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Sample records for tobacco leaf-a detailed

  1. Assessment of alpha radioactivity in Indian tobacco leaf-a detailed study with SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, K.K.; Halder, S.; Maiti, S.

    2009-01-01

    People who inhale tobacco smoke are exposed to higher concentrations of radioactivity since tobacco contains polonium ( 210 Po) and lead ( 210 Pb) both of which are radioactive elements of radon decay series. Among these 210 Po emits damaging type of radiation-alpha radiation is 1000 times more carcinogenic than gamma radiation (DiFranza and Winters, 1982). It generates the localized radiation dose and the health of common people gets affected seriously. In view of this a detail measurement of radioactivity of tobacco leaf is essential. This paper presents a detail investigation on the measurement of alpha radioactivity in raw tobacco leaves, in a few commonly used Indian brand cigarettes and in packed chewing tobacco materials with solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). The study reveals the presence of pronounced alpha activity in cigarette tobacco and chewing tobacco samples ranging from 60-75 mBq/gm and 60- 75 mBq/gm. The alpha activity value is comparatively lower in raw tobacco leaves (9-50 mBq/gm). The annual committed effective dose of the smokers of these branded cigarettes has estimated to be 50-700 (μSv/y), whereas the effective dose value in raw tobacco leaves and chewing tobacco samples is 54-201 μSv/y and 230-290 μSv/y, respectively which are within the range found in cigarette samples. (author)

  2. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  3. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  4. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  5. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  6. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  7. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agokei, CR. Vol 15, No 1 (2012) - Articles Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco Cessation among Undergraduates in a Nigerian University Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozougwu, CP. Vol 2, No 3 (2013) - Articles Tobacco Induced Renal Function Alterations in Wistar Rats: An 8 Weeks Study Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-6836. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  10. The landscape of tobacco control in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paracandola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use prevalence in Africa is projected to rise over the next 15 years without stronger tobacco control measures. However, little research details the scope of tobacco control research being conducted in Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted to better understand the landscape of tobacco control efforts in Africa. Methods A literature search of tobacco research conducted in all African countries from 1996 to 2016 was performed in PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus. Published abstracts meeting the inclusion criteria of focusing on nicotine or tobacco product(s and having been conducted in one or more African countries were selected for full coding and analysis. The authors coded on study characteristics such as type of research, tobacco product, and country. Three coders double-coded 5% of the articles reviewed to ensure agreement. Results This review found 645 relevant articles, in French and English, representing 52 African countries. South Africa was the focus of the greatest proportion of these published tobacco control research articles (23%, followed by Nigeria (17%, Egypt (13%, and Tunisia (12%. Reporting the prevalence of tobacco use was the focus of 51% of these articles. Other areas of research included the potential determinants of tobacco use (28%; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco products or policies (26%; and biological consequences of tobacco use (25%. Most studies (63% discussed cigarettes, and 15% studied smokeless tobacco. Youth-targeted studies comprised 25% of all research in Africa. Publications per year increased between 1996 and 2015, quadrupling in number by 2015. Conclusions A comprehensive review of the literature provides a baseline understanding of the tobacco control landscape and the increased attention countries are showing to tobacco and tobacco control. This research may inform opportunities for further research and for strengthening networks and thereby the

  11. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 Dataset Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997.

  15. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  16. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  17. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrology of the Cenomanian Upper Member of the Mamfe Embayment, southwestern Cameroon Details · Vol 38, No 1 (2002) - Articles Sequence stratigraphy of Iso field, western onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria Details · Vol 39, No 2 (2003) - Articles Preliminary studies on the lithostratigraphy and depositional environment of ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Overview of Africa's Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Sustainable Management Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EDITORIAL Ganoderma Lucidum - Paramount among Medicinal Mushrooms. Details · Vol 15, No 3 (2003) - Articles Editorial: Africa's Mushrooms: A neglected bioresource whose time has come

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 6 (2011) - Articles Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 8 ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Singh, J. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 12 (2008) - Articles On the wave equations of shallow water with rough bottom topography. Abstract · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Energy generation in a plant due to variable sunlight intensity

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Ismail, A. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue ...

  5. Author Details

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Isa, M.F.M.. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Simulation on ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Duwa, S S. Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous charged dust beam. Abstract · Vol 9 (2005) - Articles The slide away theory of lower hybrid bursts

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 45 (2016) - Articles From vectors to waves and streams: An alternative approach to semantic maps1. Abstract PDF · Vol 48 (2017) - Articles Introduction: 'n Klein ietsie for Johan Oosthuizen

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to blast loadings. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the ...

  12. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register ... (2013) - Articles Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture ... Design, Construction and Evaluation of Motorized Okra Slicer Abstract PDF ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to ... No 1 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Attitudes towards Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) among Community Nurses in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of medium voltage switchgear for data collection and transmission. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112- ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices ... Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

  18. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  19. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  20. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njubi, Francis. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles New Media, Old Struggles: Pan Africanism, Anti-racism and Information Technology Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwan M.D, Mona Ahmed. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles RELAPSING REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CT AND MRI IMAGING VS CLINICAL FINDINGIN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DISEASE ACTIVITY. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comarof, Jean. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles Alien-Nation: Zombies, Immigrants and Millennial Capitalism Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NENTY, N. JOHNSON. Vol 7, No 3 (2001) - Articles Common errors and perfomance of students in junior secondary mathematics certificate examinations in Cross River State, Nigeria Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Preliminary Investigation of Relative Frequency of Undiagnosed and Previously Diagnosed Hypertension Before First Stroke in a Lagos Hospital Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Localised tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria Details · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Stroke with localised infarction of Wernicke's Area misdiagnosed ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMA, G. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUAKYI, A.I.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOUONTCHOU, Samuel. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALAKE, J. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rakotonirina, Alice. Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, N-methyl-D-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love, Alison. Vol 29, No 2 (2002) - Articles Policy-makers, the Press and Politics: Reporting a Public Policy Document Details. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focho, DA. Vol 2, No 1 (2002) - Articles Observations on the Meiotic Process in the African Pest Grasshopper Taphronota thaelephora Stal. (Orthoptera : Pyrgomorphidae) Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idowu, OO. Vol 8, No 1 (2003) - Articles Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (Sajor-caju) Details. ISSN: 1118-2733. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ligthelm, A.A.. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Community attitudes towards Casinos and the estimated magnitude of problem gambling The Mpumalanga case. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kioni, P N. Vol 9, No 1 (2007) - Articles Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a trap to contaminate variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with Metarrhyzium flavo-viride Gams & Rozsypal in the field. Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2007) - Articles Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A study of farmers\\' indigenous technical ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown, Duncan. Vol 16, No 2 (2002): Continental Africans & the Question of Identity - Articles Environment and Identity: Douglas Livingstone's A Littoral Zone Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aderinokun, GA. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health And Habits Of Some Nigerian School Children Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Oral health services in Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EKPA, O. D.. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SONUGA, F A. Vol 6, No 1 (2000) - Articles Geophysical investigation of Karkarku earthdam embankment. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil developed over quartz schist in Ishara area, south western Nigeria Details · Vol 44, No 1 (2008) - Articles Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization on geotechnical properties of lateritic soil derived from pegmatite in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McCarthy, Greg. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Legwaila, GM. Vol 12 (2003) - Articles Review of sweet sorghum: a potential cash and forage crop in Botswana Details. ISSN: 1021-0873. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admasu, Assefa. Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Okeke, EO. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the impact of wave-current on Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Obtaining the green's function for electromagnetic waves propagating in layered in-homogeneous thin film media of spherical particles on a substrate. Abstract · Vol 20, No 2 (2008) - Articles solution growth and ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Abstract · Vol 17 (2010) - Articles Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic Disease Model With No Disease Related Death (When The Spatial Spread Of The Susceptible Is Not Negligible). Abstract.

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the effects of wave steepness on higher order Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akum, ZE. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Bobcokono, Irene Yatabene. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Utilisation du papier filtre dans la gestion de programme de lute contre le SIDA au Cameroun Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Lema, VM. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Fournier's gangrene complicating vasectomy. Details PDF · Vol 86, No 6 (2009) - Articles Therapeutic misconception and clinical trials in sub-saharan Africa: A review. Abstract PDF · Vol 86, No 11 (2009) - Articles HIV/AIDS and pregnancy-related deaths in Blantyre, Malawi

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    Green, J.M.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles Information from Radio Telemetry on movements and exploitation of naturalized Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Kenya cold water streams. Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Erasmus, GJ. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits in purebred Gudali and two-breed synthetic Wakwa beef cattle in a tropical environment. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odigie, IP. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles High dose vitamin E administration attenuates hypertensin in 2-Kidney 1 Clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motabagani, MA. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Anomalies of the renal, phrenic and suprarenal arteries: Case Report Details PDF · Vol 81, No 3 (2004): - Articles Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in German cadavers. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibeabuchi, NM. Vol 10, No 3 (2000) - Articles Comparison of the effects of Methylsalicylate Cream with cryotherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Details · Vol 22, No 2 (2012) - Articles X-ray Pelvimetry And Labour Outcome In Term Pregnancy In A Rural Nigerian Population Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Warnorff, DK. Vol 13, No 4 (2001) - Articles Development of a scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Details PDF. ISSN: 1995-7262. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  18. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  19. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.

  20. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  1. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  2. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  5. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  6. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  7. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  8. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  9. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    in former or never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption causes lower body weight among current smokers. However, smoking does not seem to affect body shape or fat distribution causally. The lack of association between CHRNA3 genotype and body weight among former smokers and never smokers favours......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...

  10. Term limits and the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A; Bero, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    In the 1990s several American states passed term limits on legislators with the stated intention of reducing the influence of wealthy industries on career legislators. Although term limits in the United States do not have a direct relationship to public health, the tobacco industry anticipated that term limits could have indirect effects by either limiting or expanding industry influence. We detail the strategy of the tobacco industry in the wake of term limits using internal tobacco company documents and a database of campaign contributions made to legislators in term limited states between 1988 and 2002. Despite some expectations that term limits would limit tobacco industry access to state legislators, term limits appear to have had the opposite effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  12. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  13. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  14. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  16. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  17. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  18. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  19. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  20. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  1. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  4. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  5. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  6. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  7. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  8. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  9. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  11. Containing diffusion: the tobacco industry's multipronged trade strategy to block tobacco standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Eckford, Robert; Bialous, Stella

    2018-04-21

    To analyse the tobacco industry's strategy of using trade and investment agreements to prevent the global diffusion of standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products. Review of tobacco industry documents, relevant government documents and media items. The data were triangulated and thematically analysed. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that during the early 1990s, tobacco companies developed a multipronged trade strategy to prevent the global diffusion of progressive tobacco packaging and labelling proposals, including SP. This strategy consisted of (1) framing the health issue in terms of trade and investment, (2) detailing alleged legal violations concerning trade barriers, intellectual property and investment rights, (3) threatening legal suits and reputational damage, and (4) garnering third-party support. These efforts helped delay SP until 2010 when Australia became the first country to reintroduce SP proposals, followed by governments in the UK and New Zealand in 2012, Ireland in 2013 and France in 2014. Review of government documents and media sources in each of the five countries indicate the industry continues to employ this multipronged strategy throughout the SP policy's progression. Although this strategy is tailored towards each domestic context, the overall tobacco industry's trade strategy remains consistently focused on shifting the attention away from public health and towards the realm of trade and investment with more corporate-friendly allies. Governments seeking to implement SP need to be prepared to resist and counter the industry's multipronged trade strategy by avoiding trade diversions, exposing false industry legal and reputational claims, and monitoring third-party support. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  13. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  14. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  15. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  16. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  17. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  18. Wooden houses in detail. Holzhaeuser im Detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruske, W. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Under the serial title 'Planning and construction of wooden houses', WEKA will publish a number of books of which this is the first. Details of design and construction are presented, e.g.: Details of modern one-family houses; Fundamentals of design and hints for planning of wooden houses and compact wooden structures; Constructional ecology, wood protection, thermal insulation, sound insulation; Modular systems for domestic buildings; The 'bookshelf-type' house at the Berlin International Construction Exhibition (IBA); Experience with do-it-yourself systems. With 439 figs.

  19. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  20. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  1. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV, Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, Potato Virus Y (PVY, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV, Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV and Potato Virus X(PVX. This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test with specific monoclonal antibodies.Serological results proved the presence of four tobacco viruses (TMV, CMV, PVY and AMV, while TSWV, TRSV and PVX were not found in the tested samples of tobacco crops in Montenegro. The results also showed that TMV and CMV were the most frequent (44.6% and 41.5% of tested samples, respectively followed by PVY (15.4% and the least frequent AMV (3.1%. Most samples were infected with one of the examined viruses. In the PVY population found in Montenegro, its necrotic strain (PVYN was absolutely predominant.The results indicated the significance of TMV and CMV concerning tobacco viral infections in Montenegro, as well as a necessity of their detailed characterization at biological and molecular level.

  2. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  3. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  4. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  5. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  6. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  7. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  8. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  9. 16 CFR 307.12 - Rotation, display, and dissemination of warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proper rotation in different advertising media in sufficient detail to ensure compliance with the Act and... warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising. 307.12 Section 307.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL... warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising. (a) In the case of advertising for a smokeless...

  10. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  11. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  12. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  13. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  14. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  15. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  16. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  17. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  19. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  20. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  1. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Materials and Methods: Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco is popular among the younger age-groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  2. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zaki Anwar; Bano, S Nafees; Zulkifle, M

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco) is popular among the younger age-groups. The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  3. Developing smokeless tobacco products for smokers: an examination of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C M; Connolly, G N; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Wayne, G Ferris

    2009-02-01

    To investigate whether development of smokeless tobacco products (SLT) is intended to target current smokers. This study analysed internal tobacco industry documents to describe research related to the smokeless tobacco market. Relevant documents included those detailing the development and targeting of SLT products with a particular emphasis on moist snuff. Cigarette and SLT manufacturers recognised that shifting demographics of SLT users, as well as indoor smoking restrictions, health concerns and reduced social acceptability of smoking could impact the growth of the SLT market. Manufacturers developed new SLT products to target cigarette smokers promoting dual cigarette and SLT use. Heavy marketing of new SLT products may encourage dual use and result in unknown public health effects. SLT products have been designed to augment cigarette use and offset regulatory strategies such as clean indoor air laws. In the United States, the SLT strategy may provide cigarette companies with a diversified range of products under the prospect of federal regulation. These products may pose significant challenges to efforts by federal agencies to reduce harm caused by tobacco use.

  4. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  6. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  7. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  8. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  10. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  11. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  14. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  15. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  16. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  17. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  18. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  19. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  20. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  2. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  3. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Howard K; Judge, Christine M; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434 has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought.

  5. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  6. Protocol to assess the impact of tobacco-induced volatile organic compounds on cardiovascular risk in a cross- sectional cohort: Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rachel J; Fetterman, Jessica L; Riggs, Daniel W; O'Toole, Timothy; Nystoriak, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monika; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Bhatnagar, Aruni; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-03-30

    Tobacco use leads to increased mortality, the majority of which is attributed to cardiovascular disease. Despite this knowledge, the early cardiovascular impact of tobacco product use is not well understood. Tobacco use increases exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The link between exposure patterns, risk profiles and demographic distribution of tobacco product users, particularly users of new and emerging products, are not well known. Therefore, we designed the Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use (CITU) study to assess population characteristics, demographic features, exposure patterns and cardiovascular risk in relation to tobacco. We present the design and methodology of the CITU study, a cross-sectional observational tobacco study conducted in Boston, Massachusetts and Louisville, Kentucky starting in 2014. Healthy participants 21-45 years of age who use tobacco products, including electronic nicotine devices, or who never used tobacco are being recruited. The study aims to recruit an evenly split cohort of African-Americans and Caucasians, that is, sex balanced for evaluation of self-reported tobacco exposure, VOC exposure and tobacco-induced injury profiling. Detailed information about participant's demographics, health status and lifestyle is also collected. The study protocol was approved institutional review boards at both participating universities. All study protocols will protect participant confidentiality. Results from the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The Expansion of Tobacco and Its Effect on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the expansion of tobacco has been recognized as one of eight technologies significant in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette. The data previously presented at scientific conferences and/or published in several scientific monographs and journals on the effect of the expansion of tobacco on the composition and biological properties of the mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing it are summarized. In addition, previously unpublished data on the same subjects are presented in considerable detail. Included are 1 the effect of tobacco expansion on the yields of total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, and several hundred components of cigarette mainstream smoke from control tobacco cigarettes vs. expanded tobacco cigarettes; 2 the changes in mainstream smoke yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and specific smoke components produced by inclusion of various levels of expanded tobacco in a cigarette blend; and 3 the changes in composition of expanded tobacco. In the latter study, the decrease in levels of numerous significant flavorful components of the tobacco produced by expansion provides the need for inclusion of such compounds in flavor formulations. In study 2, the reductions in per cigarette yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and several components of concern were determined and confirmed the significance of tobacco expansion as a cigarette design technology to produce what was originally defined as a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette but more recently as a ‘potential reduced exposure product’ (PREP.

  8. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  9. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  11. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  12. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  13. Tobacco and health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V; Chaturvedi, P

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  14. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  15. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  16. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  17. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  18. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  19. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  20. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pakistan Philippines Thailand Turkey Vietnam Europe/Eurasia Poland Russian Federation Ukraine Latin America Brazil Mexico WHAT WE ... KIDS. SAVING LIVES. BECAUSE TOBACCO HAS KILLED ENOUGH learn more sign up donate sign up donate IN ...

  3. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  4. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  5. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  6. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  7. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  8. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  9. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  10. Current challenges in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, K

    2004-10-01

    Tobacco is the world's biggest preventable killer, but the circumstances of its history, the power and influence of its commerce and the nature of addiction make it a very difficult public health issue. Determinants of smoking are both individual and environmental. Genetics and environment influence to varying degrees all of the steps in a smoker's career. Persistence of use, degree of addiction to nicotine and difficulty in stopping are influenced by inherited traits and nicotine susceptibility, whereas the social environment and the individual's cognitions are the key factors in starting smoking and successfully stopping smoking. The tools available to tobacco control include influencing the social and cultural norms concerning tobacco; legislative and regulatory measures to protect the population and to limit tobacco industry marketing tactics, now encapsulated in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; and programmes to enhance the chance of not starting and successfully stopping. Strategies for tobacco control must work at both societal and individual levels, and directions are being taken that include genetic, pharmacological, behavioural, socio-cultural and international approaches.

  11. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  12. Demand for Smokeless Tobacco: Role of Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) is low relative to smoking, the distribution of ST use is highly skewed with consumption concentrated among certain segments of the population (rural residents, males, whites, low-educated individuals). Furthermore, there is suggestive evidence that use has trended upwards recently for groups that have traditionally been at low risk of using ST, and thus started to diffuse across demographics. This study provides the first estimates, at the national level, of the effects of magazine advertising on ST use. The focus on magazine advertising is significant given that ST manufacturers have been banned from using other conventional media since the 1986 Comprehensive ST Act and the 1998 ST Master Settlement Agreement. This study is based on the 2003–2009 waves of the National Consumer Survey (NCS), a unique data source that contains extensive information on the reading habits of individuals, matched with magazine-specific advertising information over the sample period. This allows detailed and salient measures of advertising exposure at the individual level and addresses potential bias due to endogeneity and selective targeting. We find consistent and robust evidence that exposure to ST ads in magazines raises ST use, especially among males, with an estimated elasticity of 0.06. There is suggestive evidence that both ST taxes and cigarette taxes reduce ST use, indicating contemporaneous complementarity between these tobacco products. Sub-analyses point to some differences in the advertising and tax response across segments of the population. The effects from this study inform the debate on the cost and benefits of ST use and its potential to be a tool in overall tobacco harm reduction. PMID:23660106

  13. Demand for smokeless tobacco: role of advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2013-07-01

    While the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) is low relative to smoking, the distribution of ST use is highly skewed with consumption concentrated among certain segments of the population (rural residents, males, whites, low-educated individuals). Furthermore, there is suggestive evidence that use has trended upwards recently for groups that have traditionally been at low risk of using ST, and thus started to diffuse across demographics. This study provides the first estimates, at the national level, of the effects of magazine advertising on ST use. The focus on magazine advertising is significant given that ST manufacturers have been banned from using other conventional media since the 1986 Comprehensive ST Act and the 1998 ST Master Settlement Agreement. This study is based on the 2003-2009 waves of the National Consumer Survey (NCS), a unique data source that contains extensive information on the reading habits of individuals, matched with magazine-specific advertising information over the sample period. This allows detailed and salient measures of advertising exposure at the individual level and addresses potential bias due to endogeneity and selective targeting. We find consistent and robust evidence that exposure to ST ads in magazines raises ST use, especially among males, with an estimated elasticity of 0.06. There is suggestive evidence that both ST taxes and cigarette taxes reduce ST use, indicating contemporaneous complementarity between these tobacco products. Sub-analyses point to some differences in the advertising and tax response across segments of the population. The effects from this study inform the debate on the cost and benefits of ST use and its potential to be a tool in overall tobacco harm reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  15. China: the tipping point in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco control in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, began in the 1980s with the first national prevalence survey and a conference on tobacco held in Tianjin. Since then, there have been dozens of research papers, partial restrictions on smoking and tobacco advertising, public education campaigns, and the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but progress has been slow. The state-owned tobacco industry remains a major obstacle to tobacco control. In the last few years, tobacco control efforts have accelerated beyond expectations. The triggering event was the publication on tobacco by the Chinese Central Party School, the ideological think tank of the Communist Party, followed by a spate of activity: directives to government officials; regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, the People's Liberation Army and the Healthy City Standards; tobacco clauses in national advertising and philanthropy laws; the creation of a Smoke-free Beijing; an increase in tobacco taxation; and a national smoke-free law currently in draft. There is a crucial need for China to build upon these recent developments, in accepting the economic research evidence of the debit of tobacco to the economy; in implementing robust, comprehensive legislation; in increasing cigarette price through taxation and, most challenging of all, to tackle the power and influence of the state tobacco monopoly over tobacco control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  17. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  18. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  19. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of M...

  20. Tobacco regulations and policies in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2017-05-01

    Differences between tobacco regulations and policies in the EAEU, EU and other supranational organizations should be further researched in order to promote exchange of best practices in WHO FCTC comprehensive compliance. Implementation of WHO FCTC Article 5.3. and involvement of civil society are among priorities. The practical prospects for the supranational EAEU to become a party to the WHO FCTC should be considered in detail.

  1. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  2. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  3. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  4. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  6. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  7. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  9. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  10. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  11. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  12. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ill health and birth defects from handling agricultural chemicals and tobacco leaf. ... The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ... being pulled from school to work, women going sleepless to run curing kilns, ...

  13. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  14. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  15. Estimation of radioactivity in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, Mahabir; Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.; Kant, K.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are ten times at greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. Tobacco fields and plants also have higher concentration of uranium and consequently large contents of 210 Po and 210 Pb belonging to uranium and radium decay series. These radio-nuclides have long association with tobacco plants. 210 Pb and 210 Po, decay products of the uranium series get dissolved in water and are first transported into plants and subsequently to the human being. Also, the uptake of radionuclides into roots from the soils and phosphate fertilizers along with direct deposition of 210 Pb by rainfall represents the principal mechanism of incorporation of 210 Pb and 210 Po into the tobacco plants. Uranium present in soil enters the plants through roots and gets distributed in various parts of the tobacco plants. This phenomenon may cause high intake of uranium and its radioactive decay products leading to harmful effects in human being. In the present work, Gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector of high-resolution gamma spectrometry system) has been used at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, for the measurement of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in some tobacco samples. The alpha radioactivity of the leaves of the tobacco plants was measured using plastic track detectors LR-115 Type-Il manufactured by Kodak. Measurement of track densities (track cm -2 day -1 ) shows variation on the upper face and the bottom face of the leaves for the plants. The track density due to alpha particles is higher at bottom face as compared to top face of the leaves. (author)

  16. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  17. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  18. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  19. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  20. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  2. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  3. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  5. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  6. The Tobacco Industry and Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton

    2018-05-01

    The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF actively supported tobacco control initiatives in the late 1990s, but since the early 2000s UNICEF's role in tobacco control has been minimal. Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library, an online collection of previously secret tobacco industry documents, we sought to uncover information on the tobacco industry's ties with UNICEF. We found that from 1997 to 2000, when UNICEF was actively promoting tobacco control to support children's rights, the tobacco industry saw children's rights and UNICEF as potentially powerful threats to business that needed to be closely monitored and neutralized. The industry then positioned itself as a partner with UNICEF on youth smoking prevention initiatives as a way to avoid meaningful tobacco control measures that could save children's lives. After UNICEF's corporate engagement guidelines were loosened in 2003, tobacco companies successfully engaged with UNICEF directly and via front groups, including the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. This was part of an overall tobacco industry strategy to improve its corporate image, infiltrate the United Nations, and weaken global tobacco-control efforts. As part of its mission to protect children's rights, UNICEF should end all partnerships with the tobacco industry and its front groups. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. E-detailing: information technology applied to pharmaceutical detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2008-11-01

    E-detailing can be best described as the use of information technology in the field of pharmaceutical detailing. It is becoming highly popular among pharmaceutical companies because it maximizes the time of the sales force, cuts down the cost of detailing and increases physician prescribing. Thus, the application of information technology is proving to be beneficial to both physicians and pharmaceutical companies. When e-detailing was introduced in 1996, it was limited to the US; however, numerous other countries soon adopted this novel approach to detailing and now it is popular in many developed nations. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the rapid growth of e-detailing in the field of pharmaceutical marketing. A review of e-detailing literature was conducted in addition to personal conversations with physicians. E-detailing has the potential to reduce marketing costs, increase accessibility to physicians and offer many of the advantages of face-to-face detailing. E-detailing is gaining acceptance among physicians because they can access the information of a pharmaceutical product at their own time and convenience. However, the drug safety aspect of e-detailing has not been examined and e-detailing remains a supplement to traditional detailing and is not yet a replacement to it.

  8. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  9. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  10. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates ... Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on ... Associação de Controle do Tabagismo, Promoção da Saúde e dos Direitos Humanos.

  11. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  16. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  17. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  18. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  19. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Washington: 1996-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Meredith L. BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    • After making substantial progress on tobacco control in the mid-1990s, the tobacco industry has stifled tobacco control activities in Washington through a mixture of campaign contributions and legal challenges. • Political campaign contributions have remained steadily high throughout the 1990s. Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, the Tobacco Institute, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson, and the Smokeless Tobacco Council contributed $362,298 to campaigns in 1996 through 2000 election cycles: $1...

  20. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  1. The distribution of selected inorganic elements in tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.W.; Grubbs, H.J.; Newman, R.H.; Bass, R.T.; Brenizer, J.S.; Jones, D.C.; Williamson, T.G.; Danehower, D.A.; Long, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in determining selected elements in biological materials has been reported by numerous authors. Some of these have detailed the use of INAA to determine an elemental analysis in tobaccos of various geographical origins. This paper describes the first use of INAA to measure the distribution of selected inorganic elements within the tobacco leaf at a single plant stalk position for one tobacco curing routine. Three replicate plots of a common bright tobacco cultivar were grown under normal cultural conditions characteristic for the bright variety. The tobacco leaves were sampled at selected positions in the leaf. The bright tobacco was cured in a conventional flue-curing barn using standard practices. Immediately after collection, each individual sample was freeze-dried, crushed and sampled. The leaf midrib samples were prepared using a similar procedure. A subsample of about 100 mg was taken from each sample, sealed in a polyethyelene bag, irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 17 n-m -2 -s -1 in a pneumatic rabbit system, and subsequently counted to obtain the reported data. A standard reference material was used as a comparator to yield relative elemental concentrations for Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, and Br. The data show that chlorine, potassium, sodium and calcium have definite concentration trends within the tobacco leaf. The data also show that some elements, e,g, Mn, were more uniformly distributed throughout the leaf. (author)

  2. Socioeconomic status and tobacco expenditures among Moroccans: results of the "Maroc Tabagisme" survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Berraho, Mohammed; Elfakir, Samira; Serhier, Zineb; Elrhazi, Karima; Slama, Karen; Najjari, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of sociodemographic and economic characteristics to tobacco expenses among Moroccan daily smokers. Cross-sectional ("Maroc Tabagisme" Survey) study. Random sample of 9195 subjects representative of the Moroccan population. Household subjects 15 years and older. Data were collected from selected households using a questionnaire about smoking, educational level, occupation, and household monthly income. Associations between sociodemographic and economic characteristics, smoking status, and tobacco expenses were assessed by multivariate analysis in a sample of 5959 respondents who provided details about their family income. Of 5959 participants, 28.5% of men and 2.8% of women were daily smokers. Compared with students, the odds of daily smoking were higher among blue-collar workers (odds ratio, 2.66). Tobacco expenses increased with higher family monthly income (p < .001). Moreover, smokers whose family monthly income was less than 1000 Moroccan dirham (MAD) spent 50.9% on tobacco, while those with family monthly income of 6000 MAD or higher spent 13.0 %on tobacco. There was a strong association between tobacco expenses and sociodemographic and economic characteristics. Among households with low monthly income, up to half of the monthly income is spent on tobacco.

  3. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  4. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to ... Mechanisms for prioritising health in trade negotiations and other ... Population health and poverty ... Research projects that address multiple NCD risk factors .... In general, the process for soliciting, reviewing and awarding grants follows this timeline.

  5. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  6. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  7. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  9. Knowledge and perceptions of tobacco-related media in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Steven A; Lengerich, Eugene; Dignan, Mark; Muscat, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    messages from a variety of sources are highly recognized and remembered in detail in Appalachia, but the effectiveness of anti-tobacco messages is questionable within this group. It was found that, without exception, group members reported that no media messages - either pro- or anti-tobacco - had any meaningful impact on their current behavior. Group members did, however, recognize that media messages influenced their behavior at the time they were first starting to smoke. The failure of these messages to connect with this population may reflect the lack of specific tailoring of messages to fit the distinct culture and values of this Appalachian population.

  10. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  11. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  12. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  13. Combustible Tobacco and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Working Adults-United States, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tobacco use among working adults at least 18 years of age. The 2012 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 105,779) was used to estimate prevalences for cigarette smoking, other combustible tobacco use, and smokeless tobacco use and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for any tobacco product use among working adults at least 18 years of age, by industry and occupation. Of the estimated 144 million currently employed adults, 17% were cigarette smokers, 7.0% other noncigarette combustible tobacco users, and 3.4% smokeless tobacco users. Odds of using tobacco varied by sociodemographic characteristics and by industry and occupations. Disparities in tobacco use exist among working adults. Continued implementation of proven interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among U.S. workers is warranted, particularly among those workers with a higher burden of use.

  14. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  15. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  16. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  17. Characteristics of Hookah Tobacco Smoking Sessions and Correlates of Use Frequency Among US Adults: Findings From Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joelle N; Wang, Baoguang; Jackson, Kia J; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase A

    2018-05-03

    Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in the United States. However, information on hookah use frequency and other characteristics of hookah use is limited. Investigators analyzed data from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of US youth and adults. Our analysis draws on baseline data from adult (ages ≥18 years) ever (N = 10 624) and past year (n = 3947) hookah users. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between demographics, use characteristics, and hookah use frequency. Overall, 16.4% of adults reported ever smoking tobacco from a hookah. Of those, 31.9% reported smoking hookah within the past year. Among 3947 past-year hookah tobacco smokers, 10.7% were daily/weekly users, 13.7% were monthly users, 42.1% smoked every couple of months, and 33.5% smoked about once a year. Among daily/weekly hookah users, 66% were young adults (ages 18-24 years). When comparing daily/weekly hookah users to those who smoked every couple of months, more frequent hookah use was associated with younger age, male gender, a greater number of times the hookah is refilled during a session, fewer people sharing, and hookah ownership. Although there were few demographic differences between daily/weekly users and less frequent hookah tobacco smokers, some notable differences in use behaviors exist among use frequency groups. Unlike other tobacco products, hookah is often smoked communally, over an extended time period. A detailed understanding of hookah user characteristics and experiences could inform hookah-specific measures, messaging, and regulations. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to characterize hookah use frequency, session length, and other hookah use experiences using a nationally representative sample of US adult hookah smokers. Understanding characteristics of hookah tobacco smokers, their use experiences, and patterns of hookah use

  18. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    teju

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... ... selected candidate is required to work with Accounts Officer and assist in ... in website of Public Financial Management System etc., and carry out .... Duties also include coordination and liaison with Chief Editors and other ...

  19. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science.

  20. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incumbent should have passed Diploma in Secretarial Practice or Bachelors of Commerce with at least 50% marks. Should be proficient in typing, shorthand and MS office. Age: Not more than. 25 years as on 1 April 2017. Preference will be given to male candidates. Experience: 2 years experience in the administrative ...

  1. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  2. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  3. Compliance with point-of-sale tobacco control policies and student tobacco use in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh S; McCarthy, William J; Resnicow, Ken; Pimple, Sharmila A; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Mishra, Gauravi A; Gupta, Prakash C

    2018-05-09

    We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent

    2018-01-01

    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  5. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  6. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  8. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed by...

  9. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  10. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  11. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  12. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  13. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking, and passive smoking. Secondhand smoke contains at least 250 toxic ... in tea bag-like pouches or sachets. No matter what it's called, smokeless tobacco is addictive and ...

  15. The Tobacco Use Management System: Analyzing Tobacco Control From a Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying

    2010-01-01

    We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970

  16. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  17. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  18. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  19. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  20. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  1. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Pennsylvania: 1979-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political and legal force in Pennsylvania through campaign contributions, lobbying and litigation. The tobacco industry has become a major source of campaign contributions to legislative candidates, state constitutional office candidates, and political party committees. In the 1979-1980 election cycle, the tobacco industry contributed $3,600 to candidates and parties. In 1995-1996, the tobacco industry contributed $65,850 to candidates and parties. ...

  2. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  3. Assessment of the Tobacco Dependence Screener Among Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Variants of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) are widely used to study dependence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. However, there is a need for a dependence measure which is based on the clinical definition of dependence and is easy to administer. The Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), a self-administered 10-item scale, is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and ICD-10 definitions of dependence. It is commonly used as a tobacco dependence screening tool in cigarette smoking studies but it has not been evaluated for dependence in ST users. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the TDS as a measure of tobacco dependence among ST users. Data collected from a community-based sample of exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma (n = 95) was used for this study. TDS was adapted to be used for ST dependence as the references for smoking were changed to ST use. Concurrent validity and reliability of TDS were evaluated. Salivary cotinine concentration was used as a criterion variable. Overall accuracy of the TDS was assessed by receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve and optimal cutoff scores for dependence diagnosis were evaluated. There was no floor or ceiling effect in TDS score (mean = 5.42, SD = 2.61). Concurrent validity of TDS as evaluated by comparing it with FTND-ST was affirmative. Study findings showed significant association between TDS and salivary cotinine concentration. The internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha indicated that TDS had acceptable reliability (α = 0.765). TDS was negatively correlated with time to first chew/dip and positively correlated with frequency (number of chews per day) and years of ST use. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that at an optimal cutoff score of TDS 5+, ST users classified as dependent had significantly higher cotinine concentration and FTND-ST scores. TDS demonstrated acceptable reliability and

  4. Improving the delivery of global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Green, Carol; Colbert, James

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco control must remain a critical global health priority given the growing burden of tobacco-induced disease in the developing world. Insights from the emerging field of global health delivery suggest that tobacco control could be improved through a systematic, granular analysis of the processes through which it is promoted, implemented, and combated. Using this framework, a critical bottleneck to the delivery of proven health promotion emerges in the role that the tobacco industry plays in promoting tobacco use and blocking effective tobacco-control policies. This "corporate bottleneck" can also be understood as a root cause of massive disease and suffering upon vulnerable populations worldwide, for the goal of maximizing corporate profit. Naming, understanding, and responding to this corporate bottleneck is crucial to the success of tobacco-control policies. Three case studies of tobacco-control policy--South Africa, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and Uruguay--are presented to explore and understand the implications of this analysis. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  5. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  6. Advertising and promotion of smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1989-01-01

    This paper is focused on the approaches used to advertise and promote smokeless tobacco products during the early to mid-1980s. These included traditional motifs that featured rugged-looking masculine models in sporting and outdoor settings as well as an expanded white-collar appeal. Smokeless tobacco was not affected by the ban on broadcast advertising of cigarettes that went into effect in 1971, and, until 1986, both print and broadcast media were used to advertise it. Promotional activities ranged from sponsorship of sporting events to offers for clothing bearing smokeless tobacco product logos. Despite the claims of manufacturers that advertising and promotional efforts were not targeted to youth, smokeless tobacco companies sponsored tobacco-spitting contests with teenage participants, a college marketing program, and college scholarships. In efforts that appeared designed to bolster their public image in the face of growing concern over the consequences of smokeless tobacco use by young people, companies like U.S. Tobacco Company contributed to major social programs, including, ironically, alcohol- and drug-abuse prevention programs. Spurred by public health groups, federal legislation was passed in 1986 that banned television and radio advertising of smokeless tobacco products and required manufacturers to include warning labels on their products on the potential health hazards of smokeless tobacco use.

  7. Young adolescents, tobacco advertising, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.

  8. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY... administration and enforcement of importer permits over the past decade, TTB believes that it can gain... minimum manufacturing and marking requirements for tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and...

  9. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  10. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  11. [The scale of border trade, tax-free import and tobacco smuggling to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2004-01-08

    There are no studies of the relative significance in Norway of registered sales, tax-free import, border trade or smuggling of tobacco. The estimated registered sales of tobacco are based on data from the Norwegian customs and excise authorities. The border trade and tax-free import estimates were based on nation-wide, representative surveys of daily smokers aged 16-74 carried out by Statistics Norway for the years 1990-1993 and 1997-2001. There are no detailed data on the scale of smuggling other than confiscation statistics compiled by the customs and excise authorities. It is assumed that confiscations amount to about a tenth of the total amount smuggled into the country. The unregistered consumption of cigarettes and tobacco has been on the rise since the early 1990s; in the years 1997-2001 it accounted for about a quarter of total consumption. Broken down, the figures are as follows: 11% was purchased in Sweden, 5% in Denmark, 9% in other foreign countries; 1% was smuggled into the country. The rise in unregistered tobacco consumption is putting further pressure on the high Norwegian taxes on tobacco. But if taxes were cut, domestic demand would rise, and hence have little or even negative impact on revenue flowing to the government from the legal tobacco market and probably little impact on the levels of imported tobacco through tax-free arrangements or cross-border trade. Hence, although the price gap between Norway and neighbouring countries narrows, we must assume that the motivation to acquire tobacco will remain unaffected while Norwegians continue to travel to Sweden to stock up on inexpensive meat produce.

  12. Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  14. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacture, preproduction design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a tobacco... about the manufacturing practices and processes unique to your facility and regulated tobacco products... process, package, label, and distribute different types of regulated tobacco products (cigarettes...

  15. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  16. Teens and Tobacco (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and most tobacco product use begins during adolescence. In this podcast, Dr. Andrea Gentzke discusses ways to keep young people from using tobacco products.

  17. [The effect of increasing tobacco tax on tobacco sales in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakamura, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    Since the special tobacco tax was established in 1998, the tobacco tax and price of tobacco have increased thrice, in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. We evaluated the effect of increases in tax on the consumption and sales of tobacco in Japan using the annual data on the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales from Japan Tobacco, Inc. We applied the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales per year to a joinpoint regression model to examine the trends in the data. This model could help identify the year in which a decrease or increase was apparent from the data. In addition, we examined the effect of each tax increase while also considering other factors that may have caused a decrease in the levels of tobacco consumption using the method proposed by Hirano et al. According to the joinpoint regression analysis, the number of tobacco products sold started decreasing in 1998, and the trends of decrease accelerated to 5% per year, from 2005. Owing to the tax increase, tobacco sales reduced by -2.4%, -2.9%, and -10.1% (corrected for the effect of the Tohoku Great Earthquake), and price elasticity was estimated as -0.30, -0.27, and -0.28 (corrected) in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The effect of tobacco tax increase on the decrease in tobacco sales was greatest in 2010, while the price elasticity remained almost the same as it was during the previous tax increase. The sharp hike in tobacco tax in 2010 decreased the number of tobacco products sold, while the price elasticity in 2010 was similar to that in 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that further increase in tobacco tax is needed to reduce the damage caused by smoking in the people of Japan.

  18. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  19. The plight of tobacco farming under hegemony of transnational tobacco companies in Turkey: repercussions and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efza Evrengil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The shift from State oversight to contractual farming mandated by law in 2002 as a structural adjustment conditionality has had destructive impact on Turkish tobacco agriculture: Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs gained control by being able to impose unilateral conditions; tobacco farmers were forced to face three options: prices below subsistence, migration, or turning to illicit market. A heated debate about illicit domestic tobacco market recently surfaced in news media. Methods (a Literature review, (b trend analysis of Turkish leaf tobacco output and trade as compared among 12 major tobacco growing countries, using official data (2003-2016, FAOstat (1961-2014, UNdata (1989-2015, (c review of relevant news coverage (2016 - June 2017. Results Over the last 25 years, Turkey was worst hit among the 12 countries: Leaf tobacco output dropped sharpest by 78%, and trade balance was drastically reversed. Between 2003-2016, cigarettes manufactured rose by 32.2%, leaf tobacco imports by 46.6%, whereas number of tobacco farmers declined by 82.4%, domestic output by 39.4%, and exports by 53.6%. Domestic tobacco used in cigarettes decreased from 42.1% to 13.3%. Tobacco agriculture vanished in certain regions or reduced to supplementary source of income undertaken by elderly and children. Domestic tobacco lobby seeks legalization, lower tax rates, and quotas for compulsory use of domestic tobacco in manufacturing. TTCs fervently oppose these positions and demand severe countermeasures. Conclusions TTCs ability to source leaf tobacco at lowest possible prices through their affiliates from around the world under liberalized trade and contractual farming regimes greatly harms agricultural activities realized by income and employment generating small family holdings, and thus national economies. In Turkey, TTC hegemony devastated farmers' livelihoods, caused market imbalance and duality, and disrupted regulations and taxation. Agriculture

  20. Talking about tobacco on Twitter is associated with tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Urman, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Majmundar, Anuja; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2018-06-10

    Tobacco-related content appears on social media in the form of advertising and messages by individuals. However, little is known about associations between posting social media messages and tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults. Self-reports of tobacco product use were obtained from the Children's Health Study of young adults in Southern California. Among the 1486 respondents in the most recent wave of the cohort (2016-2017), 284 provided tobacco product use data and their Twitter user names to access publicly available Twitter account data (mean age = 20.1 yrs. (SD = 0.6), 54% female, 49% Hispanic). We obtained the tweets that those respondents posted on Twitter, searched the tweets for 14 nicotine- and tobacco-related keywords, and coded these statements as positive or negative/neutral. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether respondents who posted positive tobacco-related tweets were more likely to report tobacco product use, relative to those who did not post any positive tobacco-related tweets. Respondents who posted any positive messages about tobacco had significantly higher odds of reporting past month use of cigarettes (OR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.36, 7.30) and any tobacco product (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.16, 5.01), relative to respondents who did not post about tobacco. This is the first study to establish an empirical link between adolescents' and young adults' tobacco-related Twitter activity and their tobacco product use. Health communications about the risks of tobacco use could target adolescents who post positive messages about tobacco products on Twitter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  2. Applying anthropology to eliminate tobacco-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Burgess, Diana; Olayinka, Abimbola; Whembolua, Guy Lucien S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2012-06-01

    Disparities in tobacco's harm persist. Declines in smoking among the general population have not been experienced to the same extent by vulnerable populations. Innovative strategies are required to diminish disparities in tobacco's harm. As novel tools, anthropological concepts and methods may be applied to improve the design and outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions. We reviewed over 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1995 for content on anthropology and smoking cessation. The specific questions framing the review were: (a) "How can lessons learned from anthropological studies of smoking improve the design and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions?" (b) How can anthropology be applied to diminish disparities in smoking cessation? and (c) How can qualitative methods be used most effectively in smoking cessation intervention research? Three specific disciplinary tools were identified and examined: (a) culture, (b) reflexivity, and (c) qualitative methods. Examining culture as a dynamic influence and understanding the utilities of smoking in a particular group is a precursor to promoting cessation. Reflexivity enables a deeper understanding of how smokers perceive quitting and smoking beyond addiction and individual health consequences. Qualitative methods may be used to elicit in-depth perspectives on quitting, insights to inform existing community-based strategies for making behavior changes, and detailed preferences for cessation treatment or programs. Anthropological tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of intervention research studies targeting individuals from vulnerable groups. Synthesized applications of anthropological concepts can be used to facilitate translation of findings into clinical practice for providers addressing tobacco cessation in vulnerable populations.

  3. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the prevalence and attitudes toward tobacco use was assessed among 13-15 years school students in Bihar (India). Schools having grade 8-10 in Bihar. A two stage cluster sample design was used. SUDAAN and the C-sample procedure in Epi-Info was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2636 respondents, 71.8% (76.5% boys, 57.2% girls) were ever tobacco users; of them 48.9% had used tobacco before 10 years of age. Current use was reported by 58.9% (Boys 61.4%, Girls 51.2%); smokeless tobacco by 55.6% (Boys 57.6%, Girls 49.2%); and smoking by 19.4% (23.0% boys, 7.8% girls). Nearly one third (29%) students were exposed to ETS inside their homes and nearly half (48%) outside their homes. Almost all students reported watching cigarette and gutka advertisements in almost all kinds of media and events. Tobacco use by parents and friends, knowledge on harmful effects of chewing tobacco, smoking and environmental smoke, and attitudes on tobacco use by others were strongly associated with student tobacco use. Current tobacco use was reported significantly more by students who received pocket money/or were earning than by students who did not receive any pocket money/or did not earn (p value for trend <0.0001). Over half of current users (56%) bought their tobacco products from stores; of these, over 3/4th (77.2%) of them despite their age, had no difficulty in procuring these products. Teaching in schools regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was non-existent (3%). This urgently requires a comprehensive prevention program in schools and the community especially targeted towards girls.

  4. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Methodological Details and Full Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset has several components, The first part describes fully our literature review, providing details not included in the text. The second part provides all...

  6. 76 FR 52913 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... products'' as ``cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco.'' Each of..., and all electronic or mailed comments TTB has received or will receive in response to [[Page 52915...

  7. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Nearly Half Of Small Employers Using Tobacco Surcharges Do Not Provide Tobacco Cessation Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Bains, Jaskaran; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2018-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed employer plans in the small-group marketplace to charge tobacco users up to 50 percent more for premiums-known as tobacco surcharges-but only if the employer offered a tobacco cessation program and the employee in question failed to participate in it. Using 2016 survey data collected by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust on 278 employers eligible for Small Business Health Options Program, we examined the prevalence of tobacco surcharges and tobacco cessation programs in the small-group market under this policy and found that 16.2 percent of small employers used tobacco surcharges. Overall, 47 percent of employers used tobacco surcharges but failed to offer tobacco cessation counseling. Wellness program prevalence was lower in states that allowed tobacco surcharges, and 10.8 percent of employers in these states were noncompliant with the ACA by charging tobacco users higher premiums without offering cessation programs. Efforts should be undertaken to improve the monitoring and enforcement of ACA tobacco rating rules.

  9. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  10. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  11. Instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 27 tobacco samples was submitted to INAA. Bowen's Kale was analyzed with the samples. The resulting data for 21 elements in tobacco were processed by a cluster programme. This combination proves to be a convenient tool for discrimination within one group of samples. (author)

  12. Tobacco, e-cigarettes, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-04-01

    The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.

  13. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  14. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  15. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals ... the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China) ... Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam.

  16. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  18. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... ... tobacco use, the social nature of the activity, and the relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. ... Clean air for ourselves and our children ... They cultivated media contacts, leading to numerous newspaper articles, ... An awareness-raising video documents the economic problems associated ...

  19. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  20. Tobacco, E-Cigarettes and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903

  1. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  2. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  3. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  4. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  5. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  6. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  7. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  8. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  9. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco promoting and restraining factors among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, D; Koivusilta, L; Raisamo, S; Rimpelä, A

    2012-08-01

    With a long history of tobacco cultivation, adolescents in Ghana are at relatively high risk of the emerging tobacco epidemic in developing countries. This study explored exposure to tobacco promoting/restraining factors and their associations with smoking and tawa (traditional smokeless tobacco) use among 13-18-year-old Ghanaians. School-based representative data were collected in 2008 (n = 1165). Prevalence rates of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1% (11.5% boys and 6.4% girls), 6.6% (8.0% boys and 4.7% girls) and 5.7% (7.3% boys and 3.9% girls), respectively. Four percent of the respondents attended schools without a smoking ban, 66% had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the current school year, and 53% had been exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-three percent of adolescents who had tried to purchase tobacco products were not refused because of their age. Multivariate analyses found that attendance at a school where smoking was allowed, not having been taught about the harmful effects of smoking, exposure to tobacco advertising and parental smoking were positively associated with tobacco use, and knowledge that smoking is harmful to health and difficult to quit were negatively associated with tobacco use. Both smoking and tawa use were relatively low among Ghanaian adolescents. Exposure to tobacco advertising was high. There is no tobacco legislation in Ghana, but societal norms or cultural values seem to restrict smoking in schools and access to tobacco products. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Symptoms of Tobacco Dependence Among Middle and High School Tobacco Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Corey, Catherine G.; Hoffman, Allison C.; Schroeder, Megan J.; Husten, Corinne G.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that tobacco dependence symptoms can occur soon after smoking onset and with low levels of use. However, limited data are available nationally and among non-cigarette tobacco users. Purpose To examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco dependence symptoms among adolescent tobacco users in the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative, school-based survey of U.S. middle and high school students. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of dependence symptoms among current users (i.e., past 30-day use) of cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco. Analyses were conducted in 2013 using SAS-callable SUDAAN, version 11 to account for the complex survey design. Results Prevalence of tobacco dependence symptoms ranged from 20.8% (95% CI=18.6, 23.1) of current tobacco users reporting wanting to use tobacco within 30 minutes of waking to 41.9% (95% CI=39.3, 44.5) reporting recent strong cravings. Reporting of dependence symptoms was most consistently associated with polytobacco use, higher frequency of use, earlier initiation age, and female gender. A 2–4-fold increase in the odds of symptom reporting was found in adolescents using tobacco products on as few as 3–5 days compared to those who only used it for 1–2 of the past 30 days. Conclusions A substantial proportion of U.S. adolescent tobacco users, including those with low levels of use, report symptoms of tobacco dependence. These findings demonstrate the need for full implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent both experimentation and progression to regular tobacco use among youth. PMID:25044195

  11. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-03-01

    To understand transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. TTCs' strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes-economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them.

  12. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  13. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  14. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010--study strengths, limitations and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Biliński, Przemysław; Raciborski, Filip; Samoliński, Bolesław; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A tobacco surveillance system is crucial for improving the planning and implementation of effective tobacco control policies. The purpose of the presented study was to describe a review of the process of implementation and methodological assumption of a Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Poland. The study strengths and limitations are evaluated, as well as some recommendations given for further tobacco surveillance activities in Poland. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was implemented in Poland between 2008-2010. The survey population selection process was based on a three-stage stratified geographically-clustered sample of a non-institutional population aged 15 years and over. Those who lived in institutions were not surveyed. The GATS questionnaire was very detailed and provides a significant amount of data. The filed work was preceded by several training sessions for all survey staff and the pretest. Questionnaires were administered in respondents' homes during the face-to-face interviews. Of the 14,000 households selected for the survey, 8,948 (63.9%) households and 7,840 (93.9%) sampled individuals completed the interviews. The total survey response rate was 65.1%. GATS was an important step towards obtaining representative, current data on the tobacco epidemic in Poland. Basic results of the study are currently available. More in-depth analysis will provide useful data for public health experts and policymakers to assign resources and establish health priorities. Unfortunately, competing targets and lack of awareness on the part of stakeholders still constrains the financial resources available to those undertaking tobacco control research in Poland. The circumscribed capacity to undertake multidisciplinary policy research limits both the quality and quantity of such studies. There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles

  15. Tobacco sales to minors in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Tramacere, Irene; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Colombo, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    One of the strategies to control tobacco is to limit purchase of cigarettes to minors. To understand the attitudes of Italian adults towards regulations to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products, we added specific questions to the annual survey on smoking in Italy. During March-April 2007, we conducted a survey on smoking on 3,057 subjects representative of the Italian population aged > or = 15 years. Two specific questions were included, one investigating the attitudes towards the proposed legislation prohibiting purchase of tobacco to individuals under 18 years of age (instead of 16 years) as a policy to reduce smoking prevalence and consumption. The second question asked whether the current tobacco sales-to-minors law was observed. Overall, 78% of Italians believed that a restriction of the current tobacco sales-to-minors law could be moderately to extremely effective as a strategy to decrease smoking prevalence and consumption. More than 90% of Italians reported that they had never seen in their lifetime a retailer refusing to sell cigarettes to an adolescent or requesting the minor's identification or age. A restriction of the legislation, increasing to 18 years the minimum age for purchasing tobacco, would limit access to tobacco products by minors, only if adopted together with systematic and effective enforcement measures.

  16. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  17. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  18. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-04

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  19. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  1. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2007-12-01

    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use. Despite consensus that smokeless tobacco products as sold in the United States are less dangerous than cigarettes, there is no consensus on how to proceed. Diverse factions have different policy concerns. While the tobacco industry is exempted from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight, the pharmaceutical industry whose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medicines compete with smokeless tobacco as noncombustible nicotine-delivery systems are regulated by the FDA. Some public health experts support smokeless tobacco use to reduce population harm from tobacco; other public health experts oppose promoting smokeless tobacco for harm reduction. Adult consumers can freely purchase currently-marketed smokeless tobacco products and even more-deadly cigarettes. Concerns with and advantages of smokeless tobacco products are discussed. In that noncombustible medicinal nicotine-delivery systems have been proven to be effective smoking-cessation aids, smokeless tobacco, as another source of psychoactive doses of nicotine, could be used similarly, in a dose-response fashion as a smoking-cessation aid (consistent with FDA principles for evaluating generic versions of drugs). Price measures should be used on tobacco products to make costs to consumers proportional to product health risks (which would make smokeless tobacco much cheaper than cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco should be encouraged as an option for smoking cessation in adult smokers, particularly for those who have failed to stop smoking using NRT or other methods.

  2. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  3. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess how different tobacco taxation scenarios will affect cigarette consumption, smoking prevalence, tobacco excise tax revenues, and tobacco smuggling, all of which directly or indirectly influence public health. The information generated will also support efforts by tobacco control and health NGOs in ...

  5. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1) Each...

  6. 7 CFR 29.403 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.403 Section 29.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.403 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco...

  7. "A Roadmap for Flue-curing Tobacco Barns: Towards Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco crop currently provides the best economic return per hectare amongst all the major annual crops grown in Zimbabwe. Tobacco production currently contributes 30 % of the total exports and nearly 10 % of the GDP. According to the Tobacco Industry and Marketing Board, of the 106 127 number of registered tobacco ...

  8. Tobacco Industry Interference in the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2012-01-01

    WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...

  9. Youth and Tobacco (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Nearly all tobacco use begins during adolescence. In recent years, fewer U.S. middle and high school students used tobacco products; but millions still do. This podcast discusses the importance of preventing tobacco use early in life.

  10. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  11. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226 Ra and 210 Pb of the uranium series and 228 Ra of the thorium series and or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226 Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y -1 (average 79.7 μSv y -1 ), while for 228 Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y -1 (average 67.1 μSv y -1 ) and for 210 Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y -1 (average 104.7 μSv y -1 ), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y -1 (average 251.5 μSv y -1 ). The annual effective dose from 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 μSv y -1 (average 199.3 μSv y -1 ). (author)

  12. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  13. Selected aspects of tobacco control in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2009-03-01

    This paper seeks to outline the challenges of tobacco consumption control in the transitional economy of Croatia. It focuses on issues of taxation, high unemployment, and smuggling while attempting to meet European Union (EU) accession requirements for tobacco control legislation that reduces smoking consumption. The issue of tobacco control is not a simple one and requires a multi-pronged approach. While Croatia has made good progress in adopting legislation, it needs to strengthen its efforts both in terms of enforcement and increased taxation of cigarettes.

  14. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2003-04-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  15. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  16. Assessing storefront tobacco advertising after the billboard ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Pokorny, Steven B; Mikulski, Kathy; Schoeny, Michael E

    2004-03-01

    This study examined storefront tobacco advertisements in 11 towns in Illinois from 1999 through 2001 to assess possible changes in these types of advertisements since the master tobacco settlement, which banned tobacco advertisements on billboards. Observers assessed the number of merchant- and industry-made tobacco storefront advertisements in Illinois stores and whether these advertisements were either brand- or price-focused. The relationship between the amount of tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales to minors was also explored. Findings indicated no significant relationships between tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales. However, industry price advertisements decreased over time because of tobacco price increases resulting from the master settlement, whereas industry brand advertisements increased over time, perhaps in an effort by the tobacco industry to retain sales of their products through brand recognition.

  17. Circles of Tobacco Wisdom: learning about traditional and commercial tobacco with Native elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Melanie; Blake, Norby; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Forster, Jean L

    2012-11-01

    Circles of Tobacco Wisdom (CTW) was an elder-led, community-based project that aimed to enhance tobacco control in the American Indian community. Its goal was to provide elders with the knowledge, opportunities, and support to enable them to assume leadership of a tobacco control movement that was grounded in the ceremonial traditions of tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the pilot intervention on participants. The design of this pilot study intervention was a single group, pre-post comparison, with a pre-post survey, monthly check-ins, and a post-1-year focus group. Twelve elders were included in the pre- and post-analyses. All twelve elders were women who self-identified as American Indian (mean age = 64). The CTW elders participated in monthly talking circles, quarterly learning sessions, and a post-1-year focus group, and took part in other learning, support, and community action opportunities. Data were collected from December 2008 through November 2009 and analyzed throughout the process. American Indian Elders' tobacco-related knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors were measured while participating in the CTW project. Knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and behavior changes were seen with cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke, and ceremonial tobacco use and risk perception. After 6 months, the number of people the elders had talked with about tobacco increased, elders were more likely to have a discussion on tobacco at a community event, and their comfort level talking about commercial and traditional tobacco also increased. A number of themes also were identified in the focus group: feeling more comfortable talking about tobacco issues, learning a lot about traditional and commercial tobacco, and realizing the dangers of smoking. Elders increased their knowledge about commercial and traditional tobacco and changed related attitudes as a result of CTW. Further, American Indian Elders perceived that CTW was effective

  18. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  19. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  20. Quasi-experimental evidence on tobacco tax regressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Steven F

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco taxes are known to reduce tobacco consumption and to be regressive, such that tobacco control policy may have the perverse effect of further harming the poor. However, if tobacco consumption falls faster amongst the poor than the rich, tobacco control policy can actually be progressive. We take advantage of persistent and committed tobacco control activities in South Africa to examine the household tobacco expenditure burden. For the analysis, we make use of two South African Income and Expenditure Surveys (2005/06 and 2010/11) that span a series of such tax increases and have been matched across the years, yielding 7806 matched pairs of tobacco consuming households and 4909 matched pairs of cigarette consuming households. By matching households across the surveys, we are able to examine both the regressivity of the household tobacco burden, and any change in that regressivity, and since tobacco taxes have been a consistent component of tobacco prices, our results also relate to the regressivity of tobacco taxes. Like previous research into cigarette and tobacco expenditures, we find that the tobacco burden is regressive; thus, so are tobacco taxes. However, we find that over the five-year period considered, the tobacco burden has decreased, and, most importantly, falls less heavily on the poor. Thus, the tobacco burden and the tobacco tax is less regressive in 2010/11 than in 2005/06. Thus, increased tobacco taxes can, in at least some circumstances, reduce the financial burden that tobacco places on households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  2. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  3. Monitoring tobacco taxation in the Philippines at the TAP (Tobacco Action Patrol of a finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ligot

    2018-03-01

    The pilot demonstrated the application of mobile communications technology and youth mobilization as strategies for strengthening monitoring of tobacco control initiatives whilst overcoming resource constraints.

  4. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  5. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  7. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petersen P.E., World Health Organization, Oral Health Programme, Chronic Disease and Health. Promotion, 20 Avenue .... particular, Health Promoting Schools provide an effective setting for tobacco prevention amongst children and youth.

  8. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  11. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  12. Smoking and Tobacco Use Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth. CANCER Tobacco use increases the risk for many types of cancer, such as lung cancer. More HEART DISEASE Studies show a direct link between cigarette smoking ...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  15. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has identified tobacco-free schools as its first priority. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and ...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE System...

  17. Tobacco on trial: evaluation and final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    The B.C. Committee to Reduce Tobacco Use is a coalition of health care agencies with the common objective of developing and implementing a public relations/radio mass media program targeted at youth 11-18...

  18. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Control Research Initiative (ATCRI) was established in ... of taxation, advertising bans, smoke-free places and graphic health warnings. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  19. Cancer and Tobacco Use PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. There is a long list of cancers linked to tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of cancer and cancer deaths. Learn more here.

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  3. US adult tobacco users' absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products, information-seeking behaviors, and (mis)beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Margolis, Katherine A; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-08-01

    Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yuko; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-01-24

    Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  5. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% ( n  = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% ( n  = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% ( n  = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% ( n  = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% ( n  = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent ( n  = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% ( n  = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality

  6. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is among the most aggressive and innovative in the world, and tobacco advertisements saturate the environment. Tobacco companies are politically and financially powerful in the country because they are one of the largest sources of government revenue. As a result, there are few restrictions on tobacco marketing and advertising. National surveys reveal that 62% of men and 1% to 3% of women are smokers. Over 90% of smokers smoke clove cigarettes (kretek). This paper examines the social and cultural reasons for smoking in Indonesia and discusses how the tobacco industry reads, reproduces and works with culture as a means of selling cigarettes. An analysis is provided of how kretek tobacco companies represent themselves as supporters of Indonesian national identity. This analysis is used to identify strategies to break the chains of positive association that currently support widespread smoking. Between November 2001 and March 2007, tobacco advertisements were collected from a variety of sources, including newspapers and magazines. Frequent photographic documentation was made of adverts on billboards and in magazines. Advertisements were segmented into thematic units to facilitate analysis. In all, 30 interviews were conducted with smokers to explore benefits and risks of smoking, perceptions of advertisements and brand preferences. Focus groups (n = 12) were conducted to explore and pretest counter advertisements. Key themes were identified in tobacco advertisements including control of emotions, smoking to enhance masculinity and smoking as a means to uphold traditional values while simultaneously emphasising modernity and globalisation. Some kretek advertisements are comprised of indirect commentaries inviting the viewer to reflect on the political situation and one's position in society. After identifying key cultural themes in cigarette advertisements, our research group is attempting to engage the tobacco industry on "cultural

  7. Tobacco Use In California 1990-1991

    OpenAIRE

    University of California, San Diego; California Department of Health Services; Westat, Inc.; Los Angels County Department of Health Services

    1991-01-01

    Summary This report presents data from a survey of cigarette smoking behaviors and attitudes among Californians conducted between June, 1990 and July, 1991. The prevalence of current smoking among adults in California was 22.2%, with males (25.5%) smoking more than females (19.1%). This represents a sharp decline in smoking following the increase in the tobacco excise tax and implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control program by the State of California. The decline in preva...

  8. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the...

  9. Swimming Upstream: Tobacco Policy Making in Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Gregory MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political force in Nevada. The industry dominated state politics through a combination of strategic alliances with the hospitality and gaming industries and campaign contributions. From 1990-2006 the tobacco industry contributed $552,111 to the state political parties and individuals running for state office. In 1975, health groups in Nevada attempted to pass a legislative proposal, AB 17, that would have required smoking and non-smoking sections in al...

  10. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  11. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

  12. Development of an integrated tobacco endgame strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, various tobacco 'endgame' strategies have been suggested as a means to phase out tobacco consumption. Using country examples, this paper discusses three potential strategies: replacing cigarettes with alternative products (harm reduction), denying tobacco sales to people born after a certain year (the tobacco-free generation proposal), and further implementing measures based on the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty. It is argued that all strategies have potential issues that could be avoided by combining them into an integrated, sequential endgame that, first, using measures recommended in the WHO FCTC, creates a climate that facilitates the phasing out of cigarettes; second, implements a generational phase out of cigarette sales; and third, simultaneously permits the regulated use of alternative nicotine products. Thus, integrating ideas from various endgame strategies will result in a more effective, resilient tobacco endgame policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  14. Tobacco taxation: the importance of earmarking the revenue to health care and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel; Mytaras, Vasileios; Bertic, Monique; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yannis; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation are acknowledged to be one of the most effective tobacco control interventions. This study aimed at determining the mediating role of socioeconomical status (SES) and the earmarking of revenue to healthcare and tobacco control, in influencing population support for the adoption of a 2 Euro tobacco tax increase in Greece, amid the challenging economic environment and current austerity measures. Data was collected from two national household surveys, the "Hellas Health III" survey, conducted in October 2010 and the "Hellas Tobacco survey" conducted in September 2012. Data was analyzed from 694 and 1066 respondents aged 18 years or more, respectively. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the adjusted relationship between socio-economic factors for the former, and support for increased taxation on tobacco products for the latter. In 2012 amidst the Greek financial crisis, population support for a flat two euro tax increase reached 72.1%, if earmarked for health care and tobacco control, a percentage high both among non-smokers (76%) and smokers (64%) alike. On the contrary, when not earmarked, only 43.6% of the population was in support of the equivalent increase. Women were more likely to change their mind and support a flat two-euro increase if the revenue was earmarked for health care and tobacco control (aOR = 1.70; 95% C.I: 1.22-2.38, p = 0.002). Furthermore, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was not associated with SES and income. Despite dire austerity measures in Greece, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was high among both smokers and non-smokers, however, only when specifically earmarked towards health care and tobacco control. This should be taken into account not only in Greece, but within all countries facing social and economic reform.

  15. Detailed clinical models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. SIX INITIATIVES WERE SELECTED: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations.

  16. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  17. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama

    2017-06-01

    Hospitality establishments in Kampala are not protecting the public from tobacco smoke exposure nor adequately limiting access to tobacco products. Effective dissemination of the Tobacco Control Act 2015 is important in ensuring that owners of public places are aware of their responsibility of complying with critical tobacco control laws. This would also likely increase self-enforcement among owners of hospitality establishments and public patrons of the no-smoking restrictions.

  18. Preventing tobacco-caused cancer: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, C T

    1995-11-01

    Nicotine addiction is the most common serious medical problem in the country. Tobacco use is responsible for 30% of cancer deaths in the United States and 90% of all lung cancer deaths. The physical addiction to nicotine explains why over 30% of Americans continue to smoke or use tobacco despite their desires and efforts to quit. The testimony summarized in this paper recommends four broad strategies for preventing tobacco-caused cancers in the United States: a) mandating and reimbursing effective treatments for nicotine addiction; b) increasing Federal and state tobacco excise taxes and earmarking a fraction of tax revenues for tobacco prevention and cessation; c) enacting other policy changes to prevent tobacco use and addiction among children, including expanded clean indoor air legislation, comprehensive youth tobacco access legislation, and the regulation of tobacco products and their advertising and promotion; and d) expanding tobacco control research and critical Federal research support. Specific recommendations are given for each broad strategy.

  19. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  20. Branding the Rodeo: A Case Study of Tobacco Sports Sponsorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lawrence A.; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices. PMID:19910357

  1. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon; Rimmer, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires nations that have ratified the convention to ban all tobacco advertising and promotion. In the face of these restrictions, tobacco packaging has become the key promotional vehicle for the tobacco industry to interest smokers and potential smokers in tobacco products. This paper reviews available research into the probable impact of mandatory plain packaging and internal tobacco industry statements about the importance of packs as promotional vehicles. It critiques legal objections raised by the industry about plain packaging violating laws and international trade agreements. Searches for available evidence were conducted within the internal tobacco industry documents through the online document archives; tobacco industry trade publications; research literature through the Medline and Business Source Premier databases; and grey literature including government documents, research reports and non-governmental organization papers via the Google internet search engine. Plain packaging of all tobacco products would remove a key remaining means for the industry to promote its products to billions of the world's smokers and future smokers. Governments have required large surface areas of tobacco packs to be used exclusively for health warnings without legal impediment or need to compensate tobacco companies. Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs.

  2. Tobacco Research and Its Relevance to Science, Medicine and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso TC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a historical review and a vision for the future of tobacco plant research. This is the perspective of an experienced tobacco scientist who devoted his total professional career to tobacco research. From the very beginning, pioneering tobacco research was the foundation of plant science at the dawn of modern development, in such areas as light, nutrition, genetics, growth control, disorders and metabolism. Tobacco research led to current advancements in plant biotechnology. In addition, tobacco plant research contributed significantly to public health research in radioactive elements, mycotoxins, and air pollutants. However, public support for tobacco research has today greatly declined to almost total elimination because of a sense of political correctness. This author points out that tobacco is one of the most valuable research tools, and is a most abundant source of scientific information. Research with tobacco plants will contribute far beyond the frontiers of agricultural science: tobacco can be a source of food supply with nutrition value similar to that of milk; tobacco can be a source of health supplies including medical chemicals and various vaccines; tobacco can be a source of biofuel. All we need is to treat tobacco with respect; the use of tobacco is only in its initial stages.

  3. Tobacco 21: An Important Public Policy to Protect Our Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Pakhale, Smita; Neptune, Enid R

    2016-12-01

    An important approach to reduce youth tobacco use is the adoption of regulations to prohibit tobacco product sale to individuals younger than 21 years, termed Tobacco 21. In the United States, close to 90% of current smokers started smoking before the age of 18 years, and 99% before age 26 years. Earlier age of tobacco use initiation is associated with lower rates of smoking cessation. Increasing minimum age to purchase has been shown to reduce tobacco product use among youth. The critical determinant is likely the loss of social sources of tobacco products. Enforcement activities are important for age-of-purchase laws to be effective. Raising the minimum legal age to purchase tobacco products to 21 years is highly supported among both the smoking and nonsmoking public. Tobacco sales to those younger than 21 years account for just 2% of total tobacco sales, yet produce 90% of new smokers. The short-term effect on small business of raising the minimum age to purchase would be minimal. Small businesses will have time to adapt to the decrease in tobacco sales as fewer youth grow up nicotine addicted. Raising the minimum age to purchase of tobacco and nicotine products to 21 years, combined with enforcement of those restrictions, will help protect future generations from a lifetime of tobacco dependence and associated morbidity. These regulations should apply to all tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems. Respiratory health care providers should educate their local, state, and federal policy makers on the importance of Tobacco 21.

  4. Advertising Receptivity and Youth Initiation of Smokeless Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S

    2016-07-28

    Cross-sectional data suggests that adolescents' receptivity to the advertising of smokeless tobacco is correlated with use of chewing tobacco or snuff. Lack of longitudinal data has precluded determination of whether advertising receptivity precedes or follows initiation of smokeless tobacco. The objective of this study was to test for the association between advertising receptivity and subsequent initiation of smokeless tobacco among adolescent males. Adolescent males from the 1993-1999 Teen Longitudinal California Tobacco Survey were selected at the baseline survey for never having used smokeless tobacco. Separate longitudinal analyses corresponded to two dependent variables, ever use of smokeless tobacco (1993-1996; N = 1,388) and use on 20 or more occasions (1993-1999; N = 1,014). Models were adjusted for demographic variables, risk factors for smokeless tobacco use, and exposure to users of smokeless tobacco. Advertising receptivity at baseline was predictive of ever use by late adolescence (RR(95% CI) = 2.0 (1.5, 2.8)) and regular use by young adulthood (RR(95% CI) = 3.7 (2.1, 6.7)) in models that were adjusted for covariates. Conclusions/ Importance: The findings challenge the tobacco industry's assertion that tobacco marketing does not impact youth initiation. This is particularly relevant to tobacco control in the United States because the 2009 Tobacco Control Act places fewer restrictions on smokeless tobacco products compared to cigarettes.

  5. Tobacco control law enforcement and compliance in odisha, India - implications for tobacco control policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panda, B.; Rout, A.; Pati, S.; Chauhan, A.S.; Tripathy, A.; Shrivastava, R.; Bassi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very

  6. Role of Primary Care Providers in Tobacco Cessation, Tobacco Dependence Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Ruhil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is very common among Indian society. In fact, tobacco use is responsible for majority of morbidity and mortality in India and worldwide. Tobacco has been identified as “addictive” and tobacco dependence has been defined as a health problem in ICD-10. Aims & Objectives: This review article aims to emphasize the role of primary health care providers in tobacco cessation and to give recommendations after identifying barriers and exploring the present scenario. Material Methods: Several studies, journals and web-based articles have been referred to support the evidence that a brief tobacco cessation advice from physicians could help the patient quit. Result: Studies show that there is lack of participation from primary health care providers for tobacco cessation. Several barriers have been identified in many studies and also there exist some solutions to these barriers. Conclusion: It has been concluded in the article that primary health care providers should be trained and supported with all possible resources so that they can screen tobacco use in patients and could help them quit.

  7. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  9. Tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product use among young adult bar patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Methods Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors, and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n=3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Results Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mage=23.7, SD=1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.90-3.27, pmarketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.98, pmarketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. PMID:27707516

  10. Tobacco Marketing Receptivity and Other Tobacco Product Use Among Young Adult Bar Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-12-01

    Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, and e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n = 3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mean age  = 23.7, standard deviation = 1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-3.16, p marketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.18, p marketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tobacco imagery in video games: ratings and gamer recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether tobacco content found in video games was appropriately labelled for tobacco-related content by the Entertainment and Software Ratings Board (ESRB). Sixty-five gamer participants (self-identified age range 13-50) were interviewed in-person (n=25) or online (n=40) and asked (A) to list favourite games and (B) to name games that they could recall containing tobacco content. The ESRB database was searched for all games mentioned to ascertain whether they had been assigned tobacco-related content descriptors. Games were independently assessed for tobacco content by examining user-created game wiki sites and watching YouTube videos of gameplay. Games with tobacco-related ESRB content descriptors and/or with tobacco imagery verified by researchers were considered to contain tobacco content. Games identified by participants as including tobacco but lacking verifiable tobacco content were treated as not containing tobacco content. Participants recalled playing 140 unique games, of which 118 were listed in the ESRB database. Participants explicitly recalled tobacco content in 31% (37/118) of the games, of which 94% (35/37) included independently verified tobacco content. Only 8% (9/118) of the games had received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors, but researchers verified that 42% (50/118) contained such content; 42% (49/118) of games were rated 'M' for mature (content deemed appropriate for ages 17+). Of these, 76% (37/49) contained verified tobacco content; however, only 4% (2/49) received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors. Gamers are exposed to tobacco imagery in many video games. The ESRB is not a reliable source for determining whether video games contain tobacco imagery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. The changing tobacco landscape: What dental professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Walsh, Margaret M

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco products in the United States and the patterns of tobacco use are changing. Although cigarette smoking prevalence has declined, dental professionals are likely to encounter substantial numbers of patients who have tried and are continuing to use new and alternative tobacco products, including cigars, water pipes (hookahs), and electronic cigarettes, as well as conventional and new smokeless tobacco products. The authors reviewed conventional and new tobacco products in the United States, their adverse oral and systemic health effects, and their prevalence of use. Tobacco products other than cigarettes account for a substantial portion of tobacco use. For this reason, tobacco-use prevention and cessation counseling provided by dental health care professionals must address all tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, water pipes, and electronic cigarettes, as well as conventional and new smokeless tobacco products. Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use are associated with immediate and long-term adverse health effects, including nicotine addiction, oral and systemic disease, and death. Novel products may attract new tobacco users, potentially leading to addiction that results in enduring tobacco product use and associated adverse health effects. This critical review of conventional, new, and emerging tobacco products presents information that dental professionals can use in providing tobacco-related counseling to patients who use or who are at risk for using tobacco products. It is essential that dental professionals are knowledgeable about tobacco products and are able to answer patients' questions and provide them with evidence-based tobacco-related counseling. This information may prevent patients from initiating use or help reduce or cease use to avoid immediate and long-term adverse health effects, including nicotine addiction, oral and systemic disease, and death. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  14. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: baseline findings from the Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only

  15. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  16. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  17. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-hong; Zhang, Ji-shun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ren-gang; Wu, Chun; Fan, Long-jiang; Ren, Xue-liang

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth, development, and polyploidization. However, there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics. We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions, among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic. A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups. In addition, three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored. This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits. PMID:22042659

  18. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-hong; Zhang, Ji-shun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ren-gang; Wu, Chun; Fan, Long-jiang; Ren, Xue-liang

    2011-11-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth, development, and polyploidization. However, there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics. We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions, among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic. A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups. In addition, three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored. This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits.

  19. Policy coherence, integration, and proportionality in tobacco control: Should tobacco sales be limited to government outlets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A; Hiilamo, Heikki; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-08-01

    Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy. Such a move would allow governments more options for regulating tobacco sales, and increase coherence, integration, and proportionality of substance regulation. It might also serve as an incremental step toward an endgame goal of eliminating sales of commercial combustible tobacco.

  20. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J E; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J

    2001-12-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

  1. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anzil Ks; Mohammed, Arshad; Thomas, Archana A; Paul, Shann; Shahul, M; Kasim, K

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chi-square test was applied. Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%). Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalig-nant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer. Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.

  2. Alpha-emitting radionuclides in cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, James W.; Ibrahim, Shawki Amin

    1978-01-01

    As part of general studies of the concentration of 239/240 Pu, 238 Pu and 228,230,232 Th in the tissues of non-occupationally exposed individuals, it became evident that there was little or no information on their content in cigarette tobacco. To better understand this possible route of intake and its potential for lung exposure we have measured these nuclides in tobacco samples, from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which have a well-known growing history, and in brand name cigarettes purchased commercially. The concentration of 239/240 Pu in both USDA and brand name tobacco has a range of 0.4-0.7 pCi/kg of tobacco while the 238 Pu concentration was ≤ 0.05 pCi/kg. The 228 Th concentration for USDA tobacco was 200 pCi/kg tobacco while the 232 Th was only 14 pCi/kg. The high 228/232 Th ratio may result from a lower uptake of 232 Th compared to that of 228 Ra. By comparing the concentration of these measured nuclides to other alpha emitters in tobacco that have been reported in the literature, i.e. 210 Po (400 pCi/kg) and 226 Ra (150 pCi/kg), it is apparent that 228 Th represents a significant fraction of the total alpha activity. It is also evident there is a much greater potential for exposure of the lung to radiation from 228 Th than from 239/240 Pu as a result of cigarette smoking. (author)

  3. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Demand for cuban tobacco as seen through cuban exports

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Pinedo Echevarría, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    During the nineteenth century Spain did not import the majority of Cuban tobacco, nor was most of it consumed in Spain. Spain neither consumed nor re-exported Cuban tobacco. Cuban tobacco, due to its high quality, was too expensive to be able to compete with tobacco of lesser quality which was, therefore, cheaper. The Spanish tax office preferred to take in huge amounts of money by taxing consumption in general rather than promoting Cuban tobacco. For this reason, Spain imported tobacco of me...

  5. Young adult non-smokers' exposure to real-world tobacco marketing: results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray

    2017-08-31

    The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults' exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of cross-border tobacco shopping and tobacco smuggling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, C Ben

    2008-02-01

    In France, cigarette sales have fallen sharply, especially in border areas, since the price increases of 2003 and 2004. It was proposed that these falls were not due to people quitting smoking but rather to increased cross-border sales of tobacco and/or smuggling. This paper aims to test this proposition. Three approaches have been used. First, cigarette sales data from French sources for the period 1999-2006 were collected, and a simulation of the changes seen within these sales was carried out in order to estimate what the sales situation would have looked like without the presence of foreign tobacco. Second, the statements regarding tobacco consumed reported by the French population with registered tobacco sales were compared. Finally, in order to identify the countries of origin of foreign tobacco entering France, we collected a random sample of cigarette packs from a waste collection centre. According to the first method, cross-border shopping and smuggling of tobacco accounted for 8635 tones of tobacco in 2004, 9934 in 2005, and 9930 in 2006, ie, between 14% and 17% of total sales. The second method gave larger results: the difference between registered cigarette sales and cigarettes declared as being smoked was around 12,000 to 13,000 tones in 2005, equivalent to 20% of legal sales. The collection of cigarette packs at a waste collection centre showed that foreign cigarettes accounted for 18.6% of our sample in 2005 and 15.5% in 2006. France seems mainly to be a victim of cross-border purchasing of tobacco products, with the contraband market for tobacco remaining modest. in order to avoid cross-border purchases, an increased harmonization of national policies on the taxation of tobacco products needs to be envisaged by the European Union.

  7. Tobacco Dependence Treatment Grants: A Collaborative Approach to the Implementation of WHO Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret B. Nolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of global tobacco-related deaths is projected to increase from about 6 million to 8 million annually by 2030, with more than 80% of these occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC came into force in 2005 and Article 14 relates specifically to the treatment of tobacco dependence. However, LMICs, in particular, face several barriers to implementing tobacco dependence treatment. This paper is a descriptive evaluation of a novel grant funding mechanism that was initiated in 2014 to address these barriers. Global Bridges. Healthcare Alliance for Tobacco Dependence Treatment aims to create and mobilize a global network of healthcare professionals and organizations dedicated to advancing evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment and advocating for effective tobacco control policy. A 2014 request for proposals (RFP focused on these goals, particularly in LMICs, where funding for this work had been previously unavailable. 19 grants were awarded by Global Bridges to organizations in low- and middle-income countries across all six WHO regions. Virtually all focused on developing a tobacco dependence treatment curriculum for healthcare providers, while also influencing the political environment for Article 14 implementation. As a direct result of these projects, close to 9,000 healthcare providers have been trained in tobacco dependence treatment and an estimated 150,000 patients have been offered treatment. Because most of these projects are designed with a “train-the-trainer” component, two years of grant funding has been a tremendous catalyst for accelerating change in tobacco dependence treatment practices throughout the world. In order to foster such exponential growth and continue to maintain the impact of these projects, ongoing financial, educational, and professional commitments are required.

  8. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to tobacco control policy in Turkey--2003 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Polat, Halil; Arpad, Ceylan; Khoury, Rule Nabil; Warren, Charles W; Lee, Juliette; Lea, Veronica

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Turkey in 2003 and 2009 to examine changes in tobacco use and important tobacco control measures. The GYTS were conducted in grades 7-9 in 2003 and 7-10 in 2009 in Turkey. Data in this paper are limited to 13 to 15 year old students. A total of 15,957 students from 202 schools participated in 2003 and 5,054 students from 69 schools participated in 2009. The overall response rate was 92.1% in 2003 and 87.5% in 2009. Between 2003 and 2009 current cigarette smoking did not change significantly for either boys (9.4% to 10.2%) or girls (3.5% to 5.3%). Current cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in 2003 and in 2009. In 2009, half of students reported they had been exposed to second hand smoking (SHS) at home and 80% reported they had been exposed to SHS in public places. Three in ten students reported they had been exposed to pro-tobacco advertising in newspapers or magazines; one in ten had an object with a cigarette brand logo on it; and 7% had been offered free cigarettes by a cigarette company representative. Two-thirds of current cigarette smokers reported that they wanted to stop smoking; and almost two-thirds had been taught in school in the past year about the dangers of smoking. Passing and implementing the Law No. 4207 on Prevention of Hazards of Tobacco Products, ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), raising tax on tobacco, and requiring pictorial warning labels were important steps forward for tobacco control in Turkey. However, as to the tobacco control much work yet to be accomplished including developing an effective enforcement plan for all tobacco control efforts.

  9. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The tobacco sales ban and tobacco purchases by adolescents: a general population study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.

  11. Marijuana use among US tobacco users: Findings from wave 1 of the population assessment of tobacco health (PATH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Myers, Mark G; Pulvers, Kim; Noble, Madison; Brikmanis, Kristin; Doran, Neal

    2018-05-01

    With an increase in marijuana use among adults in the United States (US), understanding the potential impact of marijuana use on tobacco use and associated behavioral and health consequences, including respiratory conditions, is necessary. Survey responses from Wave 1 of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were used to assess tobacco use and marijuana use among non-current tobacco users (n = 17,952) and current established tobacco-users classified as: cigarette only users (n = 8689), e-cigarette only users (n = 437), cigar only (traditional, cigarillo, or filtered) users (n = 706), hookah only users (n = 461), smokeless tobacco only users (n = 971), cigarette + e-cigarette users (n = 709), and users of multiple tobacco products (n = 2314). When compared to non-current tobacco users, each tobacco user group except smokeless only users had higher odds (odds ratios ranging from 3.86-8.07) of reporting current marijuana use. Among current tobacco users, higher levels of tobacco dependence did not explain the relationship between tobacco use and marijuana use. Additionally, concurrent marijuana use was associated with lower odds of attempts to quit tobacco (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.94, p users of tobacco and marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Retailer licensing and tobacco display compliance: are some retailers more likely to flout regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rae; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Walsberger, Scott; Tang, Anita; Chapman, Kathy; Egger, Sam

    2017-03-01

    To assess retailer compliance with a licensing scheme requiring tobacco retailers to list their business details with the government, to examine whether listed retailers are more likely to comply with a point-of-sale (POS) display ban and other in-store retailing laws and to explore variations in compliance between different retailer types and locations. An audit of 1739 retailers in New South Wales, Australia, was used to assess compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. Auditors actively searched for and audited unlisted retailers and all listed retailers in 122 metropolitan and regional postcodes. Multivariate generalised linear regression models were used to examine associations between compliance and retailer type, remoteness and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic level, proportion of population under 18 years and proportion born in Australia). One unlisted tobacco retailer was identified for every 12.6 listed tobacco retailers. Unlisted retailers were significantly more likely than listed retailers to breach in-store retailing laws (plaws was only 73.4%. Retailers in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had lower compliance than those in high socioeconomic areas. Some tobacco retailers did not list their business details with the government as required, even though there was no financial cost to do so. Unlisted retailers were more likely to violate in-store regulations. The results suggest licensing schemes can be useful for providing a list of retailers, thus facilitating enforcement, but require a system to search for, and respond to, unlisted/unlicensed retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Done, Douglas H; Michaels, Isaac H; Guarasi, Diana C; Kammer, Jamie R

    2016-05-12

    Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P advertising in pharmacies and in low (advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry's self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state's tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and advertising.

  14. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P advertising in pharmacies and in low (advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and advertising. PMID:27172257

  15. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  16. Assessment of criteria and farming activities for tobacco diversification using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, M.D.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monocropping of tobacco, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management have caused soil degradation in tobacco farms in the Valle de Lerma. Soil degradation due to tobacco monocropping and uncertain economic perspectives for tobacco farming call for diversification strategies for

  17. Associations of Adolescents' Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Dual Tobacco Use With Parental Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries. Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships. Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed. This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic. (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both

  18. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  19. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  20. 210 Po content in tobacco cigarettes in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittaporn, P.

    1985-12-01

    A technique has been modified to measure polonium-210 in tobacco cigarettes manufactured in Thailand. Polonium-210 which is equilibrated with polonium-208 tracer added before processing for chemical separation is isolated and quantitatively deposited on a nickel disc from concentration HCl acid. The plated disc is counted on an alpha spectrometer. The alpha resolution of polonium on nickel disc of the surface barrier detector with active area 300 mm 2 was about 30 keV. A chemical blank was processed with each tobacco sample. The average recovery yield was about 70 percent. The lower limit of detection as determined from average chemical blank values 0.058+-0.006 pCi was 0.02 pCi for a 24 hour count. The polonium-210 content in 9 brand names cigarette manufactured in Thailand were varied from 0.121 pCi/g tobacco to 0.282 pCi/g. tobacco, and in 6 brand names shredded tobacco popularize as tobacco cigarette in upcountry were varied from 0.303 pCi/g. tobacco to 0.446 pCi/g. tobacco. In summary polonium-210 content in tobacco cigarettes manufactured in Thailand are ranged from 0.121 pCi/g. tobacco to 0.446 pCi/g. tobacco. The average polonium-210 content for 15 brand names tobacco cigarette is 0.273+-0.10 pCi/g. tobacco

  1. Call centre employees and tobacco dependence: making a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G A; Majmudar, P V; Gupta, S D; Rane, P S; Hardikar, N M; Shastri, S S

    2010-07-01

    India is known as the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) capital of the world. Safeguarding health of millions of youngsters employed in this new growing economy is an occupational health challenge. This study was initiated in June 2007 in India with the objectives to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and study the factors responsible for initiating and continuing its use. The main aim, however, was to assess the effect of different tobacco cessation intervention strategies, thus identifying effective methods to assist these employees to quit tobacco. This is a 4-arm cluster randomized trial of 18 months duration among 646 BPO employees, working in 4 different BPO units. The employees were invited to participate in interviews following which tobacco users of each BPO were offered specific tobacco cessation interventions to assist them to quit tobacco use. The prevalence of tobacco dependence is 41%, mainly cigarette smoking. The tobacco quit rate is similar (nearly 20%) in the 3 intervention arms. Significantly higher reduction in tobacco consumption of 45% is seen in Arm 4 with the use of pharmacotherapy. BPO employees change jobs frequently, hence follow-up remains a major challenge. Inaccessibility of pharmacotherapy in the developing countries should not deter tobacco cessation efforts as good tobacco quit rates can be achieved with health education and behavioral therapy. Tobacco cessation should be an integral activity in all BPOs, so that the employees receive this service continuously and millions of our youths are protected from the hazards of tobacco.

  2. The Spanish tobacco tax loopholes and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Ángel; Cobacho, María Belén; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish government has strengthened tobacco control policies since 2005, including changes in tobacco taxes. Because these changes have targeted cigarettes mainly, the tobacco industry has marketed cheaper alternative tobacco products, offering smokers the possibility to downtrade. This paper traces the evolution of patterns of demand for cigarettes and other tobacco products in Spain over the period 2005-2011 in order to assess the impact of such tax loopholes. The authors use data on tobacco products prices and sales as well as changes in the structure and levels of tobacco taxes to relate tax changes to price changes and subsequent market share changes. Tax reforms have lifted the bottom end of the cigarette price distribution, but the industry has been successful in marketing fine-cut tobacco at cheap prices. There have been partial attempts to correct this asymmetric tax treatment, but these have not avoided a remarkable increase in the market share of fine-cut tobacco. The absence of a minimum tax on quantity for the rest of tobacco products allows the industry to place them as potential future downtrading vehicles. In order to address public health objectives, tax policies should aim to equalise the cost of smoking across different tobacco products. Otherwise the tobacco industry can exploit tax loopholes to market cheap alternatives to cigarettes. This requires all tobacco products to bear a minimum tax on quantity, whose levels need to be adjusted in order to reflect the equivalence between different forms of smoking.

  3. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  4. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Approaches for Promoting Pharmacy-Based Referrals to the Tobacco Quitline: Methods and Baseline Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent

  5. Nationwide tobacco surveys and sales data in Denmark from 1920 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim K B; Lynge, Elsebeth; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys.......Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys....

  6. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  7. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  8. Legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Norwood, B D; Garner, D W; Tye, J B

    1987-06-26

    Public health laws intended to prevent children from smoking have been enacted in many states. We surveyed the relevant laws in all states and the District of Columbia. The efficacy of one such law prohibiting the sale of tobacco to individuals under the age of 18 years was assessed with the cooperation of an 11-year-old girl. She was successful in 75 of 100 attempts to purchase cigarettes. On the basis of this experience and a review of existing laws, we have made recommendations for a model law. These include a prohibition of the possession of tobacco by minors, a prohibition of the sale of tobacco to minors, a requirement for a warning sign at the point of sale, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a reward for individuals reporting violators of vending laws.

  9. Radioactivity and tobacco; Radioactivite et tabac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    We drew the parallel between the effects on the health, in particular carcinogenic, of irradiation and tobacco. As regards this last one the carcinogenic main part of its activity is, doubtless, of chemical origin (tars and nicotine), but a part could be due to the radioactivity. Indeed, the tobacco possesses an activity due to isotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, daughter products of radon. This activity is 10 pico-becquerel by package of cigarette. The radioactive isotopes settle on the lung mucous membrane. The Academy of Sciences (US) so estimates the annual dose delivered in lungs to approximately 80 milli-sievert. This relatively important dose is however delivered only in a small fraction of the lung tissue (approximately 250 cm{sup 3}). Of this fact it contributes only weakly to the carcinogenic effect of the tobacco. (N.C.)

  10. Results from irradiation of tobacco seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyrbev, B.; Velikov, S.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out in the Struma river valley with tobacco seedlings in the period 1984-1987. The seeds were gamma irradiated with 1000 R and 2000 R and sowed after 2-3 days with and without fertilizers. The results from phenological observations and biometrical measurements of the seedlings showed no positive radiation effect on the sprouting and phenophase transition. No significant changes between irradiated plants and controls were detected in the total weight of the seedlings, the number, height, length and width of the leaves, the yield and quality of tobacco. In conclusion the authors do not recommend gamma irradiation of tobacco seeds as a plant growth stimulation agent. 3 tabs

  11. Tattoo, piercing, and adolescent tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the link between tattoos and/or piercings and young people's tobacco consumption. A total of 2587 students (1168 females and 1419 males) were asked about tattoos, piercings, and tobacco consumption. Young men and young girls who had tattoos and/or wore piercings were more likely to report smoking behavior, earlier smoking behavior, and higher cigarette consumption per day. It was also found that both with men and women, the combined effects of piercings and tattoos were associated with an increase in smoking behavior. Piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos appeared as markers of tobacco consumption. Such marks could serve as signs for educators, parents, and physicians.

  12. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  13. Measurement of polonium activity in Indian tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D R; Nilekani, S R [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1976-10-01

    To assess the probable induction of lung cancer due to /sup 210/Po in Indian tobacco, 116 samples of tobacco drawn from seven brands of cigarettes, cigars, cheroots and local beedi fillings were assayed. The results are tabulated and show an average /sup 210/Po content for cigarettes varying from 0.07 to 0.10 pCi/g except for one brand which had a higher value of 0.152 pCi/g. Large cigars were shown to have less polonium content compared to other tobacco products such as cheroot, beedi fillings and small cigars. From the data obtained the lung burden of a smoker of Indian cigarettes has been calculated to be 23.6 mrad/day which is between 3 and 6 times higher than that due to natural background of radon and thoron in the atmosphere.

  14. Adverse selection model regarding tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of introducing a tax on tobacco consumption can be studied trough an adverse selection model. The objective of the model presented in the following is to characterize the optimal contractual relationship between the governmental authorities and the two type employees: smokers and non-smokers, taking into account that the consumers’ decision to smoke or not represents an element of risk and uncertainty. Two scenarios are run using the General Algebraic Modeling Systems software: one without taxes set on tobacco consumption and another one with taxes set on tobacco consumption, based on an adverse selection model described previously. The results of the two scenarios are compared in the end of the paper: the wage earnings levels and the social welfare in case of a smoking agent and in case of a non-smoking agent.

  15. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  16. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  17. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 51, 1970-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2016. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  18. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  19. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  20. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ). Point-of-sale advertising refers to the display of promotional materials where tobacco products are sold. View moreTobacco Industry Marketing Practices at Point-of-Sale (Argentina and Guatemala) ...

  1. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  2. Improvement of quality management in the processes of tobacco production

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko

    2004-01-01

    Quality management, now more than ever, occupies an important place in tobacco production. It presents, above all, a continuous process aimed to satisfy the requirements of both the persons employed in tobacco industry and the layers.

  3. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative ... action on tobacco will cause economic harm to governments, businesses, farmers, and poor families. ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  4. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  5. Radiation in Tobacco | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Tobacco used to make cigarettes and other tobacco products contains small amounts of radioactive materials. Stay away from secondhand smoke. Remember, smoking makes radon exposure more likely to cause cancer.

  6. Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for capacity building ... (but misinformed) beliefs about the economic benefits of the tobacco industry ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  7. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... nature, codominant inheritance, easy access, easy and ... available DNA marker types employed in tobacco research, the second .... and organization of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes ... maternal genome of tobacco.

  8. The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Issues from a Federal Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antos, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Last year, representatives of five major tobacco companies and a group of state attorneys general reached an agreement that, if enacted, could dramatically change the ways in which tobacco is marketed...

  9. Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This infrastructure, usually in national statistical offices, has been ... Tobacco Control Policy Survey -International Alcohol Control Survey Collecting and sharing ... both tobacco and alcohol data, and apply the same data collection processes.

  10. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to describe the evolution of the demand for tobacco in Panama from ... informal market may benefit the tobacco industry. The research team also ... public service establishments (such as bars, restaurants, casinos, and hotels).

  11. Kick the Tobacco Habit (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cigarette smoking continues to decline among U.S. adults. Unfortunately, use of other tobacco products has remained stable or increased. In this podcast, Dr. Brian King discusses the dangers of tobacco use and ways to quit.

  12. New Tobacco Trends (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cigarette smoking in the United States has been on a steady decline over the past 50 years. However, new tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular. In this podcast, Dr. Linda Neff discusses the dangerous new trends in tobacco use.

  13. New Tobacco Trends (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    While cigarette smoking is on the decline in the United States, newer tobacco products are becoming popular with young people. This podcast discusses the health benefits of refraining from using all tobacco products.

  14. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control: An International Journal "A must read for potential or current lobbyists against ... a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  15. Tobacco Industry Marketing Practices at Point-of-Sale (Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Point-of-sale advertising refers to the display of promotional materials where tobacco ... a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship as mandated by ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  16. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that tobacco taxation policies, when they make tobacco ... annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on youth access to tobacco products and tobacco marketing to youth, and closely follow them. Check the ... Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  18. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria; Silver, Karin E; Rechel, Boika P D; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    To examine how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) tried to penetrate the Bulgarian cigarette market and influence tobacco excise tax policy after the fall of communism and during Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents supplemented by analysis of press coverage, tobacco industry journals, market reports and key informant interviews. TTCs have been involved in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria since at least 1975 and used smuggling as a market-entry strategy. National tobacco company Bulgartabac appears to have been involved in smuggling its own cigarettes from and reimporting them to Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria's accession to the EU opened the market to the TTCs, TTCs have exaggerated the scale of the illicit trade to successfully convince politicians and public health experts that tax increases lead to cigarette smuggling. Yet, sources point to TTCs' continued complicity in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria between 2000 and 2010. TTCs aimed to influence the Bulgarian tobacco excise tax regime, import duties and pricing mechanism, but appear to have been less successful than in other former communist countries in part due to the co-existence of a state-owned tobacco company. Undisclosed meetings between the tobacco industry and government ministers and officials are ongoing despite Bulgaria being a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The TTCs continued involvement in smuggling suggests that deals in 2004, 2007 and 2010 which the European Commission has reached with TTCs to address cigarette smuggling are inadequate. The TTCs' continued access to policymakers suggests that the FCTC is not being properly implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Tobacco Product Use Patterns, and Nicotine and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposure: NHANES 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Sabado, Melanie; El-Toukhy, Sherine; Vogtmann, Emily; Freedman, Neal D; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2017-10-01

    Background: Few studies have examined differences in product consumption patterns and nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) exposure between single versus dual- and poly-tobacco users. We applied the Tobacco Product Use Patterns (T-PUPs) model to fill this gap in the literature. Methods: Data from adults (age ≥18 years) who used any tobacco products during the 5 days prior to participating in the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Participants were classified into seven T-PUPs: (1) cigarettes only, (2) noncigarette combustibles only, (3) noncombustibles only, (4) dual noncigarette combustibles and noncombustibles, (5) dual cigarettes and noncombustibles, (6) dual cigarettes and noncigarette combustibles, and (7) poly-tobacco use. Weighted regression models were used to compare product consumption, serum cotinine, and urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (i.e., NNAL) levels between single-, dual-, and poly-tobacco T-PUPs. Results: Dual- and poly-tobacco T-PUPs were associated with lower product consumption compared with single-product T-PUPs only in some cases (e.g., dual cigarette and noncombustible users smoked cigarettes on 0.6 fewer days in the past 5 days compared with cigarette-only users; P product T-PUPs. Conclusions: Product consumption, and nicotine and TSNAs exposure of dual- and poly-tobacco product category users somewhat differ from those of single-product category users as defined by the T-TUPs model. Impact: Higher levels of cotinine and NNAL among dual- and poly-tobacco T-TUPs users compared with the single-product T-TUPs users may indicate health concerns. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1525-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  1. Inhibitive effect of a naturally-occurring substance, tobacco, on the dissolution of mild steel in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K; Srivastava, P

    1980-12-01

    A number of naturally-occurring substances has been found to be effective inhibitors for the dissolution of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The alkaloids nicotine and papaverine, contained in natural products such as tobacco leaves and black pepper, have proved themselves as excellent inhibitors. Considering the low cost of tobacco leaves, detailed studies were made with these, and they have been found to form an effective inhibitor under all practical conditions. Adsorption studies based on weight-loss measurements showed that adsorption of inhibitor obeys Freundlich's adsorption isoth

  2. Dynamic behavior of tobacco waste in the coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Jian; Chen, Honggang; Yang, Yongping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). National Eng Lab for Biomass Power Generation Equipment; Yu, Bangting [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2013-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is an advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the processing procedure in the nicotiana tabacum plants, lots of tobacco stem wastes are produced, which are normally being dumped to the landfill field. If this kind of waste can be used as a part of the fuel to be added into the coal in a CFB combustor, it will reduce the use of coal and then cut the net carbon emissions. To understand the complicated fluid dynamics of nicotiana tabacum wastes in the coal-fired CFB boiler, the mixing and segregation behavior of tobacco stalk are preliminary measured in a cylindrical fluidized bed. Obvious segregation behavior is found due to distinct differences in density and shape between tobacco stem and coal, which results in poor fluidization quality and bad combustion efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a jet with high gas velocity is introduced through the air distributor and a detailed experimental study is conducted in a fluidized bed made up of stem-sand mixture with different solid components at various jet velocities, which greatly improve the mixing performance of stem in the fluidized bed. The above findings are helpful for the technological upgrading of small- or middle-sized CFB boiler with adding tobacco stem into coal.

  3. Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-10-01

    Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Three locations in Sydney, Australia. 63 smokers and 75 non-smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18-24, 35-44, 55-64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Semi-structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de-legitimised in conversation. Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self-evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

  4. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  6. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  7. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  8. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  9. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  10. Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Fagerström

    2008-12-01

    development for the treatment of tobacco dependence are cannabinoid antagonists, immunotherapy against nicotine, monoaminooxidase inhibitors, dopamine receptor D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists, glutamatergic and GABA-ergic compounds and novel selective nicotine cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists.

  11. Tobacco product prices before and after a statewide tobacco tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the State of Minnesota Legislature passed a tobacco tax increase that increased the combined cigarette excise and sales tax by US$1.75 (from US$1.60 to US$3.35) and increased the tax on non-cigarette tobacco products from 70% to 95% of the wholesale price. The current study explores the change in tobacco prices in retail locations and whether the tax increase was fully passed to consumers. An observational study of tobacco retail prices was performed in a sample of 61 convenience stores in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Six rounds of data were collected between May 2013 and January 2014. In each round, purchases were made at the same stores for the same four tobacco products (Camel Blue cigarettes, Marlboro Gold cigarettes, Grizzly Wintergreen moist smokeless tobacco and Copenhagen Wintergreen moist smokeless tobacco). For all studied tobacco products, prices in Minnesota increased significantly after the tax increase (Round 1-Round 6). After controlling for price changes in neighbouring states, the average price difference in Minnesota for the two cigarette brands increased by US$1.89 and US$1.81, which are both more than the US$1.75 tax increase. For moist smokeless, the average price difference increased by US$0.90 and US$0.94. Significant price changes were not observed in the comparison states. After the introduction of the minimum moist smokeless tax, a significantly higher proportion of Minnesota stores offered price promotions on smokeless tobacco. A large tobacco tax resulted in an average retail cigarette price exceeding the tax, suggesting the industry over-shifted the cigarette tax increase to consumers in Minnesota. The findings support the known public health benefit of tobacco tax increases while highlighting the need for additional information about how, or if, tobacco companies use price promotions to blunt the impact of tax increases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  12. Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke by x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke of a large number of commonly available brands of cigarettes were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. This work supplements the data on the same samples gathered by INAA and reported earlier. Data on some toxic elements like Pb, Cu and Ni that could not be measured by INAA are presented. A number of chewing and snuff tobacco samples were also analyzed. The concentrations of Ca, K, Cl, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn in all these samples are presented and their relative hazards are discussed. (author)

  13. Global and Regional Patterns of Tobacco Smoking and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality from various diseases, including urologic diseases. We reviewed, at global and regional levels, the prevalence and trends of tobacco smoking and legislative and regulatory efforts around tobacco control. We also provided information about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. We used several sources to present the most up-to-date information from national surveys, including the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the Global Tobacco Control Report, and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Smoking prevalence has been decreasing globally, although trends in smoking vary substantially across countries and by gender. Among men, smoking prevalence in most high-income countries started to decrease in the mid-1990s, followed after a few decades by generally smaller decreases in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there has been no change, or there has even been an increase, in smoking prevalence in many other LMICs. Countries with the highest male smoking prevalence are located in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe. Similar to men, smoking prevalence for women has been decreasing in most high-income countries and some LMICs, although the decrease began later and was slower than that for men. Except in a few countries, smoking is much less common for women than for men. Most countries with the highest smoking prevalence in women are in Europe. Countries that have implemented the best practices for tobacco control, including monitoring, smoke-free policies, cessation programs, health warnings, advertising bans, and taxation, have been able to reduce smoking rates and related harms. E-cigarette use has rapidly increased since its introduction to the market. Health care providers should advise smoking patients about quitting smoking. Countries must improve the implementation and enforcement of tobacco control policies. Particular attention should be paid to preventing an increase in

  14. Endgame: engaging the tobacco industry in its own elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Henriksen, Lisa; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2013-01-01

    A billion deaths from tobacco are expected by 2100. Many policy interventions such as increased taxation, restrictions on advertisement, smoking bans, as well as behavioral interventions, such as pharmacological and psychological treatments for smoking cessation, decrease tobacco use, but they reach their limits. Endgame scenarios focusing on tobacco supply rather than demand are increasingly discussed, but meet with resistance by the industry and even by many tobacco control experts. A main ...

  15. Pan masala advertisements are surrogate for tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Sushma C; Sharang C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pan masala is a comparatively recent habit in India and is marketed with and without tobacco. Advertisements of tobacco products have been banned in India since 1st May 2004. The advertisements of plain pan masala, which continue in Indian media, have been suspected to be surrogate for tobacco products bearing the same name. The study was carried out to assess whether these advertisements were for the intended product, or for tobacco products with same brand name. MATERIALS AND ...

  16. The FDA “Deeming Rule” and Tobacco Regulatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Meissner, Helen I.; Ashley, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the Food and Drug Administration extended its tobacco regulatory authorities to other products meeting the definition of a tobacco product (Deeming Rule). This authority now includes, but is not limited to, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes, as well as all cigars, pipes, and hookahs (waterpipes). The FDA’s Center for Tobacco Products has been able to fund research projects addressing these newly deemed tobacco products through a variety of...

  17. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Detailed Astrometric Analysis of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I.; Assafin, M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Pluto is the main representant of the transneptunian objects (TNO's), presenting some peculiarities such as an atmosphere and a satellite system with 5 known moons: Charon, discovered in 1978, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, P4 in 2011 and P5 in 2012. Until the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft to this system (july 2015), stellar occultations are the most efficient method, from the ground, to know physical and dinamical properties of this system. In 2010, it was evident a drift in declinations (about 20 mas/year) comparing to the ephemerides. This fact motivated us to remake the reductions and analysis of a great set of our observations at OPD/LNA, in a total of 15 years. The ephemerides and occultations results was then compared with the astrometric and photometric reductions of CCD images of Pluto (around 6500 images). Two corrections were used for a refinement of the data set: diferential chromatic refraction and photocenter. The first is due to the mean color of background stars beeing redder than the color of Pluto, resulting in a slightly different path of light through the atmosphere (that may cause a difference in position of 0.1”). It became more evident because Pluto is crossing the region of the galactic plane. The photocenter correction is based on two gaussians curves overlapped, with different hights and non-coincident centers, corresponding to Pluto and Charon (since they have less than 1” of angular separation). The objective is to separate these two gaussian curves from the observed one and find the right position of Pluto. The method is strongly dependent of the hight of each of the gaussian curves, related to the respective albedos of charon and Pluto. A detailed analysis of the astrometric results, as well a comparison with occultation results was made. Since Pluto has an orbital period of 248,9 years and our interval of observation is about 15 years, we have around 12% of its observed orbit and also, our

  19. Involvement of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, M.; Linthorst, H.J.M.; Bol, J.F.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches were taken to investigate the significance of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) reacting hypersensitively to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous ethylene, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic

  20. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...