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Sample records for tobacco carcinogen nnk

  1. The tobacco carcinogen NNK is stereoselectively reduced by human pancreatic microsomes and cytosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushin, Neil; Leder, Gerhard; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Hoffmann, Dietrich; Beger, Hans G; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Ramadani, Marco; Prokopczyk, Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cancer of the pancreas. The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is the only known environmental compound that induces pancreatic cancer in laboratory animals. Concentrations of NNK are significantly higher in the pancreatic juice of smokers than in that of nonsmokers. The chiral NNK metabolite, (R,S)-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) is itself a potent pancreatic carcinogen in rats. The carcinogenicity of NNAL is related to its stereochemistry; (S)-NNAL is a more potent lung tumorigen in the A/J mouse than is (R)-NNAL. In this study, we determined the potential of the human pancreas to convert NNK into NNAL. Human pancreatic microsomes and cytosols were incubated with [5-(3)H]NNK, and the metabolic products were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (S)-NNAL was the predominant isomer formed in all cytosolic incubations. In ten microsomal samples, NNAL was formed at an average rate of 3.8 +/- 1.6 pmol/mg/min; (R)-NNAL was the predominant isomer in this group. The average rate of NNAL formation in 18 other microsomal samples was significantly lower, 0.13 +/- 0.12 pmol/mg/min (p < 0.001); (S)-NNAL was the predominant isomer formed in this group. In human pancreatic tissues, there is intraindividual variability regarding the capacity for, and stereoselectivity of, carbonyl reduction of NNK.

  2. Tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through NFκB activation and cyclin D1 up-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.-S.; Chen, Chien-Ho; Wang, Y.-J.; Pestell, Richard G.; Albanese, Chris; Chen, R.-J.; Chang, M.-C.; Jeng, J.-H.; Lin, S.-Y.; Liang, Y.-C.; Tseng, H.; Lee, W.-S.; Lin, J.-K.; Chu, J.-S.; Chen, L.-C.; Lee, C.-H.; Tso, W.-L.; Lai, Y.-C.; Wu, C.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. Nicotine is one of the major components of the cigarette smoke and the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a tobacco-specific carcinogen. Here, we demonstrated that NNK stimulated cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Cells exposed to NNK resulted in an increase in the level of cyclin D1 protein (as early as 3-6 h). Increased phosphorylation of the Rb Ser 795 was detected at 6-15 h after NNK treatment and thereby promoted cells entering into the S phase (at 15-21 h). The increased cyclin D1 protein level was induced through activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kB (NFκB), in the NHBE cells. Treatment of the NHBE cells with PD98059, an ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase)-specific inhibitor, specifically suppressed the NNK-induced IκBα phosphorylation at position 32 of the serine residue, suggesting that the ERK1/2 kinase was involved in the IκBα phosphorylation induced by NFκB activation. To determine whether the NNK-induced NFκB activation and cyclin D1 induction were also observed in vivo, A/J mice were treated with NNK (9.1 mg) for 20 weeks and the results showed a significant induction of cyclin D1 and NFκB translocation determined by immunoblotting analyses. We further demonstrated that the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR), which contains the α3-subunit, was the major target mediating NNK-induced cyclin D1 expression in the NHBE cells. In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time that NNK could stimulate normal human bronchial cell proliferation through activation of the NFκB, which in turn up-regulated the cyclin D1 expression

  3. Enhancements of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism and carcinogenic risk via NNK/arsenic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.-L.; Chang, Louis W.; Wu, J.-P.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hsieh, Dennis Paul Hsientang; Lin Pinpin

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated an enhancement of cigarette smoke-induced carcinogenicity, including hepatocellular carcinoma, by arsenic. We believe that arsenic will enhance the expression of hepatic CYP2A enzyme and NNK metabolism (a cigarette smoke component), thus its metabolites, and carcinogenic DNA adducts. Male ICR mice were exposed to NNK (0.5 mg/mouse) and sodium arsenite (0, 10, or 20 mg/kg) daily via gavaging for 10 days and their urine was collected at day 10 for NNK metabolite analysis. Liver samples were also obtained for CYP2A enzyme and DNA adducts evaluations. Both the cyp2a4/5 mRNA levels and the CYP2A enzyme activity were significantly elevated in arsenic-treated mice liver. Furthermore, urinary NNK metabolites in NNK/arsenic co-treated mice also increased compared to those treated with NNK alone. Concomitantly, DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine) were significantly elevated in the livers of mice co-treated with NNK and arsenic. Our findings provide clear evidence that arsenic increased NNK metabolism by up-regulation of CYP2A expression and activity leading to an increased NNK metabolism and DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine). These findings suggest that in the presence of arsenic, NNK could induce greater DNA adducts formation in hepatic tissues resulting in higher carcinogenic potential

  4. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  5. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of betel leaf extract against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, S V; Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that betel leaf inhibits the mutagenic action of standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since tobacco-specific nitrosamines are the major carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, we studied the effect of an extract of betel leaf on the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of one of the most potent, 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Betel-leaf extract and hydroxychavicol suppressed the mutagenicity of NNK in both the Ames and the micronucleus test. In studies in mice, betel-leaf extract reduced the tumorigenic effects of NNK by 25%. Concurrent treatment with the extract also inhibited the decreases in levels of vitamin A in liver and plasma induced by NNK. Betel leaf thus has protective effects against the mutagenic, carcinogenic and adverse metabolic effects of NNK in mice.

  6. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  7. Tobacco carcinogen (NNK) induces both lung cancer and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas in ferrets which can be attenuated by lycopene supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early epidemiologic studies have reported that tobacco smoking, which is causally associated with liver cancer, is an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Lycopene from tomatoes has been shown to be a potential preventive agent against NAFLD and hepatocellular carc...

  8. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jiaping [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Yang, Suping; Seng, Seyha, E-mail: sseng@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide. Tobacco-related cancers cause millions of deaths annually. Although several tobacco agents play a role in the development of tumors, the potent effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are unique. Metabolically activated NNK and NNN induce deleterious mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppression genes by forming DNA adducts, which could be considered as tumor initiation. Meanwhile, the binding of NNK and NNN to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promotes tumor growth by enhancing and deregulating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion, thereby creating a microenvironment for tumor growth. These two unique aspects of NNK and NNN synergistically induce cancers in tobacco-exposed individuals. This review will discuss various types of tobacco products and tobacco-related cancers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which nitrosamines, such as NNK and NNN, induce cancer.

  9. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80 + macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206 + TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer

  10. Anticarcinogenic effect of betel leaf extract against tobacco carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Lalitha, V S; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated that betel quid offers some protection to tobacco induced carcinogenesis. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown betel leaf extract (BLE) to be antimutagenic against standard mutagens and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the present study, we have tested the anticarcinogenic effect of BLE using Swiss male mice. Two protocols of study were used to test this effect. In the first protocol, the effect of BLE was tested against the standard carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) using Wattenberg's stomach tumor model, Cancer Res., 41 (1981) 2820-2823. In this protocol, BLE inhibited the tumorigenicity of BP to a significant extent. In the second protocol, the effect of BLE against the two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNN and NNK was studied using long-term studies on Swiss male mice. The nitrosamines were administered on the tongues of the mice, while the BLE was supplied in drinking water. Two doses of NNN (22 mg and 72 mg) and one dose of NNK (22 mg) were used. In this study, it was observed that the number of tumor bearing animals decreased, but the difference was significant only in the group treated with the low dose of NNN in combination with BLE. However, in all the BLE treated animals, irrespective of the dose of nitrosamine, the hepatic vitamin A and C levels were elevated significantly as compared to the corresponding nitrosamine-treated controls. These results indicate that BLE has a promising anticarcinogenic role to play in tobacco induced cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines NNN and NNK levels in cigarette brands between 2000 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Renaud, J-M; Hofer, R; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke is investigated based on smoke and tobacco chemistry data of cigarette brands sold by Philip Morris International (PMI) between 2000 and 2014. A total of 315 cigarette samples representing a wide range of product and design characteristics manufactured by PMI between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed and compared to a previously published dataset of PMI brands manufactured in 2000. The data indicate that there is a substantial reduction of NNN and NNK levels in tobacco fillers and MS cigarette smoke per mg of tar and per mg of nicotine using Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine-smoking regime. This observed reduction in NNN and NNK levels in MS cigarette smoke is also supported by the downward trend observed on NNN and NNK levels in USA flue-cured Virginia and Burley tobacco lots from 2000 to 2014 crops, reflecting effectiveness of measures taken on curing and agricultural practices designed to minimize TSNA formation in tobacco. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A high efficient nanostructured filter based on functionalized carbon nanotube to reduce the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Filtration efficiency of Pd and Ni loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes via the applicability of the adsorption process for the removal NNK, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, from tobacco smoke were investigated using first-principles calculations. The thermal and mechanical stability of designed nanostructured filter could allow them to compete with typical commercially used. It is expected that the removal efficiency of the proposed nanostructured filter could also provide a promising adsorbent candidate in removing the environmental pollutant. The suggested separation mechanism in this study was discussed with frontier molecular orbital theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses and the density of states in the density functional theory framework. Finally, by the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM), the topological properties of the electron density contributions for intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been analyzed. Calculations show that the transition metal-loaded SWCNT exhibit strong affinity toward the NNK molecules.

  13. Arsenite promotes centrosome abnormalities under a p53 compromised status induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, W.-T.; Yu, H.-S.; Lin Pinpin; Chang, Louis W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus an interaction between arsenite and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, NNK) and arsenite on lung cell transformation. BEAS-2B, an immortalized human lung epithelial cell line, was selected to test the centrosomal abnormalities and colony formation by NNK and arsenite. We found that NNK, alone, could enhance BEAS-2B cell growth at 1-5 μM. Under NNK exposure, arsenite was able to increase centrosomal abnormality as compared with NNK or arsenite treatment alone. NNK treatment could also reduce arsenite-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, these cellular effects were found to be correlated with p53 dysfunction. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells cotreated with NNK and arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that NNK could provide a p53 compromised status. Arsenite would act specifically on this p53 compromised status to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenite under tobacco-specific carcinogen co-exposure.

  14. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  15. Nicotinic receptor-associated modulation of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in NNK-induced adenocarcinoma of the lungs and pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wadei, Hussein A. N.; Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2012-01-01

    Small airway-derived pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are among the most common human cancers and smoking is a risk factor for both. Emerging research has identified cAMP signaling stimulated by the stress neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline as important stimulators of several adenocarcinomas, including PAC and PDAC. The nicotine-derived nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent mutagen and the most powerful tobacco carcinogen. NNK is also an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Using hamster models of NNK-induced PAC and PDAC, we have tested the hypothesis that in analogy to chronic effects of nicotine in the brain, NNK may modulate the α7- and α4β2nAChRs, causing an increase in stress neurotransmitters and decrease in the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In support of our hypothesis, immunoassays showed a significant increase in serum adrenaline/noradrenaline and increased intracellular cAMP in the cellular fraction of blood of NNK treated hamsters. Western blots were done with cells harvested by laser capture microcopy from control small airway epithelia, alveolar epithelia, pancreatic islet and pancreatic duct epithelia and from NNK-induced PACs and PDACs. The GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABA were suppressed in NNK-induced PACs and PDACs whereas protein expression of the α7nAChR, α4nAChR as well as p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 were upregulated. These findings suggest, for the first time, that NNK-induced alterations in regulatory nAChRs may contribute to the development of smoking-associated PAC and PDAC by disturbing the balance between cancer stimulating and inhibiting neurotransmitters. PMID:19274673

  16. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Carbonyl Reduction of NNK by Recombinant Human Lung Enzymes. Identification of HSD17β12 as the Reductase important in (R)-NNAL formation in Human Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph H; Luo, Shaman; Watson, Christy J W; Lazarus, Philip

    2018-05-17

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is the most abundant and carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The major metabolic pathway for NNK is carbonyl reduction to form the (R) and (S) enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) which, like NNK, is a potent lung carcinogen. The goal of the present study was to characterize NNAL enantiomer formation in human lung and identify the enzymes responsible for this activity. While (S)-NNAL was the major enantiomer of NNAL formed in incubations with NNK in lung cytosolic fractions, (R)-NNAL comprised ~60 and ~95% of the total NNAL formed in lung whole cell lysates and microsomes, respectively. In studies examining the role of individual recombinant reductase enzymes in lung NNAL enantiomer formation, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4 and CBR1 all exhibited (S)-NNAL formation activity. To identify the microsomal enzymes responsible for (R)-NNAL formation, 28 microsomal reductase enzymes were screened for expression by real-time PCR in normal human lung. HSD17β6, HSD17β12, KDSR, NSDHL, RDH10, RDH11 and SDR16C5 were all expressed at levels >HSD11β1, the only previously reported microsomal reductase enzyme with NNK-reducing activity, with HSD17β12 the most highly expressed. Of these lung-expressing enzymes, only HSD17β12 exhibited activity against NNK, forming primarily (>95%) (R)-NNAL, a pattern consistent with that observed in lung microsomes. siRNA knockdown of HSD17β12 resulted in significant decreases in (R)-NNAL formation activity in HEK293 cells. These data suggest that both cytosolic and microsomal enzymes are active against NNK and that HSD17β12 is the major active microsomal reductase that contributes to (R)-NNAL formation in human lung.

  18. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  19. Protective effect of hydroxychavicol, a phenolic component of betel leaf, against the tobacco-specific carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonkar, A J; Padma, P R; Bhide, S V

    1989-02-01

    The phenolic compound, hydroxychavicol (HC), present in betel leaf, was synthesised and tested for its antimutagenic effect against the mutagenicity of the 2 tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in 2 different test systems, viz. the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test using Swiss male mice. We are reporting the synthesis of HC of a high degree of purity. We observed that HC suppressed the mutagenic effects of NNN and NNK in both test systems used. These results indicate that HC may have a role to play in reducing the risk of oral cancer in betel quid with tobacco chewers.

  20. K-ras gene sequence effects on the formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegel, Rebecca; Shallop, Anthony; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco specific pulmonary carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolically activated to electrophilic species that form methyl and pyridyloxobutyl adducts with genomic DNA, including O(6)-methylguanine, N7-methylguanine, and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]guanine. If not repaired, these lesions could lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. Previous studies used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR) in combination with PAGE to examine the distribution of NNK-induced strand breaks and alkali labile lesions (e.g., N7-methylguanine) within gene sequences. However, LMPCR cannot be used to establish the distribution patterns of highly promutagenic O(6)-methylguanine and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]guanine adducts of NNK. We have developed methods based on stable isotope labeling HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) that enable us to accurately quantify NNK-induced adducts at defined sites within DNA sequences. In the present study, the formation of N7-methylguanine, O(6)-methylguanine, and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]guanine adducts at specific positions within a K-ras gene-derived double-stranded DNA sequence (5'-G(1)G(2)AG(3)CTG(4)G(5)TG(6)G(7)CG(8)TA G(9)G(10)C-3') was investigated following treatment with activated NNK metabolites. All three lesions preferentially formed at the second position of codon 12 (GGT), the major mutational hotspot for G-->A and G-->T base substitutions observed in smoking-induced lung tumors. Therefore, our data support the involvement of NNK and other tobacco specific nitrosamines in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

  1. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  2. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  3. Chemopreventive Effects of the p53-Modulating Agents CP-31398 and Prima-1 in Tobacco Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthalapally V. Rao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Expression of the p53 tumor suppressor protein is frequently altered in tobacco-associated lung cancers. We studied chemopreventive effects of p53-modulating agents, namely, CP-31398 and Prima-1, on 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma formation in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with a single dose of NNK (10 µmol/mouse by intraperitoneal injection and, 3 weeks later, were randomized to mice fed a control diet or experimental diets containing 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 or 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 for either 17 weeks (10 mice/group or 34 weeks (15 mice/group to assess the efficacy against lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Dietary feeding of 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 significantly suppressed (P < .0001 lung adenocarcinoma by 64% and 73%, respectively, after 17 weeks and by 47% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Similarly, 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 significantly suppressed (P < .0001 lung adenocarcinoma formation by 56% and 62%, respectively, after 17 weeks and 39% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Importantly, these results suggest that both p53 modulators cause a delay in the progression of adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumors from mice exposed to p53-modulating agents showed a significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased accumulation of wild-type p53 in the nucleus. An increase in p21- and apoptotic-positive cells was also observed in lung tumors of mice exposed to p53-modulating agents. These results support a chemopreventive role of p53-modulating agents in tobacco carcinogen-induced lung adenocarcinoma formation.

  4. Sex hormones reduce NNK detoxification through inhibition of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeld, Claudia; Maser, Edmund

    2017-10-01

    Carbonyl reduction is an important metabolic pathway for endogenous and xenobiotic substances. The tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone) is classified as carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 1) and considered to play the most important role in tobacco-related lung carcinogenesis. Detoxification of NNK through carbonyl reduction is catalyzed by members of the AKR- and the SDR-superfamilies which include AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C4, 11β-HSD1 and CBR1. Because some reductases are also involved in steroid metabolism, five different hormones were tested for their inhibitory effect on NNK carbonyl reduction. Two of those hormones were estrogens (estradiol and ethinylestradiol), another two hormones belong to the gestagen group (progesterone and drospirenone) and the last tested hormone was an androgen (testosterone). Furthermore, one of the estrogens (ethinylestradiol) and one of the gestagens (drospirenone) are synthetic hormones, used as hormonal contraceptives. Five of six NNK reducing enzymes (AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C4 and 11β-HSD1) were significantly inhibited by the tested sex hormones. Only NNK reduction catalyzed by CBR1 was not significantly impaired. In the case of the other five reductases, gestagens had remarkably stronger inhibitory effects at a concentration of 25 μM (progesterone: 66-88% inhibition; drospirenone: 26-87% inhibition) in comparison to estrogens (estradiol: 17-51% inhibition; ethinylestradiol: 14-79% inhibition) and androgens (14-78% inhibition). Moreover, in most cases the synthetic hormones showed a greater ability to inhibit NNK reduction than the physiologic derivatives. These results demonstrate that male and female sex hormones have different inhibitory potentials, thus indicating that there is a varying detoxification capacity of NNK in men and women which could result in a different risk for developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  5. Involvement of p53 Mutation and Mismatch Repair Proteins Dysregulation in NNK-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  6. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  7. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis XLVIII. Carcinogenicity of N'-nitrosonornicotine in mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppang, N; Rivenson, A; Reith, A; Dahle, H K; Evensen, O; Hoffmann, D

    1992-11-01

    During tobacco processing and smoking, nicotine and nornicotine give rise to N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a highly abundant, strong carcinogen. NNN is known to exert carcinogenic activity in mice, rats and hamsters. Major target organs for NNN carcinogenicity in the rat are the esophagus and the nasal mucosa, and in the Syrian golden hamster trachea and nasal mucosa. In comparison with the rat, the mink (Mustela vison) has a markedly expanded nasal mucosa. Therefore, we explored in this study whether the mink could serve as a non-rodent model for nasal carcinogenesis using NNN as the carcinogen. Twenty random-bred mink, beginning at the age of 3 weeks, received twice weekly s.c. injections of NNN, a total dose of 11.9 mM per animal over a 38 week period. All of the 19 mink at risk developed malignant tumors of both the respiratory and the olfactory region of the nose within 3.5 years. In most animals the malignant tumors, primarily esthesioneuroepithelioma, invaded the brain. Remarkably, NNN induced no other tumors in the mink. None of the control animals developed nasal tumors nor tumors at other sites during the 3.5 years of the assay. The historical data from the farm did not reveal any spontaneous occurrence of nasal tumors in mink at any age. This study supports the concept that NNN is a proven carcinogen for multiple species of mammals and that the mink can serve as a non-rodent, non-inbred animal model for nasal carcinogenesis, especially since NNN induces only tumors in the nasal cavity in this species and not at other sites, as it does in mice, rats and hamsters.

  8. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Berg, Carla J; Hayes, Rashelle B; Nollen, Nicole L; Thomas, Janet L; Guo, Hongfei; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-05-01

    Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers during the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups. We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Participants included 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4-24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, they smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and they smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9 ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated (r = .84); NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd (r = .39 and r = .34; all p values smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%-50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking.

  9. Agonist and antagonist effects of tobacco-related nitrosamines on human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBrusco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the ‘neuronal’ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs is implicated in both tobacco addiction and smoking-dependent tumor promotion. Some of these effects are caused by the tobacco-derived N-nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds that avidly bind to nAChRs. However, the functional effects of these drugs on specific nAChR subtypes are largely unknown. By using patch-clamp methods, we tested 4-(methylnitrosamine-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN on human α4β2 nAChRs. These latter are widely distributed in the mammalian brain and are also frequently expressed outside the nervous system. NNK behaved as a partial agonist, with an apparent EC50 of 16.7 μM. At 100 μM, it activated 16 % of the maximal current activated by nicotine. When NNK was co-applied with nicotine, it potentiated the currents elicited by nicotine concentrations ≤ 100 nM. At higher concentrations of nicotine, NNK always inhibited the α4β2 nAChR. In contrast, NNN was a pure inhibitor of this nAChR subtype, with IC50 of approximately 1 nM in the presence of 10 μM nicotine. The effects of both NNK and NNN were mainly competitive and largely independent of Vm. The different actions of NNN and NNK must be taken into account when interpreting their biological effects in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Protective effects of coffee against oxidative stress induced by the tobacco carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Sandra; Landerer, Steffen; Reich, Julia; Strassburg, Christian P

    2017-07-01

    Coffee consumption has been epidemiologically associated with a lower risk for liver cirrhosis and cancer. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT1A) catalyze the detoxification of reactive metabolites thereby acting as indirect antioxidants. Aim of the study was to examine UGT1A regulation in response to Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) to elucidate the potentially protective effects of coffee on BaP-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. In cell culture (HepG2, KYSE70 cells) and in htgUGT1A-WT mice, UGT1A transcription was activated by BaP, while it was reduced or absent htgUGT1A-SNP (containing 10 commonly occurring UGT1A-SNPs) mice. siRNA-mediated knockdown identified aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) as mediators of BaP-induced UGT1A upregulation. Exposure to coffee led to a reduction of BaP-induced production of reactive oxygen species in vitro and in htgUGT1A-WT and -SNP mice. After UGT1A silencing by UGT1A-specific siRNA in cell culture, the coffee-mediated reduction of ROS production was significantly impaired compared to UGT1A expressing cells. A common UGT1A haplotype, prevalent in 9% (homozygous) of the White population, significantly impairs the expression of UGT1A enzymes in response to the putative tobacco carcinogen BaP and is likely to represent a significant risk factor for reduced detoxification and increased genotoxicity. Coffee was demonstrated to inhibit BaP-induced production of oxidative stress by UGT1A activation, and is therefore an attractive candidate for chemoprotection in risk groups for HCC or other tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  12. Betel quid chewing without tobacco: a meta-analysis of carcinogenic and precarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wan, Yi; Xu, Yong-Yong

    2015-03-01

    Betel quid without tobacco is an important factor influencing the incidences of oral cancer and precancer. This study systematically evaluated the associations between betel quid containing no tobacco and oral cancer and precancer, with implications for the prevention of oral cancer. We searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE (to April 2011) and retrieved studies that investigated the relationship between chewing betel quid and oral cancer (or precancer). We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the published data and describe the prevalence of betel quid use with regard to cancerous diseases. In all, 19 eligible studies that reported odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oral cancer with respect to betel quid were included. The analysis identified an association suggesting that betel quid might be an important risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The results of this review suggest that betel-chewing-cessation programs should be developed to help prevent oral diseases. © 2013 APJPH.

  13. Endogenous 5-methylcytosine protects neighboring guanines from N7 and O6-methylation and O6-pyridyloxobutylation by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegel, Rebecca; Shallop, Anthony; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-01-20

    All CG dinucleotides along exons 5-8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene contain endogenous 5-methylcytosine (MeC). These same sites (e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273) are mutational hot spots in smoking-induced lung cancer. Several groups used the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay to demonstrate that methylated CG dinucleotides of the p53 gene are the preferred binding sites for the diol epoxides of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, effects of endogenous cytosine methylation on the distribution of DNA lesions induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines, e.g., 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), have not been elucidated. In the work presented here, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the reactivity of the N7 and O6 positions of guanines within hemimethylated and fully methylated CG dinucleotides toward NNK-derived methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. 15N3-labeled guanine bases were placed within synthetic DNA sequences representing endogenously methylated p53 codons 154, 157, and 248, followed by treatment with acetylated precursors to NNK diazohydroxides. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the relative yields of N7- and O6-guanine adducts at the 15N3-labeled position. In all cases, the presence of MeC inhibited the formation of N7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine, and O6-pyridyloxobutylguanine at a neighboring G, with the greatest decrease observed in fully methylated dinucleotides and at guanines preceded by MeC. Furthermore, the O6-Me-dG/N7-Me-G molar ratios were decreased in the presence of the 5'-neighboring MeC, suggesting that the observed decline in O6-alkylguanine adduct yields is, at least partially, a result of an altered reactivity pattern in methylated CG dinucleotides. These results indicate that, unlike N2-guanine adducts of PAH diol epoxides, NNK-induced N7- and O6-alkylguanine adducts are not preferentially formed at the endogenously

  14. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F. [Laboratório de Oncologia Comparada e Translacional, Departmento de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental e Comparada, Departmento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3{sup −}. Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3{sup +} tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice.

  15. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F.; Dagli, M.L.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3 − . Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3 + tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice

  16. Study on cellular genotoxicities induced by alpha particles irradiation in combination with NNK treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie; Cao Zhenshan; Mi Na; Chen Zhongmin; Liu Gang; Wei Han; Li Huiying; Zhu Maoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cellular genotoxicities of aplha particles irradiation in combination with NNK treatment. Methods: Exponentially growing immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were divided into the normal control group (NC), alpha particles irradiation (α), NNK administration group (NNK), NNK administration (100 μg/ml) followed by alpha particles irradiation group (NNK + α), and alpha particles irradiation followed by NNK administration (100 μg/ml) group (μ + NNK). DNA damage were detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE); multinuclear cell assay was used to detect the frequency of the HPRT gene mutation; cell micronucleus frequency were detected by cytogenetic methods. Results: In the group exposed to both alpha particles irradiation and NNK, DNA damage, HPRT gene mutation frequency, and cell micronucleus frequency were significantly higher than those in the same dose groups irradiated with alpha particles or NNK administration alone. Subtracted the NNK effect, DNA damage, HPRT gene mutation frequency and cell micronucleus frequency in the group irradiated by alpha particles in combination with NNK administration were significantly higher than those of alpha particles irradiation alone. Conclusion: The genotoxicity of alpha particles irradiation in combination with NNK administration had synergistic effect. (authors)

  17. Identification of an unintended consequence of Nrf2-directed cytoprotection against a key tobacco carcinogen plus a counteracting chemopreventive intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonessa, Joseph D.; Ding, Yi; Randall, Kristen L.; Munday, Rex; Argoti, Dayana; Vouros, Paul; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2011-01-01

    Nrf2 is a major cytoprotective gene and is a key chemopreventive target against cancer and other diseases. Here we show that Nrf2 faces a dilemma in defense against 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), a major human bladder carcinogen from tobacco smoke and other environmental sources. While Nrf2 protected mouse liver against ABP (which is metabolically activated in liver), the bladder level of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), the predominant ABP-DNA adduct formed in bladder cells and tissues, was markedly higher in Nrf2+/+ mice than in Nrf2−/− mice after ABP exposure. Notably, Nrf2 protected bladder cells against ABP in vitro. Mechanistic investigations showed that the dichotomous effects of Nrf2 could be explained at least partly by upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Nrf2 promoted conjugation of ABP with glucuronic acid in the liver, increasing urinary excretion of the conjugate. While glucuronidation of ABP and its metabolites is a detoxification process, these conjugates, which are excreted in urine, are known to be unstable in acidic urine, leading to delivery of the parent compounds to bladder. Hence, while higher liver UGT activity may protect the liver against ABP it increases bladder exposure to ABP. These findings raise concerns of potential bladder toxicity when Nrf2-activating chemopreventive agents are used in humans exposed to ABP, especially in smokers. We further demonstrate that 5,6-dihydrocyclopenta[c][1,2]-dithiole-3(4H)-thione (CPDT) significantly inhibits dG-C8-ABP formation in bladder cells and tissues, but does not appear to significantly modulate ABP-catalyzing UGT in liver. Thus, CPDT exemplifies a counteracting solution to the dilemma posed by Nrf2. PMID:21487034

  18. Study on cytotoxicities induced by alpha particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie; Cao Zhenshan; Mi Na; Chen Zhongmin; Liu Gang; Wei Han; Li Huiyin; Zhu Maoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cytotoxicities of alpha-particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment. Methods: Exponentially growing immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were divided into normal control group (NC), alpha particle irradiation group (α), NNK administration group (NNK), NNK administration (100 μg/ml) followed by alpha particle irradiation group (NNK + α), and alphaparticle irradiation followed by NNK administration (100 μg/ml) group (α + NNK). Cell survival fractions were measured by cloning rate of low-density plating cell. Ethidium bromide and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein, fluorescent products of the membrane-permeable dyes hydroethine and 2', 7'-dichloroflurescindiacetate were used to monitor the inarticulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) . Damage to membrane permeability was evaluated through testing LDH activity in medium. Results: In the groups exposed to both alpha particles and NNK, the survival rates were significantly lower than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. The levels of intracellular ROS and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. Subtracted the NNK effect, the survival rates of the groups received both alpha particle irradiation and NNK treatment were significantly lower than that of alpha particle irradiated only group. However, the intracellular ROS level and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of alpha-particle irradiated only group. In addition, the survival rates of the cells in groups exposed to alpha particle irradiation followed by NNK administration were significantly lower than that of cells treated with NNK administration followed by alpha particle irradiation. Conclusions: Alpha particle irradiation and NNK administration had synergisticity in cytotoxicity, and furthermore different schedules of the administration resulted in

  19. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1–2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0–1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk

  20. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  1. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Chemical and radioactive carcinogens in cigarettes: associated health impacts and responses of the tobacco industry, U.S. Congress, and federal regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Dade W; Sun, Lin-Shen C

    2010-11-01

    ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb were discovered in tobacco in 1964. This was followed by detailed assessments of the nature of their deposition, and accompanying dose rates to the lungs of cigarette smokers. Subsequent studies revealed: (1) the sources and pathways through which they gain access to tobacco; (2) the mechanisms through which they preferentially deposit in key segments of the bronchial epithelium; and (3) the fact that the accompanying alpha radiation plays a synergistic role in combination with the chemical carcinogens, to increase the fatal cancer risk coefficient in cigarette smokers by a factor of 8 to 25. Nonetheless, it was not until 2009 that Congress mandated that the Food and Drug Administration require that the cigarette industry reveal the presence of these carcinogens. In the meantime, cigarette smoking has become not only the number one source of cancer deaths in the United States, but also a major contributor to heart disease and other health impacts. If the latter effects are included, smoking is estimated to have caused an average of 443,000 deaths and 5.1 million years of potential life lost among the U.S. population each year from 2000 through 2004. The estimated associated collective dose is more than 36 times that to the workers at all the U.S. nuclear power plants, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities, and crews of all the vessels in the U.S. Nuclear Navy. This unnecessary source of lung cancer deaths demands the utmost attention of the radiation protection and public health professions.

  3. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  4. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  5. Decay kinetics of nicotine/NNK-DNA adducts in vivo studied by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.F.; He, L.; Liu, Y.F.; Liu, K.X.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Ma, H.J.; Li, K.

    2000-01-01

    The decay kinetics of nicotine-DNA adducts and NNK-DNA adducts in mice liver after single dosing was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The decay is characterized by a two-stage process. The half-lives of nicotine-DNA adducts are 1.3 d (4-24 h) and 7.0 d (1-21 d), while for NNK-DNA adducts are 0.7 d (4-24 h) and 18.0 d (1-21 d). The relatively faster decay of nicotine-DNA adducts suggests that the genotoxicity of nicotine is weaker than that of NNK. The in vitro study shows that the metabolization of nicotine is necessary for the final formation of nicotine-DNA adducts, and nicotine Δ1'(5') iminium ion is a probable metabolite species that binds to DNA molecule covalently

  6. Formation of formaldehyde adducts in the reactions of DNA and deoxyribonucleosides with alpha-acetates of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guang; Wang, Mingyao; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Villalta, Peter W; Hecht, Stephen S

    2008-03-01

    The cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the carcinogenic nitrosamines N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, 1), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 6a), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, 6b) produces diazonium ions and formaldehyde. The DNA-binding properties of the diazonium ions have been thoroughly characterized, and there is no doubt that they are critical in cancer induction by these nitrosamines. However, the possibility of additional DNA damage via released formaldehyde has not been reported. In this study, we used acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (5), 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (10a), and 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (10b) as stable precursors to the alpha-hydroxymethylnitrosamines that would be formed in the metabolism of NDMA, NNK, and NNAL. These alpha-acetates were incubated with calf thymus DNA in the presence of esterase at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. The DNA was isolated and enzymatically hydrolyzed to deoxyribonucleosides, and the hydrolysates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring for formaldehyde DNA adducts. Convincing evidence for the formation of the formaldehyde adducts N6-hydroxymethyl-dAdo (11), N4-hydroxymethyl-dCyd (12), N2-hydroxymethyl-dGuo (13), and the cross-links di-(N6-deoxyadenosyl)methane (14), (N6-deoxyadenosyl- N2-deoxyguanosyl)methane (15), and di-(N2-deoxyguanosyl)methane (16) was obtained in these reactions. These results demonstrate that NDMA, NNK, and NNAL have the potential to be bident carcinogens, damaging DNA through the metabolic formation of both diazonium ions and formaldehyde.

  7. Apple Flavonoids Suppress Carcinogen-Induced DNA Damage in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazhappilly Cijo George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4 against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. Methods and Results. AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK, NNK acetate (NNK-Ae, methotrexate (MTX, and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage. Furthermore, phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX and proteins involved in DNA damage (ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and p53 and repair (DNA-PKcs and Ku80 mechanisms were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed that AF4-pretreated cells showed lower cytotoxicity, total ROS generation, and DNA fragmentation along with consequent inhibition of DNA tail moment. An increased level of γ-H2AX and DNA damage proteins was observed in carcinogen-treated cells and that was significantly (p≤0.05 inhibited in AF4-pretreated cells, in an ATR-dependent manner. AF4 pretreatment also facilitated the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and thus initiation of repair mechanisms. Conclusion. Apple flavonoids can protect in vitro oxidative DNA damage and facilitate repair mechanisms.

  8. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  9. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H.; Rossiter, Lana M.; Taylor, Kenneth M.; Holman, Matthew R.; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration’s list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N’-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated, HPLC-MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands whereas NNK and NAB were present in the least amounts. The average of the ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of each TSNA to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R2 = 0.61 – 0.98) and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands. PMID:28001416

  10. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  11. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  13. Hypomethylated Fgf3 is a potential biomarker for early detection of oral cancer in mice treated with the tobacco carcinogen dibenzo[def,p]chrysene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Wan Sun

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic alterations observed at end stage OSCC formation could be considered as a consequence of cancer development and thus changes in normal or premalignant tissues which had been exposed to oral carcinogens such as Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP may better serve as predictive biomarkers of disease development. Many types of DNA damage can induce epigenetic changes which can occur early and in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore we used ERRBS to generate genome-scale, single-base resolution DNA methylomes from histologically normal oral tissues of mice treated with DBP under experimental conditions known to induce maximum DNA damage which is essential for the development of OSCC induced by DBP in mice. After genome-wide correction, 30 and 48 differentially methylated sites (DMS were identified between vehicle control and DBP treated mice using 25% and 10% differences in methylation, respectively. RT-PCR was further performed to examine the expressions of nine selected genes. Among them, Fgf3, a gene frequently amplified in head and neck cancer, showed most prominent and significant gene expression change (2.4× increases, despite the hypomethylation of Fgf3 was identified at >10kb upstream of transcription start site. No difference was observed in protein expression between normal oral tissues treated with DBP or vehicle as examined by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, our results indicate that Fgf3 hypomethylation and gene overexpression, but not protein expression, occurred in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis induced by DBP. Thus, Fgf3 hypomethylation may serve as a potential biomarker for early detection of OSCC.

  14. Facile Synthesis of CeO2-LaFeO3 Perovskite Composite and Its Application for 4-(Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-Pyridyl-1-Butanone (NNK Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixuan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A facile and environmentally friendly surface-ion adsorption method using CeCO3OH@C as template was demonstrated to synthesize CeO2-LaFeO3 perovskite composite material. The obtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS measurements. The catalytic degradation of nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK was tested to evaluate catalytic activity of the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite. Much better activity was observed for the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite comparing with CeO2 and LaFeO3. These results suggested that perovskite composite materials are a promising candidate for the degradation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs.

  15. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  16. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belpomme, D.; Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment

  17. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    . Human experience with known carcinogens such as tobacco, asbestos, and benzidine convinces us that environmental carcinogens constitute a real threat to human health, although predicting human carcinogens from rodent tests involves a number of uncertainties. These uncertainties do not mean that we should simply ignore the presence of carcinogens. Rather, in the interests of public safety, a serious effort should be made to resolve the questions surrounding the presence of chemicals identified as rodent carcinogens in our food. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 39:69-80, 2002 Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  19. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  20. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  1. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  2. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  3. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  4. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  5. Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Lisk, D; Fisenne, I; Brunnemann, K D

    1987-12-01

    The oral use of snuff is causatively associated with cancer of the oral cavity. Since most epidemiologic studies to date relate to the long-term use of dry snuff, which has dominated the U.S. smokeless tobacco market in the past, the concentrations of several toxic and carcinogenic agents in the three most popular dry snuff brands have been compared with those in the five most popular moist snuff brands sold in the United States. All eight samples were analyzed for nitrate, alkaloids, polyphenols, volatile carbonyl compounds, lead, cadmium, selenium, and the carcinogenic compounds benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), polonium-210 (CAS: 13981-52-7), volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs), N-nitrosodiethanolamine (CAS: 1116-54-7), and the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs). Most of the snuff brands were rich in nitrate (greater than or equal to 1.5%), total polyphenols (greater than 2%), and in nicotine (greater than or equal to 1.5%), which is the habituating factor in tobacco use. Concentrations of the VNAs were significantly above the permissible limits set for some food products; the concentrations of the TSNAs in both snuff types exceeded the levels of nitrosamines in other consumer products by at least two to three orders of magnitude. The extremely high levels of the TSNAs in snuff have remained unchanged during the last decade and present the major carcinogenic risk factor for the oral use of snuff. Polonium-210 contributes further to the carcinogenic risk associated with snuff. The chemical-analytical data presented in this study do not indicate marked differences in the carcinogenic potential of moist snuff compared to dry snuff.

  6. Acute and subacute effects of tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and phenethyl isothiocyanate on N'-nitrosonornicotine metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyroller, Stefan; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Thalheim, Charlotte; Richter, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) was the first tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) identified as carcinogen in tobacco smoke, but no data exist on in vivo interactions between NNN and other tobacco alkaloids, TSNA or phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) which have been demonstrated in various studies on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Acute effects on NNN metabolism were tested in male Fischer F344 rats injected s.c. with 30 nmol/kg body weight (bw) [5- 3 H]NNN either alone or simultaneously with 15 μmol/kg bw nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, or anabasine, 150 μmol/kg bw cotinine, 3 μmol/kg bw myosmine, or 300 nmol/kg bw of either N'-nitrosoanatabine or N'-nitrosoanabasine. Another group of rats was fed a diet supplemented with PEITC at 1 μmol/g diet starting 24 h before NNN treatment. Within 24 h more than 80% and about 10% of the radioactivity was excreted with urine and feces, respectively. Urinary metabolites were separated by reversed-phase radio-HPLC and identified by co-chromatography with UV standards. In two sets of experiments with control rats treated with NNN only, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid, 44.4/44.8%), 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid, 32.4/31.5%), NNN-N-oxide (5.0/3.8%), 4-(3-pyridyl)butane-1,4-diol (diol, 1.1/1.0%) and norcotinine (2.3/1.0%) were consistently detected besides unmetabolised NNN (4.7/3.3%). Co-treatment with nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine and PEITC shifted the contribution of the two major metabolites significantly in favor of hydroxy acid (108-113% of control) as compared to keto acid (86-90% of control). The same treatments also increased norcotinine (135-170% of control). These changes are consistent with a decreased metabolic activation of NNN. In subacute studies rats received NNN in drinking water for 4 weeks at a daily dose of 30 nmol/kg bw with or without nornicotine at 15 μmol/kg bw or myosmine at 3 μmol/kg bw. On the last day of the experiment all rats received [5- 3 H

  7. Radioactivity and tobacco; Radioactivite et tabac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    We drew the parallel between the effects on the health, in particular carcinogenic, of irradiation and tobacco. As regards this last one the carcinogenic main part of its activity is, doubtless, of chemical origin (tars and nicotine), but a part could be due to the radioactivity. Indeed, the tobacco possesses an activity due to isotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, daughter products of radon. This activity is 10 pico-becquerel by package of cigarette. The radioactive isotopes settle on the lung mucous membrane. The Academy of Sciences (US) so estimates the annual dose delivered in lungs to approximately 80 milli-sievert. This relatively important dose is however delivered only in a small fraction of the lung tissue (approximately 250 cm{sup 3}). Of this fact it contributes only weakly to the carcinogenic effect of the tobacco. (N.C.)

  8. Blood proteins as carcinogen dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, S.R.; Skipper, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of quantifying exposure to genotoxins in a given individual represents a formidable challenge. In this paper methods which rely on the covalent binding of carcinogens and their metabolites to blood proteins are described. That carcinogens interact with proteins as well as with DNA has been established, although whether protein-carcinogen adducts can result in genetic damage has not been established. It has been shown, however, that the amount of a protein carcinogen adduct formed may be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to a carcinogen. Such a measure presumably is reflective of the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the compound in an exposed individual. Protein adduction may reflect exposure in a time-frame of weeks to months. Thus, protein adduct measurement is a form of human chemical dosimetry. Hemoglobin and albumin are promising candidates for such dosimeters. Hemoglobin has a lifetime of about 120 days in humans; thus, circulating levels of carcinogen-modified hemoglobin will reflect the level of carcinogen exposure during a period of nearly four months. It also possesses some metabolic competence, particularly, the ability to oxidize aromatic hydroxylamines to nitroso compounds which react quite efficiently with sulfhydryl groups. Albumin has a half-life of 20 to 25 days in man. This protein does not possess metabolic capacity other than, perhaps, some esterase activity. In contrast to hemoglobin, though, it is not protected by the erythrocyte membrane and might be the target for a greater number of carcinogens. It is present and is synthesized in the same cells in which the reactive metabolic intermediates of carcinogens are mostly formed - the hepatocytes. Also, albumin has a number of high-affinity binding sites for a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. 25 refs., 1 tab

  9. Carcinogenicity of soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbak, N P

    1970-01-01

    A total of 270 3-mo-old mice, hybrids of the C57BL and CBA strains which are highly susceptible to carcinogens, were painted on the skin (2-3 admin./week) with 3-4 drops of (1) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken near a petroleum refinery with a 3,4 benzpyrene (BP) content of 0.22%; (2) a 0.22% soln of pure BP in benzene; (3) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken from an old residential area of Moscow (BP content 0.0004%); (4) a 0.0004% BP soln in benzene; and (5) pure benzene. Only mice in the first 2 groups developed tumors. In group (1), 8 mice had papillomas, 46 had skin cancer, 1 had a sarcoma and 2 had plasmocytomas. In group (2) all 60 animals had skin cancer. Lung metastases were present at autopsy in 5 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2); in some cases, these tumors were multiple. Lymph node metastases were found in 6 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2). Tumors developed more slowly in group (1) than in group (2).

  10. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P 450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate

  11. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  12. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  13. Secondhand smoke in waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katherine A; Magid, Hoda; Torrey, Christine; Rule, Ana M; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Susan, Jolie; Sun, Zhuolu; Abubaker, Salahaddin; Levshin, Vladimir; Çarkoğlu, Aslı; Radwan, Ghada Nasr; El-Rabbat, Maha; Cohen, Joanna; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking has risen in recent decades. Controlled studies suggest that waterpipe secondhand smoke (SHS) contains similar or greater quantities of toxicants than cigarette SHS, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Few studies have examined SHS from waterpipe tobacco in real-world settings. The purpose of this study was to quantify SHS exposure levels and describe the characteristics of waterpipe tobacco venues. In 2012-2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues (9 in Istanbul, 17 in Moscow, and 20 in Cairo). We administered venue questionnaires, conducted venue observations, and sampled indoor air particulate matter (PM2.5) (N=35), carbon monoxide (CO) (N=23), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs) (N=31), 4-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (N=43), and air nicotine (N=46). Venue characteristics and SHS concentrations were highly variable within and between cities. Overall, we observed a mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 5 (5) waterpipe smokers and 5 (3) cigarette smokers per venue. The overall median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) of venue mean air concentrations was 136 (82, 213) µg/m(3) for PM2.5, 3.9 (1.7, 22) ppm for CO, 68 (33, 121) ng/m(3) for p-PAHs, 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) ng/m(3) for NNK, and 5.3 (0.7, 14) µg/m(3) for nicotine. PM2.5, CO, and p-PAHs concentrations were generally higher in venues with more waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers, although associations were not statistically significant. High concentrations of SHS constituents known to cause health effects indicate that indoor air quality in waterpipe tobacco venues may adversely affect the health of employees and customers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  15. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  16. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  17. Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family DNA binding prevents malignant conversion of adenoma to carcinoma in NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shioko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs play important roles in carcinogenesis of many tumors including the lung. Since multiple C/EBPs are expressed in lung, the combinatorial expression of these C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis is not known. Methods A transgenic mouse line expressing a dominant negative A-C/EBP under the promoter of lung epithelial Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP gene in doxycycline dependent fashion was subjected to 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis bioassay in the presence and absence of doxycycline, and the effect of abolition of DNA binding activities of C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis was examined. Results A-C/EBP expression was found not to interfere with tumor development; however, it suppressed the malignant conversion of adenoma to carcinoma during NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. The results suggested that Ki67 may be used as a marker for lung carcinomas in mouse. Conclusions The DNA binding of C/EBP family members can be used as a potential molecular target for lung cancer therapy.

  18. Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign on Oral Carcinogens and Their Effects on the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Rimal, Jyotsna

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To develop a mass media campaign on oral carcinogens and their effects on the oral cavity in order to increase awareness among the general population. Methods: Documentary and public service announcements highlighting the effects of tobacco and its products were designed and developed based on principles of behavior change. A questionnaire, designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding oral carcinogens, was used to conduct a baseline survey at various sites in eastern Nepal. Local television channels and radio stations broadcasted the documentary and public service announcements. An evaluation survey was then performed to assess the effectiveness of the campaign. Results: Baseline and evaluation surveys covered 1,972 and 2,140 individuals, respectively. A third of the baseline population consumed quid, 22% chewing tobacco, 16% gutka (commercial preparation of arecanut, tobacco, lime and chemicals) and 25% cigarettes. Tobacco consumption differed significantly between 3 ecologic regions with greater use in the Terai region. The knowledge prevalence regarding the oral carcinogens quid (70%), chewing tobacco (82%), gutka (58%) and cigarettes (93%) significantly increased in the evaluation population. Females were more aware about the various tobacco products and their effects on health. More people knew about the harmful effects of tobacco on their health and oral cavity, and had their mouth examined and the frequency of consumption of these products reduced significantly after the campaign. Attitudes towards production, sale and advertisements of tobacco also improved significantly. Conclusions: The mass media campaign was an effective tool for increasing awareness among the population. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. A Collaborative Study for the Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan WT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents results from a collaborative study by 15 different laboratories using two different methods to determine tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs in tobacco and was performed under the auspices of the Tobacco Science Research Conference Analytical Methods Committee (TSRC-AMC. Although it is apparent that some of the laboratories failed to follow the provided protocols, both methods proved robust for determining TSNAs in a variety of different tobacco types. Twelve laboratories extracted the tobacco sample using an alkaline-methylene chloride extraction (Method 1 and nine used a buffer to extract the tobacco sample (Method 2. Six laboratories performed both methods. All participants used gas chromatography (GC to separate the TSNAs and chemiluminescence detection. Method 1 used N-hexyl-N-nitroso-1-hexanamine (NDHA as a surrogate (added prior to extraction internal standard for quantitation. Method 2 used N-nitrosoguvacoline (NG as the surrogate internal standard, NDHA as a chromatographic (added after extraction, prior to analysis internal standard and external standard quantitation. After demonstrating that the average accuracy of both methods was at least about 92% through recovery studies, eight different tobacco types were analyzed in triplicate by each method. Means, reproducibility (precision between laboratories and repeatability (precision within a laboratory of results were determined for each method. After statistical analyses, it was established that both methods were capable of analyzing a variety of tobacco types and repeatability between methods was not significantly different. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were lower for Method 2 as compared to Method 1 when using the surrogate internal standard. Reproducibility variation, analyzed as the coefficient of variation, was 6% lower for Method 2 vs. Method 1 for N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN and directionally 12% lower for 4-(methylnitrosamino

  20. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  1. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  2. Effects of Physalis peruviana L on Toxicity and Lung Cancer Induction by Nicotine Derived Nitrosamine Ketone in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Elshama, Said Said; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is considered a key tobacco smoke carcinogen inducing lung tumors. Physalis peruviana L (harankash) is considered one plant with marked health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate Physalis peruviana L effect on the toxic effect of NNK induced lung cancer in the rats by using pulmonary histopathological, immunohistochemical and DNA flow cytometric analyses. Sixty adult male rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of fifteen animals. The first group received saline, the second received two successive toxic doses of NNK only while the third received two successive toxic doses of NNK with a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L. The fourth group received a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L only. Toxic doses of NNK induced hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the lung and positive immunoreactivity for Ki-67 and p53 staining with disturbance of the lung DNA content. Administration of Physalis peruviana L with NNK led to a mild pulmonary hyperplasia and weak expression of Ki-67 and p53 with an improvement in the lung DNA content. Physalis peruviana L may protect against NNK induced lung carcinogenesis due to its antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects.

  3. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  4. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  5. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  6. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  7. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium prov...

  8. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Twenty-nine (69.0%) [95% CI: 47.0 – 75.0] participants could smell the carcinogenic chemicals they use. Thirty. (71.4%) [95% CI: 65.0 – 77.0] participants had been instructed in the use of protective equipment against carcinogens. Participants used preventive devices like hand gloves, laboratory coats, ...

  9. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  10. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  11. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Humans can prevent themselves from a number of workplace and environmental carcinogens. ... Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on carcinogen exposure in the workplace and environment through trained field staff from volunteers after gaining informed ...

  12. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  13. Destroyed documents: uncovering the science that Imperial Tobacco Canada sought to conceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Chaiton, Michael; Lee, Alex; Collishaw, Neil

    2009-11-10

    In 1992, British American Tobacco had its Canadian affiliate, Imperial Tobacco Canada, destroy internal research documents that could expose the company to liability or embarrassment. Sixty of these destroyed documents were subsequently uncovered in British American Tobacco's files. Legal counsel for Imperial Tobacco Canada provided a list of 60 destroyed documents to British American Tobacco. Information in this list was used to search for copies of the documents in British American Tobacco files released through court disclosure. We reviewed and summarized this information. Imperial Tobacco destroyed documents that included evidence from scientific reviews prepared by British American Tobacco's researchers, as well as 47 original research studies, 35 of which examined the biological activity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. The documents also describe British American Tobacco research on cigarette modifications and toxic emissions, including the ways in which consumers adapted their smoking behaviour in response to these modifications. The documents also depict a comprehensive research program on the pharmacology of nicotine and the central role of nicotine in smoking behaviour. British American Tobacco scientists noted that ".. the present scale of the tobacco industry is largely dependent on the intensity and nature of the pharmacological action of nicotine," and that "... should nicotine become less attractive to smokers, the future of the tobacco industry would become less secure." The scientific evidence contained in the documents destroyed by Imperial Tobacco demonstrates that British American Tobacco had collected evidence that cigarette smoke was carcinogenic and addictive. The evidence that Imperial Tobacco sought to destroy had important implications for government regulation of tobacco.

  14. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  15. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  16. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and early effects.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens that have been most extensively developed are those for genotoxic agents and for compounds that generate hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radical species, and it is...

  17. Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, H.J.; van Kreijl, C.F.; Hrubec, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter results of oxidation treatments with chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and ultraviolet (UV), with respect to their effects on activity (Ames test) in drinking water supplies are reviewed. In addition, the authors present the preliminary results of a pilot plant study on the effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on mutagenicity. Furthermore, results of several carcinogenicity studies performed with organic drinking water concentrates are discussed in relation to the results of a Dutch carcinogenicity study with mutagenic drinking water concentrates

  18. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  19. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  20. Genotoxicity study on nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.S.; Wang, H.F.; Shi, J.Y.; Wang, X.Y.; Liu, Y.F.; Li, K.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Liu, K.X.; Guo, Z.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied DNA adduction with 14 C-labelled nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in mouse liver at doses equivalent to low-level exposure of humans. The dose ranges of nicotine and NNK administered were from 0.4 μg to 4.0 x 10 2 μg·kg -1 , and from 0.1 μg to 2.0 x 10 4 μg·kg -1 , respectively. In the exposure of mice to either nicotine or NNK, the number of DNA adducts increased linearly with increasing dose. The detection limit of DNA adducts was 1 adduct per 10 11 nucleotide molecules. This limit is 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than that of other techniques used for quantification of DNA adducts. The results of the animal experiments enabled us to speculate that nicotine is a potential carcinogen. According to the procedure for 14 C-labelled-NNK synthesis, the authors discuss the ultimate chemical speciation of NNK bound to DNA. From the animal tests the authors derived a directly perceivable relation between tobacco consumption and DNA adduction as the carcinogenic risk assessment

  1. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  2. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  3. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  4. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  5. Risk of human health by particulate matter as a source of air pollution--comparison with tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Makoto; Tierney, William J; Nozaki, Kohsuke

    2008-08-01

    Increased air pollution, containing carcinogenic particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), has gained particular attention in recent years as a causative factor in the increased incidence of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. Extensive carcinogenicity studies conducted recently under Good Laboratory Practice conditions by National Toxicology Program in the USA, Ramazzini Foundation in Italy or Contract Research Organizations on numerous chemical compounds have demonstrated the importance of considering dose levels, times and duration of exposure in the safety evaluation of carcinogenic as well as classical toxic agents. Data on exposure levels to chemical carcinogens that produce tumor development have contributed to the evaluation of human carcinogens from extrapolation of animal data. A popular held misconception is that the risk from smoking is the result of inhaling assorted particulate matter and by products from burning tobacco rather than the very low ng levels of carcinogens present in smoke. Consider the fact that a piece of toasted bread contains ng levels of the carcinogen urethane (ethyl carbamate). Yet, no one has considered toast to be a human carcinogen. Future human carcinogenic risk assessment should emphasize consideration of inhalation exposure to higher levels of benzo (a) pyrene and other possible carcinogens and particulate matter present in polluted air derived from automobile exhaust, pitch and coal tar on paved roads and asbestos, in addition to other environmental contaminant exposure via the food and drinking water.

  6. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  7. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence.

  8. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  9. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  10. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  11. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  13. Carcinogenic effects of radiation-introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The weight of experimental evidence reviewed indicates that UV damage to DNA, probably pyrimidine dimers, is the best molecular candidate for the initiating damage that leads to skin cancer. It is postulated that the carcinogenic action spectrum should be similar to the DNA action spectrum filtered through the upper layer of skin

  14. EPA's evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several international agencies have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a subdivision of the World Health Organization (WHO), determined that glyphosate was a probable carcinogen (gro...

  15. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  16. Detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.C.; Yuspa, S.H.; Weinstein, I.B.; Blobstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Covalent binding of carcinogen to nucleic acids is believed to be an essential component of the carcinogenic process, so it is desirable to have highly sensitive and specific methods for detecting such adducts in cells and tissues exposed to known and suspected carcinogens. A radioimmunoassay is here described capable of detecting nanogram amounts of DNA adducts resulting from the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its activated N-acetoxy derivative. (author)

  17. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  18. Developments in assessing carcinogenic risks from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this volume have ranged widely over theoretical, experimental, and epidemiologic topics relating to radiation carcinogenesis. The multistage character of carcinogenesis, emphasis on the ease with which the initial event occurs in contrast to the infrequency of carcinogenic expression, the role of cell repair, and factors that may influence expression were major themes of the theoretical and experimental papers. The elegance of the cell transformation tool was illustrated in reviews of experimental work dealing with the exposure and environmental variables that influence radiation-induced transformation, among them the intracellular environment. Arguments were advanced for the view that more than one cell must be affected by radiation if a critical event is to occur. The relative congruence of carcinogens and clastogens was noted, and the suggestion made that the rules governing the induction of chromosomal aberrations by ionizing may apply to radiation carcinogenesis as well

  19. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  20. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  1. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  2. Recent developments in carcinogenic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Murdoch, D.; Withey, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, recent developments in the quantitative assessment of carcinogenic risks based on toxicological and epidemiological data are reviewed. In particular, model-free approaches to low-dose risk assessment which involve only the assumption of low-dose linearity are considered. Measures of carcinogenic potency which avoid the need to extrapolate to low doses are also described. The allometric bases for converting risk estimates between species are then discussed. Pharmacokinetic models for determining the dose delivered to the target tissue are examined, and the implications of using such models in extrapolating between doses, of exposure, and species are examined. The application of these concepts in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis is illustrated by means of brief case studies of methylene chloride and Rn. Biologically motivated cancer models based on the initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis are discussed and compared with the classical multistage model. The estimation of risks with time-dependent exposure patterns is considered, and conditions under which the use of a time-weighted average dose is appropriate are identified. Finally, the estimation of carcinogenic risks posed by exposure to complex mixtures is explored. 92 references

  3. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  4. Metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P; Fuscoe, James C; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction.

  5. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  6. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  7. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  8. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  9. The acrylamide content of smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Kevin; Kimpton, Harriet; Vas, Carl; Rushforth, David; Porter, Andrew; Rodu, Brad

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest from a regulatory and public health perspective in harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco products (STPs). A wide range of commercial STPs from the US and Sweden, representing 80-90 % of the 2010 market share for all the major STP categories in these two countries, were analysed for the IARC Group 2A carcinogen acrylamide. These STPs comprised the following styles: Swedish loose and portion snus, US snus, chewing tobacco, moist snuff, dry snuff, soft pellet, hard pellet and plug. Acrylamide was detected in all the products tested and quantified in all but one product. Concentrations ranged from 62 to 666 ng/g wet weight basis (WWB). The average levels of acrylamide (WWB) by type of STP were not significantly different (p > 0.05) except for US snus which had, on average, greater levels but with a very wide range of individual levels according to the manufacturer. Acrylamide levels in STPs were significantly and positively correlated with pH, but not with levels of either reducing sugars or ammonia nitrogen. Levels of acrylamide increased by sixfold or more (on a dry weight basis) during manufacture of a snus sample and then decreased during subsequent storage for up to 22 weeks. Acrylamide generation in tobacco generally appears to occur at lower temperatures, but longer time scales than found with food production. Acrylamide is a common contaminant of STPs, formed through heat treatment of tobacco. Our data show that exposure to acrylamide from consumption of STPs is small compared with exposure from food consumption or cigarette smoking.

  10. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  11. Assessment of alpha radioactivity in Indian tobacco leaf-a detailed study with SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, K.K.; Halder, S.; Maiti, S.

    2009-01-01

    People who inhale tobacco smoke are exposed to higher concentrations of radioactivity since tobacco contains polonium ( 210 Po) and lead ( 210 Pb) both of which are radioactive elements of radon decay series. Among these 210 Po emits damaging type of radiation-alpha radiation is 1000 times more carcinogenic than gamma radiation (DiFranza and Winters, 1982). It generates the localized radiation dose and the health of common people gets affected seriously. In view of this a detail measurement of radioactivity of tobacco leaf is essential. This paper presents a detail investigation on the measurement of alpha radioactivity in raw tobacco leaves, in a few commonly used Indian brand cigarettes and in packed chewing tobacco materials with solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). The study reveals the presence of pronounced alpha activity in cigarette tobacco and chewing tobacco samples ranging from 60-75 mBq/gm and 60- 75 mBq/gm. The alpha activity value is comparatively lower in raw tobacco leaves (9-50 mBq/gm). The annual committed effective dose of the smokers of these branded cigarettes has estimated to be 50-700 (μSv/y), whereas the effective dose value in raw tobacco leaves and chewing tobacco samples is 54-201 μSv/y and 230-290 μSv/y, respectively which are within the range found in cigarette samples. (author)

  12. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  13. Bacterial Populations Associated with Smokeless Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Sanad, Yasser M.; Deck, Joanna; Sutherland, John B.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Duran, Norma; Holman, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are an estimated 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States, and yet limited data on microbial populations within these products exist. To better understand the potential microbiological risks associated with STP use, a study was conducted to provide a baseline microbiological profile of STPs. A total of 90 samples, representing 15 common STPs, were purchased in metropolitan areas in Little Rock, AR, and Washington, DC, in November 2012, March 2013, and July 2013. Bacterial populations were evaluated using culture, pyrosequencing, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Moist-snuff products exhibited higher levels of bacteria (average of 1.05 × 106 CFU/g STP) and diversity of bacterial populations than snus (average of 8.33 × 101 CFU/g STP) and some chewing tobacco products (average of 2.54 × 105 CFU/g STP). The most common species identified by culturing were Bacillus pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. safensis, and B. subtilis, followed by members of the genera Oceanobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Tetragenococcus. Pyrosequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes identified the genera Tetragenococcus, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, Geobacillus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus as the predominant taxa. Several species identified are of possible concern due to their potential to cause opportunistic infections and reported abilities to reduce nitrates to nitrites, which may be an important step in the formation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific N′-nitrosamines. This report provides a microbiological baseline to help fill knowledge gaps associated with microbiological risks of STPs and to inform potential regulations regarding manufacture and testing of STPs. IMPORTANCE It is estimated that there 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States; however, there are limited data on microbial populations that exist within these products. The current study was undertaken to better understand the

  14. Induction of lung lesions in Wistar rats by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and its inhibition by aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Yang, Fei; Chen, Hong-Lei; Xia, Dong; Liu, Ming-Qiu; Lai, Bai-Tang

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective chemopreventive agents against cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer could be greatly facilitated by suitable laboratory animal models, such as animals treated with the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the current study, we established a novel lung cancer model in Wistar rats treated with NNK. Using this model, we assessed the effects of two chemopreventive agents, aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on tumor progression. First, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK by intratracheal instillation; control rats received iodized oil. The animals were then sacrificed on the indicated day after drug administration and examined for tumors in the target organs. PCNA, p63 and COX-2 expression were analyzed in the preneoplastic lung lesions. Second, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK (25 mg/kg body weight) in the absence or presence of aspirin and/or PEITC in the daily diet. The control group received only the vehicle in the regular diet. The animals were sacrificed on day 91 after bronchial instillation of NNK. Lungs were collected and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical assays. NNK induced preneoplastic lesions in lungs, including 33.3% alveolar hyperplasia and 55.6% alveolar atypical dysplasia. COX-2 expression increased similarly in alveolar hyperplasia and alveolar atypical dysplasia, while PCNA expression increased more significantly in the latter than the former. No p63 expression was detected in the preneoplastic lesions. In the second study, the incidences of alveolar atypical dysplasia were reduced to 10%, 10% and 0%, respectively, in the aspirin, PEITC and aspirin and PEITC groups, compared with 62.5% in the carcinogen-treated control group. COX-2 expression decreased after dietary aspirin or aspirin and PEITC treatment. PCNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspirin and PEITC group. (1) A single dose of 25 mg/kg body weight

  15. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  16. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM mice (50 mice/sex/group were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  17. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  18. Carcinogen-induced damage to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.; Altamirano, M.; Bose, K.; Sklar, R.; Tatsumi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Human cells respond to carcinogen-induced damage in their DNA in at least two ways. The first response, excision repair, proceeds by at least three variations, depending on the nature of the damage. Nucleotide excision results in relatively large repair patches but few free DNA breaks, since the endonuclease step is limiting. Apurinic repair is characterized by the appearance of numerous breaks in the DNA and by short repair patches. The pathways behave as though they function independently. Lymphoic cells derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C patient are deficient in their ability to perform nucleotide excision and also to excise 6 methoxyguanine adducts, but they are apurinic repair competent. Organisms may bypass damage in their DNA. Lymphoblastoid cells, including those derived from xeroderma pigmentosum treated with 3 H-anti-BPDE, can replicate their DNA at low doses of carcinogen. Unexcised 3 H is found in the light or parental strand of the resulting hybrid DNA when replication occurs in medium with BrdUrd. This observation indicates a bypass reaction occurring by a mechanism involving branch migration at DNA growing points. Branch migration in DNA preparations have been observed, but the evidence is that most occurs in BrdUrd-containing DNA during cell lysis. The measurement of the bifilarly substituted DNA resulting from branch migration is a convenient method of estimating the proportion of new synthesis remaining in the vicinity of the DNA growing point. Treatment with carcinogens or caffeine results in accumulation of DNA growing points accompanied by the synthesis of shortened pieces of daughter DNA

  19. Electrochemical methods for monitoring of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barek, J; Cvacka, J; Muck, A; Quaiserová, V; Zima, J

    2001-04-01

    The use of modern electroanalytical techniques, namely differential pulse polarography, differential pulse voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode or carbon paste electrode, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, azo compounds, heterocyclic compounds, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines is discussed. Scope and limitations of these methods are described and some practical applications based on their combination with liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction are given.

  20. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  1. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  2. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  3. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  4. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  5. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  6. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Carcinogenic effectiveness of combined dust-and-radiation effect under experimental and occupational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Mikhajlov, M.; Todorov, A.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is made of the latest reports, reflecting the statistically significant increase of the lung cancer among workers in underground working sites at cumulative exposure to radon decay products under 60 monthly working levels. The significance of the non-radiation components of the occupational environment, participating in the carcinogenic process together with the classical noxiousness are emphasized. The significance of the functional sufficiency of the immune and endocrine systems, the tobacco smoking and the role of the inflammation respiratory tract diseases , etc. is denoted. Inferences are made for the complexity and multiformity of the occupational carcinogenesis according to the intensity, classical mutagenic factors and multitude of noncarcinogenic components of the occupational environment. Paralelly to the sanitary-technical fool-proof rendering of the respective productions, the necessity of purposeful balneotherapeutic and medical treatment of the risk worker contingents is pointed out

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  10. QSAR ligand dataset for modelling mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and rodent carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Five datasets were constructed from ligand and bioassay result data from the literature. These datasets include bioassay results from the Ames mutagenicity assay, Greenscreen GADD-45a-GFP assay, Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE assay, and 2 year rat carcinogenicity assay results. These datasets provide information about chemical mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  11. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  12. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  13. Delineating miRNA profile induced by chewing tobacco in oral keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Younis Bhat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The major established etiologic risk factor for oral cancer is tobacco (chewed, smoked and snuffed forms. Chewing form of tobacco is predominantly used in India making it the leading cause of oral cancer. Despite being one of the leading causes of oral cancer, the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco remains largely unclear. Carcinogenic effect of chewing tobacco is through chronic and not acute exposure. To understand the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco, we developed a cell line model where non-neoplastic oral keratinocytes were chronically exposed to chewing tobacco for a period of 6 months. This resulted in increased cellular proliferation and invasive ability of normal oral keratinocytes. Using this cellular model we studied the differential expression of miRNAs associated with chewing tobacco and the altered signaling pathways through which the aberrantly expressed miRNAs affect tumorigenesis. miRNA sequencing  was carried out using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform  which resulted in the identification of 427 annotated miRNAs of which 10 were significantly dysregulated (≥ 4 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 in tobacco exposed cells compared to untreated parental cells. To study the altered signaling in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco, we employed quantitative proteomics to characterize the dysregulated proteins. Integration of miRNA sequencing data with proteomic data resulted in identification of 36 proven protein targets which (≥1.5 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 showed expression correlation with the 10 significantly dysregulated miRNAs. Pathway analysis of the dysregulated targets revealed enrichment of interferon signaling and mRNA processing related pathways in the chewing tobacco exposed cells. In addition, we also identified 6 novel miRNA in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco extract. Our study provides a framework to understand the oncogenic transformation induced by

  14. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  15. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  17. Alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves: Effect of fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nain, Mahabir [Department of Physics, Government College Karnal, Haryana 132001 (India)], E-mail: mnain@rediffmail.com; Chauhan, R.P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Department of Applied Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2008-08-15

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are 10 times at a greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. The toxicity in tobacco is considered mainly due to the presence of chemi-toxins like nicotine, tar, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols and many other materials leading to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. There are many reports on the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides viz., {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco. Investigations on alpha-emitting radionuclides, especially on {sup 210}Po have gained significant importance as alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells may contribute to early arteriosclerosis developments in tobacco smokers. Due to relatively high activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its product cigarette can increase the internal intake of both the radionuclides and their concentrations in lung tissues. This causes an increase in the internal radiation dose which enhances the instances of lung cancer. Many workers have tried to explain the role of {sup 210}Po in tobacco in the epidemiological investigation of cancer and tumour formation. In the present work, the estimation of alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves taken from tobacco plants grown using different types of chemical fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP), zinc sulphate, potash, super phosphate, urea etc. in varying amounts before the plantation of the seedlings has been made. For these measurements we used {alpha}-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The results indicate an increase in alpha radioactivity with the use of some fertilizers.

  18. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Hall, Amy L; Straif, Kurt

    2018-05-16

    The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations. Selected agents were substances, mixtures or types of radiation classified in IARC Group 1 with 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity' in humans from studies of exposed workers and evidence of occupational exposure documented in the pertinent monograph. The number of known occupational carcinogens has increased over time: 47 agents were identified as known occupational carcinogens in 2017 compared with 28 in 2004. These estimates are conservative and likely underestimate the number of carcinogenic agents present in workplaces. Exposure to these agents causes a wide range of cancers; cancers of the lung and other respiratory sites, followed by skin, account for the largest proportion. The dominant routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact. Important progress has been made in identifying occupational carcinogens; nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for research on the causes of work-related cancer. Most workplace exposures have not been evaluated for their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate epidemiologic evidence and a paucity of quantitative exposure data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Identification and monitoring of non-radiological carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui, C A; Petkau, A; Greenstock, C L; Brown, C P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the feasibility of identifying and monitoring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in the workplace at Canadian nuclear establishments (Whiteshell Laboratories, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Cameco Limited and Canadian General Electric Company Limited). Recent epidemiological studies recommended that potential confounding factors of a non-radiological nature be identified and analyzed, particularly non-radiological carcinogens that may be present in the workplace at nuclear facilities. The feasibility of identifying and measuring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in Canadian nuclear facilities is examined. Also, the report describes the problem of chemical carcinogens and the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis; the epidemiology related to the problem, followed by a description of the analytical aspects of detection, monitoring and analysis of carcinogens, as well as a discussion on the regulatory aspects and the regulations in place; and the findings, recommendations and concluding remarks of this study. Several problem areas became apparent as the study proceeded. For example, the classification of a chemical as a human carcinogen is a difficult problem, as is its adequate monitoring and analysis. This situation reflects, in turn, the regulatory aspects in the workplace. A list of chemical carcinogens used industrially at the four Canadian nuclear facilities has been identified. The list includes arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, beryllium, nickel, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and trichloroethylene. Several recommendations are made in relation to the need for practical and efficient monitoring methods for chemical carcinogens, the definition of radiation and chemical dose equivalencies, and the classification of human chemical carcinogens, as well as their disposal. (author). 122 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Identification and monitoring of non-radiological carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, C.A.; Petkau, A.; Greenstock, C.L.; Brown, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the feasibility of identifying and monitoring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in the workplace at Canadian nuclear establishments (Whiteshell Laboratories, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Cameco Limited and Canadian General Electric Company Limited). Recent epidemiological studies recommended that potential confounding factors of a non-radiological nature be identified and analyzed, particularly non-radiological carcinogens that may be present in the workplace at nuclear facilities. The feasibility of identifying and measuring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in Canadian nuclear facilities is examined. Also, the report describes the problem of chemical carcinogens and the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis; the epidemiology related to the problem, followed by a description of the analytical aspects of detection, monitoring and analysis of carcinogens, as well as a discussion on the regulatory aspects and the regulations in place; and the findings, recommendations and concluding remarks of this study. Several problem areas became apparent as the study proceeded. For example, the classification of a chemical as a human carcinogen is a difficult problem, as is its adequate monitoring and analysis. This situation reflects, in turn, the regulatory aspects in the workplace. A list of chemical carcinogens used industrially at the four Canadian nuclear facilities has been identified. The list includes arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, beryllium, nickel, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and trichloroethylene. Several recommendations are made in relation to the need for practical and efficient monitoring methods for chemical carcinogens, the definition of radiation and chemical dose equivalencies, and the classification of human chemical carcinogens, as well as their disposal. (author). 122 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  2. Environmental carcinogens and prophylaxis of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1977-01-01

    A short history of a relatively new branch of cancer research, hygienic oncology, is reviewed. Occupational skin tumors (papillomas and even squamous-cell carcinoma) are described not only among chimney-sweepers, but also among the workers of petroleum refineries. Of 512 workers who had prolonged exposure to various petroleum products, 53.2% developed skin carcinoma. Occupational malignant tumors of the respiratory tract are observed among the workers of nickel industries. Workers who experienced prolonged exposure to asbestos had an increased incidence of lung and stomach cancer. To prevent occuptional cancer of the urinary bladder, such carcinogens as 2-napthylamine, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3-dioxybenzidine, and para-amino-azobenzene were banned. Environmental pollution with the products of incomplete fuel combustion, especially with polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates constitutes a hazard to the urban population. The level of benzopyrene (BP) in soil samples taken in different localities averaged 5 microg/kg. Legislatively approved permissible concentrations of BP in the air are 0.1 microg/100 cubic meters, and in the water 0.005 microg/liter. 23 references.

  3. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  4. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  5. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  6. Antimutagenic effects of betel leaf extract against the mutagenicity of two tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated chewing tobacco alone to be more hazardous than chewing tobacco with betel quid. Experimental studies have shown that betel leaf is antimutagenic against standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) are the only carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, including chewing tobacco, we tested the effect of an extract of betel leaf against the mutagenicity of the two important TSNA, viz., N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay with TA100 +S9 and the in vivo micronucleus test. In both the test systems it was observed that betel leaf extract suppressed the mutagenic effects of both the nitrosamines to a significant extent.

  7. Experimental study of the combined effects of inhalation of radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    For 10 years, over 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. Considering several points and the dose-effect relationship especially, such cancers can be compared with human cancers. This type of experiments, fully mastered, has made it possible to undertake under good conditions the study of the co-carcinogenic effect of various inhaled pollutants such as tobacco smoke. In a first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000WLM cumulated dose of radon daughter products, knowing that this level induces some 30% of lung cancers. 50 animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (350 h.) In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon -tobacco group 32 cancers bigger and more invasive were observed. Under the same conditions, tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (2 groups of 30 rats, 500 and 100 WLM respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was higher that the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. This co-carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco was clearly demonstrated. Further experiments are considered in order to determine the processes involved

  8. High α - radioactivity level in betel leaf (Piper Betel) and chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Maiti, Sunil; Harh, Sadananda

    2011-01-01

    Studies on alpha emitting radionuclides in tobacco samples is of significant importance as the interaction of alpha particles with cells chromosomes in different organs of tobacco eaters causes to carcinogenic changes in those organs. Apart from smoking, the tobacco products that are smokeless, like ghutka, chewing tobacco, etc., that are directly consumed through orally also contribute to carcinogenic health hazards. They can increase the internal radiation dose and thereby enhance the case of cancer in human population. Another important sample is betel leaf which is largely consumed by people. Since betel leaf is cultivated in lands using fertilizers having high alpha activity. Regular use of betel leaf may cause health hazards if alpha radioactivity is present in harmful quantities. In view of this the present work betel leafs and different type of tobacco products have been collected from the local market in and around Kolkata and alpha activity of those samples have been measured using CR-39 (SSNTD) detectors and dose has been estimated. (author)

  9. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  10. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  11. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  12. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  13. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions

  14. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul; Wisuda Suvitayavat; Vanida Sangalangkarn; Yuko Nawa; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Koichi Kawahara; Tawee Saiwichai; Somphong Narkpinit; Pratap Singhasivanon; Ikuro Maruyama; Salunya Tancharoen

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-tre...

  15. Relative potency estimation for synthetic petroleum skin carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J M; Wolf, D A; Clark, B R

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative analysis of skin carcinogenesis data, for the purpose of establishing carcinogenic potency, has been applied to observations obtained from C3H mice exposed continuously to synthetic and natural petroleums. The importance of total polynuclear aromatic (PNA) content to the skin carcinogenic activity of the crude materials was also examined. Of three synthetic petroleums evaluated, all were shown capable of inducing skin neoplasms within a two-year exposure period. U...

  16. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  17. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  18. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  19. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  20. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  1. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  2. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  3. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. © 2013.

  4. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  5. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  6. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  7. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  8. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  9. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  12. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of carcinogens is made.

  13. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Jorge; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Guardado, Jorge; Aragon, Aurora; Kauppinen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author) [es

  14. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  15. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  16. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  17. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  18. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  19. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  20. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  1. Understanding arsenic carcinogenicity by the use of animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Kinoshita, Anna; Shen Jun; Wei Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Yoshida, Kaoru; Kuroda, Koichi; Endo, Ginji; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that human arsenic exposure is associated with increased incidences of bladder, liver, skin, and lung cancers, limited attempts have been made to understand mechanisms of carcinogenicity using animal models. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), an organic arsenic compound, is a major metabolite of ingested inorganic arsenics in mammals. Recent in vitro studies have proven DMA to be a potent clastogenic agent, capable of inducing DNA damage including double strand breaks and cross-link formation. In our attempts to clarify DMA carcinogenicity, we have recently shown carcinogenic effects of DMA and its related metabolites using various experimental protocols in rats and mice: (1) a multi-organ promotion bioassay in rats; (2) a two-stage promotion bioassay by DMA of rat urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis; (3) a 2-year carcinogenicity test of DMA in rats; (4) studies on the effects of DMA on lung carcinogenesis in rats; (5) promotion of skin carcinogenesis by DMA in keratin (K6)/ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) transgenic mice; (6) carcinogenicity of DMA in p53(+/-) knockout and Mmh/8-OXOG-DNA glycolase (OGG1) mutant mice; (7) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in rat liver; (8) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis test; and (9) 2-year carcinogenicity tests of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) in rats. The results revealed that the adverse effects of arsenic occurred either by promoting and initiating carcinogenesis. These data, as covered in the present review, suggest that several mechanisms may be involved in arsenic carcinogenesis

  2. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  3. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, M. Margaret; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C.; Schiffman, Mark; Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B.; Olivero, Ofelia A.; Castle, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 μM BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2 deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10 8 nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10 8 nucleotides, with a median of 75/10 8 nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10 8 nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear related to the increased risk

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, M. Margaret [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: prattm@mail.nih.gov; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiffman, Mark [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B. [Northwest Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OR (United States); Olivero, Ofelia A. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Castle, Philip E. [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 {mu}M BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N{sup 2}deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10{sup 8} nucleotides, with a median of 75/10{sup 8} nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10{sup 8} nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear

  6. Carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimadeev, M M

    1962-01-01

    A review of literature on the carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products are briefly discussed. Many of the products can induce hyperkeratosis, folliculitis, verruca, pulmonary adenoma, skin cancer, etc. Their action is mainly local but they can also be multicentric. Although a number of groups have made chemical analyses of various petroleums and peroleum products, results were generally negative with respect to 3,4-benzypyrene, although 40 to 68 microg/g was found in 1 crude petroleum. At present it appears that much of the carcinogenic action of these materials resides in polycyclic hydrocarbons about which little is known.

  7. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have accumulated more experimental evidences that demonstrated the comparative approaches with human cells will allow us to predict human risk with good accuracy following exposure to toxic chemicals. We also synthesized several carcinogenic DNA adducts, i.e., the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct, 0 6 -methyldeoxyguanosine, 7-methyl- deoxyguanosine and 2-methyl-deoxyguanosine to be used as standards for quantitating DNA adduct formation in carcinogen exposed cells. A simple synthetic method was developed for preparation of the major B[a]p DNA adduct with yields better than those reported. The main accomplishments related to the originally stated objectives are summarized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Mutagenic and carcinogenic structural alerts and their mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plošnik, Alja; Vračko, Marjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-09-01

    Knowing the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals is very important for their hazard (and risk) assessment. One of the crucial events that trigger genotoxic and sometimes carcinogenic effects is the forming of adducts between chemical compounds and nucleic acids and histones. This review takes a look at the mechanisms related to specific functional groups (structural alerts or toxicophores) that may trigger genotoxic or epigenetic effects in the cells. We present up-to-date information about defined structural alerts with their mechanisms and the software based on this knowledge (QSAR models and classification schemes).

  9. Modification of carcinogenic and antitumor radiation effects (biomedical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenchik, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    In the book the data on modification of carcinogenic radiation effects by physiologicaly active compounds (caffeine, hormones, promoters and others) as well as on potentiation of antitumor radiation effects by means of hyperthermia are systematized. It is shown that as a basis of synergetic (superadditive) carcinogenic or antitumor radiation effects combined with other factor can be the inhibiting effects of the latter on the reparation process of radiation-induced DNA injuries. The results of experimental investigations and the data on quantitative analysis can be used as a theoretical basis for improvement of the ways and means of the prophylaxis of tumor diseases as well as for increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy

  10. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  11. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Electronic Cigarettes: Comparison between Liquid and Aerosol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although electronic cigarette (EC liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. Methods: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB and 4-(methylnitrosamino1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. Results: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g, while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336–515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0–53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.

  12. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  13. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  14. Smokeless tobacco products harbor diverse bacterial microbiota that differ across products and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Eoghan M; Kulkarni, Prachi; Claye, Emma; Stanfill, Stephen; Tyx, Robert; Maddox, Cynthia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e.g., toombak) using an enzymatic and mechanical lysis approach. Bacterial community profiling was performed using PCR amplification of the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by 454 pyrosequencing of the resulting amplicons and sequence analysis using the QIIME package. Total viable counts were also determined to estimate the number of viable bacteria present in each product. Average total viable counts ranged from 0 to 9.35 × 10 7  CFU g -1 . Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high bacterial diversity across the majority of products tested: dry snuff products where characterized by the highest diversity indices compared to other products. The most dominant bacterial phyla across all products were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Significant differences in both bacterial community composition and in silico predicted gene content were observed between smokeless tobacco product types and between brands of specific smokeless tobacco products. These data are useful in order to comprehensively address potential health risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco products.

  15. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  16. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  17. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  18. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  19. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  20. DNA repair studies in mouse germ cells exposed to two carcinogens and two non-carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An in vivo test was used to measure induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in the germ cells of male mice exposed to the carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF), and to the noncarcinogens pyrene (PYR) and 4-acetylaminofluorene (4AAF). Early spermatids, a DNA-repair competent stage, were used to test the effects of all chemicals. After chemical treatment and testicular injection of [ 3 H]dThd, sperm were recovered 16 days later from the caudal epididymides (these sperm were in early spermatid stages at the time of treatment) and assayed for the unscheduled incorporation of [ 3 H]dThd using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Exposures of 2AAF ranged from 125 to 1600 mg/kg, 4AAF from 125 to 2000 mg/kg, PYR from 100 to 600 mg/kg, B(a)P from 100 to 400 mg/kg. Chemicals were administered both by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and by gavage. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) was used as a positive control

  1. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  2. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  3. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  4. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic

  5. Classification of carcinogenic and mutagenic properties using machine learning method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, N. S.Hari Narayana; Kumar, Surendra; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    An accurate calculation of carcinogenicity of chemicals became a serious challenge for the health assessment authority around the globe because of not only increased cost for experiments but also various ethical issues exist using animal models. In this study, we provide machine learning...

  6. In vitro transformation: interactions of chemical carcinogens and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPaolo, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of reproducible quantitative in vitro procedures resulting in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells has made possible the separation of events related to the process leading to transformation from secondary events that interfere with the early recognition of transformation. The use of chemical carcinogens on Syrian hamster cell strains results in a dose-response relation consistent with a Poisson distribution, indicating that the transformation phenomenon is inductive. In some circumstances, the joint action or interaction of chemical carcinogens with other agents results in an increased incidence of transformation. The pretreatment of Syrian hamster cells with ionizing radiation (250 R) or alkylating chemicals enhances the frequency of transformation on a cell or colony basis ordinarily obtained with known chemical carcinogens. Pretreatment with non-ionizing irradiation (uv, 254 nm) did not have a similar effect. The two types of irradiation and the alkylating agents reduced the cloning efficiency of the cells. X ray alone produced no transformation; the alkylating chemicals produced transformations infrequently, whereas uv produced a significant number of transformations. The number of transformations associated with uv is increased by pretreatment of the cells by x-irradiation. The enhancement of transformation by x-ray or x-ray-type agents appears to be independent of the type of second carcinogen used

  7. Chemical procedures to detect carcinogenic compound in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Manan T S; Malakahmad A

    2013-01-01

    This review presents chemical methods to detect carcinogenic compound in wastewater. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) and their alternative attached equipments were discussed. The application of each method is elaborated using related studies in the field.

  8. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  9. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  10. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing RadiationR Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  11. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  12. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  13. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  14. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), a limit of 20 ppb or ∼30 μg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB 1 is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of 32 P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made

  15. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  16. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  17. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  18. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  19. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  20. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  1. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  2. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  3. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  5. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  6. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  7. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  8. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  9. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  10. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  11. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  13. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  14. Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms and Long-Term Tobacco Exposure on the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Zoraida; Santiago, Catalina; Chicharro, Luis Miguel; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Tejerina, Alejandro; Bandrés, Fernando; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoke contains many potentially harmful compounds that may act differently and at different stages in breast cancer development. The focus of this work was to assess the possible role of cigarette smoking (status, dose, duration or age at initiation) and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in tobacco carcinogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP2A6) or in DNA repair (XRCC1, APEX1, XRCC3 and XPD) in breast cancer development. Methods: We designed a case control study with 297 patients, 217 histologically verified breast cancers (141 smokers and 76 non-smokers) and 80 healthy smokers in a cohort of Spanish women. Results: We found an association between smoking status and early age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Among smokers, invasive carcinoma subtype incidence increased with intensity and duration of smoking (all Ptrend cancer (OR = 7.12 (1.98–25.59)). Conclusions: Our results support the main effect of CYP1A1 in estrogenic metabolism rather than in tobacco carcinogen activation in breast cancer patients and also confirmed the hypothesis that CYP1A1 Ile462Val, in association with long periods of active smoking, could be a breast cancer risk factor. PMID:27754415

  15. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  18. Determination of essential and toxic elements in tobacco samples from Mexican cigarettes by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Cabrera, L.; Avila-Perez, P.; Zarazua, G.; Tejeda, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing account together for a large number of deaths every day. Numerous studies have identified an important number of inorganic toxic elements along with organic carcinogen and radioactive elements in tobacco. It has been long suspected that, apart from organic and radioactive carcinogens, some inorganic elements may also be the cause of tobacco toxicity, altering the metabolism thus provoking the growth of tumors. In this work we have analyzed 9 different brands of cigarettes sold in the Mexican Market. Macerated tobacco samples after dried, were weighted, placed into the microwave vessel and digested in a mixture of suprapure nitric and hydrochloric acids. The vessel was then sealed and placed into the microwave digestor for dissolution and digestion following the ramp of temperature and pressure. When digestion was completed, the vessels are removed from the digestor, allowed to cool, and transferred to volumetric flaks where they were taken to a volume with de-ionized water. Aliquots of the digestate were analyzed in a Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Model TX-2000. At the same time and in the same way were treated a NIST 1573 standard of tomato leaves and a blank, the former to chek the elemental recovery and the latter to correct elemental concentration of samples. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb, Cr, Ni as well as essential elements such as K, Ca, etc. Results were compared with available data on some foreing brands tobacco; the probable reason for the diference in the contents of some of the elements found in Mexican brands are discussed.

  19. A review of the additive health risk of cannabis and tobacco co-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are the most widely used substances, and are often used together. The present review examines the toxicant exposure associated with co-use (e.g., carbon monoxide, carcinogens), co-use via electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and problematic methodological issues present across co-use studies. An extensive literature search through PubMed was conducted and studies utilizing human subjects and in vitro methods were included. Keywords included tobacco, cigarette, e-cigarette, ENDS, smoking, or nicotine AND marijuana OR cannabis OR THC. Co-use may pose additive risk for toxicant exposure as certain co-users (e.g., blunt users) tend to have higher breath carbon monoxide levels and cannabis smoke can have higher levels of some carcinogens than tobacco smoke. Cannabis use via ENDS is low and occurs primarily among established tobacco or cannabis users, but its incidence may be increasing and expanding to tobacco/cannabis naïve individuals. There are several methodological issues across co-use research including varying definitions of co-use, sample sizes, lack of control for important covariates (e.g., time since last cigarette), and inconsistent measurement of outcome variables. There are some known additive risks for toxicant exposure as a result of co-use. Research utilizing consistent methodologies is needed to further establish the additive risk of co-use. Future research should also be aware of novel technologies (e.g., ENDS) as they likely alter some toxicant exposure when used alone and with cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, U.F.; Bari, A.; Husain, L.; Husain, L.

    2009-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210 Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210 Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210 Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210 Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by α-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210 Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210 Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year -1 . (author)

  1. Is there a health benefit of reduced tobacco consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2007-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence on the health effects of reduced smoking. Smoking reduction was defined as reduction of the daily intake of tobacco without quitting. Only published papers were reviewed. Case reports and studies without a thorough definition of smoking reduction...... or health outcome were excluded. We searched in personal databases, BioMail Medline Search, Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE. We followed the QUORUM standards for systematic reviews, and both authors read and discussed all publications. A total of 25 studies (31 publications......) were identified: 8 articles reported on effects on the cardiovascular system; 11 on the airways; 7 on carcinogens, DNA damage, and lung cancer; 3 on birth weight; and 4 on other health effects. Some papers assessed more than one outcome. In most studies, reduction was defined as less than 50...

  2. A Review of the Carcinogenic Potential of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seachrist, Darcie D; Bonk, Kristen W.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of “carcinogen” put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties. PMID:26493093

  3. Retraction: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (Emf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This retracts the article "EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF" on page 245. The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal ofBasic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: “Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF” published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3:245-50.After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  4. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  5. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yafei Wang,1,* Hong Su,1,* Yuanliang Gu,1 Xin Song,1 Jinshun Zhao1,2 1Department of Preventative Medicine, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China; 2Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]. Cr(VI, a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V], tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV] or Cr(III via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI and/or Cr(III compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI and Cr(III and chemoprevention with different antioxidants. Keywords: hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, trivalent chromium, Cr(III, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, chemoprevention, antioxidant 

  6. Mammalian cell transformation: Mechanisms of carcinogenesis and assays for carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.C.; Tennant, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains nine sections, each consisting of several papers. The section titles are: Molecular Changes in Cell Transformation; Differentiation, Growth Control, and Cell Transformation; Mutagenesis and Cell Transformation; Tumor Promotion and Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Transformation of Human Fibroblasts; Mechanisms of Transformation of Epithelial Cells; Mechanisms of C 3 H 10T12 Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Cell Transformation; and Use of Cell Transformation Assays for Carcinogen Testing

  7. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  8. Carcinogenic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbons on man and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1976-03-01

    Basic facts are reported on the carcinogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) towards humans and animals. Benzyprene (BP) is taken as a standard indicator for PAH. Studies of the distribution of BP in atmosphere, hydrosphere, in soil, in plants, and in animals led to an understanding of the accumulation and breakdown of this chemical. On this basis, safety limits were set as a prophylactic measure.

  9. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  10. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  11. Combined effects of inhalation of Radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1980-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, more than 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. These cancers were compared with human cancers. Another study examines the cocarcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke. In the first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000-WLM (working level month) cumulated dose of radon daughter products. Fifty animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (i.e., for a total of 352 hr). In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon-tobacco group, 32 cancers were observed, many of them larger and more invasive than those seen in animals exposed to radon only. Under the same conditions tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (two groups of 30 rats each, at 500 and 100 WLM, respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was greater than the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. The carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco smoke was clearly demonstrated

  12. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  13. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanta Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.

  15. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  16. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  17. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  18. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  20. Methemoglobin Formation and Characterization of Hemoglobin Adducts of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyatiben V; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-03-21

    Arylamines (AAs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco or cooking of meat. They undergo cytochrome P450 mediated N-hydroxylation to form metabolites which bind to DNA and lead to mutations. The N-hydroxylated metabolites of many AAs also can undergo a co-oxidation reaction with oxy-hemolgobin (HbO2) to form methemoglobin (met-Hb) and the arylnitroso intermediates, which react with the β-Cys(93) chain of Hb to form Hb-arylsulfinamide adducts. The biochemistry of arylamine metabolism has been exploited to biomonitor certain AAs through their Hb arylsulfinamide adducts in humans. We examined the reactivity of HbO2 with the N-hydroxylated metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP, HONH-ABP), aniline (ANL, HONH-ANL), and the HAAs 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC, HONH-AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, HONH-PhIP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx, HONH-MeIQx). HONH-ABP, HO-ANL, and HONH-AαC induced methemoglobinemia and formed Hb sulfinamide adducts. However, HONH-MeIQx and HONH-PhIP did not react with the oxy-heme complex, and met-Hb formation and chemical modification of the β-Cys(93) residue were negligible. Molecular modeling studies showed that the distances between the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAA substrates and the oxy-heme complex of HbO2 were too far away to induce methemoglobinemia. Different conformational changes in flexible helical and loop regions around the heme pocket induced by the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAAs may explain the different proclivities of these chemicals to induce methemoglobinemia. Hb-Cys(93β) sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP, ANL, and AαC were identified, by Orbitrap MS, following the proteolysis of Hb with trypsin, Glu-C, or Lys-C. Hb sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP were identified in the blood of mice exposed to ABP, by Orbitrap MS. This is the first report of the identification of intact Hb

  1. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  2. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  3. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  4. Cancer and environment. Tobacco, pesticides, radiations, diet: a document for the World Meeting on Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.R.; Mendonca, G.A.S.; Goldfarb, L.M.C.S.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed evaluation concerning the cancer etiology is presented. Several aspects on chemical agents role are described, as the relationship between tobacco and disease development, active and passive smoking, environmental pollution, occupational diseases, soil use and pesticides. The radiation exposure is studied, including solar radiation and risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma, ionizing radiations, radiological accidents, procedures of radioactive control in Brazil. Mutagens, carcinogens and tumor promoters in daily food are discussed as well as factors for reducing the risk of cancer development. (M.A.C.)

  5. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  6. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Do electronic cigarettes impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional tobacco cigarettes? Review on E-cigarette vapor versus tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Anne Y; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2014-12-01

    Development and utilization of electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted from the search for healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCs) and the search for alternative methods for quitting TCs. This review compares the potential disease burden presented by TC smoke to that of EC vapor. Potential disease burden of EC vapor versus TC smoke was assessed by reviewing clinical studies that measured inhaled components. Chemicals and carcinogens produced by vapor versus smoke were compared. Studies show that EC vapors contain far less carcinogenic particles than TC smoke. Whereas ECs have the ability to reach peak serum cotinine/nicotine levels comparable to that of TCs, ECs do not cause an increase in total white blood cell count; thus, ECs have the potential to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and systemic inflammation. Use of ECs has been shown to improve indoor air quality in a home exposed to TC smoke. This reduces secondhand smoke exposure, thus having the potential to decrease respiratory illness/asthma, middle-ear disease, sudden infant death syndrome, and more. However, some studies claim that propylene glycol (PG) vapor can induce respiratory irritation and increase chances for asthma. To minimize risks, EC manufacturers are replacing PG with distilled water and glycerin for vapor production. Based on the comparison of the chemical analysis of EC and TC carcinogenic profiles and association with health-indicating parameters, ECs impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional TCs. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). There is evidence that certain cyanobacterial toxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; however, the mechanisms of their potential carcinogenicity are not well understood. The most frequently occurring and widespread cyanotoxins in brackish and freshwater blooms are the cyclic heptapeptides, i.e., microcystins (MCs), and the pentapeptides, i.e., nodularins (NODs). The main mechanism associated with potential carcinogenic activity of MCs and NOD is the inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to the hyperphosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is considered to be associated with their tumor-promoting activity. Apart from this, MCs and NOD induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species and, consequently, oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence that MCs and NOD induce micronuclei, and NOD was shown to have aneugenic activity. Both cyanotoxins interfere with DNA damage repair pathways, which, along with DNA damage, is an important factor involved in the carcinogenicity of these agents. Furthermore, these toxins increase the expression of TNF-α and early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes, genes involved in the response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Rodent studies indicate that MCs and NOD are tumor promotors, whereas NOD is thought to have also tumor-initiating activity. Another cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which has been neglected for a long time, is lately being increasingly found in the freshwater environment. The principal mechanism of its toxicity is the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. It is pro

  9. Epidemiologic perspectives on smokeless tobacco marketing and population harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Scott L

    2007-12-01

    Moist snuff is the most popular form of orally-used smokeless tobacco in North America and parts of Europe. Because moist snuff use conveys lower risks for morbidity or mortality than does cigarette smoking, its use has been proposed as a tobacco harm-reduction strategy. This article critically reviews new and published epidemiologic evidence on health effects of moist snuff and its patterns of use relative to smoking in the United States, Sweden, and Norway. The available evidence suggests that: (1) moist snuff is a human carcinogen and toxin, (2) increased promotion of moist snuff has led to increased sales in those countries, (3) the uptake of moist snuff in these three countries during the past several decades has occurred primarily among adolescent and young adult men, (4) increased prevalence of snuff use has not been associated consistently with a reduction in smoking initiation or prevalence, (5) moist snuff use apparently plays a very minor role in smoking cessation in the U.S. and an inconsistent role in Sweden, (6) U.S. states with the lowest smoking prevalence also tend to have the lowest prevalence of snuff use, (7) there are no data on the efficacy of snuff as a smoking-cessation method, (8) the prevalence of cigarette smoking is relatively high among people who use snuff, and (9) snuff use is more consistently associated with partial substitution for smoking than with complete substitution. The evidence base for promotion of snuff use as a public health strategy is weak and inconsistent.

  10. IARC monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.

  11. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  12. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples.

  13. Tobacco and health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V; Chaturvedi, P

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  14. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-12-20

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  15. Keishibukuryogan is not carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanitani, Masanao; Nishimura, Nobuo; Edamoto, Hiroshi; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan is a traditional Japanese medicine widely administered to patients with menopausal symptoms. Because humans use it on a long-term basis, we believed that a carcinogenicity study was warranted. We orally administered keishibukuryogan (TJ-25) extract powder to 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats [Crl:CD(SD)], which were divided into four dosage groups-0 (water for injection), 100, 500 and 2,500 mg/kg/day for 24 months. We found that TJ-25 did not affect the survival rate of either s...

  16. Carcinogenic Substances Naturrally Occuring in the Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos Viorel T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis is a result of the combined action of numerous factors peculiar to the body and the environment (the latter are more effective. Among dietary factors directly implied in the occurrence of malignant tumors we can mention: food additives, contaminated food, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and some components which are naturally present in food. Moreover, food-related malignancies are a consequence of the increased consumption of fats, proteins, alcohol in parallel with decreases in the consumption of dietary fibers and some micronutrients. Carcinogenic substances naturally present in food are of a particular interest for both nutritionist’s and patient’s, usually not being perceived as being harmful.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  18. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  19. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  20. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  1. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  2. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  3. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the ke test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that ''carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or ''Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among workers of Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese ancestry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Reid, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Although job-related diseases result in more deaths per year than job-related injuries, most research concerning ethnic minority workers has concerned accidents and injuries rather than disease-causing exposures such as carcinogens. We conducted a telephone-based cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among a sample of ethnic minority workers in Australia, and compared their exposure prevalence to that of a sample of the general Australian-born working population ('Australian workers'). One-third of the ethnic minority workers were exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. The likelihood of exposure to carcinogens was not significantly different from that of Australian workers, although the likelihood of exposure to individual carcinogens varied by ethnicity. Knowing the prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace in different ethnic groups will allow better targeted and informed occupational health and safety measures to be implemented where necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. E-cigarette puffing patterns associated with high and low nicotine e-liquid strength: effects on toxicant and carcinogen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sharon; Kośmider, Leon; McRobbie, Hayden; Goniewicz, Maciej; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Dawkins, Lynne

    2016-09-20

    Contrary to intuition, use of lower strength nicotine e-liquids might not offer reduced health risk if compensatory puffing behaviour occurs. Compensatory puffing (e.g. more frequent, longer puffs) or user behaviour (increasing the wattage) can lead to higher temperatures at which glycerine and propylene glycol (solvents used in e-liquids) undergo decomposition to carbonyl compounds, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. This study aims to document puffing patterns and user behaviour associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid and associated toxicant/carcinogen exposure in experienced e-cigarette users (known as vapers herein). A counterbalanced repeated measures design. Non-tobacco smoking vapers; have used an e-cigarette for ≥3 months; currently using nicotine strength e-liquid ≥12mg/mL and a second or third generation device. This study will measure puffing patterns in vapers whilst they use high and low strength nicotine e-liquid under fixed and user-defined settings, each for a week. The 4 counterbalanced conditions are: i) low strength (6mg/mL), fixed settings; ii) low strength user-defined settings; iii) high strength (18mg/mL) fixed settings; iv) high strength user-defined settings. Biomarkers of exposure to toxicants and carcinogens will be measured in urine. In the second phase of this study, toxicant yields will be measured in aerosol generated using a smoking machine operated to replicate the puffing behaviours of each participant. i) Puffing patterns (mean puff number, puff duration, inter-puff interval and mL of liquid consumed) and user behaviour (changes to device settings: voltage and air-flow) associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid. ii) Toxicant/carcinogen exposure associated with the puffing patterns/device settings used by our participants. i) Subjective effects. ii) comparisons with toxicant exposure from tobacco smoke (using documented evidence) and with recommended safety limits

  6. E-cigarette puffing patterns associated with high and low nicotine e-liquid strength: effects on toxicant and carcinogen exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Cox

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to intuition, use of lower strength nicotine e-liquids might not offer reduced health risk if compensatory puffing behaviour occurs. Compensatory puffing (e.g. more frequent, longer puffs or user behaviour (increasing the wattage can lead to higher temperatures at which glycerine and propylene glycol (solvents used in e-liquids undergo decomposition to carbonyl compounds, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. This study aims to document puffing patterns and user behaviour associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid and associated toxicant/carcinogen exposure in experienced e-cigarette users (known as vapers herein. Methods/design A counterbalanced repeated measures design. Participants: Non-tobacco smoking vapers; have used an e-cigarette for ≥3 months; currently using nicotine strength e-liquid ≥12mg/mL and a second or third generation device. Intervention: This study will measure puffing patterns in vapers whilst they use high and low strength nicotine e-liquid under fixed and user-defined settings, each for a week. The 4 counterbalanced conditions are: i low strength (6mg/mL, fixed settings; ii low strength user-defined settings; iii high strength (18mg/mL fixed settings; iv high strength user-defined settings. Biomarkers of exposure to toxicants and carcinogens will be measured in urine. In the second phase of this study, toxicant yields will be measured in aerosol generated using a smoking machine operated to replicate the puffing behaviours of each participant. Primary outcomes: i Puffing patterns (mean puff number, puff duration, inter-puff interval and mL of liquid consumed and user behaviour (changes to device settings: voltage and air-flow associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid. ii Toxicant/carcinogen exposure associated with the puffing patterns/device settings used by our participants. Secondary outcomes: i Subjective effects. ii comparisons

  7. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, P M

    1998-01-01

    Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly ...

  8. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, Brad

    2011-07-29

    Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette smoking, which produces

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in US and Swedish smokeless tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Debate about the health implications of using smokeless tobacco products (STPs) has prompted considerable interest in characterising their levels of toxic and carcinogenic components. In the present study seventy smokeless tobacco products from the US and Sweden, categorized as chewing tobacco, dry and moist snuff, hard and soft pellets, plug, and loose and portion snus, were analysed for twenty one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The tested brands represented 80-90% of the 2008 market share for the major STP categories in these two countries. Results There were significant differences in the total and individual PAH concentrations in the different styles of product. Substantially higher levels of total PAHs (10–60 fold) were found in moist and dry snuff and soft pellets than in the other smokeless tobacco styles. The individual PAH concentrations followed the same patterns as total PAHs except for naphthalene, for which the highest concentrations were found in snus and moist snuff. Good correlations were obtained between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and all the other PAHs except naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene, providing evidence for the first time that it can be used as a good marker for PAHs in STPs. Results were generally in good agreement with two previous studies of PAHs in STPs, except for naphthalene for which significantly lower concentrations were found than previously reported. Analysis of the ratios of different PAHs confirmed that the use of fire-cured tobaccos in the snuffs and soft pellet were the major source of PAHs in these product styles, and provided, for the first time, some indications as to the source of PAHs in the other STP styles, including petrogenic and other combustion sources. Conclusions This study confirms the presence of PAHs in STPs, and identifies substantial differences between the levels in different STP categories. Since previous studies of naphthalene concentrations in STPs differed so

  10. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodu Brad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR, with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette

  11. Polyamines modulate carcinogen-induced mutagenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, U Margaretha; O'Brien, Thomas G

    2005-01-01

    Elevated polyamine levels as a consequence of targeted overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to murine skin enhance susceptibility to tumorigenesis in this tissue. A possible mechanism for the enhanced susceptibility phenotype is an increased sensitivity of tissues with elevated polyamine levels to the mutagenic action of carcinogens. To test this hypothesis, a transgenic mouse model containing the Big Blue transgene and also expressing a K6/ODC transgene was developed. Incorporation of the K6/ODC transgene into the Big Blue model did not affect the spontaneous lacI mutant frequency in either skin or epidermis of the double-transgenic mice. After skin treatment with single doses of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, however, the mutant frequency was significantly increased in the skin of double-transgenic Big Blue;K6/ODC mice compared to Big Blue controls. The increases in mutant frequency were clearly due to ODC transgene activity, since treatment of mice with the ODC inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, completely abolished the difference in mutant frequencies between double-transgenic and Big Blue mice. These results demonstrate that intracellular polyamine levels modulate mutation induction following carcinogen exposure. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Metabolic activation of the bladder carcinogen 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of NBP, a dog bladder carcinogen, was examined in vitro using rat liver tissues. NBP was metabolized by enzymes localized both in the microsomes and cytosol. The microsomal enzyme activity was inducible by Aroclor 1254 and phenobarbital. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the reaction mixture, following incubation of [ 3 H]NBP with NADPH and microsomes, revealed four radioactive and UV absorbing peaks with retention times of 5, 8, 14 and 28 min. The peaks at 8, 14 and 28 min corresponded with 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), NBP and azoxy biphenyl, respectively. The early eluting component with a retention time of 5 min has been tentatively identified as a ring hydroxylated derivative. In contrast to microsomal metabolism, cytosol-mediated metabolism yielded only one major metabolite identified as ABP. Cytosol-mediate reduction was inhibited by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. In vitro incubation of NBP with NADH and commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase also yielded ABP and the formation of the latter was blocked by allopurinol. Xanthine oxidase catalyzed also the binding of [ 3 H]NBP to DNA and proteins; the binding was inhibited by allopurinol. These data support the hypothesis that the nitro reduction step is involved in the activation of the bladder carcinogen NBP, and that the nitroreductases occur in both the microsomes and cytosol. The cytosolic activity is primarily due to xanthine oxidase

  13. Carcinogen specific dosimetry model for passive smokers of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Risa J.

    2005-01-01

    Studies indicate that being exposed to second hand smoke increases the chance of developing lung cancer. Understanding the deposition of carcinogenic particles present in second hand smoke is necessary to understand the development of specific histologic type cancers. In this study, a deposition model is presented for subjects of various ages exposed to sidestream smoke. The model included particle dynamics of coagulation, hygroscopic growth, charge and cloud behavior. Concentrations were varied from the maximum measured indoor concentrations (10 6 particles/cm 3 ) to what would be expected from wisps of smoke (10 8 particles/cm 3 ). Model results agreed well with experimental data taken from human subject deposition measurements (four studies). The model results were used to determine the dose intensity (dose per unit airway surface area) of Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the respiratory tract for subjects of various ages. Model predictions for BaP surface concentration on the airway walls paralleled incident rates of tumors by location in the upper tracheobronchial region. Mass deposition efficiency was found to be larger for younger subjects, consistent with diffusion being the predominant mechanism for this particle size range. However, the actual dose intensity of BaP was found to be smaller for children than adults. This occurred due to the predominant effect of the smaller initial inhaled mass for children resulting from smaller tidal volumes. The resulting model is a useful tool to predict carcinogen specific particle deposition

  14. Carcinogenic action of polycyclic hydrocarbons in animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1976-01-01

    Polycyclic hydrocarbons are universally present in the atmosphere, soil, lakes and streams, vegetation, and human and animal tissues, the concentrations varying with distance from the sources (heating systems, industrial plants, automobile highways and airports, petroleum refineries, etc.). The most potent of the carcinogens is benz(a)pyrene whose presence in an object, as shown by studies done in the author's laboratory, is an indication that other polycyclic hydrocarbons are also present. These studies also demonstrated that while benz(a)pyrene may accumulate in soil with seasonal fluctuations, it can also be destroyed by certain microorganisms. Other experiments showed that benz(a)pyrene and other such compounds can be destroyed in tissue culture as well as in vivo (e.g., benz(a)pyrene given to cows with fodder was found in their milk but not in meat after they were slaughtered). It is suggested that maximum permissible concentrations be set for benz(a)pyrene in air and water to minimize its potential carcinogenic effects.

  15. Carcinogenicity of a medicinal ozokerite and its constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchkovskii, B; Borisiuk, I P; Tiktin, L A

    1970-01-01

    Fluorimetric analysis and skin painting tests on mice demonstrated that ceresin (a medicinal ozokerite) contains carcinogens. In the USSR, ceresin is applied to the skin or rectal and vaginal mucosa for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Ceresin and its components were tested on 460 male non-inbred mice (aged 2 to 2.5 mo) by applying either the melted substance or a 60% benzene solution of it to the skin in 30-mg doses (2 admin./week x 10 mo). Skin papillomas were produced after latent periods of 4.5 to 9 mo by paraffin, petrolatum, heavy mineral oil and 1/2 ceresin samples. Squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were seen in 2 mice painted with mineral oil. Fluorimetric analysis of ceresin demonstrated several polycyclic hydrocarbons, identified as 3,4-benzpyrene (BP) benzo(ghi) perylene, and perylene. An aqueous extract of crude ozokerite contained traces of BP, while a benzene extract contained 70 to 77 microg/kg. It is recommended that petroleum products which are commonly used to improve the consistency of ceresin be analyzed for the presence of carcinogens before use.

  16. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  17. Potential carcinogenicity predicted by computational toxicity evaluation of thiophosphate pesticides using QSTR/QSCarciAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Alina-Maria; Ilia, Gheorghe

    2017-07-01

    This study presents in silico prediction of toxic activities and carcinogenicity, represented by the potential carcinogenicity DSSTox/DBS, based on vector regression with a new Kernel activity, and correlating the predicted toxicity values through a QSAR model, namely: QSTR/QSCarciAR (quantitative structure toxicity relationship/quantitative structure carcinogenicity-activity relationship) described by 2D, 3D descriptors and biological descriptors. The results showed a connection between carcinogenicity (compared to the structure of a compound) and toxicity, as a basis for future studies on this subject, but each prediction is based on structurally similar compounds and the reactivation of the substructures of these compounds.

  18. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models was performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and predictive

  19. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10 -1 --10 -3 and 10 -4 --10 -6 , respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens

  20. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pakistan Philippines Thailand Turkey Vietnam Europe/Eurasia Poland Russian Federation Ukraine Latin America Brazil Mexico WHAT WE ... KIDS. SAVING LIVES. BECAUSE TOBACCO HAS KILLED ENOUGH learn more sign up donate sign up donate IN ...

  2. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  3. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  4. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  5. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  6. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  7. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  8. Current challenges in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, K

    2004-10-01

    Tobacco is the world's biggest preventable killer, but the circumstances of its history, the power and influence of its commerce and the nature of addiction make it a very difficult public health issue. Determinants of smoking are both individual and environmental. Genetics and environment influence to varying degrees all of the steps in a smoker's career. Persistence of use, degree of addiction to nicotine and difficulty in stopping are influenced by inherited traits and nicotine susceptibility, whereas the social environment and the individual's cognitions are the key factors in starting smoking and successfully stopping smoking. The tools available to tobacco control include influencing the social and cultural norms concerning tobacco; legislative and regulatory measures to protect the population and to limit tobacco industry marketing tactics, now encapsulated in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; and programmes to enhance the chance of not starting and successfully stopping. Strategies for tobacco control must work at both societal and individual levels, and directions are being taken that include genetic, pharmacological, behavioural, socio-cultural and international approaches.

  9. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  10. Acrolein Exposure in Hookah Smokers and Non-Smokers Exposed to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke: Implications for Regulating Hookah Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Zarth, Adam T; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Chatfield, Dale A; Carmella, Steven G; Hecht, Stephen S; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-06

    Acrolein is a highly ciliatoxic agent, a toxic respiratory irritant, a cardiotoxicant, and a possible carcinogen present in tobacco smoke including hookah tobacco. 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers attended exclusively hookah smoking social events at either a hookah lounge or private home, and provided urine samples the morning of and the morning after the event. Samples were analyzed for 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of acrolein. Geometric mean (GM) urinary 3-HPMA levels in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) increased significantly, 1.41 times, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.74 and 1.39 times, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.67, respectively, following a hookah social event. The highest increase (1.68 times, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.45; p = 0.007) in 3-HPMA post a hookah social event was among daily hookah smokers (GM, from 1991 pmol/mg to 3348 pmol/mg). Pre-to-post event change in urinary 3-HPMA was significantly positively correlated with pre-to-post event change in urinary cotinine among hookah smokers at either location of hookah event, (ρ = 0.359, p = 0.001), and among non-smokers in hookah lounges (ρ = 0.369, p = 0.012). Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of acrolein exposure. Findings support regulating hookah tobacco products including reducing humectants and sugar additives, which are precursors of acrolein under certain pyrolysis conditions. We suggest posting health warning signs for indoor smoking in hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans of smoking hookah tobacco in private homes. Our study is the first to quantify the increase in acrolein exposure in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to exclusively hookah tobacco SHS at hookah social events in homes or hookah lounges. Our findings provide additional support for regulating hookah tobacco product content, protecting non-smokers' health by posting health warning signs for indoor smoking in hookah lounges, and encouraging home bans on hookah tobacco smoking to

  11. Disruption of spindle checkpoint function in rats following 28 days of repeated administration of renal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD(+) cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.

  12. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  14. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with bromate carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delker, Don; Hatch, Gary; Allen, James; Crissman, Bobby; George, Michael; Geter, David; Kilburn, Steve; Moore, Tanya; Nelson, Gail; Roop, Barbara; Slade, Ralph; Swank, Adam; Ward, William; DeAngelo, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ) is a chemical oxidizing agent found in drinking water as a disinfection byproduct of surface water ozonation. Chronic exposures to KBrO 3 cause renal cell tumors in rats, hamsters and mice and thyroid and testicular mesothelial tumors in rats. Experimental evidence indicates that bromate mediates toxicological effects via the induction of oxidative stress. To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress in KBrO 3 -induced cancer, male F344 rats were administered KBrO 3 in their drinking water at multiple concentrations for 2-100 weeks. Gene expression analyses were performed on kidney, thyroid and mesothelial cell RNA. Families of mRNA transcripts differentially expressed with respect to bromate treatment included multiple cancer, cell death, ion transport and oxidative stress genes. Multiple glutathione metabolism genes were up-regulated in kidney following carcinogenic (400 mg/L) but not non-carcinogenic (20 mg/L) bromate exposures. 8-Oxodeoxyguanosine glycosylase (Ogg1) mRNA was up-regulated in response to bromate treatment in kidney but not thyroid. A dramatic decrease in global gene expression changes was observed following 1 mg/L compared to 20 mg/L bromate exposures. In a separate study oxygen-18 ( 18 O) labeled KBrO 3 was administered to male rats by oral gavage and tissues were analyzed for 18 O deposition. Tissue enrichment of 18 O was observed at 5 and 24 h post-KBr 18 O 3 exposure with the highest enrichment occurring in the liver followed by the kidney, thyroid and testes. The kidney dose response observed was biphasic showing similar statistical increases in 18 O deposition between 0.25 and 50 mg/L (equivalent dose) KBr 18 O 3 followed by a much greater increase above 50 mg/L. These results suggest that carcinogenic doses of potassium bromate require attainment of a threshold at which oxidation of tissues occurs and that gene expression profiles may be predictive of these physiological changes in renal homeostasis

  15. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Michal; Smith, Danielle M.; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are purported to deliver nicotine aerosol without any toxic combustion products present in tobacco smoke. In this longitudinal within-subjects observational study, we evaluated the effects of e-cigarettes on nicotine delivery and exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants. Methods: We measured seven nicotine metabolites and 17 tobacco smoke exposure biomarkers in the urine samples of 20 smokers collected before and after switching to pen-style M201 e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Biomarkers were metabolites of 13 major carcinogens and toxicants in cigarette smoke: one tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK), eight volatile organic compounds (1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide), and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). Changes in urine biomarkers concentration were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: In total, 45% of participants reported complete abstinence from cigarette smoking at 2 weeks, while 55% reported continued smoking. Levels of total nicotine and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites did not change after switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes. All other biomarkers significantly decreased after 1 week of using e-cigarettes (p e-cigarette may reduce user exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens otherwise present in tobacco cigarettes. Data on reduced exposure to harmful constituents that are present in tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes can aid in evaluating e-cigarettes as a potential harm reduction device. PMID:27613896

  16. China: the tipping point in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco control in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, began in the 1980s with the first national prevalence survey and a conference on tobacco held in Tianjin. Since then, there have been dozens of research papers, partial restrictions on smoking and tobacco advertising, public education campaigns, and the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but progress has been slow. The state-owned tobacco industry remains a major obstacle to tobacco control. In the last few years, tobacco control efforts have accelerated beyond expectations. The triggering event was the publication on tobacco by the Chinese Central Party School, the ideological think tank of the Communist Party, followed by a spate of activity: directives to government officials; regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, the People's Liberation Army and the Healthy City Standards; tobacco clauses in national advertising and philanthropy laws; the creation of a Smoke-free Beijing; an increase in tobacco taxation; and a national smoke-free law currently in draft. There is a crucial need for China to build upon these recent developments, in accepting the economic research evidence of the debit of tobacco to the economy; in implementing robust, comprehensive legislation; in increasing cigarette price through taxation and, most challenging of all, to tackle the power and influence of the state tobacco monopoly over tobacco control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mathematical description and prognosis of Synergistic interaction of radon and tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Belkina, S. A.; Petin, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    : Radon and its short-lived decay products are considered as the important sources of public exposure to natural radioactivity. The synergistic interaction between tobacco smoking and radon is known to be an actual problem. This study has provided a mathematical description and prognosis of the carcinogenic effects after combined action of radon with smoking. Materials and Methods: A simple mathematical model was adjusted for the optimization and prognosis of the synergistic interaction of radon with smoking. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arising from the interaction of sub lesions induced by the two agents under consideration. Results: The predictions of the model were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. The model appears to be appropriate and the predictions valid. Conclusion: The suggested mathematical model predicts the greatest level of synergistic effect and condition under which this level is reached. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value of the ratio of carcinogenic effective damages produced by each agent alone

  18. Stable isotope labeling-mass spectrometry analysis of methyl- and pyridyloxobutyl-guanine adducts of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in p53-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Mathur; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2005-02-15

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is a primary target in smoking-induced lung cancer. Interestingly, p53 mutations observed in lung tumors of smokers are concentrated at guanine bases within endogenously methylated (Me)CG dinucleotides, e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273 ((Me)C = 5-methylcytosine). One possible mechanism for the increased mutagenesis at these sites involves targeted binding of metabolically activated tobacco carcinogens to (Me)CG sequences. In the present work, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the formation of guanine lesions induced by the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) within DNA duplexes representing p53 mutational "hot spots" and surrounding sequences. Synthetic DNA duplexes containing p53 codons 153-159, 243-250, and 269-275 were prepared, where (Me)C was incorporated at all physiologically methylated CG sites. In each duplex, one of the guanine bases was replaced with [1,7,NH(2)-(15)N(3)-2-(13)C]-guanine, which served as an isotope "tag" to enable specific quantification of guanine lesions originating from that position. After incubation with NNK diazohydroxides, HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the yields of NNK adducts at the isotopically labeled guanine and at unlabeled guanine bases elsewhere in the sequence. We found that N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and N7-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]guanine lesions were overproduced at the 3'-guanine bases within polypurine runs, while the formation of O(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts was specifically preferred at the 3'-guanine base of 5'-GG and 5'-GGG sequences. In contrast, the presence of 5'-neighboring (Me)C inhibited O(6)-guanine adduct formation. These results indicate that the N7- and O(6)-guanine adducts of NNK are not overproduced at the endogenously methylated CG dinucleotides within the p53 tumor suppressor gene

  19. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  20. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  1. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  2. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  3. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  4. Dose-response relationships for carcinogens: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeise, L.; Wilson, R.; Crouch, E.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the experimental evidence for various shapes of dose-response relationships for carcinogens and summarize those experiments that give the most information on relatively low doses. A brief review of some models is given to illustrate the shapes of dose-response curve expected from them. Their major interest is in the use of dose-response relationships to estimate risks to humans at low doses, and so they pay special attention to experimentally observed and theoretically expected nonlinearities. There are few experimental examples of nonlinear dose-response relations in humans, but this may simply be due to the limitations in the data. The several examples in rodents, even though for high dose data, suggest that nonlinearity is common. In some cases such nonlinearities may be rationalized on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of the test compound or its metabolites

  5. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  6. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  7. The assessment of the carcinogenic effects of low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Latarjet, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is concluded that the exclusion of patients for the purposes of risk estimation, the choice of a particular relative risk projection model and of a dose reduction factor equal to 2 are all decisions which result in an overestimation of the actual risk. These choices can be understood when the aim is radiation protection and when it is safer to overestimate the risk; however, they are open to criticism if the aim is a realistic assessment of the risk. For low doses, below 50 mSv/year, and when all causes of uncertainty are added, the actual risk might be markedly lower than the risk estimated with the ICRP (1991) carcinogenic risk coefficient and the DRF estimated by ICRP. Future studies should aim at providing direct and more precise assessments of risk coefficients in the low dose region. (Author)

  8. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts.

  9. Nuclear DNA synthesis rate and labelling index: effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals on its behaviour in the organism of growing CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlacher, E.; Rudolph, C.

    1978-01-01

    Well known bioassays have been compared with the author's thymidine incorporation-screening system and other assays based on biochemical quantification of DNA synthesis as a possibility of identification of carcinogens. The partial inhibition of the whole DNA synthesis in a proliferating cell population after treatment with toxic and carcinogenic chemicals is an early common response especially in hepatectomized animal, livers caused by the effects of those substances. However, by quantitative evaluation of the nuclear DNA synthesis rate as a basic parameter, using autoradiographs of kidney and liver of juvenile growing CBA mice, it is possible to differentiate carcinogenic from non-carcinogenic chemicals by means of silver grain counting after 3 H-TdR incorporation. On the contrary, the whole DNA synthesis, expressed by the 3 H-labelling index (in per cent) of kidney and liver, did not permit such a differentiation in the experimental arrangement used. It could be demonstrated that carcinogenic compounds of different chemical classes partially inhibit the nuclear DNA synthesis rate significantly over a period of more than 24 hours. The tested non-carcinogenic compounds did not show this suppressive effect on the nuclear DNA synthesis rate. (author)

  10. DNA-adducts in fish exposed to alkylating carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giam, C.S.; Holliday, T.L.; Williams, J.L.; Bahnson, A.; Weller, R.; Hinton, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    There are limited studies on DNA-adduct formation following exposure of fish or fish cells to carcinogens. It will be essential to determine if procarcinogens and carcinogens form the same DNA-adducts in different liver cells and how these compare to those reported in mammalian livers. They are also interested in the influence of different alkylating agents on the type and quantity of DNA-adduct formation and repair in fish. While eggs or small fish are ideal for routine screening, large fish such as trout (Salmo gairdneri) is needed initially for the development of analytical procedures for the isolation, quantitation and identification of various adducts. Trout (Salmo gairdneri) weighing approximately 250 grams were acclimatized at 13 degree C before being given i.p. injection of diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). The exposure period varied, though most animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. Their livers were excised and DNA was isolated mainly according the procedure of Croy et al. The neutral thermal hydrolysate and the acid hydrolysate were analyzed by HPLC-Fluorescent detector for 7-ethylguanine and O 6 -ethylguanine, respectively. O 6 -ethylguanine was detected, 7-ethylguanine was not detected. Attempts are being made to improve the detection of the latter compound. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to establish nanogram quantities of the ethylated bases. Laser desorption FT-IC-MS is particularly useful for characterizing thermally-labile and involatile nucleosides or nucleotides. Excretion of DEN was rapid and high. Exposure of trout (and other fish) to various ethylating agents will be discussed

  11. Changing the field of carcinogenicity testing of human pharmaceuticals by emphasizing mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, J.W. van der; Duijndam, B.; Hoorn, T. van den; Woutersen, R.; Water, B. van de

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime testing for carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals in rodents has been a controversial issue since the start of the International Conference on Harmonisation in 1990. Since 2010 the debate reached a new level following the proposal that a negative outcome of carcinogenicity studies can be

  12. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  13. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  14. 78 FR 16681 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Proposed Change to Rodent Carcinogenicity Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-evidence (WOE) factors proposed for inclusion in CADs. II. Past Experience With Carcinogenicity Assessment... Medicines Agency; and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We would request that CADs be... WOE factors proposed for inclusion in carcinogenicity assessment documents. Submit either electronic...

  15. Moesin Is a Biomarker for the Assessment of Genotoxic Carcinogens in Mouse Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:22358511

  16. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    A Drug Information Association (DIA) workshop was held in May 2001 to discuss the outcome of the International Life Sciences Institute-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (ILSI-HESI) project on alternative models for carcinogenicity assessment such as the P53(+/-) and XPA(+/-) knockout...... mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic...

  17. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  18. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  19. The landscape of tobacco control in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paracandola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use prevalence in Africa is projected to rise over the next 15 years without stronger tobacco control measures. However, little research details the scope of tobacco control research being conducted in Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted to better understand the landscape of tobacco control efforts in Africa. Methods A literature search of tobacco research conducted in all African countries from 1996 to 2016 was performed in PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus. Published abstracts meeting the inclusion criteria of focusing on nicotine or tobacco product(s and having been conducted in one or more African countries were selected for full coding and analysis. The authors coded on study characteristics such as type of research, tobacco product, and country. Three coders double-coded 5% of the articles reviewed to ensure agreement. Results This review found 645 relevant articles, in French and English, representing 52 African countries. South Africa was the focus of the greatest proportion of these published tobacco control research articles (23%, followed by Nigeria (17%, Egypt (13%, and Tunisia (12%. Reporting the prevalence of tobacco use was the focus of 51% of these articles. Other areas of research included the potential determinants of tobacco use (28%; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco products or policies (26%; and biological consequences of tobacco use (25%. Most studies (63% discussed cigarettes, and 15% studied smokeless tobacco. Youth-targeted studies comprised 25% of all research in Africa. Publications per year increased between 1996 and 2015, quadrupling in number by 2015. Conclusions A comprehensive review of the literature provides a baseline understanding of the tobacco control landscape and the increased attention countries are showing to tobacco and tobacco control. This research may inform opportunities for further research and for strengthening networks and thereby the

  20. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  1. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  3. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  4. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  5. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  6. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ill health and birth defects from handling agricultural chemicals and tobacco leaf. ... The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ... being pulled from school to work, women going sleepless to run curing kilns, ...

  7. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  8. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  9. Estimation of radioactivity in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, Mahabir; Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.; Kant, K.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are ten times at greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. Tobacco fields and plants also have higher concentration of uranium and consequently large contents of 210 Po and 210 Pb belonging to uranium and radium decay series. These radio-nuclides have long association with tobacco plants. 210 Pb and 210 Po, decay products of the uranium series get dissolved in water and are first transported into plants and subsequently to the human being. Also, the uptake of radionuclides into roots from the soils and phosphate fertilizers along with direct deposition of 210 Pb by rainfall represents the principal mechanism of incorporation of 210 Pb and 210 Po into the tobacco plants. Uranium present in soil enters the plants through roots and gets distributed in various parts of the tobacco plants. This phenomenon may cause high intake of uranium and its radioactive decay products leading to harmful effects in human being. In the present work, Gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector of high-resolution gamma spectrometry system) has been used at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, for the measurement of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in some tobacco samples. The alpha radioactivity of the leaves of the tobacco plants was measured using plastic track detectors LR-115 Type-Il manufactured by Kodak. Measurement of track densities (track cm -2 day -1 ) shows variation on the upper face and the bottom face of the leaves for the plants. The track density due to alpha particles is higher at bottom face as compared to top face of the leaves. (author)

  10. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  11. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  12. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  13. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  14. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  16. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  17. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  18. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  19. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  20. The Tobacco Industry and Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton

    2018-05-01

    The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF actively supported tobacco control initiatives in the late 1990s, but since the early 2000s UNICEF's role in tobacco control has been minimal. Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library, an online collection of previously secret tobacco industry documents, we sought to uncover information on the tobacco industry's ties with UNICEF. We found that from 1997 to 2000, when UNICEF was actively promoting tobacco control to support children's rights, the tobacco industry saw children's rights and UNICEF as potentially powerful threats to business that needed to be closely monitored and neutralized. The industry then positioned itself as a partner with UNICEF on youth smoking prevention initiatives as a way to avoid meaningful tobacco control measures that could save children's lives. After UNICEF's corporate engagement guidelines were loosened in 2003, tobacco companies successfully engaged with UNICEF directly and via front groups, including the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. This was part of an overall tobacco industry strategy to improve its corporate image, infiltrate the United Nations, and weaken global tobacco-control efforts. As part of its mission to protect children's rights, UNICEF should end all partnerships with the tobacco industry and its front groups. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  2. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  3. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates ... Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on ... Associação de Controle do Tabagismo, Promoção da Saúde e dos Direitos Humanos.

  4. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Tavares dos Santos; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Fernandes, Alan Lins; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Dantas, Wagner Silva; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Santinho, Mirela Aparecida Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Carpentier, Alain; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Creatine supplementation has been associated with increased cancer risk. In fact, there is evidence indicating that creatine and/or creatinine are important precursors of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of low- and high-dose creatine supplementation on the production of HCAs in healthy humans (i.e. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx),  2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b])pyridine (IFP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)). This was a non-counterbalanced single-blind crossover study divided into two phases, in which low- and high-dose creatine protocols were tested. After acute (1 day) and chronic supplementation (30 days), the HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were assessed through a newly developed HPLC–MS/MS method. Dietary HCA intake and blood and urinary creatinine were also evaluated. Out of 576 assessments performed (from 149 urine samples), only nine (3 from creatine and 6 from placebo) showed quantifiable levels of HCAs (8-MeIQx: n = 3; 4,8-DiMeIQx: n = 2; PhIP: n = 4). Individual analyses revealed that diet rather than creatine supplementation was the main responsible factor for HCA formation in these cases. This study provides compelling evidence that both low and high doses of creatine supplementation, given either acutely or chronically, did not cause increases in the carcinogenic HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx in healthy subjects. These findings challenge the long-existing notion that creatine supplementation could potentially increase the risk of cancer by stimulating the formation of these mutagens. Key points There is a long-standing concern that creatine supplementation could be associated with cancer, possibly by facilitating the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). This study provides compelling evidence

  5. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  7. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  10. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  11. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  12. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  13. 78 FR 44117 - Notice of a Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide AGENCY... Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide'' (EPA/635/R-13/128a) and on the draft peer review charge questions. The draft... on the draft Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide and on the draft peer...

  14. Naswar (Smokeless Tobacco) Use and the Risk of Oral Cancer in Pakistan: A systematic Review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader; Heise, Thomas L; Dreger, Steffen

    2017-12-25

    With an annual increase of 16,000 new cases each year, oral cancer is the second most common cancer in Pakistan. There is conflicting evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of different forms of smokeless tobacco (SLT) from different countries. This difference in evidence may be attributed to the varied composition of SLT products used around the world, necessitating the establishment of individual risks related to each SLT product. An electronic search in relevant databases yielded 119 publications, out of which 6 were included in this review. Effect estimates (odds ratios (OR)) were abstracted or calculated from the given data. A fixed effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk of oral cancer with the use of Naswar. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were also calculated. The Meta Odds Ratio (mOR) for oral cancer associated with the "ever use" of Naswar compared to "never use" was 11.8 (95% CI, 8.4-16.4), I2 = 67%. The pooled estimate for oral cancer in "Ever-users" of Naswar compared to "Never-users", in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province was 18.3 (95% CI, 8.7-38.5), I2 = 0%. The PAF for oral cancer associated with the use of Naswar in Pakistan was 44% (95% CI, 35%-53%). This review highlights a strong relationship between oral cancer incidence and the use of Naswar in Pakistan and adds to the evidence base on the carcinogenicity of SLT products in humans. Although the synthesized evidence may not be of a high quality, it represents the "best available evidence" which can be used to inform policy. The carcinogenicity of Naswar, a form of smokeless tobacco used extensively in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia, has yet to be recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), partly due to the lack of evidence on the association of Naswar use and cancer. Additionally, Naswar is as yet un-regulated in Pakistan and evades the tax net, resulting in it being freely available to both adults and children at very cheap prices compared

  15. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Washington: 1996-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Meredith L. BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    • After making substantial progress on tobacco control in the mid-1990s, the tobacco industry has stifled tobacco control activities in Washington through a mixture of campaign contributions and legal challenges. • Political campaign contributions have remained steadily high throughout the 1990s. Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, the Tobacco Institute, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson, and the Smokeless Tobacco Council contributed $362,298 to campaigns in 1996 through 2000 election cycles: $1...

  16. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  17. INTEGRATION OF QSAR AND SAR METHODS FOR THE MECHANISTIC INTERPRETATION OF PREDICTIVE MODELS FOR CARCINOGENICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Fjodorova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based Toxtree expert system (SAR approach was integrated with the statistically based counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN model (QSAR approach to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of a carcinogenicity model for non-congeneric chemicals using Dragon descriptors and carcinogenic potency for rats as a response. The transparency of the CP ANN algorithm was demonstrated using intrinsic mapping technique specifically Kohonen maps. Chemical structures were represented by Dragon descriptors that express the structural and electronic features of molecules such as their shape and electronic surrounding related to reactivity of molecules. It was illustrated how the descriptors are correlated with particular structural alerts (SAs for carcinogenicity with recognized mechanistic link to carcinogenic activity. Moreover, the Kohonen mapping technique enables one to examine the separation of carcinogens and non-carcinogens (for rats within a family of chemicals with a particular SA for carcinogenicity. The mechanistic interpretation of models is important for the evaluation of safety of chemicals.

  18. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, E; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, W; Tueting, W; van Benthem, J; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-10-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in food that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, it does not take carcinogenic potency into account and, therefore, does not permit prioritisation based on potential risk or concern. In the absence of carcinogenicity dose-response data, an assessment based on comparison with an appropriate threshold of toxicological concern may be possible. When carcinogenicity data from animal bioassays are available, a useful analysis is achieved by the calculation of margins of exposure (MOEs), which can be used to compare animal potency data with human exposure scenarios. Two reference points on the dose-response relationship that can be used for MOE calculation were examined; the T25 value, which is derived from linear extrapolation, and the BMDL10, which is derived from mathematical modelling of the dose-response data. The above approaches were applied to selected food-borne genotoxic carcinogens. The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers.

  19. Enhanced replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 DNA in carcinogen-treated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 (SV40) in carcinogen-treated monkey cells has been studied to elucidate the mechanism of carcinogen-enhanced reactivation. Carcinogen enhanced reactivation is the observed increase in UV-irradiated virus survival in host cells treated with low doses of carcinogen compared to UV-irradiated virus survival in untreated hosts. Carcinogen treatment of monkey kidney cells with either N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) or UV radiation leads to an enhanced capacity to replicate UV-damaged virus during the first round of infection. To further define the mechanism leading to enhanced replication, a detailed biochemical analysis of replication intermediates in carcinogen-treated cells was performed. Several conclusions can be drawn. First enhanced replication can be observed in the first four rounds of replication after UV irradiation of viral templates. The second major finding is that the relaxed circular intermediate model proposed for the replication of UV-damaged templates in untreated cells appears valid for replication of UV-damaged templates in carcinogen-treated cells. Possible mechanisms and the supporting evidence are discussed and future experiments outlined

  20. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  1. Nicotine, Carcinogen, and Toxin Exposure in Long-Term E-Cigarette and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Users: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Blount, Benjamin C; Brown, Jamie; McNeill, Ann; Alwis, K Udeni; Feng, June; Wang, Lanqing; West, Robert

    2017-03-21

    Given the rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and the paucity of associated longitudinal health-related data, the need to assess the potential risks of long-term use is essential. To compare exposure to nicotine, tobacco-related carcinogens, and toxins among smokers of combustible cigarettes only, former smokers with long-term e-cigarette use only, former smokers with long-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use only, long-term dual users of both combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and long-term users of both combustible cigarettes and NRT. Cross-sectional study. United Kingdom. The following 5 groups were purposively recruited: combustible cigarette-only users, former smokers with long-term (≥6 months) e-cigarette-only or NRT-only use, and long-term dual combustible cigarette-e-cigarette or combustible cigarette-NRT users (n = 36 to 37 per group; total n = 181). Sociodemographic and smoking characteristics were assessed. Participants provided urine and saliva samples and were analyzed for biomarkers of nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After confounders were controlled for, no clear between-group differences in salivary or urinary biomarkers of nicotine intake were found. The e-cigarette-only and NRT-only users had significantly lower metabolite levels for TSNAs (including the carcinogenic metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL]) and VOCs (including metabolites of the toxins acrolein; acrylamide; acrylonitrile; 1,3-butadiene; and ethylene oxide) than combustible cigarette-only, dual combustible cigarette-e-cigarette, or dual combustible cigarette-NRT users. The e-cigarette-only users had significantly lower NNAL levels than all other groups. Combustible cigarette-only, dual combustible cigarette-NRT, and dual combustible cigarette-e-cigarette users had largely similar levels of TSNA and VOC metabolites. Cross-sectional design with self-selected sample. Former

  2. Identification of Radiation Effects on Carcinogenic Food Estimated by Ames Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, M.; Eid, I.; El - Nagdy, M.; Zaher, R.; Abd El-Karem, H.; Abd EL Karim, A.

    2016-01-01

    A major concern in studies related to carcinogenesis is the exposure to the exogenous carcinogens that may occur in food in both natural and polluted human environments. The purpose of the present study is to examine some of food products by Ames test to find out if food products carcinogenic then expose food to gamma radiation to find out the effect of radiation on it as a treatment. In this study, the food samples were examined by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test) to find out that a food product could be carcinogenic or highly mutated. Testing of chemicals for mutagenicity is based on the knowledge that a substance which is mutagenic in the bacterium is more likely than not to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals, and thus , by extension, present a risk of cancer to humans. After that food products that showed mutagenicity exposed to gamma radiation at different doses to examine the effect of gamma radiation on food products. This study represent γ radiation effect on carcinogenic food by using Ames test in the following steps: Detect food by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains in which the colony count /plate for each food sample will show if food is slightly mutated or highly mutated or carcinogenic. If food is highly mutated or carcinogenic with high number of colonies /plate, then the carcinogenic food or highly mutated food exposed to different doses of radiation The applied doses in this study were 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 (KGy). Detect the radiation effect on food samples by Ames test after irradiation. The study shows that mutated and carcinogenic food products estimated by Ames test could be treated by irradiation

  3. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  4. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to ... Mechanisms for prioritising health in trade negotiations and other ... Population health and poverty ... Research projects that address multiple NCD risk factors .... In general, the process for soliciting, reviewing and awarding grants follows this timeline.

  5. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  6. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  7. Advances in Carcinogenic Metal Toxicity and Potential Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeyaporn Koedrith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system’s ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-κB, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression.

  8. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  9. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  11. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  12. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  13. Combustible Tobacco and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Working Adults-United States, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tobacco use among working adults at least 18 years of age. The 2012 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 105,779) was used to estimate prevalences for cigarette smoking, other combustible tobacco use, and smokeless tobacco use and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for any tobacco product use among working adults at least 18 years of age, by industry and occupation. Of the estimated 144 million currently employed adults, 17% were cigarette smokers, 7.0% other noncigarette combustible tobacco users, and 3.4% smokeless tobacco users. Odds of using tobacco varied by sociodemographic characteristics and by industry and occupations. Disparities in tobacco use exist among working adults. Continued implementation of proven interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among U.S. workers is warranted, particularly among those workers with a higher burden of use.

  14. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  15. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  16. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  17. OSHA Confronts Carcinogens in the Workplace as Inflation Fighters Confront OSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Ilene

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the apparently opposing forces of worker safety, as represented by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and economic inflation spawned by expensive industrial processes needed to limit the emission of carcinogens. (CP)

  18. Carcinogenicity and Immnotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Alexandra

    2002-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that long-term chronic exposure to embedded DU and HMTA initiates changes in normal immune function that will eventually result in a carcinogenic response characterized by both tumor...

  19. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  20. On the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    The recent classification by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the herbicide glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen has generated considerable discussion. The classification is at variance with evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by several national and international regulatory bodies. The basis for the IARC classification is examined under the assumptions that the IARC criteria are reasonable and that the body of scientific studies determined by IARC staff to be relevant to the evaluation of glyphosate by the Monograph Working Group is sufficiently complete. It is shown that the classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen was the result of a flawed and incomplete summary of the experimental evidence evaluated by the Working Group. Rational and effective cancer prevention activities depend on scientifically sound and unbiased assessments of the carcinogenic potential of suspected agents. Implications of the erroneous classification of glyphosate with respect to the IARC Monograph Working Group deliberative process are discussed.

  1. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  2. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  3. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully se...

  4. Quantitative structure activity relationship for the computational prediction of nitrocompounds carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Aliuska Helguera; Perez, Miguel Angel Cabrera; Combes, Robert D.; Gonzalez, Maykel Perez

    2006-01-01

    Several nitrocompounds have been screened for carcinogenicity in rodents, but this is a lengthy and expensive process, taking two years and typically costing 2.5 million dollars, and uses large numbers of animals. There is, therefore, much impetus to develop suitable alternative methods. One possible way of predicting carcinogenicity is to use quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). QSARs have been widely utilized for toxicity testing, thereby contributing to a reduction in the need for experimental animals. This paper describes the results of applying a TOPological substructural molecular design (TOPS-MODE) approach for predicting the rodent carcinogenicity of nitrocompounds. The model described 79.10% of the experimental variance, with a standard deviation of 0.424. The predictive power of the model was validated by leave-one-out validation, with a determination coefficient of 0.666. In addition, this approach enabled the contribution of different fragments to carcinogenic potency to be assessed, thereby making the relationships between structure and carcinogenicity to be transparent. It was found that the carcinogenic activity of the chemicals analysed was increased by the presence of a primary amine group bonded to the aromatic ring, a manner that was proportional to the ring aromaticity. The nitro group bonded to an aromatic carbon atom is a more important determinant of carcinogenicity than the nitro group bonded to an aliphatic carbon. Finally, the TOPS-MODE approach was compared with four other predictive models, but none of these could explain more than 66% of the variance in the carcinogenic potency with the same number of variables

  5. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  6. Non-carcinogenic late effects of ionizing radiation; human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The late effects of ionizing radiation may be somatic effect or potential effect, about which such informations as follows are required: teratogenesis the disturbances in growth and development, cataracts, infertility, cytogenetic aberration, and accelerated aging. Although much is known about the nature of the malformations produced by ionizing radiation, and about the vulnerability of human embryonal and fetal tissues during various stages of organogenesis, the quantitative information is uncertain and incomplete. The data on A-bomb survivors were flawed by confounding radiation dose with nutritional and other influences caused by the disasters created by war-time bombings. If the effects of radiation are real, they are quite small for the dose below 100 rad (kerma), are confined to the children of pre-pubertal age at the time of exposure, and are of much less consequence for low-LET radiation than for high. Radiation-induced lenticular changes are of graded severity, and as for cataracts, the threshold is in the range from 600 to 1,000 rad of low-LET radiation, and perhaps 75 to 100 rad for fast neutrons; the average latent period is 2 to 7 years. The estimate of the RBE for neutrons is in the range from 2 to 10, and dose-dependent. Ionizing radiation has important effects on fertility only at very high dose. The relationship of the quantitative aspects of the biologic significance of chromosomal aberration in somatic cells to dose may provide an interesting parallel to the carcinogenic effect. For neutrons, the dose-response curve appears to be linear, at least for stable aberration. (Yamashita, S.)

  7. Feasibility of preventing the effects of carcinogens on man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M; Wittig, K; Khesina, I A

    1973-01-01

    Measures are considered for reducing atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by domestic heating, industry, and motor vehicles. Older home heating systems should be replaced with ones which can burn more efficiently. It is recommended that emissions from industrial sources, such as by-product coke plants, petroleum refineries, and plants producing carbon black, resins, and gas, should be reduced by the use of filters or by more complete combustion. The amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle exhaust can be reduced by using oil additives, changing the ratio of gasoline to oil, and using neutralizers, but more appropriate long-term solutions would be to use vehicles powered by gas or electricity. Since the largest amounts of benzyprene (BP) are produced by idling motors, traffic flow should be improved by separating foot and automobile traffic. The amount of BP in airplane emissions has been reduced by more than 30% by adding magnesium to the fuel and by about 60% by using dearomatized fuels. To prevent lung cancer it is necessary to reduce the levels of not only carcinogens and cocarcinogens, but also of toxic substances, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and acrolein, which reduce ciliary activity in the bronchial epithelium. Since it is impractical to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the human environment at present, maximum permissible concentrations of BP have been established in the Soviet Union. They are 0.01 microg/100 m/sup 3/ BP for the atmosphere and 15 microg/100 m/sup 3/ in work places.

  8. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  9. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle, John L; Finch, Gregory L; Heidel, Shawn M; Hovland, David N; Ivens, Inge; Parker, Suezanne; Ponce, Rafael A; Sachs, Clifford; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Short, Brian; Todd, Marque D

    2010-06-01

    An important safety consideration for developing new therapeutics is assessing the potential that the therapy will increase the risk of cancer. For biotherapeutics, traditional two-year rodent bioassays are often not scientifically applicable or feasible. This paper is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review past and current practice regarding carcinogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics and to provide recommendations. Publicly available information on eighty marketed protein biotherapeutics was reviewed. In this review, no assessments related to carcinogenicity or tumor growth promotion were identified for fifty-one of the eighty molecules. For the twenty-nine biotherapeutics in which assessments related to carcinogenicity were identified, various experimental approaches were employed. This review also discusses several key principles to aid in the assessment of carcinogenic potential, including (1) careful consideration of mechanism of action to identify theoretical risks, (2) careful investigation of existing data for indications of proliferative or immunosuppressive potential, and (3) characterization of any proliferative or immunosuppressive signals detected. Traditional two-year carcinogenicity assays should not be considered as the default method for assessing the carcinogenicity potential of biotherapeutics. If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling.

  11. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  12. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  13. Compliance with point-of-sale tobacco control policies and student tobacco use in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh S; McCarthy, William J; Resnicow, Ken; Pimple, Sharmila A; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Mishra, Gauravi A; Gupta, Prakash C

    2018-05-09

    We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  15. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  17. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed by...

  18. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  19. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  20. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  1. Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Yong-Bum; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Choong-Yong

    2010-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (or 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients. It has been classified as non-genotoxic carcinogen but its carcinogenic potential in the rodents has been controversial. The carcinogenicity to B6C3F1 mice by drinking water administration was assessed over a period of 104 weeks. Three groups, each comprising 50 male and 50 female mice received 3-MCPD at dosages of 30, 100 or 300 ppm up to Day 100 and 200 ppm onward (4.2, 14.3 and 33.0 mg/kg for males; 3.7, 12.2, and 31.0 mg/kg for females), were allocated. Survival was good, with at least 80% of males and 72% of females in each group surviving 104 weeks. Body weights and body weight gain were decreased in males and females receiving 200 ppm. Water and food consumptions of both sexes at 300/200 ppm were lowered. Emaciated or crouching position was observed for animals of both sexes exposed to 200 ppm. There were some differences in hematology and serum biochemistry compared with controls, although there was no histopathological evidence to support those changes. Histopathological examination did not reveal any neoplastic or non-neoplastic findings attributable to treatment with 3-MCPD. It is concluded that drinking water administration of 3-MCPD for 104 weeks revealed no evidence of carcinogenic potential.

  2. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30 µg l −1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60 µg l −1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60 µg l −1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3–4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. - Highlights: • Uranium level in groundwater samples have been assessed in different regions of Punjab. • Comparative study of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects of uranium has been done. • Wide variation has been found for different geological regions. • It has been found that South west Punjab is worst affected by uranium contamination in its water. • For west and north east regions of Punjab, uranium levels in groundwater laid under recommended safe limits.

  3. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  4. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  5. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking, and passive smoking. Secondhand smoke contains at least 250 toxic ... in tea bag-like pouches or sachets. No matter what it's called, smokeless tobacco is addictive and ...

  7. The Tobacco Use Management System: Analyzing Tobacco Control From a Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying

    2010-01-01

    We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970

  8. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  9. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  10. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  11. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  12. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  13. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Pennsylvania: 1979-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political and legal force in Pennsylvania through campaign contributions, lobbying and litigation. The tobacco industry has become a major source of campaign contributions to legislative candidates, state constitutional office candidates, and political party committees. In the 1979-1980 election cycle, the tobacco industry contributed $3,600 to candidates and parties. In 1995-1996, the tobacco industry contributed $65,850 to candidates and parties. ...

  14. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  15. Assessment of the Tobacco Dependence Screener Among Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Variants of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) are widely used to study dependence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. However, there is a need for a dependence measure which is based on the clinical definition of dependence and is easy to administer. The Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), a self-administered 10-item scale, is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and ICD-10 definitions of dependence. It is commonly used as a tobacco dependence screening tool in cigarette smoking studies but it has not been evaluated for dependence in ST users. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the TDS as a measure of tobacco dependence among ST users. Data collected from a community-based sample of exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma (n = 95) was used for this study. TDS was adapted to be used for ST dependence as the references for smoking were changed to ST use. Concurrent validity and reliability of TDS were evaluated. Salivary cotinine concentration was used as a criterion variable. Overall accuracy of the TDS was assessed by receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve and optimal cutoff scores for dependence diagnosis were evaluated. There was no floor or ceiling effect in TDS score (mean = 5.42, SD = 2.61). Concurrent validity of TDS as evaluated by comparing it with FTND-ST was affirmative. Study findings showed significant association between TDS and salivary cotinine concentration. The internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha indicated that TDS had acceptable reliability (α = 0.765). TDS was negatively correlated with time to first chew/dip and positively correlated with frequency (number of chews per day) and years of ST use. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that at an optimal cutoff score of TDS 5+, ST users classified as dependent had significantly higher cotinine concentration and FTND-ST scores. TDS demonstrated acceptable reliability and

  16. Lung tumors and radon inhalation in over 2000 rats: Approximate linearity across a wide range of doses and potentiation by tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.G.; Lafuma, J.; Parish, S.E.; Peto, R.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1986-01-01

    More than 2000 rats were exposed to cumulative doses of up to 28,000 WLMs of radon gas. More than 300 pulmonary tumors were induced by this exposure, most being nonfatal lesions detected only at autopsy of animals that had died of unrelated causes. Above 6000 WLMs rats suffered increasingly from life shortening due to radiation-induced nonneoplastic causes and so had less time in which to develop tumors. When adjusted for these competing causes of death, the hazard function for the excess risk of developing pulmonary tumors was approximately linearly related to dose throughout the range of doses studied. This suggests that some previously reported high-dose ''reductions'' in radiogenic tumor-induction rates may chiefly have involved the killing of rats rather than the killing of precursor cells. Rats exposed to radon and then to six months of inhalation of tobacco smoke had a four times greater age-specific prevalence of pulmonary tumors than rats exposed to an identical radon dose either alone or preceded by tobacco smoke inhalation. This suggests that tobacco smoke may accelerate the carcinogenic process by acting as a promoter of radiation-induced somatic damage. These data suggest that, for assessing human risk from exposure to radon, the linear model should be assumed, but that the WLM is not on its own an adequate index of carcinogenic insult. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  19. Improving the delivery of global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Green, Carol; Colbert, James

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco control must remain a critical global health priority given the growing burden of tobacco-induced disease in the developing world. Insights from the emerging field of global health delivery suggest that tobacco control could be improved through a systematic, granular analysis of the processes through which it is promoted, implemented, and combated. Using this framework, a critical bottleneck to the delivery of proven health promotion emerges in the role that the tobacco industry plays in promoting tobacco use and blocking effective tobacco-control policies. This "corporate bottleneck" can also be understood as a root cause of massive disease and suffering upon vulnerable populations worldwide, for the goal of maximizing corporate profit. Naming, understanding, and responding to this corporate bottleneck is crucial to the success of tobacco-control policies. Three case studies of tobacco-control policy--South Africa, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and Uruguay--are presented to explore and understand the implications of this analysis. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  20. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  1. Advertising and promotion of smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1989-01-01

    This paper is focused on the approaches used to advertise and promote smokeless tobacco products during the early to mid-1980s. These included traditional motifs that featured rugged-looking masculine models in sporting and outdoor settings as well as an expanded white-collar appeal. Smokeless tobacco was not affected by the ban on broadcast advertising of cigarettes that went into effect in 1971, and, until 1986, both print and broadcast media were used to advertise it. Promotional activities ranged from sponsorship of sporting events to offers for clothing bearing smokeless tobacco product logos. Despite the claims of manufacturers that advertising and promotional efforts were not targeted to youth, smokeless tobacco companies sponsored tobacco-spitting contests with teenage participants, a college marketing program, and college scholarships. In efforts that appeared designed to bolster their public image in the face of growing concern over the consequences of smokeless tobacco use by young people, companies like U.S. Tobacco Company contributed to major social programs, including, ironically, alcohol- and drug-abuse prevention programs. Spurred by public health groups, federal legislation was passed in 1986 that banned television and radio advertising of smokeless tobacco products and required manufacturers to include warning labels on their products on the potential health hazards of smokeless tobacco use.

  2. Young adolescents, tobacco advertising, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.

  3. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY... administration and enforcement of importer permits over the past decade, TTB believes that it can gain... minimum manufacturing and marking requirements for tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and...

  4. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  5. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  6. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  7. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacture, preproduction design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a tobacco... about the manufacturing practices and processes unique to your facility and regulated tobacco products... process, package, label, and distribute different types of regulated tobacco products (cigarettes...

  8. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  9. Teens and Tobacco (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and most tobacco product use begins during adolescence. In this podcast, Dr. Andrea Gentzke discusses ways to keep young people from using tobacco products.

  10. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc−/−p53+/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Salvatori, Daniela C.F.; Schaap, Mirjam M.; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; Benthem, Jan van; Luijten, Mirjam; Steeg, Harry van

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.

  11. [The effect of increasing tobacco tax on tobacco sales in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakamura, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    Since the special tobacco tax was established in 1998, the tobacco tax and price of tobacco have increased thrice, in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. We evaluated the effect of increases in tax on the consumption and sales of tobacco in Japan using the annual data on the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales from Japan Tobacco, Inc. We applied the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales per year to a joinpoint regression model to examine the trends in the data. This model could help identify the year in which a decrease or increase was apparent from the data. In addition, we examined the effect of each tax increase while also considering other factors that may have caused a decrease in the levels of tobacco consumption using the method proposed by Hirano et al. According to the joinpoint regression analysis, the number of tobacco products sold started decreasing in 1998, and the trends of decrease accelerated to 5% per year, from 2005. Owing to the tax increase, tobacco sales reduced by -2.4%, -2.9%, and -10.1% (corrected for the effect of the Tohoku Great Earthquake), and price elasticity was estimated as -0.30, -0.27, and -0.28 (corrected) in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The effect of tobacco tax increase on the decrease in tobacco sales was greatest in 2010, while the price elasticity remained almost the same as it was during the previous tax increase. The sharp hike in tobacco tax in 2010 decreased the number of tobacco products sold, while the price elasticity in 2010 was similar to that in 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that further increase in tobacco tax is needed to reduce the damage caused by smoking in the people of Japan.

  12. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  13. The plight of tobacco farming under hegemony of transnational tobacco companies in Turkey: repercussions and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efza Evrengil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The shift from State oversight to contractual farming mandated by law in 2002 as a structural adjustment conditionality has had destructive impact on Turkish tobacco agriculture: Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs gained control by being able to impose unilateral conditions; tobacco farmers were forced to face three options: prices below subsistence, migration, or turning to illicit market. A heated debate about illicit domestic tobacco market recently surfaced in news media. Methods (a Literature review, (b trend analysis of Turkish leaf tobacco output and trade as compared among 12 major tobacco growing countries, using official data (2003-2016, FAOstat (1961-2014, UNdata (1989-2015, (c review of relevant news coverage (2016 - June 2017. Results Over the last 25 years, Turkey was worst hit among the 12 countries: Leaf tobacco output dropped sharpest by 78%, and trade balance was drastically reversed. Between 2003-2016, cigarettes manufactured rose by 32.2%, leaf tobacco imports by 46.6%, whereas number of tobacco farmers declined by 82.4%, domestic output by 39.4%, and exports by 53.6%. Domestic tobacco used in cigarettes decreased from 42.1% to 13.3%. Tobacco agriculture vanished in certain regions or reduced to supplementary source of income undertaken by elderly and children. Domestic tobacco lobby seeks legalization, lower tax rates, and quotas for compulsory use of domestic tobacco in manufacturing. TTCs fervently oppose these positions and demand severe countermeasures. Conclusions TTCs ability to source leaf tobacco at lowest possible prices through their affiliates from around the world under liberalized trade and contractual farming regimes greatly harms agricultural activities realized by income and employment generating small family holdings, and thus national economies. In Turkey, TTC hegemony devastated farmers' livelihoods, caused market imbalance and duality, and disrupted regulations and taxation. Agriculture

  14. Talking about tobacco on Twitter is associated with tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Urman, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Majmundar, Anuja; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2018-06-10

    Tobacco-related content appears on social media in the form of advertising and messages by individuals. However, little is known about associations between posting social media messages and tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults. Self-reports of tobacco product use were obtained from the Children's Health Study of young adults in Southern California. Among the 1486 respondents in the most recent wave of the cohort (2016-2017), 284 provided tobacco product use data and their Twitter user names to access publicly available Twitter account data (mean age = 20.1 yrs. (SD = 0.6), 54% female, 49% Hispanic). We obtained the tweets that those respondents posted on Twitter, searched the tweets for 14 nicotine- and tobacco-related keywords, and coded these statements as positive or negative/neutral. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether respondents who posted positive tobacco-related tweets were more likely to report tobacco product use, relative to those who did not post any positive tobacco-related tweets. Respondents who posted any positive messages about tobacco had significantly higher odds of reporting past month use of cigarettes (OR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.36, 7.30) and any tobacco product (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.16, 5.01), relative to respondents who did not post about tobacco. This is the first study to establish an empirical link between adolescents' and young adults' tobacco-related Twitter activity and their tobacco product use. Health communications about the risks of tobacco use could target adolescents who post positive messages about tobacco products on Twitter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  16. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the prevalence and attitudes toward tobacco use was assessed among 13-15 years school students in Bihar (India). Schools having grade 8-10 in Bihar. A two stage cluster sample design was used. SUDAAN and the C-sample procedure in Epi-Info was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2636 respondents, 71.8% (76.5% boys, 57.2% girls) were ever tobacco users; of them 48.9% had used tobacco before 10 years of age. Current use was reported by 58.9% (Boys 61.4%, Girls 51.2%); smokeless tobacco by 55.6% (Boys 57.6%, Girls 49.2%); and smoking by 19.4% (23.0% boys, 7.8% girls). Nearly one third (29%) students were exposed to ETS inside their homes and nearly half (48%) outside their homes. Almost all students reported watching cigarette and gutka advertisements in almost all kinds of media and events. Tobacco use by parents and friends, knowledge on harmful effects of chewing tobacco, smoking and environmental smoke, and attitudes on tobacco use by others were strongly associated with student tobacco use. Current tobacco use was reported significantly more by students who received pocket money/or were earning than by students who did not receive any pocket money/or did not earn (p value for trend <0.0001). Over half of current users (56%) bought their tobacco products from stores; of these, over 3/4th (77.2%) of them despite their age, had no difficulty in procuring these products. Teaching in schools regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was non-existent (3%). This urgently requires a comprehensive prevention program in schools and the community especially targeted towards girls.

  17. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Non-genotoxic carcinogens: early effects on gap junctions, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Chipman, James Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are thought to induce tumour formation by disturbing the balance between cell growth and cell death. Gap junctions (GJ) contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by allowing the intercellular exchange of growth regulatory signals and potential inhibition of GJ intercellular communication through loss of connexin (Cx) plaques has been shown to be involved in the cancer process. We have investigated the time- and dose-dependent effects of the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens Wy-14,643, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, methapyrilene and hexachlorobenzene and the male rat kidney carcinogens chloroform, p-dichlorobenzene and d-limonene on gap junction plaque expression in relation to proliferation and apoptosis. With the exception of limonene, all non-genotoxic carcinogens significantly reduced the expression of GJ plaques containing Cx32 in their respective target tissue. No dose-dependent, significant effects were seen in non-target organs. Although alteration of Cx32 expression did not appear to correlate with induction of cell proliferation, out data suggest that the interaction of both processes--interference of GJ coupled with a proliferative stimulus (at the carcinogenic dose)--may be important in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis and provide a potential alert for non-genotoxic carcinogens in short-term toxicity tests

  19. 76 FR 52913 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... products'' as ``cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco.'' Each of..., and all electronic or mailed comments TTB has received or will receive in response to [[Page 52915...

  20. Determination of polonium 210 in different types of tobacco consumed in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Sudan is one of the consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The aim of this study was the determination polonium-210 in different parts of tobacco plant comes from China and Brazil consumed in cigarette in Sudan and determination of 210 Po in five most frequently smoked brands more consumption in Sudan. The annual committed effective dose from cigarette was determined and comparison with other results reported in literature. The tobacco plant (leaves and root) for analysis were collected from Haggar factory in Sudan and another brand were collected randomly from markets, only the most popular one was chosen for analysis (Bringi, Lord, Winner, Goal, Benson). The polonium-210 activity was measured on an alpha-spectrometer equipped with semiconductor surface barrier silicon detectors after spontaneously plated onto asilver disc from hydrochloric acid medium. Polonium samples were measured for 2-3 days. The accuracy and precision of radiochemical method were evaluated using (IAEA-326). The values of activity concentration of 210 Po found in cigarettes consumed in Sudan are within of the range of values found in the literature. The 210 Po presented concentration in different brands ranging from 22.8 to 51.6 Bqkg -1 (average 36.54 Bq kg -1 ). The activity concentration of 210 Po in popular brand cigarette tobacco is higher than that in fine brand cigarette tobacco. Found the highest concentration in the raw material compared to the final product is attributed that to the import, storage and manufacturing processes. Activity determination indicates those cigarettes consumed in Sudan are comparable to the values reported in China and Brazil that the raw material comes from these two countries. The polonium is non-uniformly distributed within the tobacco plants analyzed in this study, the highest levels were found in the leaves

  1. Global perspective of tobacco habits and lung cancer: a lesson for third world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M; Mathew, A; Nair, M K

    1999-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, a dominant role of tobacco smoking in lung cancer causation has been demonstrated. Almost three-quarters of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to tobacco smoking. The global variation in lung cancer incidence is thought to be directly proportional to the smoking habits prevalent in that part of the world. Lung cancer shows a greater upward trend in incidence in the USA, in central and Eastern Europe than ever before, especially in females. Japan too has recorded a 10-fold increase in incidence in both sexes since 1975. In India the problem is further compounded by absence of authentic data on time trend. The recent trend of available data suggests a more or less linear trend. At present lung cancer ranks among the top three killers in men in almost every metropolis in India. The highest incidence rate has been recorded in Bombay (14.6/ 100,000) and the lowest in Barshi (2.0/100,000). How much of these can be attributed to smoking cannot be commented on as no case-control or cohort studies have ever been undertaken in India. The situation is more alarming in other developing countries, where there is no authentic data on tobacco use or lung cancer incidences. The relationship between tobacco and cancer is both simple and complex. The majority of the cancer patients are smokers, while the cancer incidence is not proportional among smokers. To explain this, various factors such as type of smoke, duration of smoke, amount of carcinogens, presence of activation and metabolism pathways, and lately genetic environment interaction, have been put forward. It appears that the relationship is more complex than at first thought. In developing countries, it is further compounded by lack of data on usage and dependence of the economies of these countries on tobacco. The situation is alarming, with ever-increasing incidence among women and non-smokers exposed to smoke (passive smokers). Tobacco use has already become an epidemic.

  2. Determination of polonium 210 in different types of tobacco consumed in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulrahman, M E [Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-15

    The carcinogenic effect of {sup 210} Po with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Sudan is one of the consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The aim of this study was the determination polonium-210 in different parts of tobacco plant comes from China and Brazil consumed in cigarette in Sudan and determination of {sup 210} Po in five most frequently smoked brands more consumption in Sudan. The annual committed effective dose from cigarette was determined and comparison with other results reported in literature. The tobacco plant (leaves and root) for analysis were collected from Haggar factory in Sudan and another brand were collected randomly from markets, only the most popular one was chosen for analysis (Bringi, Lord, Winner, Goal, Benson). The polonium-210 activity was measured on an alpha-spectrometer equipped with semiconductor surface barrier silicon detectors after spontaneously plated onto asilver disc from hydrochloric acid medium. Polonium samples were measured for 2-3 days. The accuracy and precision of radiochemical method were evaluated using (IAEA-326). The values of activity concentration of {sup 210} Po found in cigarettes consumed in Sudan are within of the range of values found in the literature. The {sup 210} Po presented concentration in different brands ranging from 22.8 to 51.6 Bqkg{sup -1}(average 36.54 Bq kg{sup -1}). The activity concentration of {sup 210} Po in popular brand cigarette tobacco is higher than that in fine brand cigarette tobacco. Found the highest concentration in the raw material compared to the final product is attributed that to the import, storage and manufacturing processes. Activity determination indicates those cigarettes consumed in Sudan are comparable to the values reported in China and Brazil that the raw material comes from these two countries. The polonium is non-uniformly distributed within the tobacco plants analyzed in this study, the highest

  3. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  5. Nearly Half Of Small Employers Using Tobacco Surcharges Do Not Provide Tobacco Cessation Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Bains, Jaskaran; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2018-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed employer plans in the small-group marketplace to charge tobacco users up to 50 percent more for premiums-known as tobacco surcharges-but only if the employer offered a tobacco cessation program and the employee in question failed to participate in it. Using 2016 survey data collected by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust on 278 employers eligible for Small Business Health Options Program, we examined the prevalence of tobacco surcharges and tobacco cessation programs in the small-group market under this policy and found that 16.2 percent of small employers used tobacco surcharges. Overall, 47 percent of employers used tobacco surcharges but failed to offer tobacco cessation counseling. Wellness program prevalence was lower in states that allowed tobacco surcharges, and 10.8 percent of employers in these states were noncompliant with the ACA by charging tobacco users higher premiums without offering cessation programs. Efforts should be undertaken to improve the monitoring and enforcement of ACA tobacco rating rules.

  6. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  7. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  8. Instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 27 tobacco samples was submitted to INAA. Bowen's Kale was analyzed with the samples. The resulting data for 21 elements in tobacco were processed by a cluster programme. This combination proves to be a convenient tool for discrimination within one group of samples. (author)

  9. Tobacco, e-cigarettes, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-04-01

    The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.

  10. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  11. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  12. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  13. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals ... the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China) ... Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam.

  14. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  16. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... ... tobacco use, the social nature of the activity, and the relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. ... Clean air for ourselves and our children ... They cultivated media contacts, leading to numerous newspaper articles, ... An awareness-raising video documents the economic problems associated ...

  17. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  18. Tobacco, E-Cigarettes and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903

  19. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  20. Factors modifying sensitivity to carcinogens and the problem of threshold in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of chemical carcinogens and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been under extensive study both experimentally and epidemiologically. The problem of the carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation is a very difficult one: in epidemiological studies it is hard to take into account the many factors (e.g. diseases, diet, genetic peculiarities) that may affect sensitivity to radiation; in experimental studies it is hard to extrapolate with accuracy from one species to another or from the individual threshold to that of the whole population. Age, enzyme activity, sex, and DNA repair capability also modify sensitivity to radiation; when factors such as these are better understood it is expected that epidemiological studies will give a solution that allows estimation of the carcinogenic risk from low-level radiation and hence establishment of a threshold dose. (author)