negatively related to all GDS and subfactor scores accounting for up to 17% of the variance beyond covariates. Selenium was most strongly protective against depression among homozygous carriers of the C allele at the Pro198Leu polymorphism of the GPX1 gene. Analyses also point towards a gene-environmental interaction between selenium exposure and GPX1 polymorphism. Conclusion Our results support the link between groundwater selenium levels and decreased depression symptoms. These findings also highlight the need to consider the genetics of the glutathione peroxidase system when examining this relationship, as variation in the GPX1 gene is related to depression risk and significantly influences the protective impact of selenium, which is indicative of a gene-environment interaction.

  15. Níveis de vitamina E e de selênio para pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1965 Dietary level of vitamin E and selenium on diets for post larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Silva Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar os melhores níveis dietários de vitamina E e de selênio para pós-larvas do camarão amazônico, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea. Nesse sentido, pós-larvas com peso médio de 280mg e comprimento médio de 20,60mm foram mantidas em 28 aquários de 12L dotados de sistema de recirculação de água e de controle automático de temperatura, submetidas à esquema fatorial 3x2, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 1 tratamento adicional, totalizando 4 repetições por tratamento. As pós-larvas foram alimentadas com rações purificadas à base de albumina e de gelatina, contendo 3 níveis de vitamina E (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg e 400,00mg/kg, 2 níveis de selênio (0,50mg/kg e 1mg/kg e 1 tratamento adicional (sem suplementação de selênio e de vitamina E. Após 30 dias, avaliou-se o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de sobrevivência e a concentração de selênio no filé. Observou-se que: 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg proporcionam melhores respostas de ganho de peso e de conversão alimentar aparente; 100mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg proporcionam melhor taxa de sobrevivência e, 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 1mg de selênio/kg proporcionam maior concentração de selênio no filé. Com base nesses resultados, recomenda-se 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg de ração, na alimentação de pós-larvas de camarão amazônico, de modo a proporcionar melhores resultados quanto ao desempenho produtivo.The objective of this study was to determine the best dietary level of vitamin E and selenium on diets for Amazon prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea. Thus, post-larvae of 280mg average weight and 20.60mm average length were kept in 28 aquaria (12.00L supplied with water. They were maintained in automatic control of temperature, in a completely randomized factorial experiment 3x2 design, plus an additional treatment, with four

  16. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-ol...

  17. PENGARUH IODIUM DAN SELENIUM TERHADAP STATUS TIROID DAN AKTIVITAS GLUTHATION PEROKSIDASE TIKUS WISTAR JANTAN HIPOTIROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatin Broto Sukandar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine and selenium deficiency have important role on hypothyroidism.Iodine is an essential microelement in the thyroid hormone in its role on developmentand growth. Selenium is an essential component of Glutathione Peroxidises (GSHPxthe antioxidant enzyme. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroidstatus by measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and activity of GSH-Pxafter iodine and selenium treatment. Method. This is an experimental, randomizedpre and post control study. Twenty five weeks male Wistar rats were induced bypropylthiouracil (PTU for four week before and four week during interventions.Subjects were divided into four groups offive. Group I (control hypothyroidism,group II (iodine supplementation, group III (selenium supplementation, group IV(iodine + selenium supplementation. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and pairedt test at 95 percent confidence interval. Results. There is no difference betweenLevels of TSH in hypothyroidism between groups (p=0.721. Levels and Delta ofTSH between groups were difference at the end study, with p=0.013 and p=0.000respectivelly. Levels of TSH before and after treatment were different in each group,(group I, p=0.031, group II, p=0.003, group III, p=0.004, group IV, p=0.010. Therewere no different activity of GSH-Px between groups and in each group p=0.081and p=0.104. Delta of GSH-Px was not different, p=0.476. Activity of GSH-Px beforeand after treatment only showed differences in group IV (group I, p=0.042, group II,p=0.009, group III, p=0.01, group IV, p=0.623. Conclusion. Intervention of iodineand selenium can reduce levels of TSH and GSH-Px activity.Keywords: GSH-Px, hypothyroidism, iodine, selenium, TSH

  18. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  19. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with

  20. The Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis and the Expression of Genes Related to Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jablonska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we used archival samples of cDNA from 76 non-diabetic subjects supplemented with selenium in the previous study. The supplementation period was six weeks and the daily dose of selenium was 200 µg (as selenium yeast. Blood for mRNA isolation was collected at four time points: before supplementation, after two and four weeks of supplementation, and after four weeks of washout. The analysis included 15 genes encoding selected proteins involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. In addition, HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were measured at three and four time points, respectively. Selenium supplementation was associated with a significantly decreased level of HbA1c but not fasting plasma glucose (FPG and significant down-regulation of seven genes: INSR, ADIPOR1, LDHA, PDHA, PDHB, MYC, and HIF1AN. These results suggest that selenium may affect glycemic control at different levels of regulation, linked to insulin signaling, glycolysis, and pyruvate metabolism. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms of such transcriptional regulation and its potential implication in direct metabolic effects.

  1. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  2. Food Intake of Selenium and Sulphur AminoAcids in Tuberculosis Patients and Healthy Adults in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Eick, Frode

    2007-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a world wide pandemic and a major problem for people in low income countries. The intracellular infection has a bidirectional link with under nutrition, and wasting is a common symptom of the disease. Wasting in tuberculosis patients is associated with the severity of lung disease, low serum level of selenium and higher mortality. Low serum levels may be due to low intake or high body consumption of the components. No assessment of intake of selenium and sulphur ...

  3. Vitamin E and organic selenium for broilers from 22 to 42 days old: performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL M.N. ALBUQUERQUE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and selenium on performance, viability, productive efficiency, and yields of carcass, major cuts, and organs of broilers from 22 to 42 days submitted to cyclic-heat stress. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of selenium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg and three levels of vitamin E (300, 400, and 500 mg/kg, plus a control treatment. Animals were submitted to a natural condition of high cyclic temperature. Organic selenium levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg associated with 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg of vitamin E were tested. The level of vitamin E did not affect the performance or production efficiency of broilers in the period from 22 to 33 days and 22 to 42 days. However, the selenium inclusion level of 0.3 mg/kg improved the viability in both phases. The yields of carcass, major cuts, intestine, and heart were not influenced by the levels of selenium and vitamin E, whereas abdominal fat for the selenium level 0.1 mg/kg decreased linearly with the inclusion in vitamin E.

  4. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  5. Selenium, Selenoprotein Genes and Crohn’s Disease in a Case-Control Population from Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Lynnette R. Ferguson; Bobbi Campbell; Alan G. Fraser; Nishi Karunasinghe; Wen Jiun Lam; Angharad R. Morgan; Dug Yeo Han; Liljana Gentschew; Karen S. Bishop

    2012-01-01

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL) (p = 5.91 × 10−8). Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum l...

  6. Association of Depression With Selenium Deficiency and Nutritional Markers in the Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Mazloom, Zohreh; Sagheb, Mohammadmahdi

    2015-07-01

    Depression is considered as the most common psychological problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. As there is little evidence regarding the association of depression with serum selenium level as an antioxidant in these patients, the current survey investigates the possible relationship between depression and nutritional status including serum selenium levels. Cross-sectional study. A total of 110 HD patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age range of 18 to 85 years, who had been on hemodialysis for at least 3 months without any acute illness. Beck Depression Inventory was used for assessing the severity of depression. Malnutrition was evaluated through subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS). Serum selenium levels and routine laboratory markers were measured from fasting samples. Sixty-two percent of the patients had some degree of depression based on Beck Depression Inventory score. HD patients were considered to be selenium deficient after comparing the mean value of serum selenium between the patients and controls (P < .001). No significant difference was found in serum selenium levels between depressed HD patients and the rest of patients without depression. The mean level of SGA and MIS in the depressed patients was significantly higher than the rest of patients (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively). Also lower levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin were significantly seen in depressed patients compared with nondepressed ones (P = .004 and P = .04, respectively). Although the HD patients in this study were selenium deficient, no significant association was found between depression and selenium. In addition, depression was more prevalent in malnourished HD patients with higher SGA and MIS scores and lower serum albumin and hemoglobin levels. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear transformations studies in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation is made with regard to the chemical effects produced by nuclear transformations, such as the chemical effects of the beta decay and the chemical effects of the reaction (n,γ) in selenium radioisotopes. As a particular case the chemical effect of the isomeric transition of sup(81m)Se(VI) in potassium selenate crystals marked with radioactive selenium is studied experimentally and the method of adsorption in activated carbon is applied for the analytical separation of the traces of the nuclear isomer tetravalent sup(81b)Se(IV) of one fraction which contains the mixture of the selenium radioisotopes. (author)

  8. Effect of short-term zinc supplementation on zinc and selenium tissue distribution and serum antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Wistar rats. 36 rats were used in the experiment. The duration of the experiment was 7 and 14 days in the first and second series, respectively. The rats in Group I were used as the control ones. Animals in Groups II and III daily obtained zinc asparaginate (ZnA) in the doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg weight, respectively. Zinc and selenium content in liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum SOD and GPx activity was analysed spectrophotometrically using Randox kits. Intragastric administration of zinc asparaginate significantly increased liver, kidney, and serum zinc content without affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle levels. Zinc supplementation also stimulated selenium retention in the rats' organs. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium content was observed. Finally, zinc asparaginate treatment has been shown to modulate serum GPx but not SOD activity. The obtained data indicate that zinc-induced increase in GPx activity may be mediated through modulation of selenium status. However, future studies are required to estimate the exact mechanisms of zinc and selenium interplay.

  9. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study. PMID:23392368

  10. Baseline serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L; Dean, J Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. None. Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study.

  11. Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei Neek, Leila; Gaeini, Abas Ali; Choobineh, Siroos

    2011-12-01

    Zinc and selenium are essential minerals and have roles for more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how exhaustive exercise affects testosterone levels and plasma lactate in cyclists who were supplemented with oral zinc and selenium for 4 weeks. For this reason, 32 male road cyclists were selected equally to four groups: PL group, placebo; Zn group, zinc supplement (30 mg/day); Se group, selenium supplement (200 μg/day); and Zn-Se group, zinc-selenium supplement. After treatment, free, total testosterone, and lactate levels of subjects were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Resting total, free testosterone, and lactate levels did not differ significantly between groups, and were increased by exercise (P > 0.05). Serum total testosterone levels in Zn group were higher than in Se group after exercise (P  0.05). The results showed that 4-week simultaneous and separately zinc and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on resting testosterone and lactate levels of subjects who consume a zinc and selenium sufficient diet. It might be possible that the effect of zinc supplementation on free testosterone depends on exercise.

  12. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  13. Exposure histories derived from selenium in otoliths of three cold-water fish species captured downstream from coal mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Lisa A; Orr, Patricia L; Halden, Norman M; Yang, Panseok; Palace, Vince P

    2011-10-01

    Establishing exposure to contaminants within a given environment is often difficult for fish species with large home ranges. Chemical analyses of muscle or visceral tissue are useful indicators of recent exposure, but depuration, metabolic transformation, and tissue redistributions can alter temporal resolution. Otoliths are metabolically stable and thus provide complete chemical records within their calcified tissues that, when coupled to the annular structure, can provide temporal resolution for exposure to trace metals. Otoliths from bull trout, cutthroat trout, and mountain whitefish from an area rich in seleniferous soils and with active coal mining activity were analyzed for selenium to determine any history of exposure to elevated levels of selenium. Selenium concentrations in otolith primordia tended to be low, indicating that these fish emerged in low selenium areas. Later life stages showed peaks of high Se concentrations, suggesting that individuals moved into areas of increased selenium later in life. Individuals captured from the same area had a wide variety of selenium exposure profiles, indicating that these fish do not move en masse into and out of high-selenium areas. Year-to-year variability of selenium exposure patterns within an otolith suggests inconsistent utilization of high- and low-selenium areas by the individual. The inconsistent exposure profiles for these fish, in addition to their home range of tens of kilometres, indicate that soft tissue concentrations, while useful indicators of recent exposure, cannot be relied upon to provide a life history recording of exposure. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorative effects of selenium on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells via modulating autophagy/apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Uson-Lopez, Rachael A; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Tan, Gongxun; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    Arsenic is well known toxicant responsible for human diseases including cancers. On the other hand, selenium is an essential trace element with significant chemopreventive effects, anticancer potentials and antioxidant properties. Although previous studies have reported antagonism/synergism between arsenic and selenium in biological systems, the biomolecular mechanism/s is still inconclusive. Therefore, to elucidate the molecular phenomena in cellular level, we hypothesized that co-exposure of selenium with arsenic may have suppressive effects on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. We found that selenium in co-exposure with arsenic increases cell viability, and suppresses oxidative stress induced by arsenic in PC12 cells. Consequently, DNA fragmentation due to arsenic exposure was also reduced by arsenic and selenium co-exposure. Furthermore, western blot analyses revealed that simultaneous exposure of both metals significantly inhibited autophagy which further suppressed apoptosis through positively regulation of key proteins; p-mTOR, p-Akt, p-Foxo1A, p62, and expression of ubiquitin, Bax, Bcl2, NFкB, and caspases 3 and 9, although those are negatively regulated by arsenic. In addition, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis confirmed the involvement of caspase cascade in cell death process induced by arsenic and subsequent inhibition by co-exposure of selenium with arsenic. The cellular accumulation study of arsenic in presence/absence of selenium via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry confirmed that selenium effectively retarded the uptake of arsenic in PC12 cells. Finally, these findings imply that selenium is capable to modulate arsenic-induced intrinsic apoptosis pathway via enhancement of mTOR/Akt autophagy signaling pathway through employing antioxidant potentials and through inhibiting the cellular accumulation of arsenic in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khera, A.; Dong, L. F.; Holland, O.; Vanderlelie, J.; Pasdar, E.A.; Neužil, Jiří; Perkins, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2015), s. 363-369 ISSN 0143-4004 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Selenium * Reactive oxygen species * Mitochondrial biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.972, year: 2015

  16. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...... developing infections (pyrexia, respiratory infections or meningitis) with no obvious benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.02, 685 participants, very low quality of evidence).Our analyses showed no effect of selenium or ebselen on adverse events (Selenium: RR 1.03, 95% Cl 0.85 to 1.24; six trials, 925...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...

  17. Complete spontaneous avascular necrosis of the adult navicula associated with Mee's growth arrest lines of the great and second toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dishan; Ferrerro, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Spontaneous total avascular necrosis of the tarsal navicula has been well documented in children (Kohler's disease) but is uncommon in adults where partial necrosis is usually seen after trauma or in Müller-Weiss disease. A case of spontaneous complete navicular osteonecrosis in a 46 year old female is described; she had accompanying Mee's leuchonychial lines in the toenails of the great and second toes only; the lines resolved after 9 months. She has been treated with an excision of the navicula and interpositional iliac crest bone graft talo-cuneiform fusion with resolution of her pain. It is postulated that the combination of the Mee's lines and avascular necrosis of the navicula indicates an occlusion of the dorsalis pedis in a predisposed individual. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace mineral chemically related to sulfur and tellurium. In the body selenium combines with protein molecules to form selenoproteins and it is distributed in low concentrations and unequally in air, soil and water all over the world. Edible mushrooms are known to be selenium accumulators. Since mushrooms contain relatively high protein levels, and they can accumulate large amounts of selenium, it is reasonable to expect that selenium could be incorporated into proteins. The growth of mycelia and fruit body formation of different medicinal mushroom strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Hk-35 and P70 over the wide range of concentrations of inorganic form of selenium were examined. Mushrooms were cultivated on agar base media and on substrates based on sawdust. Vegetative growths of mycelium were measured as colony diameter in pure cultures supplemented with inorganic form of Se supplements, prepared as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 in concentrations of: 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/l. Inorganic form of Se supplements, showed stimulation effects (in concentration of 1-50 mg/l and toxic effects in higher concentration. On the standard industrial sawdust based substrate, supplemented with 100 mg/kg Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3, accumulation of Se in fruit bodies was determined by the method of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The readings were performed on Varian SpectrAA-10 spectrophotometer equipped with VGA-76. Se as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 was effectively taken up from substrates and accumulated in fruit bodies. Mushrooms accumulated selenium between 120 and 250 mg/kg dry weight. In mushrooms cultivated without Se supplement, Se contents were only about 1 mg/kg and in substrate about 0.1 mg/kg.

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of bluegill sunfish inhabiting a selenium-enriched fly ash stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reash, R.J.; Lohner, T.W.; Wood, K.V.; Willet, V.E.

    1999-07-01

    Little Scary Creek (LSC), a 2nd-order tributary of the Kanawha River in West Virginia, receives treated fly ash produced during coal combustion. Selenium and other trace metals were determined in water column and sediment samples, caddisflies, and bluegill sunfish liver and gonads during 1995--96 to estimate pathways of selenium exposure and assess the likelihood of toxic effects. Selenium levels in LSC water and sediment samples, and in caddisflies were elevated compared to reference sites. Mean dry weight selenium concentrations in bluegill liver, ovary, and tested tissue equaled or exceeded published toxic thresholds. Other trace metals were significantly higher in LSC bluegill. Leukopenia, elevated serum salts, and lowered liver weight were found in LSC bluegill. Fewer older bluegill were found in LSC. Sunfish in LSC are experiencing various kinds of sublethal stress, presumably due to metals exposure. However, major toxic effects that would be predicted to occur based on tissue selenium levels (complete reproductive failure or mortality) have not been observed in this population.

  20. Histopathological changes due to the effect of selenium in experimental cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A Latheef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Selenium usually acts as an antioxidant at optimal levels in the body and increased levels are toxic. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of an optimum dose (0.14 mg of selenium on histopathological changes in experimental hypercholesterolemia in cockerels. Methods: The effect of selenium (0.14 mg was investigated on histopathological changes in four tissues namely liver, kidney, heart, and descending aorta in cockerel animal model. Animals were either fed with stock diet (group C, stock diet with cholesterol (group CH, stock diet with selenium (group Se, stock diet, selenium and cholesterol (group CH+Se for six months. Animals were sacrified and the tissues were isolated and subjected to histopathological study. Results: Xanthochromatic collections in liver were observed in group CH; hydropic degeneration in group Se and lobular disarray, hydropic degeneration and kuppfer cell hyperplasia in group CH+Se were observed. In kidney, mild mononuclear infiltration was observed in interstitium in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. myocyte disruption, and mononuclear infiltration in group CH and c0 H+Se, and disruption of muscle bundles with vascular congestion in group Se were observed. Smooth muscle proliferation in the media of blood vessel was observed in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that the optimum dose of (140 ΅g/day feeding induced atherogenesis by inflammation and smooth muscle proliferation in cockerels with experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  1. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  2. Solid phase extraction for the speciation and preconcentration of inorganic selenium in water samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Barciela García, J; García Martín, S; Peña Crecente, R M

    2013-12-04

    Selenium is an essential element for the normal cellular function of living organisms. However, selenium is toxic at concentrations of only three to five times higher than the essential concentration. The inorganic forms (mainly selenite and selenate) present in environmental water generally exhibit higher toxicity (up to 40 times) than organic forms. Therefore, the determination of low levels of different inorganic selenium species in water is an analytical challenge. Solid-phase extraction has been used as a separation and/or preconcentration technique prior to the determination of selenium species due to the need for accurate measurements for Se species in water at extremely low levels. The present paper provides a critical review of the published methods for inorganic selenium speciation in water samples using solid phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure. On the basis of more than 75 references, the different speciation strategies used for this task have been highlighted and classified. The solid-phase extraction sorbents and the performance and analytical characteristics of the developed methods for Se speciation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  4. Inverse mercury and selenium concentration patterns between herbivorous and piscivorous fish in the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio da Silva, D; Lucotte, M; Paquet, S; Brux, G; Lemire, M

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the levels of selenium and mercury in five fish species commonly eaten by local populations of the Brazilian Amazon. Fish specimens were sampled in two lotic and three lentic areas at two different phases of the hydrological cycle. Analyses of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes allowed us to confirm the trophic levels of the fish species (one herbivorous, two omnivorous and two piscivorous) and verify that these levels remained unchanged with the habitats and the season. The levels of selenium and mercury in fish varied from 50ng/g to 1006ng/g and from 17ng/g to 3502ng/g respectively. For both seasons, fish from lotic ecosystems presented higher selenium concentrations. An inverse pattern was observed between selenium and mercury concentrations within the trophic chain, and this in both seasons. Indeed, the highest mean concentrations of selenium and lowest mean concentrations of mercury were measured in the herbivorous species and the opposite in the piscivorous species. Our results unequivocally demonstrate that local riverside populations will maximize the selenium health benefits of eating fish while minimizing their risk of being chronically exposed to mercury by preferentially consuming herbivorous species and to some extent omnivorous species, while avoiding piscivorous species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Sound propagation in selenium and tellurium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Kim, S.G.; Sulejmenov, T.

    1989-01-01

    Methods, that under similar frequences of ten MHz and using one sample permit to study temperature dependences and propagation velocities, the absorption coefficient of the sound in melts, are described. As a result studying selenium and tellurium melts intricate polytherms of sound propagation velocity and absorption coefficient, that are interpreted usiung representations on breaking chains in associated liquid(selenium) and dissolution of short chains in the melt(tellurium) atomic matrix, are constructed

  7. Time-course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Hair and nails are often used to prove long-term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time-courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight active ingredients in single doses. Hair and toenails were collected at predetermined intervals, and drug concentrations in hair and nails were measured for 12 months. The administered drugs and their main metabolites were extracted using micropulverized extraction with a stainless steel bullet and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Acidic compounds such as ibuprofen and its metabolites were not detected in both specimens. Acetaminophen, a weakly acidic compound, was detected in nails more frequently than in hair. The maximum concentration of allyl isopropyl acetylurea, a neutral compound, in nails was significantly higher than in hair. Nails are an effective specimen to detect neutral and weakly acidic compounds. For fexofenadine, a zwitterionic compound, and for most basic compounds, the maximum concentrations in hair segments tended to be higher than those in nails. The hair segments showing the maximum concentrations varied between drugs, samples, and subjects. Drug concentrations in hair segments greatly depended on the selection of the hair. Careful interpretation of analytical results is required to predict the time of drug intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and marked selenium deficiency causing severe rhabdomyolysis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diego E; Valberg, Stephanie J; Magdesian, K Gary; Hanna, Paul E; Lofstedt, Jeanne

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a pregnant mare associated with histopathologic and biochemical features of both selenium deficiency and acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) due to seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM). This case highlights the importance of assessing plasma selenium levels in horses with clinical signs of pasture myopathy as this deficiency may be a contributing or exacerbating factor.

  9. Acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and marked selenium deficiency causing severe rhabdomyolysis in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Diego E.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Hanna, Paul E.; Lofstedt, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a pregnant mare associated with histopathologic and biochemical features of both selenium deficiency and acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) due to seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM). This case highlights the importance of assessing plasma selenium levels in horses with clinical signs of pasture myopathy as this deficiency may be a contributing or exacerbating factor.

  10. Dietary Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Schomburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next year (2017, the micronutrient Selenium (Se is celebrating its birthday—i.e., 200 years after first being identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Despite its impressive age, research into the functions of this essential trace element is very alive and reaching out for new horizons. This special issue presents some recent fascinating, exciting, and promising developments in Se research in the form of eight original contributions and seven review articles. Collectively, aspects of Se supply, biochemical, physiological, and chemotherapeutic effects, and geobiological interactions are covered by leading scientists in the areas of nutritional, basic, and clinical research. It is obvious from the contributions that the bicentennial anniversary will celebrate a micronutrient still in its infancy with respect to being understood in terms of its biomedical importance.

  11. Bioaccumulation of selenium by snakes and frogs in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Hothem, R.L.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Livers of gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from Kesterson Reservoir (Merced County, California) contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (11.1 .mu.g/g, dry weight) than those from two nearby reference sites (2.05 and 2.14 .mu.g/g). Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) collected from the San Luis Drain at Kersterson Reservoir also contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (45.0 .mu.g/g) than those from nearby reference sites (6.22 .mu.g/g). The high levels of selenium bioaccumulation in these snakes and frogs at Kersterson Reservoir reflected the elevated levels found in their food organisms. We did not examine that snakes or frogs from Kesterson for signs of ill health, but the concentrations we found were sufficiently high to warrant concern about potential adverse effects in these animals and their predators.

  12. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  13. Diferentes fontes e níveis de selênio sobre a imunidade humoral de frangos de corte Different sources and levels of selenium on humoral immunity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal Funari Junior

    2012-01-01

    . The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels and sources of selenium (Se on humoral immunity of broilers. A six-week research was conducted using 1440 one-day-old males broiler chickens. The experimental design was randomized with six experimental diets (A: 0.15mg kg-1 inorganic (inorg.; B: 0.15mg kg-1 organic; C: 0.15mg kg-1 inorg.+organic; D: 0.45mg kg-1 inorganic; E: 0.45mg kg-1 organic; F: 0.45mg kg-1 inorg.+organic calculated to provide the described amount of Se. Each diet was replicated in six box with 40 birds. A 3x2 factorial arrangement was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA. The immunity was evaluated by means of the reaction against vaccine of Newcastle disease, and a reaction against sheep red blood cells (SRBC. No significant effects were observed at 5% significance level in NewCastle antibody (P>0.05. However at 14 day-old the source factor had p value at 0.0580, that show a trend of inorganic source in prolong the maternal immunity. No effect was observed in the immune response against SRBC (P>0.05. The results showed a immunologic response against Newcastle vaccine and SRBC, but the treatments was not able to induce a significant difference. The source and the level of Se showed no effect on the response against Newcastle vaccine and SRBC.

  14. SELENIUM MOBILITY IN SOME SOILS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium mobility in soil depends on a multitude of physical and chemical factors. The present paper highlights the selenium solubilization degree out of the total soil content in relation with its agrochemical properties. Soils samples were considered collected from different agricultural areas of the Country, with or without certain natural handicaps, from soils under industrial impact and long term agrochemical experiments. The selenium solubilization percentages out of the soil total content ranged between 3.57 and 8.15%. No solubilization percentage was calculated for Central and Southern Dobrudja and the South-Eastern Romanian Plane, because the total selenium quantities in these areas are lower and mobile selenium values are very low. The statistical analysis of the calculated percentage values highlighted homogeneous areas and areas with a higher scattering degree. Thus, in agricultural land, in acknowledged agrarian areas and in long term agricultural experiments, the percentage values are better grouped, showing (expectable soil homogeneousness, on one hand, and a significant soil selenium supply and its adequate solubilization for plant nutrition, on the other. The most scattered values occurred in the Călmăţui and Buzău valleys area in halomorphic soils, and in the Făgăraş Depression which is under the industrial polluting influence of chemical works. Among the causes for these differences is the uniformity or non-uniformity of the terrains, induced by land use and the existence or not of a handicap (polluting impact or halomorphic soils, for example. In general, there are no significant differences between the selenium mobility values and their grouping or scattering degree in the soil depth. A single exception stands out, namely in the Făgăraş Depression, where the selenium solubilization degree tends to increase with soil depth, as well as the scattering degree. In the Danube Delta diked areas Sireasa and Pardina very

  15. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  17. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish samples from Cachoeira do PiriáMunicipality, ParáState, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Paula Souza; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Shihomatsu, Helena Miho; Müller, Regina Celi Sarkis

    2005-03-01

    Mercury is a major public health concern because of its widespread occurrence in the environment and its toxic effects on humans, mainly through fish ingestion. On the other hand, selenium is known by its antioxidant effect. For this reason, the knowledge of the correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations in fish samples can bring important information allowing a better understanding of mercury equilibrium in the inhabitants of the Amazon region. In this paper, total mercury and selenium levels were measured in carnivorous (47), omnivorous (44), and herbivorous (4) fish species caught in rivers and in an artificial lake in Cachoeira do PiriáMunicipality, situated in ParáState, Amazon region. The mercury concentration ranged from 1.15 to 13.44 nmol g(-1) and selenium from 2.44 to 14.56 nmol g(-1) for carnivorous species. For noncarnivorous species, mercury concentration ranged from 0.08 to 2.03 nmol g(-1) and selenium from 1.27 to 15.32 nmol g(-1). The molar ratios between mercury and selenium contents obtained for carnivorous and noncarnivorous species were 0.65 and 0.14, respectively. Mercury and selenium levels were positively correlated with fish body mass (weight) only for Hoplias malabaricus (n=35, R2=0.565, P<0.005 and R2=0.608, P<0.005, respectively). Selenium and mercury concentrations were statistically positively correlated only for H. malabaricus (n=35, R2=0.787, P=0.005) and Leporinus sp. (n=38, R2=0.485, P<0.005) known locally as Traíra (carnivorous) and Aracu (omnivorous), respectively.

  18. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Effect of dietary vitamin E or selenium on prostaglandin dehydrogenase in hyperoxic rat lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L. N.; Mathias, M. M.; Schatte, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed semipurified diets supplemented with 0, 60, or 600 IU/kg vitamin E or 0, 100, or 1000 ppb selenium. One group was injected daily with vitamin E at a rate equivalent to consumption of 60 IU/kg. Animals from all groups were sacrificed after exposure to normobaric oxygen or air for 48 h. Lung tissue was analyzed for the combined activity of prostaglandin dehydrogenase and reductase. Using the decline in enzyme activity as an indicator of susceptibility to oxygen poisoning, protection against hyperoxia was directly related to the level of vitamin E supplementation. Selenium supplemented at 100 ppb provided significant protection when compared to 0 ppb or 1000 ppb. The latter dose may have been marginally toxic. Thus dietary supplementation of vitamin E and selenium may influence the relative susceptibility of an animal to pulmonary oxygen poisoning.

  20. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Rutgers University and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  1. EURRECA—Estimating Selenium Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, R.; Collings, R.; Harvey, L.J.; King, M.; Hooper, L.; Bouwman, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the

  2. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  3. Bio-induced solid selenium for recovery from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium in the form of selenate or selenite in wastewater needs to be removed due to its potential toxicity in the environment. Also, selenium is a valuable element that is used in several industries and current selenium resources are likely to be exhausted in less than 50 years. Waste streams

  4. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and selenite (SeO 3 2− ) or selenate (SeO 4 2− ). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO 3 2− or SeO 4 2− ) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg 2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH) 2 and Hg(Met) 2 . Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH) 2 , together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se

  5. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Tsipoura, Nellie; Niles, Lawrence J; Gochfeld, Michael; Dey, Amanda; Mizrahi, David

    2015-02-06

    Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot ( Calidris canutus , N = 46 individuals), semipalmated sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla , N = 70) and sanderling ( Calidris alba , N = 32) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 ( N = 40), 1995 ( N = 28), and 2011-2012 ( N = 80) to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1) arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2) cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3) mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4) selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g -1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g -1 (semipalmated sandpiper), within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  6. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  7. JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2009-03-30

    Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

  8. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  9. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoako, Prince O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Uden, Peter C., E-mail: pcuden@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Tyson, Julian F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  10. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  11. Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Serum Selenium Concentrations Predict WHO Stages 3, 4 or Death but not Virologic Failure Post-Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Shivakoti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS, was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression after ART initiation. Cases were HIV-1 infected adults with either clinical failure (incident World Health Organization (WHO stage 3, 4 or death by 96 weeks or virologic failure by 24 months. Risk factors for serum selenium deficiency (<85 μg/L pre-ART and its association with outcomes were examined. Median serum selenium concentration was 82.04 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR: 57.28–99.89 and serum selenium deficiency was 53%, varying widely by country from 0% to 100%. In multivariable models, risk factors for serum selenium deficiency were country, previous tuberculosis, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein. Serum selenium deficiency was not associated with either clinical failure or virologic failure in multivariable models. However, relative to people in the third quartile (74.86–95.10 μg/L of serum selenium, we observed increased hazards (adjusted hazards ratio (HR: 3.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.30–9.42 of clinical failure but not virologic failure for people in the highest quartile. If future studies confirm this relationship of high serum selenium with increased clinical failure, a cautious approach to selenium supplementation might be needed, especially in HIV-infected populations with sufficient or unknown levels of selenium.

  12. Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish from Tennessee: Individual, Species, and Geographical Variations have Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C.; Donio, M.; Pittfield, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. PMID:22456727

  13. Selenium controls transcription of paralogous formate dehydrogenase genes in the termite gut acetogen, Treponema primitia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Eric G; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2010-08-01

    The termite gut spirochete, Treponema primitia, is a CO(2)-reductive acetogen that is phylogenetically distinct from other distantly related and more extensively studied acetogens such as Moorella thermoacetica. Research on T. primitia has revealed details about the role of spirochetes in CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis, a process important to the mutualism occurring between termites and their gut microbial communities. Here, a locus of the T. primitia genome containing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes for CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis was sequenced. This locus contained methyl-branch genes of the pathway (i.e. for the reduction of CO(2) to the level of methyl-tetrahydrofolate) including paralogous genes for cysteine and selenocysteine (Sec) variants of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and genes for Sec incorporation. The FDH variants affiliated phylogenetically with hydrogenase-linked FDH enzymes, suggesting that T. primitia FDH enzymes utilize electrons derived directly from molecular H(2). Sub-nanomolar concentrations of selenium decreased transcript levels of the cysteine variant FDH gene. Selenium concentration did not markedly influence the level of mRNA upstream of the Sec-codon in the Sec variant FDH; however, the level of transcript extending downstream of the Sec-codon increased incrementally with increasing selenium concentrations. The features and regulation of these FDH genes are an indication that T. primitia may experience dynamic selenium availability in its H(2)-rich gut environment. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Triage of populations potentially exposed to clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using EPR measurements of fingernails and toenails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Under the sponsorship of NIH and DARPA a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional team is developing a field deployable device capable of carrying out triage under field conditions for large numbers of exposed individuals. Method The approach involves the development of two different techniques to obtain sufficiently accurate measurements of radiation-induced EPR signals in fingernails and toenails: in vivo in situ on the finger or toe and in vitro on clippings. The in vivo measurements from fingernails in situ use a 9500 MHz (X-band) EPR spectrometer with a resonator that is being developed specifically for making measurements in human subjects, based on finite element modelling to probe only the relative non-lossy fingernail plate and not the underlying lossy tissue. The approach based on clippings from toenails and fingernails using an adaptation of a commercial EPR spectrometer with modified resonators to achieve increased sensitivity and enhanced rapid and accurate positioning of the samples. For both approaches, post-acquisition software using the known characteristics of the radiation-induced EPR signal provides the estimate of the exposure dose. Major Findings: Between the time of submission and the meeting there will be a very intense period of research supported by a contract from DARPA and the continuing research supported by NIH, so the findings summarized here are expected to advance significantly in the interval. The technique based on the clippings of fingernails builds on the developments of collaborating scientists, especially A. Romanyukha and F. Trompier, which have shown that dose sufficient for triage can be resolved if adequate estimates of the signals induced by the clipping process ('MIS') can be made. The use of added water for removal of the mechanically induced signal appears very promising. A resonator for the in vivo approach that has the desirable features has been designed and that design is being optimized and then

  15. Solubility constraints affecting the migration of selenium through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M., E-mail: m.felipe-sotelo@lboro.ac.uk; Hinchliff, J.; Evans, N.D.M.; Read, D.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The availability of Ca controls the concentration of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} in solution. • Cellulose degradation products increase the solubility of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at alkaline pH. • Selenite diffuses faster through the backfill NRVB than through fly ash cements. - Abstract: This work presents the study of the solubility of selenium under cementitious conditions and its diffusion, as SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, through monolithic cement samples. The solubility studies were carried out under alkaline conditions similar to those anticipated in the near-field of a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Experiments were conducted in NaOH solution, 95%-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2}, water equilibrated with a potential backfill material (Nirex reference vault backfill, NRVB) and in solutions containing cellulose degradation products, with and without reducing agents. The highest selenium concentrations were found in NaOH solution. In the calcium-containing solutions, analysis of the precipitates suggests that the solubility controlling phase is Ca{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, which appears as euhedral rhombic crystals. The presence of cellulose degradation products caused an increase in selenium concentration, possibly due to competitive complexation, thereby, limiting the amount of calcium available for precipitation. Iron coupons had a minor effect on selenium solubility in contrast to Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}, suggesting that effective reduction of Se(IV) occurs only at E{sub h} values below −300 mV. Radial through-diffusion experiments on NRVB and in a fly ash cement showed no evidence of selenium breakthrough after one year. However, autoradiography of the exposed surfaces indicated that some migration had occurred and that selenium was more mobile in the higher porosity backfill than in the fly ash cement.

  16. The effect of selenium supplementation on acute phase reactants and thyroid function tests in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Mehrali; Nikseresht, Kanan

    2015-03-01

    Selenium deficiency is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This micronutrient has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Selenium is also found in high concentrations in the thyroid gland. To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function tests and acute phase reactants in hemodialysis patients. In this double-blinded randomized clinical in 3 months, 64 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental (received selenium supplementation; 32 cases) or control group (received placebo; 32 cases). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), and free T4 were measured before and after the intervention and compared between experimental and control groups. At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding CRP, ESR and ferritin serum levels. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for CRP (14.77 ± 17.93 vs. 18.29 ± 21.56 mg/L), ESR (32.90 ± 32.62 vs. 33.91 ± 31.15 mm/h) and ferritin (528.6 ± 423.07 vs. 519.52 ± 345.59 ng/mL). At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding TFTs. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for TSH (3.7 ± 2.22 vs. 2.84 ± 1.88 µU/mL), free T4 (7.19 ± 1.98 vs. 7.02 ± 1.87 µg/dL) and T3RU (30.04 ± 2.28% vs. 29.2 ± 1.98%). Oral selenium supplementation for three months did not have any significant effect on thyroid function tests or acute phase reactants.

  17. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  18. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of selenium- and zinc-enriched oyster mushroom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Chang, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Selenium and zinc are well-known essential trace elements with potent biological functions. However, the possible health benefits of the combined administration of dietary selenium and zinc have not been studied extensively. In this study, we prepared selenium- and zinc-enriched mushrooms (SZMs) containing increased levels of selenium and zinc. The effects of SZMs on antioxidant and antitumor activities were evaluated. Mice were fed with either a control diet or a diet supplemented with SZMs or sodium selenite and zinc sulfate for 6 weeks. Antioxidant capacity was investigated by measuring the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxide products. Results showed that treatment with SZMs significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin. Furthermore, using a mouse model of lung tumors, we found that SZMs significantly decreased the number of tumor nodes with an increase in the activity of GPx. SZMs had a greater effect on the increase in both antioxidant and antitumor activities than did sodium selenite and zinc sulfate. These findings suggest that SZMs may be effective for improving antioxidant capacity and preventing tumors.

  19. Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Soudabeh; Sani, Fatemeh Valinejad; Firoozrai, Mohsen

    2009-07-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the influence of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) uptake on serum zinc and selenium in contraceptive pill users. The concentration of zinc and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 50 healthy women with normal menstrual cycles as a control group and 50 women taking low-dose OCP. The control reference values were 81.61+/-9.44 and 70.35+/-25.57 mcg/dL, which were obtained for zinc and selenium, respectively. Use of OCP resulted in a significant decrease in serum zinc levels (pselenium levels but not significantly (p=.08, t=0.935). The duration of use beyond 3 months had no effect on the magnitude of the decrease in serum zinc levels. These findings may be important because selenium is currently believed to offer protective benefits against carcinogenesis. It has been thought that the decrease in serum zinc could be reflected in a reduction of tissue zinc status due to changes in zinc absorption, excretion or tissue turnover. If these changes occur, the dietary zinc requirement would be greater in women using OCP.

  20. Determination of selenium via the fluorescence quenching effect of selenium on hemoglobin-catalyzed peroxidative reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Feng-Shou

    2015-05-01

    A new method for the determination of selenium based on its fluorescence quenching on the hemoglobin-catalyzed reaction of H2 O2 and l-tyrosine has been established. The effect of pH, foreign ions and the optimization of variables on the determination of selenium was examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear between the fluorescence quenching (F0 /F) and the concentration of selenium within the range of 0.16-4.00 µg/mL. The detection limit was 1.96 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.14%. This method can be used for the determination of selenium in Se-enriched garlic bulbs with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Selenium content in tissues and meat quality in rabbits fed selenium yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dokoupilová, A.; Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Březina, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 165-169 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * selenium * meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2007

  2. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  3. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  4. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elghany Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes (r=0.69 to 0.72, P<0.05. There was significant (P<0.001 increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (r=0.84, P<0.01, while the relationship was negative in the control one (r=-0.89, P<0.01. Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth.

  5. Speciation of selenium and arsenic in natural waters and sediments. Volume 1. Selenium speciation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutter, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    Fossil fuel combustion can lead to an increased mobilization of selenium to the aquatic environment. In order to examine this process, the different chemical forms of selenium must be determined in water and sediments with high degrees of accuracy and precision. A selective hydride generation procedure was developed to measure the concentrations of dissolved selenite, selenate, total selenium, and organic selenides in natural waters. Two detetor systems were valuated, atomic absorption with quartz tube - air/hydrogen flame atomization, and gas chromatography with photo ionization detection. Results show that the photo ionization system has a high detection limit (10 ng Se), and a non-linear response. In contrast, the atomic absorption technique is able to detect 0.2 ng Se, and the instrumental response is linear to 96 ng Se. For the determination of selenium speciation, the precision (as relative standard deviation) is no greater than 5.4%; accuracy is assured using the standard additions method of calibration. In sediments, total selenium is solubilized using an oxidative digest, and a sodium hydroxide leach releases sedimentary selenite and selenate. Solutions from these pretreatments are analyzed using the dissolved selenium methods.

  6. Cancer incidence following long-term consumption of drinking water with high inorganic selenium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Vicentini, Massimo; Wise, Lauren A; Sacchettini, Claudio; Malagoli, Carlotta; Ballotari, Paola; Filippini, Tommaso; Malavolti, Marcella; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2018-04-16

    Selenium, a trace element to which humans are exposed mainly through diet, has been involved in the etiology of human cancer. We investigated the long-term effects of selenium exposure on cancer incidence using data from a natural experiment in Northern Italy. During the 1970s-1980s, in a part of the Italian municipality of Reggio Emilia, residents were inadvertently exposed to unusually high levels of inorganic hexavalent selenium (selenate) through drinking water. We followed the exposed residents for 28years, generating data on incidence (when available) and mortality rates for selected cancer sites; the remaining municipal residents comprised the unexposed (reference) group. We observed no substantial difference in overall cancer incidence comparing exposed and unexposed cohorts. We detected, however, a higher incidence of cancer at some sites, and for a few of them, namely cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, melanoma, urinary tract and lymphoid tissue, the excess incidence was particularly evident in the first period of follow-up but decreased over time. Overall, these results suggest that consumption of water with levels of selenium in its inorganic hexavalent form close to the European standard, 10μg/L, may have unfavourable effects on cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenium speciation in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Gmerek, A.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Chromatographic (IC-CD, GC-FID) and spectroscopic (XRD) techniques that allow the specific determination of several selenium species present or formed during bioremediation processes of selenate contaminated drinking, ground, or wastewaters have been established. The developed techniques are shown

  8. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  9. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Biomarkers in Cholesterol Fed Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Adam, A; Ejeh, L; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2017-03-06

    Selenium is an antioxidant that prevents oxygen radical from damaging cells from chronic diseases that can develop from cell injury and inflammation such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible protective effect of selenium yeast on cholesterol diet induced type-2 diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty male wistar rats were divided in to four groups of five animals each: Group 1: (Negative control) received standard animal feed only, Group 2:  received cholesterol diet (CD) only, Group 3: received CD and 0.1 mg/kg selenium yeast orally, Group 4: Received CD and 0.2 mg/kg selenium yeast orally for six weeks. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level in the groups  co-administered CD and selenium yeast when compared to CD group only. Antioxidant enzymes status recorded significant decrease in SOD, CAT and GPx activities in CD and selenium yeast administered when compared to CD group only. In Conclusion, Selenium yeast administrations prevent free radical formations which are potent inducer of diabetes mellitus.

  10. The effect of nano-selenium particles and sodium selenite on humoral immunity indices of quails using foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of inhibition of aflatoxin B1 by various sources of selenium and to compare the effect of nano selenium and sodium selenite on humoral immunity of quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD using six treatments and four replicates of ten quail chicks per replicate. Two hundred forty quails were divided in six groups vis. control: without aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group2: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group3: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm nano selenium. Group4: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm sodium selenite. Group5: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm nano selenium. Group6: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm sodium selenite. To evaluate the humoral immunity response 0.2­ml of sheep red blood cell (SRBC solution was injected into breast muscle of quails at day 35 and blood sampling was conducted after a week. Newcastle vaccine was injected at day 28 and the antibody titer was determined after two weeks. The highest level of titer of antibody against the SRBC solution was related to the group which received 0.06 ppm nano selenium (p

  11. Selenium, copper, and zinc concentrations in the raw and processed meat of edible land snails harvested in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd Łukasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the present research was to carry out a comparative assessment of copper, zinc, and selenium concentrations in the meat of edible land snails collected in Poland (Helix pomatia, Cornu aspersum maxima, and Cornu aspersum aspersum, as well as to determine the effect of preliminary processing of Roman snails (Helix pomatia on the content of the aforementioned elements. Material and Methods: In the first stage, determinations were made on unprocessed snail meat. In the second stage, the study focused on Roman snails and consisted in an additional evaluation of frozen meat after full processing. Zinc and copper contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the selenium content was established by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The selenium content differed significantly among all three species. The copper content in Roman snails differed significantly from that in farmed snails. No significant difference in the zinc level was noted among the three snail species. The selenium content in raw and processed meat of Roman snails did not show any significant difference while the copper and zinc level was significantly higher in processed meat samples. Conclusion: The present research on the meat of edible snails showed different levels of selenium, copper, and zinc, depending on the species, collection site, and subjection to processing.

  12. Recovery of stream communities from experimental selenium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, M.C.; Kuklinskal, B.; Ferkull, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Monticello, MN (United States); Allen, K.N.; Hermanutz, R.O.; Roush, T.H.; Hedtke, S.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of selenium on stream communities and their recovery from those effects were studied at MERS from 1987--1991. Selenium was dosed into two replicate streams each at concentrations of 30, 10, 2.5 and 0 (control) {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for 18, 30, and 12 months, respectively. Recovery was monitored for three (30) or two (1 0, 2.5) years following cessation of selenium dosing. Selenium rapidly accumulated in the sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates and fish during dosing. Selenium concentrations in sediment, macroinvertebrates, and plants were as high as 2X--4X, 2X--4X, and 1X--1OX the dosed concentration in the 30, 10, and 2.5 treatments, respectively. Selenium decreased relatively rapidly following cessation of dosing. By two years after dosing ceased, selenium concentrations in plants and macroinvertebrates were little different from the controls; selenium in sediment from the 30 and 10 streams was still higher than in the control streams two years after dosing ceased. The macroinvertebrate community changed little during the dosing and recovery period. Commonly used indices of community structure showed no effect of selenium dosing. The isopod Asellus and oligochaetes in the family Tubificidae decreased rapidly following the onset of selenium dosing; their recovery following cessation of dosing was slow.

  13. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: A comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Atherton, C.A.; Dainty, J.R.; Lewis, D.J.; Langford, N.J.; Crews, H.M.; Luten, J.B.; Lorentzen, M.; Sieling, F.W.; Aken-Schneyder, P. van; Hoek, M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Dael, P. van; Firweather-Tail, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  14. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  15. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuhori, Masahiro; Nagaoka, Tamae; Ito, Nobuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in plasma, urine, and feces were determined by PIXE analysis before and after intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (a dose equivalent to 2 mg/kg of selenium) to rats. The concentration-time profiles of Se were analyzed by a pharmacokinetic approach. The plasma Se profile after iv injection was biphasic and well-fit to a 2-compartment open model, showing two half lives (tl/2). The first tl/2 was about 0.3 hr and the second tl/2 was 6.9 hrs. The plasma concentration reached almost basal level after about 80 hrs of injection. On the other hand, plasma profiles after po administration showed absorption rate-limiting elimination. The bioavailability of oral sodium selenite (about 49%) and significantly higher amount of fecal Se excretion indicated relatively poor intestinal absorption of sodium selenite, compared to the previously published data. Urinary Se excretion was almost comparable between iv and po groups. The total recovery of the dose excreted in urine and feces was 30 ± 10% in iv and 56 ± 15% in po group. The renal excretion was considered to be a major route of Se excretion after absorption. Significant amount of Se that was not fully excreted was noted, suggesting Se distribution or accumulation in organs, together with volatile excretion. (author)

  17. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  18. Selenium biotransformation by the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora: Evidence for dimethylselenoniopropionate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansede, J.H.; Pellechia, P.J.; Yoch, D.C. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

    1999-06-15

    Phytoremediation of toxic inorganic selenium compounds by accumulation, assimilation, and volatilization is an ideal way to rid contaminated soils and sediments of these molecules. In this context, salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) was investigated for its potential to produce dimethylselenoniopropionate (DMSeP), which as the authors have shown can serve as a precursor for the enzymatic volatilization of the relatively nontoxic gas, dimethylselenide (DMSe). Plants grown in sand culture, under varying saline conditions amended with the environmentally toxic form of selenium (selenate) were analyzed for organoselenium compounds. DMSeP was positively identified in plant tissue and partially purified plant extracts by alkaline degradation to DMSe, [sup 1]H and [sup 77]Se NMR, and by enzymatic cleavage by DMSP lyase to DMSe (and acrylate). DMSeP levels were highest in plants grown in high salt (full-strength seawater) and high selenium. Preliminary evidence suggests that cordgrass may also produce Se-methyl selenomethionine, the putative precursor of DMSeP. This appears to be the first report for the biological assimilation of selenate into DMSeP by a plant species. These findings suggest a possible mechanism for the volatilization of selenium, as DMSe, analogous to that of dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by the salt tolerant cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora.

  19. The effects of selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and radioprotection in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, A.M.; Murray, J.L.; Dale, P.; Tritz, R.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-09-05

    The media of representative mammalian cell lines were supplemented with low levels of selenium in the form of sodium selenite in order to investigate the effects of selenium on mammalian cells. Following incubation in 30 nM sodium selenite, these cells were assayed for changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The cells examined included NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, PC12 rat sympathetic precursor cells, SupT-1 human lymphocytes, MCF-7{sup adr} human breast carcinoma cells and AA8 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Selenium supplementation resulted in a marginal increase in GPx activity for the NIH 3T3, MCF-7{sup adr} and Supt-1 cells but stimulated GPx activity approximately 5-fold in PC12 and AA8 cells. AA8 cells were selected to evaluate whether selenium supplementation was radioprotective against {sup 60}cobalt gamma irradiation. Protection against radiation-induced mutation was measured by evaluating mutation frequency at the hprt locus. In this assay, preincubation of AA8 CHO cells significantly protected these cells from exposure to 8 Gy.

  20. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, P; Mohsin, N; Jha, A; Date, A; Upadhaya, A; Mohammad, E; Khalil, M; Pakkyara, A; Budruddin, M

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF). The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions recovered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  1. The effects of selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and radioprotection in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, A.M.; Murray, J.L.; Dale, P.; Tritz, R.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The media of representative mammalian cell lines were supplemented with low levels of selenium in the form of sodium selenite in order to investigate the effects of selenium on mammalian cells. Following incubation in 30 nM sodium selenite, these cells were assayed for changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The cells examined included NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, PC12 rat sympathetic precursor cells, SupT-1 human lymphocytes, MCF-7 adr human breast carcinoma cells and AA8 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Selenium supplementation resulted in a marginal increase in GPx activity for the NIH 3T3, MCF-7 adr and Supt-1 cells but stimulated GPx activity approximately 5-fold in PC12 and AA8 cells. AA8 cells were selected to evaluate whether selenium supplementation was radioprotective against 60 cobalt gamma irradiation. Protection against radiation-induced mutation was measured by evaluating mutation frequency at the hprt locus. In this assay, preincubation of AA8 CHO cells significantly protected these cells from exposure to 8 Gy

  2. Risk Factors for Vitamin D, Zinc, and Selenium Deficiencies in Korean Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoo Min; Yoon, Hyuk; Lim, Soo; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-05-15

    Studies on the micronutrient status of Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce. We evaluated the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency and verified the risk factors for micronutrient deficiency in Korean patients with IBD. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D], zinc, and selenium to analyze the clinical risk factors for micronutrient levels below the reference values. In addition, we compared the 25-(OH)D levels of patients with IBD to those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Among the 83 patients, 74 (89.2%) had suboptimal serum 25-(OH)D levels. The mean plasma 25-(OH)D level in patients with IBD was significantly reduced compared to that of the healthy controls (12.3±6.2 ng/mL vs 20.0±6.7 ng/mL; pzinc and selenium levels were 39.0% and 30.9%, respectively. Female sex (p=0.012) and Crohn's disease (p=0.012) were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients younger than 40 years were at increased risk for zinc deficiency (p=0.045). Female sex (p=0.015) and low serum albumin level (zinc, and selenium deficiencies, suggesting the necessity for monitoring levels of these micronutrients.

  3. Biogeochemical studies of selenium in the Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, H.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kimura, M.; Koike, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium that is a one of trace essential elements exists mainly in the chemical form of Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic selenium in ocean. Moreover, the monitoring of the selenium species has become a matter of interest as a mean of estimating their influence in biological processes in ocean. In recent works, some investigators reported that Se(IV) shows nutrient-type especially like silica's behavior, Se(VI) shows an approximately constant value, and the biological activities control the distribution of organic selenium. However, these reports were not included the whole world's oceans. It is necessary to research several oceans for the explication of fate on selenium. We investigated at the most interesting area - the Eastern Indian Ocean where should play a key role in global ocean's cycle for acquiring the new knowledge of selenium species at first

  4. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  5. Zinc, cadmium, mercury and selenium in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Central East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R. [Greenland Environmental Research Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Born, E.W. [Greenland Fisheries Research Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Agger, C.T. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, C.O. [Ravnsnaesvej, Birkerod (Denmark)

    1995-02-01

    Muscle, liver, and kidney tissues from 38 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) caught in the Scoresby Sound area, Central East Greenland, were analysed for zinc, cadmium, mercury and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were low in muscle, liver and kidney tissue. This finding can be explained by low cadmium levels in the blubber of ringed seals. The concentration of mercury in muscle tissue was low, whereas concentrations in liver and kidney tissue were relatively high. Mercury and cadmium were positively correlated with age in liver and kidney. Zinc was positively correlated with in kidney, and selenium was correlated with age in liver. Contrary to other marine mammals, polar bears had higher mercury levels in the kidneys than in the liver. In all three tissues polar bears had significantly lower cadmium levels than ringed seals from the same area. Mercury levels were significantly lower in the muscle tissue of polar bears than in ringed seals, where-as levels in the liver and kidney were significantly higher. The previous geographic trend for cadmium and mercury found in Canadian polar bears could be extended to cover East Greenland as well. Hence cadmium levels were higher in Greenland than in Canada, while the opposite was the case for mercury. Greenland polar bears had higher mercury and cadmium contents in livers and kidneys than polar bears from Svalbard. The mercury levels in muscle and liver tissue from polar bears from East Greenland were twice as high as found in bears from western Alaska, but half the levels found in northern Alaska. Cadmium and zinc were partially correlated in kidney tissue, and this was found for mercury and selenium as well. Cadmium and zinc showed molar ratios close to unity with the highest concentrations occurring in kidney tissue, while the levels of zinc exceeded cadmium in muscle and liver tissue by up to several decades. Mercury and selenium showed molar ratios close to unity in liver and kidneys. 56 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  7. [Experience with a selenium-containing biological active supplement used in children with pneumonias in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglitskikh, A K; Tsokova, N B; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Mazo, V K; Kon', I Ia; Ostreĭkov, I F

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of the biologically active additive (BAA) "Spirulin-Sochi-Selen" was evaluated in 45 children aged 3 to 15 years who had acute pneumonia treated in the intensive care unit for infected patients of the Tushino children's city hospital, Moscow. The levels of selenium were determined by the Alfthan microfluorimetric technique (1984). The time course of clinical, laboratory, functional, and X-ray changes was determined. A control group comprised 20 children taking no selenium-containing foods or biologically active additives. The findings suggest that the BAA "Spirulin-Sochi-Selen" is effective as part of therapy for acute pneumonia in children treated in an intensive care unit. There were no signs of selenium deficiency in any case despite the baseline reduction in the average serum levels in both groups.

  8. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  9. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  10. Brazil nuts: an effective way to improve selenium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Christine D; Chisholm, Alexandra; McLachlan, Sarah K; Campbell, Jennifer M

    2008-02-01

    Brazil nuts provide a rich natural source of selenium, yet no studies have investigated the bioavailability of selenium in humans. We investigated the efficacy of Brazil nuts in increasing selenium status in comparison with selenomethionine. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 59 New Zealand adults. Participants consumed 2 Brazil nuts thought to provide approximately 100 mug Se, 100 mug Se as selenomethionine, or placebo daily for 12 wk. Actual intake from nuts averaged 53 mug Se/d (possible range: 20-84 mug Se). Plasma selenium and plasma and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk, and effects of treatments were compared. Plasma selenium increased by 64.2%, 61.0%, and 7.6%; plasma GPx by 8.3%, 3.4%, and -1.2%; and whole blood GPx by 13.2%, 5.3%, and 1.9% in the Brazil nut, selenomethionine, and placebo groups, respectively. Change over time at 12 wk in plasma selenium (P nut (P nut group than in the placebo (P = 0.002) and selenomethionine (P = 0.032) groups. Consumption of 2 Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status and enhancing GPx activity as 100 mug Se as selenomethionine. Inclusion of this high-selenium food in the diet could avoid the need for fortification or supplements to improve the selenium status of New Zealanders.

  11. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  12. Ecological Importance of Insects in Selenium Biogenic Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for animal and human beings. Despite the importance of insects in most ecosystems and their significant contribution to the biological cycling of trace elements due to high abundance, population productivity, and diverse ecosystem functions, surprisingly little information is available on selenium bioaccumulation by these arthropods. This review considers selenium essentiality and toxicity to insects as well as insects’ contribution to selenium trophic transfer through the food chains. Data on Se accumulation by insects of the Dniester River Valley with no anthropogenic Se loading reveal typically low Se content in necrophagous insects compared to predators and herbivores and seasonal variations in Se accumulation.

  13. Effects of dietary selenium and moisture on the physical activity and thyroid axis of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S E; Backus, R; Amelon, S

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of canned cat food is considered a risk factor for the development of feline hyperthyroidism. Because selenium and water are substantially higher in canned diets compared to dry diets, objectives of this study were to determine whether increased dietary selenium or water alters the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and leads to an increase in activity level. Employing a 28-day latin square design with a 14-day washout, six lean, neutered male domestic shorthair cats were fed (i) commercially available adult dry feline diet containing 0.8 ppm selenium (control), (ii) control diet with added sodium selenite to achieve a dietary selenium concentration of 1.125 ppm (selenium treatment) and (iii) the control diet with additional water to achieve a moisture content of 75% wt/wt (water treatment). Water consumption was determined using deuterium oxide washout. Actical activity monitors were placed on each cat's collar to allow quantification of the activity of each cat. Circulating serum T3 and T4 was measured on days 0, 14, and 28. On day 28, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test was conducted to determine treatment effects on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. There was a significant increase in daily water consumption with dietary water treatment (192 ml ± 7.85 SEM) compared to the control (120 ml ± 20.4) and selenium (116 ml ± 14.6) treatments. Both water and selenium treatments were associated with greater (p < .05) activity over that of the control treatment by 20.5% and 11% respectively. Serum TT3 AUC concentrations (0-4 hr) of TRH stimulation tests were greater (p < .05) by 16% with water compared to control treatments. The results of this study indicate that dietary water content may alter the function of the thyroid axis and that this effect is associated with an increase in physical activity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray J B; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2010-08-27

    Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg(-1)) were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg(-1)). Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. This is the first reported study investigating the protective effect of hyperaccumulated Se against cell

  15. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1 were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1. Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the

  16. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  17. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1) were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1). Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the protective effect of

  18. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  19. The Cultivation and SeleniumEnrichment of SeleniumEnriched Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Xiao-fei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a bio-carrier, Eisenia fetida was fed with cow dung that added with sodium selenite in order to transfer inorganic selenium(Se into organic selenium. Targeting on survival rate and selenium content, the effects of five Se concentrations(0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg·kg-1 and four cultivation periods(15, 30, 45, 60 don earthworm growth and Se contents were investigated. The cultivation method with high survival rate, high Se content of earthworm and short breeding time would be screened out. The experimental results showed that the earthworm survival rate decreased and the Se content in earthworm increased with the increase of Se application and the extension of breeding time. The most optimummethod was screened out when the Se concentration was 80 mg·kg-1 and the cultivation period was 45 days, Se content in earthworm was up to 33.25 mg·kg-1.

  20. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  1. Effect of enrichment of organic selenium, inorganic selenium and vitamin E in quail ration on the performances and potency of quail egg as a source of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Akil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of life style influences human health and it contributes to many human diseases outbreak, therefore nutrition of antioxidant is required. This study was aimed to get an optimum level of combined organic selenium, inorganic selenium and vitamin E in obtaining the best production and reproduction of quails and the highest antioxidant level in quail eggs. This study was conducted from January to August 2008. Numbers of observed quails were 720 individuals (360 female and 360 male quails. The treatments were applied when the quails were six weeks old. Nine treatment diets were: To (commercial diet, T1 (0.46 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T2 (0.46 ppm inorganic Se + 87.00 ppm vitamin E, T3 (0.92 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T4 (0.92 ppm inorganic Se +87.00 ppm vitamin E, T5 (0.46 ppm organic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T6 (0.46 ppm organic Se + 87.00 ppm vitamin E, T7 (0.92 ppm organic Se + 43.50 vitamin E and T8 (0.92 ppm organic Se 0.92 + 87.00 ppm vitamin E. The design of the experimental applied was a factorial – nested design. Any significant differences among the treatment diets were analysed using Duncan's test. The result of this study indicated that treatment T7 (0.92 ppm organic selenium + 43.50 ppm vitamin E in general gave the highest content of selenium in meat, in egg albumin, egg yolk, vitamin E in egg yolk, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, activity of antioxidant, hatchability and low mortality.

  2. Selenium uptake and assessment of the biochemical changes in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass during the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicovscaia, I; Chiriac, T; Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Culicov, O; Frontasyeva, M; Rudic, V

    2017-01-01

    The process of selenium uptake by biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was investigated by neutron activation analysis at different selenium concentrations in solution and at different contact times. Experimental data showed good fit with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a regression coefficient value of 0.99. In terms of absorption dependence on time, the maximal selenium content was adsorbed in the first 5 min of interaction without significant further changes. It was also found that A. platensis biomass forms spherical selenium nanoparticles. Biochemical analysis was used to assess the changes in the main components of spirulina biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation.

  3. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  4. Effects of 14-day oral low dose selenium nanoparticles and selenite in rat—as determined by metabolite pattern determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hadrup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element with a small difference between physiological and toxic doses. To provide more effective and safe Se dosing regimens, as compared to dosing with ionic selenium, nanoparticle formulations have been developed. However, due to the nano-formulation, unexpected toxic effects may occur. We used metabolite pattern determination in urine to investigate biological and/or toxic effects in rats administered nanoparticles and for comparison included ionic selenium at an equimolar dose in the form of sodium selenite. Low doses of 10 and 100 fold the recommended human high level were employed to study the effects at borderline toxicity. Evaluations of all significantly changed putative metabolites, showed that Se nanoparticles and sodium selenite induced similar dose dependent changes of the metabolite pattern. Putative identified metabolites included increased decenedioic acid and hydroxydecanedioic acid for both Se formulations whereas dipeptides were only increased for selenite. These effects could reflect altered fatty acid and protein metabolism, respectively.

  5. Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebin Yin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enshi is a high selenium (Se region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122 and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122 for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern.

  6. Effect of vitamin E and selenium and different types of milk on health and growth of organic goat kids

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Eekeren, van, N.J.M.; Govaerts, W.

    2012-01-01

    Newborn goat kids are low in blood levels of vitamin E and selenium. Not known is how this affects health and growth of the kids. In a study on an organic farm 40 kids were allotted to 4 groups. Parenteral administration of 0.5 ml vitamin E and selenium solution (treated groups) or 0.5 ml salt solution (placebo) at the day of birth was combined with powdered full goat milk or goat milk replacer during the raising period. The milk-groups were housed in one group. Housing conditions and addi...

  7. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, Roy W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  8. Timing of supplementation of selenium and isoflavones determines prostate cancer risk factor reduction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggett Dennis L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary intake of selenium or isoflavones reduces risk factors for prostate cancer. We tested whether combined supplementation of these two dietary components would reduce prostate cancer risk factors in rats more than supplementation of each component individually. Methods Male Noble rat pups were exposed from conception to diets containing an adequate (0.33–0.45 mg/kg diet or high (3.33–3.45 mg/kg concentration of selenium as Se-methylselenocysteine and a low (10 mg/kg or high (600 mg/kg level of isoflavones in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Pups consumed their respective diets until sacrifice at 35, 100, or 200 days. Male Noble rat breeders, whose exposure to the diets began after puberty, were sacrificed at 336 days. Rats were weighed biweekly. Blood was collected at the time of sacrifice and body fat and prostates were dissected and weighed. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, and testosterone were determined using ELISA kits. Serum levels of isoflavones were assayed by GC/MS. Liver activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 was measured as an indicator of selenium status. Results Serum isoflavone concentrations were nearly 100-fold higher at 35 days of age (1187.1 vs. 14.4 ng/mL, mean ± SD in pups fed the high vs. low isoflavone diets, and remained so at 100 and 200 days, and in breeders. There were no dietary differences in liver glutathione peroxidase activity in pups or breeders. High isoflavone intake significantly (p = 0.001–0.047 reduced body weight in rat pups from 35 days onward, but not in breeders. Body fat and leptin were likewise significantly reduced by high isoflavones in pups while effects in breeders were less pronounced but still significant. High intake of Se and isoflavones each decreased serum IGF-1 in pups at 100 and 200 days, but not in breeders. No consistent dietary effects were observed on serum testosterone or relative weights of prostates. In pups, the combination of high

  9. Monosodium glutamate induced testicular toxicity and the possible ameliorative role of vitamin E or selenium in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Z. Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG has been recognized as flavor enhancer that adversely affects male reproductive systems. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of vitamin E (vit E or selenium against MSG induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in testis tissues of rats. Mature male Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g BW were allocated to evenly twelve groups each group of ten animals, the first group was maintained as control group, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were administered MSG in three different dose levels (low, medium and high (6, 17.5 and 60 mg/kg BW, the 5th and 6th groups were given vit E in two doses (low and high (150 and 200 mg/kg, the 7th and 8th groups were administered selenium in two doses (low and high (0.25 and 1 mg/kg daily via gavage for a period of 30 days. Meanwhile the 9th and 10th groups were given combinations of MSG (high dose and vit E while, the 11th and 12th groups were given MSG (high dose plus selenium in two recommended doses for each one. Monosodium glutamate caused an elevation in lipid peroxidation level parallel with significant decline in SOD, CAT as well as GPx activities in testis tissues. Administration of vit E or selenium to MSG-treated groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. Selenium or vit E significantly reduced MSG induced histopathological changes by the entire restoration of the histological structures and the testicular antioxidant status to great extent in treated rats. In conclusion, supplementation of selenium or vit E could ameliorate the MSG induced testicular toxicity to great extent and reduce the oxidative stress on testis tissues.

  10. Effect of salinity on Brassica rapa var. toria (BRSRT under selenium defence: A trial to assess the protective role of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha SAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the role of selenium, an antioxidant in salt-stressed plants. A hydroponic trial of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4 on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system of Brassica rapa var. toria (BRSRT plant was studied. 40 µmol and 100 µmol of Na2SeO4 were hydroponically applied to BRSRT roots with 50 mmol and 100 mmol sodium chloride (NaCl for 12 days. Plant growth, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments at 100 mmol salt stress was inhibited while oxidative stress indicators, for example, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were stimulated. Supplementation of 40 µmol Na2SeO4 with 50 mmol and 100 mmol NaCl improved growth, photosynthetic pigments and acted as an antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities. The in-gel assays also showed enhanced activities of these enzymes. At 100 µmol concentration, selenium under salt stress, repressed growth and expression of antioxidant enzymes and stimulated oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity. Under consolidated stress treatment, an addition of 40 µmol Na2SeO4 was the most effective for both NaCl concentrations. The finding reveals that the optimal selenium supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl stress for BRSRT seedlings.

  11. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Low blood selenium: A probable factor in essential hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood selenium (BSe) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (plGSH-Px) activity were measured as biochemical markers of selenium status of 103 hypertensive patients (44 males and 59 females) and 88 apparently healthy subjects (40 males and 48 females). The hypertensive patients were classified into three groups based ...

  13. The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of Southern Africa. J. B. J. van Ryssen. Dept of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail:jvryssen@postino.up.ac.za. Although a substantial amount of information is available on the selenium status of grazing animals ...

  14. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Selenium is an antioxidant that prevents oxygen radical from damaging cells from chronic diseases that can develop from cell injury and inflammation such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible protective effect of selenium yeast on cholesterol diet induced type-2 diabetes mellitus ...

  15. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    2004-01-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to...

  16. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de W.S.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Svenson, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the tissue distribution of inorganic mercury, organic mercury selenium in Dutch and British seals as well as in seals which were dosed with methylmercury under experimental conditions. In the experimental animals, a time-related increase of both mercury and selenium was found in

  17. Full quantification of selenium species by RP and AF-ICP-qMS with on-line isotope dilution in serum samples from mercury-exposed people supplemented with selenium-enriched yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Liang; Li, Bai

    2011-01-01

    Accurate determination of selenium (Se) species in biological samples is a critical issue because Se commonly occurs at low levels and in diverse species. The method for the full quantification of Se species in serum samples was proposed through combined ion-pair reverse-phase (RP) chromatography...

  18. Transferência trófica de mercúrio e selênio na costa norte do Rio de Janeiro Trophic transference of mercury and selenium in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A. Kehrig

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophic transfer of trace elements along marine food chains has been recognized as an important process influencing metal and metalloid bioaccumulation. The trophic transfer of mercury was observed between trophic levels from prey (considering fish with different feeding habits and squid to top predator (dolphin in a Northern coastal food chain of Rio de Janeiro. Selenium showed some evidence of trophic transfer between lower trophic levels. Dolphin presented the highest mercury concentrations whereas the benthic carnivorous fish showed the highest selenium concentrations. Mercury is biomagnified through the food chain while selenium does not present the same behavior.

  19. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent findings have raised concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes and hyperlipidemia in the US, a population with high selenium status. In the UK, a population with lower selenium status, there is little data on the association of selenium status with cardio-met...

  20. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Ecological Soil Screening Levels for Selenium, Interim Final; OSWER Directive 9285.7-72; USEPA: Washington, DC...Toxicity Test. In Ecological Effects Test Guidelines; EPA 712-C-96-167; USEPA: Washington, DC, 1996. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA...Higashi Teresa W.-M. Fan UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY Lexington, KY 40536-0305 Keith Sappington U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Washington

  1. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian H.; Bonnema, Steen; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid...... diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing...... supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed....

  2. Recent Microextraction Techniques for Determination and Chemical Speciation of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research designed to improve extraction has led to the development of microextraction techniques (ME, which involve simple, low cost, and effective preconcentrationof analytes in various matrices. This review is concerned with the principles and theoretical background of ME, as well as the development of applications for selenium analysis during the period from 2008 to 2016. Among all ME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was found to be most favorable for selenium. On the other hand, atomic absorption spectrometry was the most frequently used instrumentation. Selenium ME have rarely been coupled to spectrophotometry and X-ray spectrophotometry methods, and there is no published application of ME with electrochemical techniques. We strongly support the idea of using a double preconcentration process, which consists of microextraction prior to preconcentration, followed by selenium determination using cathodic stripping voltammetry (ME-CSV. More attention should focus on the development of accurate, precise, and green methods for selenium analysis.

  3. Comparative effects of zinc, selenium and vitamin E or their combination on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, H F; Mantawy, M M

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic state. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the hypoglycemic role of zinc, selenium and vitamin E and their mixture in comparison with the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 +/- 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single i.p. dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg b. wt). Diabetic groups were simultaneously i.p. injected either with zinc chloride (ZnCI2) (5 mg/kg) or with selenium and vitamin E (1.5 mg/kg as sodium selenite and vitamin E 1000 mg/kg) or with zinc, selenium and vitamin E each element i.p. injected according to its corresponding therapeutic dose daily for one month. Another group was orally treated daily with glibenclamide drug (5 mg/kg) for one month. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 3 post STZ injection (from one group serum glucose level significantly elevated selenium and vitamin E or their combination blunted the increment in serum glucose induced by STZ, preserved liver architecture and ameliorated all the previous mentioned biochemical parameters. It was found that, the combined administration of zinc, selenium and vitamin E exhibited a more remarkable effect than either zinc or selenium and vitamin E. So, the results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of micronutrients combination in controlling hyperglycemia.

  4. Use of enriched {sup 74}Se and {sup 77}Se in combination with isotope pattern deconvolution to differentiate and determine endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Iglesias, H.; Fernandez Sanchez, M.L.; Garcia Alonso, J.I.; Sanz-Medel, A. [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A quantitative methodology has been developed to differentiate between endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats using two enriched selenium isotopes. Lactating rats were fed for 2 weeks with formula milk containing one enriched Se isotope, {sup 77}Se, as the metabolic tracer. The isotopic composition of selenium in serum and urine samples was then measured by collision cell ICP-MS after the addition of a solution containing another enriched isotope, {sup 74}Se, as quantitation tracer, before analysis. Isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the transformation of measured Se isotopic abundances into concentrations of natural abundance (endogenous) selenium and enriched {sup 77}Se (supplemented) present in the samples. The proposed methodology was validated using serum and urine reference materials spiked with both {sup 77}Se and {sup 74}Se. The obtained results are discussed in terms of selenium exchange and half-life in lactating rats (11-12 days) and selenium levels in serum in comparison with non-supplemented rats and control rats after maternal feeding. (orig.)

  5. The effect of selenium on immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in the elderly: A case-control double-blinded clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Janbakhsh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza can cause more severe diseases and higher rate of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Therefore, they should receive influenza vaccine annually. However, the host response to vaccine is less in older individuals. On the other hand, selenium can act as a stimulator of the immune system and cause increased immunity and response to vaccine. This study was carried out to determine the effect of selenium on antibody production against influenza vaccine. By verifying this effect, selenium can be recommended as an adjuvant therapy in the elderly. Methods: A total of 110 subjects were selected at Infectious Diseases Research Center of Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah. They were divided into two groups of adjuvant (N=56 and placebo (N=54. The adjuvant group received influenza vaccine and selenium tablet. The placebo group received influenza vaccine and placebo tablet. Venous blood samples were taken before and four weeks after vaccination and the results were compared between the two groups. Results: Seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titer (GMT for three strains (H1N1, H3N2, and B were assessed. The seroconversion and GMT rates against influenza B vaccine component were significantly higher in adjuvant group than placebo group. Conclusion: Considering the ability of selenium in induction of a better response to influenza vaccine in older people as well as its low cost and accessibility, selenium can be used to increase antibody level in such cases.

  6. Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, David J.; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Schomburg, Lutz; Meplan, Catherine; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Hybsier, Sandra; Becker, Niels-Peter; Czuban, Magdalena; Tjonneland, Anne; Outzen, Malene; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Kuehn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Dagrun, Engeset; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Wennberg, Maria; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Cross, Amanda J.; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Stepien, Magdalena; Kong, So Yeon; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Hesketh, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested

  7. Application of Plackett-Burman and Doehlert designs for optimization of selenium analysis in plasma with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Hellal, Fayçal; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was the optimization of selenium determination in plasma samples with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using experimental design methodology. 11 variables being able to influence selenium analysis in human blood plasma by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were evaluated with Plackett-Burman experimental design. These factors were selected from sample preparation, furnace program and chemical modification steps. Both absorbance and background signals were chosen as responses in the screening approach. Doehlert design was used for method optimization. Results showed that only ashing temperature has a statistically significant effect on the selected responses. Optimization with Doehlert design allowed the development of a reliable method for selenium analysis with ETAAS. Samples were diluted 1/10 with 0.05% (v/v) TritonX-100+2.5% (v/v) HNO3 solution. Optimized ashing and atomization temperatures for nickel modifier were 1070°C and 2270°C, respectively. A detection limit of 2.1μgL(-1) Se was obtained. Accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of selenium in Seronorm™ Trace element quality control serum level 1. The developed procedure was applied for the analysis of total selenium in fifteen plasma samples with standard addition method. Concentrations ranged between 24.4 and 64.6μgL(-1), with a mean of 42.6±4.9μgL(-1). The use of experimental designs allowed the development of a cheap and accurate method for selenium analysis in plasma that could be applied routinely in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  9. Selenium and its redox speciation in rainwater from sites of Valparaiso region in Chile, impacted by mining activities of copper ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Gregori Ida; Lobos, Maria G; Pinochet, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the total concentration of selenium does not provide sufficient information about its toxicity and its bioavailability. The determination of its chemical forms is the basis for understanding the biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and for detecting the species which might be toxic to biota. In this work we describe an analytical procedure to carry out the redox speciation of selenium present at ultratrace levels in rainwater from sites of Valparaiso region in Chile, impacted by mining activities of copper ores. A simple preconcentration step of the rainwater sample on a rotavapor system, in vacuum at low temperature permits the concentration of the different redox selenium species until levels quantifiable by sensitive techniques such as differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry or by spectrometric techniques, based on the hydride generation and detection by atomic absorption or atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These techniques coupled to redox chemical reactions allow the redox speciation of selenium. The results show that the open evaporation system can be used to concentrate water samples when the aim of the analysis is the determination of the total selenium concentration. On the contrary, to carry out its redox speciation only the preconcentration performed on rotavapor system, in vacuum can be used. When synthetic solutions containing different redox species of selenium, at ultratrace levels, were slowly evaporated on open system, Se(II) and Se(IV) were oxidized. The optimized procedure was then applied to the selenium determination and its redox speciation in rainwater samples collected in sites impacted by mining activities of copper ores. It was found that the amounts of total selenium in rainwater, as copper, from Puchuncavi valley decrease exponentially with the distance from the source, indicating that these elements in this region arise from the industrial complex Las Ventanas. In the redox

  10. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTION – EFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  11. Co-operative effect of glutathione depletion and selenium induced oxidative stress on API and NFkB expression in testicular cells in vitro: insights to regulation of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA SHALINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 µM and 1.5 µM. It was observed that at 1.5 µM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility

  12. Antioxidants and myocardial infarction : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis reports the background, design and results of a multi-centre study on the relationship between diet-derived antioxidants and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in men. Levels of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue and of selenium in toenails were compared between

  13. Antioxidants and myocardial infarction : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis reports the background, design and results of a multi-centre study on the relationship between diet-derived antioxidants and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in men. Levels of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue and of selenium in toenails were compared

  14. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations for trigonal selenium have been calculated on the basis of a short range potential field model. Electrostatic long range forces have not been included. The force field is defined in terms of symmetrized coordinates which reflect partly the symmetry of the space group....... With such coordinates a potential energy, calculated with only a diagonal force matrix, is equivalent to one calculated with both off diagonal and diagonal elements when conventional coordinates are used. Another advantage is that often some force constants may be determined directly from frequencies at points of high...

  15. Antidiabetic Activity of a Lotus Leaf Selenium (Se)-Polysaccharide in Rats with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaohui; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    A selenium (Se)-containing polysaccharide, lotus leaf selenium (Se)-polysaccharide (LLP), was isolated from a lotus leaf. The effects of LLP on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant rats with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. LLP administered orally at two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) could significantly reverse the weight loss of pregnant rats before the delivery, fetal rats, and placentas in GDM rats (P fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting blood insulin (FINS) levels in GDM rats, but an increase of hepatic glycogen content, when compared with those in GDM rats (P  0.05). All the data indicated that LLP may be a promising drug candidate or a healthcare food for GDM therapy or protection.

  16. Selenium content increasing in the seeds of garden pea after foliar biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Hegedüsová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium plays an important role as an antioxidant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Content of selenium in the crops is constantly in the spotlight of professional public. Vegetables, as an important source of chemo protective substances, have irreplaceable position within the food of plant character. The aim of research work was to solve the Se content increasing in the seeds of garden pea (varieties Premium and Ambassador through the foliar biofortification of the plants (50 g Se / ha and 100 g Se / ha and to monitor its effect on production of photosynthetic pigments. In the seeds of fresh garden pea, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content was determined by spectrophotometer depending on a variety and the doses of selenium. In lyophilized seeds there was measured content of selenium by ET-AAS methods. The statistically significant increase of selenium was confirmed with its increasing concentrations in case of both varieties. In the var. Ambassador there was increasing from 0.083 ±0.009 mg.kg-1 DM to 4.935 ±0.598 mg.kg-1 DM (60-fold and in a var. Premium the values increase from 0.067±0.007 mg.kg-1 DM to 3.248 ±0.289 mg.kg-1 DM (48-fold after application of 100 g Se / ha. After application of 50 g Se / ha in both varieties of peas there was reported 25-fold increasing in the selenium content in comparison with control. The content of photosynthetic pigments was also increased, or possibly left at level of un-fortificated variant (chla - Ambassador - 50 g Se / ha; chlb - Premium - 100 g Se / ha by foliar biofortification. Chlorophyll a content was high significantly increased according to used statistical methods in varieties Premium, from the content of 24.527 ±5.156 mg.kg-1 FM to 66.953 ±6.454 mg.kg-1 FM, likewise the content of chlorophyll b from the value of 19.708 ±5.977 mg.kg-1 FM to 37.488 ±6.146 mg.kg-1 FM (after 50 g / ha application.  Foliar biofortification of different vegetable species can provide large

  17. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Ugarte, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats (Felis catus) maintain greater blood Se concentrations compared with dogs (Canis familiaris) and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 μg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to

  18. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  19. Biological functions of selenium and its potential influence on Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL H. ELLWANGER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons, mainly in the substantia nigra, and causes serious locomotor dysfunctions. It is likely that the oxidative damage to cellular biomolecules is among the leading causes of neurodegeneration that occurs in the disease. Selenium is an essential mineral for proper functioning of the brain, and mainly due to its antioxidant activity, it is possible to exert a special role in the prevention and in the nutritional management of Parkinson's disease. Currently, few researchers have investigated the effects of selenium on Parkinson´s disease. However, it is known that very high or very low body levels of selenium can (possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, because this imbalance results in increased levels of oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this work is to review and discuss studies that have addressed these topics and to finally associate the information obtained from them so that these data and associations serve as input to new research.

  20. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  1. Final Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    inversely correlated with total suspended-solids concentrations. Although pupfish were found in several drains, sometimes in relatively high numbers, the fish faunas of most drains and ponds were dominated by nonnative species, especially mosquitofish, mollies, and red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis). Dissolved selenium in water samples from the seven intensively monitored drains ranged from 0.700 to 32.8 micrograms per liter (?g/L), with selenate as the major constituent. Selenium concentrations in other matrices varied widely among drains and ponds, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in food chain matrices [particulate organic detritus, 5.98-58.0 micrograms of selenium per gram (?g Se/g); midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 ?g Se/g] and in fish (mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 ?g Se/g; sailfin mollies, 12.8-30.4 ?g Se/g; all concentrations are based on dry weights). Although selenium was accumulated by all trophic levels, biomagnification (defined as a progressive increase in selenium concentration from one trophic level to the next higher level) in midge larvae and fish occurred only at lower exposure concentrations. Judging mostly from circumstantial evidence, the health and wellbeing of poeciliids and pupfish are not believed to be threatened by ambient exposure to selenium in the drains and ponds.

  2. Assessment of two nonnative poeciliid fishes for monitoring selenium exposure in the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the suitability of two nonnative poeciliid fishes—western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna)—for monitoring selenium exposure in desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius). Our investigation was prompted by a need to avoid lethal take of an endangered species (pupfish) when sampling fish for chemical analysis. Total selenium (SeTot) concentrations in both poeciliids were highly correlated with SeTot concentrations in pupfish. However, mean SeTot concentrations varied among fish species, with higher concentrations measured in mosquitofish than in mollies and pupfish from one of three sampled agricultural drains. Moreover, regression equations describing the relationship of selenomethionine to SeTot differed between mosquitofish and pupfish, but not between mollies and pupfish. Because selenium accumulates in animals primarily through dietary exposure, we examined fish trophic relationships by measuring stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and gut contents. According to δ13C measurements, the trophic pathway leading to mosquitofish was more carbon-depleted than trophic pathways leading to mollies and pupfish, suggesting that energy flow to mosquitofish originated from allochthonous sources (terrestrial vegetation, emergent macrophytes, or both), whereas energy flow to mollies and pupfish originated from autochthonous sources (filamentous algae, submerged macrophytes, or both). The δ15N measurements indicated that mosquitofish and mollies occupied similar trophic levels, whereas pupfish occupied a slightly higher trophic level. Analysis of gut contents showed that mosquitofish consumed mostly winged insects (an indication of terrestrial taxa), whereas mollies and pupfish consumed mostly organic detritus. Judging from our results, only mollies (not mosquitofish) are suitable for monitoring selenium exposure in pupfish.

  3. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

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    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods: Four groups of rats were used (n=10, Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10 μg/kg body weight daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results: Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  4. Enhanced antioxidant capacity following selenium supplemented antimalarial therapy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Olasehinde, Grace Iyabo; Egbeola, Oluwaseun Ayodimeji; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the co-administration of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium was studied in mice infected with Plasmodium bergheiparasite. The mice were divided into seven groups of six animals per group. All groups except A were parasitized. Group A (unparasitized/untreated) and B (parasitized/untreated) served as the positive and negative control respectively, these were administered with olive oil. Animals in groups C and D were treated with 8 and 48 mg/kg/bw of artemether and lumefantrine respectively while group E was treated with a combination of artemether and lumefantrine (8: 48 mg/kg/bw). Animals in group F were treated with 0.945 mg/kg/bw of selenium only and group G was treated with a combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium (8:48:0.945 mg/kg/bw). All the treatment was done for a three day period. These animals were subsequently anaesthetized and the organs were excised. Homogenates were prepared for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, reduced Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) difference in the levels of ALP and MDA in group B, while a significant difference was observed in the levels of ALP, total protein, CAT and MDA in group G when compared with the parasitized group. Histopathological analysis showed no presence of inflammatory cells in group G when compared with group B. It may be concluded that the combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium showed a more potent effect against the parasite than the group treated with artemether and lumefantrine, thus, helps to combat post-infection oxidative stress in susceptible cells.

  5. A systematic approach to the accurate quantification of selenium in serum selenoalbumin by HPLC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitaru, Petru, E-mail: Petru.Jitaru@lne.fr [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Goenaga-Infante, Heidi [LGC Limited, Queens Road, Teddington, TW11 OLY, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Fisicaro, Paola [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-01-11

    In this paper, two different methods are for the first time systematically compared for the determination of selenium in human serum selenoalbumin (SeAlb). Firstly, SeAlb was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting selenomethionine (SeMet) was quantified using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) with reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC) hyphenated to (collision/reaction cell) inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (CRC ICP-QMS). In order to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, SeAlb was determined as an intact protein by affinity-HPLC (AF-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. Using this approach, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and selenoprotein P (SelP) (the two selenoproteins present in serum) were also determined within the same chromatographic run. The levels of selenium associated with SeAlb in three serum materials, namely BCR-637, Seronorm level 1 and Seronorm level 2, obtained using both methods were in a good agreement. Verification of the absence of free SeMet, which interferes with the SeAlb determination (down to the amino acid level), in such materials was addressed by analyzing the fraction of GPx, partially purified by AF-HPLC, using RP-HPLC (GPx only) and size exclusion-HPLC (SE-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. The latter methodology was also used for the investigation of the presence of selenium species other than the selenoproteins in the (AF-HPLC) SelP and SeAlb fractions; the same selenium peaks were detected in both control and BCR-637 serum with a difference in age of ca. 12 years. It is also for the first time that the concentrations of selenium associated with SeAlb, GPx and SelP species in such commercially available serums (only certified or having indicative levels of total selenium content) are reported. Such indicative values can be used for reference purposes in future validation of speciation methods for selenium in human serum and/or inter-laboratory comparisons.

  6. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  7. COMPARISON OF DETERMINING METHODS REGARDING SELENIUM CONTENT IN WHEAT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Monica Stanciu-Burileanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a metallic chemical element, selenium has received special attention from biologists because of its dual role as a trace element essential and toxic. The important part of enzymes that protect cells against the effects of free radicals that are produced during normal metabolism of oxygen. Also, selenium is essential for normal immune system and thyroid gland, The concentration of selenium in the soil, which varies by region, determines the default concentration of selenium in plants growing in the soil.The purpose of this paper is to present methods of comparison, dry oxidation at 450ºC and wet digestion – digestion with acids in high concentrations at microwave system digestion, for determining selenium content from wheat samples collected from the south-eastern part of Romania, namely Bărăgan Plain and Central-South Dobrogea. Selenium separation and dosage from obtained extracts carry out through a selective hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With the software SURFER, a tendency map of selenium distribution was drawn.

  8. Selenium reverses Pteridium aquilinum-induced immunotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, A O; Caniceiro, B D; Wysocki, H L; Haraguchi, M; Gardner, D R; Górniak, S L

    2011-02-01

    We have previously shown that bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has immunomodulatory effects on mouse natural killer (NK) cells by reducing cytotoxicity. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that selenium can enhance NK cell activity. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate if ptaquiloside, the main toxic component found in P. aquilinum, is responsible for the immunotoxic effects observed in mice, and if selenium supplementation could prevent or even reverse these effects. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered the P. aquilinum extract by daily gavage for 30 days, and histological analyses revealed a significant reduction in splenic white pulp area that was fully reversed by selenium treatment. In addition, mice administered ptaquiloside by daily gavage for 14 days demonstrated the same reduction of NK cell activity as the P. aquilinum extract, and this reduction was prevented by selenium co-administration. Lastly, non-adherent splenic cells treated in vitro with an RPMI extract of P. aquilinum also showed diminished NK cell activity that was not only prevented by selenium co-treatment but also fully reversed by selenium post-treatment. The results of this study clearly show that the immunosuppressive effects of P. aquilinum are induced by ptaquiloside and that selenium supplementation can prevent as well as reverse these effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Speciation of selenium in groundwater: Seasonal variations and redox transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A. Ramesh; Riyazuddin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Selenium(VI) was the predominant species of Se present in groundwater. → Groundwater recharge increased Se mobilization. → Dissolved oxygen and redox potential control the mobilization of soil selenium. → Shallow groundwater is susceptible for more selenium enrichment than deeper ones. - Abstract: Speciation of selenium in groundwater is essential from the viewpoint of toxicity to organisms and biogeochemical cycling. Selenium speciation in groundwater is controlled by aquifer redox conditions, microbial transformations, dissolved oxygen (DO) and other redox couples. A suburban area of Chennai city in India, where improper waste disposal measures have been practiced is selected for this study. Se(IV), Se(VI) and other hydrochemical parameters were monitored in shallow ground water during pre- and post-monsoon seasons for a period of three years. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of groundwater recharge on selenium speciation. The concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-0.43 μg L -1 and 0.16-4.73 μg L -1 , respectively. During post-monsoon period the concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-1.25 μg L -1 and 0.58-10.37 μg L -1 , respectively. Se(VI) was the dominant species of selenium during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the post-monsoon periods, leaching of selenium from soil was more effective due to the increased oxidizing nature of the groundwater as indicated by the DO and redox potential (Eh) measurements. This finding has important implications on the behavior of selenium in groundwater, and also on the health of people consuming groundwater from seleniferous areas.

  10. Biogenesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Sara; Mozdziak, Paul; Golkar-Narenji, Afsaneh

    2017-11-09

    Selenium binds some enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which may be activated in biological infections and oxidative stress. Chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanoparticles, apart from being expensive, have their own particular risks. However, nanoparticle synthesis through green chemistry is a safe procedure that different biological sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and plants can be the catalyst bed for processing. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by macro/microorganisms causes variation in morphology and shape of the particles is due to diversity of reduction enzymes in organisms. Reducing enzymes of microorganisms by changing the status of redox convert metal ions (Se 2- ) to SeNPs without charge (Se 0 ). Biological activity of SeNPs includes their protective role against DNA oxidation. Because of the biological and industrial properties, SeNPs have wide applications in the fields of medicine, microelectronic, agriculture and animal husbandry. SeNPs can show strong antimicrobial effects on the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in a dose-dependent manner. The objective of this review is to consider SeNPs applications to various organisms.

  11. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  12. Selenium and tellurium as carbon substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This review has summarized structure-activity studies with 75 Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in which the selenium or tellurium heteroatom has been inserted between carbon-carbon bonds. The agents that have been investigated in most detail include steroids for adrenal imaging and long-chain fatty acids, and a variety of other unique agents have also been studied. Because of the great versatility of the organic chemistry of selenium and tellurium, there is continuing interest in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 75 Se, 73 Se, and /sup 123m/Te. There are two important factors which will determine the extent of future interest in such agents. These include the necessity of a decrease in the cost of highly enriched 122 Te to make the reactor production of /sup 123m/Te cost effective. In addition, the potential preparation of large amounts of 73 Se should stimulate the development of 73 Se-labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  13. Biofortification and phytoremediation of selenium in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans and animals but at high concentrations, Se becomes toxic to organisms due to Se replacing sulfur in proteins. Selenium biofortification is an agricultural process that increases the accumulation of Se in crops, through plant breeding, genetic engineering, or use of Se fertilizers. While Se phytoremediation is a green biotechnology to clean up Se-contaminated environments, primarily through phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. By integrating Se phytoremediation and biofortification technologies, Se-enriched plant materials harvested from Se phytoremediation can be used as Se-enriched green manures or other supplementary sources of Se for producing Se-biofortified agricultural products. Earlier studies primarily aimed at enhancing efficacy of phytoremediation and biofortification of Se based on natural variation in progenitor or identification of unique plant species. In this review, we discuss promising approaches to improve biofortification and phytoremediation of Se using knowledge acquired from model crops. We also explored the feasibility of applying biotechnologies such as inoculation of microbial strains for improving the efficiency of biofortification and phytoremediation of Se. The key research and practical challenges that remain in improving biofortification and phytoremediation of Se have been highlighted, and the future development and uses of Se-biofortified agricultural products in China has also been discussed.

  14. An Introduction to Testing Web Applications with twill and Selenium

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Titus; Huggins, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut is an introduction tobuilding automated web tests using twotools, twill and Selenium. twill is a simpleweb scripting language that can be usedto automate web tests, while Selenium isa web testing framework that runs in anybrowser and can be used to test complexweb sites that make extensive use ofJavaScript. The best way to use this Short Cut is torun through the examples. We expectthat within an hour you can start writingyour own functional tests in either twillor Selenium, and within a day you willunderstand most, if not all, of the possibilitiesand the limitations of these t

  15. Microgravimetric Studies of Selenium Electrodeposition Onto Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of selenium electrodeposition from sulfuric acid solution on different substrates was studied with the electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetry was combined with the quartz crystal microbalance technique to analyze selenium deposition process. The electrochemical reduction of selenous acid on gold, silver and copper electrodes was investigated. It was found that reduction of selenous acid is a very complex process and it strongly depends from the applied substrate. The voltammetric measurements indicate the range of potentials in which the process of reduction of selenous acids on the applied substrate is possible. Additionally, the microgravimetric data confirm the deposition of selenium and they reveal the mechanism of the deposition process.

  16. Effects of selenium dietary enhancement on hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), when compared with wild coho: hepatic enzymes and seawater adaptation evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, S.P.; Landolt, M.L.; Grace, R.; Palmisano, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), were fed elevated levels of selenium (as Na2SeO3) to raise eviscerated body burdens to the level measured in wild counterparts. The goal was to find a dietary concentration that would achieve the desired effect without causing damage to growth and normal development. To measure some indices of health, the detoxifying enzymes chosen were hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD). Eviscerated body selenium (Se) concentration, GSH-Px and SOD levels were measured during and at the end of the 9 month freshwater feeding trial. Selenium retention and enzyme activity were also measured during 6 months’residence in sea water (SW). Selenium supplements were added to a commercial ration to give final concentrations of 1.1, 8.6, 11.1, 13.6 μg g-1 Se in the four respective diets. The results indicated that a dietary concentration of 8.6 μg g-1selenium was capable of inducing eviscerated body burdens similar to those found in wild fish. The elevated selenium levels persisted throughout the freshwater (FW) rearing phase, but declined when the fish were fed an unsupplemented ration upon SW entry. Superoxide dismutase levels did not increase above control levels. Glutathione peroxidase levels increased in fish fed the supplemented diets. GSH-Px activity declined in the higher supplemented dietary groups when all groups were reduced to the control group level of 1.1 μg g-1. Cumulative mortality in SW was 20% in fish fed either the 1.1 or the 8.6 μg g-1 Se diets. The 8.6 μg g-1 Se supplemented diets did produce healthy coho, comparable to their wild counterparts.

  17. Efficacy of topical resin lacquer, amorolfine and oral terbinafine for treating toenail onychomycosis: a prospective, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, T; Tiihonen, R; Soini, M; Wangel, M; Sipponen, A; Jokinen, J J

    2015-10-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) produces resin to protect against decomposition by microbial pathogens. In vitro tests have shown that spruce resin has antifungal properties against dermatophytes known to cause nearly 90% of onychomycosis in humans. To confirm previous in vivo observations that a topical resin lacquer provides mycological and clinical efficacy, and to compare this lacquer with topical amorolfine hydrochloride lacquer and systemic terbinafine for treating dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded study, 73 patients with onychomycosis were randomized to receive topical 30% resin lacquer once daily for 9 months, topical 5% amorolfine lacquer once weekly for 9 months, or 250 mg oral terbinafine once daily for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was complete mycological cure at 10 months. Secondary outcomes were clinical efficacy, cost-effectiveness and patient compliance. At 10 months, complete mycological cure rates with the resin, amorolfine and terbinafine treatments were 13% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-28], 8% (95% CI 0-19) and 56% (95% CI 35-77), respectively (P ≤ 0·002). At 10 months, clinical responses were complete in four patients (16%) treated with terbinafine, and partial in seven (30%), seven (28%) and nine (36%) patients treated with resin, amorolfine and terbinafine, respectively (P Resin, amorolfine and terbinafine treatments cost €41·6, €56·3 and €52·1, respectively, per patient (P resin lacquer and topical 5% amorolfine lacquer provided similar efficacy for treating dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. However, orally administered terbinafine was significantly more effective in terms of mycological cure and clinical outcome than either topical therapy at the 10-month follow-up. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the nail does not extend treatment modality for fungal nails. beyond the tip of the toe. In some ... discol- ored, or swollen, for example. Treatment of Fungal Nails Treatments may vary, depending on painful nail, which ...

  19. Toenail Fungus (Onychomycosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coding trends along with compliance guidelines and practice marketing materials, APMA has you covered whether you are ... Promote Your Practice Footprints Newsletter Public Education Campaigns Digital Brochures Reaching Out to the Media Feature Article ...

  20. Comparative effect of selenium and selenium tolerant microbes on brachiaria reptans l. growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Faisal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiaria reptans L. is an annual grass. It is good fodder grass which is distributed in tropical Asia, Kenya, Pakistan and India and introduced throughout the tropics. In present study we determine the growth correlation among B. reptans, selenium (Se) and two Se tolerant bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis-YAP7 and Bacillus cereus-YAP6). Plants treated with Se showed a significant decrease in shoot length (33%) and fresh biomass (41%) compared to control. When plants were co-cultivated in the presence of bacteria or Se and bacteria both the shoot length increased (16-34%) significantly compared to control. B. reptans plants treated with Se have shown a significant decrease in peroxidase contents (59%) compared to control. However, bacterial inoculation of Se treated plants resulted in significant increase in peroxidase contents (113-171%). Selenium treatment caused increase in leaf soluble protein contents compared to control. In conclusion, bacteria can enhance B. reptans growth under Se stress. (author)

  1. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Main and interactive effects of arsenic and selenium on mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T.R.; Spann, J.W.; Smith, G.J.; Rosscoe, R.

    1994-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) occur together in high concentrations in the environment and can accumulate in aquatic plants and invertebrates consumed by waterfowl. Ninety-nine pairs of breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with As (sodium arsenate) at 0, 25, 100, or 400 ug/g, in combination with Se (seleno-DL-methionine) at 0 or 10 ug/g, in a replicated factorial experiment. Ducklings produced were placed on the same treatment combination as their parents. Arsenic accumulated in adult liver and egg, reduced adult weight gain and liver weight, delayed the onset of egg laying, decreased whole egg weight, and caused eggshell thinning. Arsenic did not affect hatching success and was not teratogenic. In ducklings, As accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight, growth, and liver weight. Arsenic did not increase duckling mortality, but it did decrease overall duckling production. Selenium accumulated in adult liver and egg, was teratogenic, and decreased hatching success. Selenium did not affect adult weight, liver weight, survival, onset of egg laying, egg fertility, egg weight, or eggshell thickness. In ducklings, Se accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight and growth, and increased liver weight. Selenium increased duckling mortality and decreased overall duckling production. Antagonistic interactions between As and Se occurred whereby As reduced Se accumulation in liver and egg, and alleviated the effects of Se on hatching success and embryo deformities. It was demonstrated that As and Se, in the chemical forms and at the dietary levels administered in this study, can adversely affect mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival, and that As can alleviate toxic effects of Se.

  3. Selenium-mediated protection in reversing the sensitivity of bacterium to the bactericidal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonglei; Tan, Jun; Shao, Lei; Dong, Xiaojing; Ye, Richard D; Chen, Daijie

    2017-05-01

    Inducing production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important criterion to distinguish the bactericidal antibiotics from bacteriostatic antibiotics. Selenoenzymes were generally recognized to be a powerful antioxidant capable of scavenging free radicals, protecting the cells from the harmful effects of ROS. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the selenium (Se)-mediated protection in reversing antibiotic sensitivity and the role of selenoenzymes in alleviating the negative effects of oxidative stress. The cellular antioxidant activity of Se-enriched bacteria was analyzed, as well as intracellular ROS production and elimination when Se-enriched bacteria in the presence of various antibiotics. Compared to complete inhibition of the parental strain by bactericidal antibiotics, it only exhibited slight and reversible inhibition of Se-enriched Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 at the same conditions, which indicated that intracellular selenium provided substantial protection against antibiotics. ROS generation caused by bactericidal antibiotics was confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry using 2', 7'-dichloro- uorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as substrate. The time course experiments of pretreatment with selenium showed significant decrease of ROS level at 2h. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence supporting selenoenzymes has good scavenging effect to ROS and can protect bacteria from oxidative stress injury induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. (Rothamsted); (UCopenhagen); (Oxford)

    2012-09-05

    Cereals are an important source of selenium (Se) to humans and many people have inadequate intakes of this essential trace element. Conversely, arsenic (As) is toxic and may accumulate in rice grain at levels that pose a health risk. Knowledge of the localization of selenium and arsenic within the cereal grain will aid understanding of their deposition patterns and the impact of processes such as milling. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used to determine the localization of Se in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and As in rice (Oryza sativa). Combined synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and NanoSIMS analysis utilized the strengths of both techniques. Selenium was concentrated in the protein surrounding the starch granules in the starchy endosperm cells and more homogeneously distributed in the aleurone cells but with Se-rich hotspots. Arsenic was concentrated in the subaleurone endosperm cells in association with the protein matrix rather than in the aleurone cells. NanoSIMS indicated that the high intensity of As identified in the S-XRF image was localized in micron-sized hotspots near the ovular vascular trace and nucellar projection. This is the first study showing subcellular localization in grain samples containing parts per million concentrations of Se and As. There is good quantitative agreement between NanoSIMS and S-XRF.

  5. Selenium downregulates oxidative stress-induced activation of leukotriene pathway in experimental rats with diabetic cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, B L; Swathy, R P; Indira, M

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy has been considered as an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is characterized as thickening of ventricle wall of the heart and consequent reduction in the contracting ability of the heart to pump the blood. Hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species act as major mediators of diabetic complications. Inflammation plays an essential role in the development of diabetic cardiac hypertrophy. Selenium has been shown to induce insulin-like and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental animals. But, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. Hence, in order to probe into its mechanism at molecular level, we designed an experiment to study the effect of selenium as sodium selenite in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into four groups and maintained as follows: (1) controls, (2) sodium selenite-treated controls, (3) diabetic, and (4) sodium selenite-treated diabetic rats. Duration of the experiment was 30 days. Selenium supplementation enhanced the streptozotocin-induced reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the serum glucose level, glycated hemoglobin content, concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, levels of lipid peroxidation products, as well as inflammatory parameters. Decrease in the phospholipase activity by selenium supplementation also contributed to the downregulation of leukotriene pathway. It also downregulated the expressions of nuclear transcription factor κB (NFκB), lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, and receptor for leukotriene B4. Hence, selenium decreased the production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited the activation of NFκB-mediated transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators which resulted in the downregulation of leukotriene pathway in diabetic cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  7. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  8. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  9. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  10. Geographical distribution of the selenium status of herbivores in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    : jvryssen@postino.up.ac.za. Introduction. The decision to provide selenium (Se) as a supplement to natural pastures for grazing livestock should be based on the anticipated response to supplementation at that specific locality. This requires.

  11. Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I; Fu, Shanlin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,...

  12. Protective effect of selenium on radiation-induced HPRT mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Feiyue; Yang Suxia; Cao Zhenshan; Li Yu; Liu Guolian

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of HPRT in human embryo lung cells induced by γ-ray was analyzed by way of CB. Efficiency of HPRT mutation was gradually increased with increasing of γ-ray doses after-irradiation. The relationship between mutation efficiency and radiation dose showed linear relative. The efficiency of HPRT mutation in cells exposed to γ-ray and selenium was lower than that in cells exposed to γ-ray only. This indicated that selenium possessed protective effect on HPRT mutation induced by γ-ray. This protective effect of selenium was more efficient when the cells were exposed to lower dose of γ-ray than to higher dose. The character of protective effect of selenium is very significant in medical protection on people exposed to low dose of radiation

  13. Selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Novel selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are described. They preferably contain at least one 75 Se atom. The compounds are useful in dual isotope assays of thyroid function. (U.K.)

  14. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  15. Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Gray, Kerry; Staunton, Ruth; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J

    2016-01-19

    Inadequate dietary selenium (Se) intake in humans and animals can lead to long term health problems, such as cancer. In view of the owner's desire for healthy longevity of companion animals, the impact of dietary Se provision on long term health effects warrants investigation. Little is currently known regards biomarkers, and rate of change of such biomarkers in relation to dietary selenium intake in dogs. In this study, selected biomarkers were assessed for their suitability to detect changes in dietary Se in adult dogs within eight weeks. Twenty-four dogs were fed a semi-purified diet with an adequate amount of Se (46.1 μg/MJ) over an 8 week period. They were then divided into two groups. The first group remained on the adequate Se diet, the second were offered a semi-purified diet with a low Se concentration (6.5 μg/MJ; 31% of the FEDIAF minimum) for 8 weeks. Weekly urine and blood was collected and hair growth measurements were performed. The urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentration were significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from week 1 onwards, by 84% (adequate 25.3, low 4.1) and 7% (adequate 257 μg/L, low 238 μg/L) respectively. Serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase were also significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from weeks 6 and 8 respectively. None of the other biomarkers (mRNA expression and serum copper, creatine kinase, triiodothyronine:thyroxine ratio and hair growth) responded significantly to the low Se diet over the 8 week period. This study demonstrated that urinary Se to creatinine ratio, serum Se and serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase can be used as biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. Urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentrations responded faster to decreased dietary Se than the other parameters. This makes these biomarkers candidates for early screening of long term effects of dietary Se provision on canine health.

  16. Effects of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia and serum proteins of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, J I; Okeke, M C; Ngene, A A; Omeje, J N; Abonyi, F O

    2013-10-01

    Trypanosomosis has been associated with immunosuppression, anemia and oxidative damage while selenium possesses both immunostimulatory and antioxidative effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia, survival pattern and serum protein profiles of trypanosome-infected rats. Twenty five rats, divided into five groups (A-E) of 5 each, were treated as follows: 4, 8 and 16 ppm (ppm) of selenium in their feed, respectively throughout the experimental period and were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei on day 14 post supplementation, infected not supplemented and the negative control. Supplementation at 4 and 8 ppm increased the packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on day 7 of supplementation (PS) when compared with the unsupplemented groups. Following infection on day 14 PS, the PCV, Hb of 16 ppm and infected not supplemented groups were significantly (P Supplementation did not lead to significant (P > 0.05) changes on the total protein, albumin and globulin by day 14 PS. Infection, however, caused significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the total protein and albumin from day 28. The supplementation did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase the pre-patent period but caused a significant reduction in the parasitemia levels and increased survival intervals. Dietary selenium supplementation, from the results, may show promise in the management of African trypanosomosis as the supplementation was able to: reduce anemia and parasitemia and increase survival intervals of trypanosome infected rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-throughput bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and production of silver and selenium nanoparticles using genetically engineered Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)<