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Sample records for tms study auswirkungen

  1. Effects of MRI on the electrophysiology of the motor cortex: a TMS study; Auswirkungen der Magnetresonanztomografie auf die Elektrophysiologie des motorischen Kortex: eine Studie mit transkranieller Magnetstimulation

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    Schlamann, Marc; Pietrzyk, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Yoon, M.S.; Gerwig, M.; Kastrup, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Maderwald, S.; Forsting, M.; Ladd, S.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz; Bitz, A.; Ladd, M.E. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz

    2009-03-15

    The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field MRI scanners encouraged a new discussion on safety aspects of MRI examinations. Earlier studies report altered acoustically evoked potentials. This finding was not able to be confirmed in later studies. In the present study transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evaluate whether motor cortical excitability may be altered following MRI examination even at field strength of 1.5 T. In 12 right-handed male volunteers individual thresholds for motor responses and then the length of the post-excitatory inhibition (silent period) were determined. Subsequently the volunteers were examined in the MRI scanner (Siemens Avanto, 1.5 T) for 63 minutes using gradient and spin echo sequences. MRI examination was immediately followed by another TMS session and a third 10 minutes later. As a control condition, the 12 subjects spent one hour in the scanner without examination and one hour on a couch without the presence of a scanner. After MRI examination, the silent period was significantly lengthened in all 12 subjects and then tended to the initial value after 10 min. Motor thresholds were significantly elevated and then normalized after 10 minutes. No significant effects were found in the control conditions. (orig.)

  2. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

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    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing TMS perturbations to occipital and parietal cortices in concurrent TMS-fMRI studies-Methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    the effect of transient perturbations on functional brain organization. This concurrent TMS-fMRI study applied TMS perturbation to occipital and parietal cortices with the aim to 'mimick' neglect and hemianopia. Based on the challenges and interpretational limitations of our own study we aim to provide...

  4. Understanding communicative actions : A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  5. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; Noordzij, M.L.; Volman, I.A.C.; Verhagen, L.; Overeem, S.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Bloem, B.R.; Hagoort, P.; Toni, I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  6. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; Noordzij, M.L.; Volman, I.A.C.; Verhagen, L.; Overeem, S.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Bloem, B.R.; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, I.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  7. Neuromodulation of Attentional Control in Major Depression: A Pilot DeepTMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Bradshaw, John L; Sheppard, Dianne M; Rosenberg, Oded; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Dannon, Pinhas; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Isserles, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    While Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is primarily characterized by mood disturbances, impaired attentional control is increasingly identified as a critical feature of depression. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS), a noninvasive neuromodulatory technique, can modulate neural activity and induce neuroplasticity changes in brain regions recruited by attentional processes. This study examined whether acute and long-term high-frequency repetitive deepTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can attenuate attentional deficits associated with MDD. Twenty-one MDD patients and 26 matched control subjects (CS) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory and the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) at baseline. MDD patients were readministered the SART and depressive assessments following a single session (n = 21) and after 4 weeks (n = 13) of high-frequency (20 Hz) repetitive deepTMS applied to the DLPFC. To control for the practice effect, CS (n = 26) were readministered the SART a further two times. The MDD group exhibited deficits in sustained attention and cognitive inhibition. Both acute and long-term high-frequency repetitive frontal deepTMS ameliorated sustained attention deficits in the MDD group. Improvement after acute deepTMS was related to attentional recovery after long-term deepTMS. Longer-term improvement in sustained attention was not related to antidepressant effects of deepTMS treatment.

  8. Neuromodulation of Attentional Control in Major Depression: A Pilot DeepTMS Study

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    Jodie Naim-Feil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is primarily characterized by mood disturbances, impaired attentional control is increasingly identified as a critical feature of depression. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS, a noninvasive neuromodulatory technique, can modulate neural activity and induce neuroplasticity changes in brain regions recruited by attentional processes. This study examined whether acute and long-term high-frequency repetitive deepTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC can attenuate attentional deficits associated with MDD. Twenty-one MDD patients and 26 matched control subjects (CS were administered the Beck Depression Inventory and the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART at baseline. MDD patients were readministered the SART and depressive assessments following a single session (n=21 and after 4 weeks (n=13 of high-frequency (20 Hz repetitive deepTMS applied to the DLPFC. To control for the practice effect, CS (n=26 were readministered the SART a further two times. The MDD group exhibited deficits in sustained attention and cognitive inhibition. Both acute and long-term high-frequency repetitive frontal deepTMS ameliorated sustained attention deficits in the MDD group. Improvement after acute deepTMS was related to attentional recovery after long-term deepTMS. Longer-term improvement in sustained attention was not related to antidepressant effects of deepTMS treatment.

  9. Effect of low frequency rTMS stimulation over lateral cerebellum: a FDG PET study

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    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggested the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive function as well as motor function. Because of the measurement difficulty of functional connectivity, little is known about the underlying mechanism involvement of cerebellum in motor and cognitive function in living human brain. To understand the role of cerebellum within the neural network, we investigated the changes of neuronal activity elicited by the cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 11 right-handed normal volunteers (age: 23.4{+-}2.5 y;6 males) were studied with FDG PET under two conditions; sham and 1Hz rTMS over left lateral cerebellum. With 10 min inter-block interval, three blocks of rTMS were started with the intravenous injection of [18F]FDG. In each block, 5min rTMS were delivered with an intensity of 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT). Sham rTMS was delivered with same protocol but the coil was positioned perpendicular to the target area with 50% RMT. PET scans were acquired immediately after the rTMS stimulation. Sham and 1Hz rTMS images compared using paired t-test with SPM2. Inhibited neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the stimulated left lateral cerebellum and orbitofrontal gyrus and right motor related areas (S1, SMA and posterior parietal cortex). While enhanced neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri including Broca's area and superior temporal gyrus including primary auditory cortex. Bilateral middle temporal, left precentral and right middle occipital gyri were also showed enhanced neuronal activity. This result showed that rTMS over left lateral cerebellum modulate direct vicinity of the targeted region and a large network of remote interconnected contralateral motor and ipsilateral language related brain regions. Present result provide evidence that cerebellum may contribute to language related cognitive function as well as motor

  10. Effect of low frequency rTMS stimulation over lateral cerebellum: a FDG PET study

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    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggested the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive function as well as motor function. Because of the measurement difficulty of functional connectivity, little is known about the underlying mechanism involvement of cerebellum in motor and cognitive function in living human brain. To understand the role of cerebellum within the neural network, we investigated the changes of neuronal activity elicited by the cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 11 right-handed normal volunteers (age: 23.4±2.5 y;6 males) were studied with FDG PET under two conditions; sham and 1Hz rTMS over left lateral cerebellum. With 10 min inter-block interval, three blocks of rTMS were started with the intravenous injection of [18F]FDG. In each block, 5min rTMS were delivered with an intensity of 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT). Sham rTMS was delivered with same protocol but the coil was positioned perpendicular to the target area with 50% RMT. PET scans were acquired immediately after the rTMS stimulation. Sham and 1Hz rTMS images compared using paired t-test with SPM2. Inhibited neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the stimulated left lateral cerebellum and orbitofrontal gyrus and right motor related areas (S1, SMA and posterior parietal cortex). While enhanced neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri including Broca's area and superior temporal gyrus including primary auditory cortex. Bilateral middle temporal, left precentral and right middle occipital gyri were also showed enhanced neuronal activity. This result showed that rTMS over left lateral cerebellum modulate direct vicinity of the targeted region and a large network of remote interconnected contralateral motor and ipsilateral language related brain regions. Present result provide evidence that cerebellum may contribute to language related cognitive function as well as motor control

  11. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study.

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    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-08-04

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks.

  12. Vertex Stimulation as a Control Site for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Concurrent TMS/fMRI Study

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    Jung, JeYoung; Bungert, Andreas; Bowtell, Richard; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common control condition for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies is to apply stimulation at the vertex. An assumption of vertex stimulation is that it has relatively little influence over on-going brain processes involved in most experimental tasks, however there has been little attempt to measure neural changes linked to vertex TMS. Here we directly test this assumption by using a concurrent TMS/fMRI paradigm in which we investigate fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-depen...

  13. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

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    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L.; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V.; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 yrs). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N=20) and waitlist (WTL, N=22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the waitlist group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control waitlist group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the waitlist group. PMID:25267414

  14. REPETITIVE TMS ON LEFT CEREBELLUM AFFECTS IMPULSIVITY IN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER : A PILOT STUDY

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    Giulia Zelda De Vidovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The borderline personality disorder (BPD is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity, and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients (n=8 and healthy controls (HC; n=9 performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% RMT over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands was high (3rd and 4th block, but their performace approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC. The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that, in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control.

  15. Repetitive TMS on Left Cerebellum Affects Impulsivity in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study.

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    De Vidovich, Giulia Zelda; Muffatti, Riccardo; Monaco, Jessica; Caramia, Nicoletta; Broglia, Davide; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Barale, Francesco; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients ( n = 8) and healthy controls (HC; n = 9) performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN) assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% resting motor threshold (RMT) over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands were high (third and fourth block), but their performance approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC). The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control.

  16. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

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    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.

  17. Add-on deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) for the treatment of chronic migraine: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Del Casale, Antonio; Scatena, Paola; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Di Pietro, Simone; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Raccah, Ruggero Nessim; Zangen, Abraham; Ferracuti, Stefano; Orzi, Francesco; Girardi, Paolo; Sette, Giuliano

    2016-06-03

    Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) can be an alternative treatment to relieve pain in chronic migraine (CM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-frequency dTMS in add-on to standard treatment for CM in patients not responding to effective abortive or preventive drug treatment. We randomized 14 patients with International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3) treatment-resistant CM to add-on dTMS (n=7) or standard abortive or preventive antimigraine treatment (n=7). Three sessions of alternate day 10Hz dTMS consisting of 600 pulses in 10 trains were delivered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilaterally, but with left hemisphere prevalence, for 12 sessions spread over one month. The add-on dTMS treatment was well tolerated. Patients treated with dTMS showed significant reduction of pain intensity, frequency of attacks, analgesic overuse, and depressive symptoms during treatment and one month later, compared to the month preceding treatment and at the same time-points compared to the control group. As compared to standard pharmacological treatment alone, add-on high-frequency dTMS of the bilateral DLPFC reduced the frequency and intensity of migraine attack, drug overuse, and depressive symptoms. This study supports the add-on dTMS treatment in treatment-resistant CM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the finding...... from a recent imaging study, that the most posterior part of left hemispheric BA37 has a necessary role in object recognition....

  19. Human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in visual search for conjunctions but not features: a theta TMS study.

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    Kalla, Roger; Muggleton, Neil G; Cowey, Alan; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the detection of a target defined by more than one feature (for example, a conjunction of colour and orientation) amongst distractors is associated with the activation of a network of brain areas. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), along with areas such as the frontal eye fields (FEF) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is a component of this network. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) had shown that both FEF and PPC are necessary for, and not just correlated with, successful conjunction search, this is not the case for DLPFC. To test the hypothesis that this area is also necessary for efficient conjunction search, TMS was applied over DLPFC and the effects on conjunction and feature (in this case colour) search performance compared with those when TMS was delivered over area MT/V5 and a vertex control stimulation condition. DLPFC TMS impaired performance on the conjunction search task but was without effect on feature search, similar to findings when TMS is delivered over PPC or FEF. Vertex TMS had no effects whereas MT/V5 TMS significantly improved performance with a time course that may indicate that this was due to modulation of V4 activity. These findings illustrate that, like FEF and PPC, DLPFC is necessary for fully effective conjunction visual search performance.

  20. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

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    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  1. Seeing touch in the somatosensory cortex: a TMS study of the visual perception of touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Maravita, Angelo; Miniussi, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a visuo-tactile mirror system, comprising the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices, which matches observed touch with felt touch. Here, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was used to determine whether SI or SII play a functional role in the visual processing of tactile events. Healthy participants performed a visual discrimination task with tactile stimuli (a finger touching a hand) and a control task (a finger moving without touching). During both tasks, rTMS was applied over either SI or SII, and to the occipital cortex. rTMS over SI selectively reduced subject performance for interpreting whether a contralateral visual tactile stimulus contains a tactile event, whereas SII stimulation impaired visual processing regardless of the tactile component. These findings provide evidence for a multimodal sensory-motor system with mirror properties, where somatic and visual properties of action converge. SI, a cortical area traditionally viewed as modality-specific, is selectively implicated in the visual processing of touch. These results are in line with the existence of a sensory mirror system mediating the embodied simulation concept. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits in subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a TMS study.

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    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Golaszewski, Stefan; Frey, Vanessa N; Orioli, Andrea; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and affects up to 80 % of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by psychomotor slowing and subtle cognitive deficits,  but obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. Given its covert nature, MHE is often underdiagnosed. This study was aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), involved in the early pathogenesis of the HE. We investigated motor cortex excitability in 15 patients with MHE and in 15 age-matched age-matched cirrhotic patients without MHE; the resting motor threshold, the short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and the intracortical facilitation (ICF) were examined. Paired-pulse TMS revealed significant increased SICI and reduced ICF in the patients with MHE. These findings may reflect abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. In particular, the results suggest a shift in the balance between intracortical inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms towards a net increase of inhibitory neurotransmission. Together with other neurophysiological (in particular EEG) and neuroimaging techniques, TMS may thus provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE.

  3. Vertex Stimulation as a Control Site for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Concurrent TMS/fMRI Study.

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    Jung, JeYoung; Bungert, Andreas; Bowtell, Richard; Jackson, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    A common control condition for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies is to apply stimulation at the vertex. An assumption of vertex stimulation is that it has relatively little influence over on-going brain processes involved in most experimental tasks, however there has been little attempt to measure neural changes linked to vertex TMS. Here we directly test this assumption by using a concurrent TMS/fMRI paradigm in which we investigate fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes across the whole brain linked to vertex stimulation. Thirty-two healthy participants to part in this study. Twenty-one were stimulated at the vertex, at 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), with short bursts of 1 Hz TMS, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD images were acquired. As a control condition, we delivered TMS pulses over the left primary motor cortex using identical parameters to 11 other participants. Vertex stimulation did not evoke increased BOLD activation at the stimulated site. By contrast we observed widespread BOLD deactivations across the brain, including regions within the default mode network (DMN). To examine the effects of vertex stimulation a functional connectivity analysis was conducted. The results demonstrated that stimulating the vertex with suprathreshold TMS reduced neural activity in brain regions related to the DMN but did not influence the functional connectivity of this network. Our findings provide brain imaging evidence in support of the use of vertex simulation as a control condition in TMS but confirm that vertex TMS induces regional widespread decreases in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Different stimulation frequencies alter synchronous fluctuations in motor evoked potential amplitude of intrinsic hand muscles – a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Victor Sale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.

  5. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles—a TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031

  6. Effects of parietal TMS on visual and auditory processing at the primary cortical level -- a concurrent TMS-fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Werner, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    cortices under 3 sensory contexts: visual, auditory, and no stimulation. IPS-TMS increased activations in auditory cortices irrespective of sensory context as a result of direct and nonspecific auditory TMS side effects. In contrast, IPS-TMS modulated activations in the visual cortex in a state...... deactivations induced by auditory activity to TMS sounds. TMS to IPS may increase the responses in visual (or auditory) cortices to visual (or auditory) stimulation via a gain control mechanism or crossmodal interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that understanding TMS effects on (uni......Accumulating evidence suggests that multisensory interactions emerge already at the primary cortical level. Specifically, auditory inputs were shown to suppress activations in visual cortices when presented alone but amplify the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to concurrent visual...

  7. Contribution of the primary motor cortex to motor imagery: a subthreshold TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrims, Barbara; Michaux, Nicolas; Olivier, Etienne; Andres, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Motor imagery (MI) mostly activates the same brain regions as movement execution (ME) including the primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4, BA4). However, whether BA4 is functionally relevant for MI remains controversial. The finding that MI tasks are impaired by BA4 virtual lesions induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) supports this view, though previous studies do not permit to exclude that BA4 is also involved in other processes such as hand recognition. Additionally, previous works largely underestimated the possible negative consequences of TMS-induced muscle twitches on MI task performance. Here we investigated the role of BA4 in MI by interfering with the function of the left or right BA4 in healthy subjects performing a MI task in which they had to make laterality judgements on rotated hand drawings. We used a subthreshold repetitive TMS protocol and monitored electromyographic activity to exclude undesirable effects of hand muscle twitches. We found that BA4 virtual lesions selectively increased reaction times in laterality judgments on hand drawings, leaving unaffected a task of equal difficulty, involving judgments on letters. Interestingly, the effects of virtual lesions of left and right BA4 on MI task performance were the same irrespective of the laterality (left/right) of hand drawings. A second experiment allowed us to rule out the possibility that BA4 lesions affect visual or semantic processing of hand drawings. Altogether, these results indicate that BA4 contribution to MI tasks is specifically related to the mental simulation process and further emphasize the functional coupling between ME and MI. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Kapoula, Zoi

    2011-01-01

    The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF). Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS) over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay); the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  9. Effects of MRI on the electrophysiology of the motor cortex: a TMS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamann, Marc; Pietrzyk, T.; Yoon, M.S.; Gerwig, M.; Kastrup, O.; Maderwald, S.; Forsting, M.; Ladd, S.C.; Duisburg-Essen Univ.; Bitz, A.; Ladd, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field MRI scanners encouraged a new discussion on safety aspects of MRI examinations. Earlier studies report altered acoustically evoked potentials. This finding was not able to be confirmed in later studies. In the present study transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evaluate whether motor cortical excitability may be altered following MRI examination even at field strength of 1.5 T. In 12 right-handed male volunteers individual thresholds for motor responses and then the length of the post-excitatory inhibition (silent period) were determined. Subsequently the volunteers were examined in the MRI scanner (Siemens Avanto, 1.5 T) for 63 minutes using gradient and spin echo sequences. MRI examination was immediately followed by another TMS session and a third 10 minutes later. As a control condition, the 12 subjects spent one hour in the scanner without examination and one hour on a couch without the presence of a scanner. After MRI examination, the silent period was significantly lengthened in all 12 subjects and then tended to the initial value after 10 min. Motor thresholds were significantly elevated and then normalized after 10 minutes. No significant effects were found in the control conditions. (orig.)

  10. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  13. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Han, ShiHui

    2007-08-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchical stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the coherent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  14. Thioredoxin is not a marker for treatment-resistance depression but associated with cognitive function: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Efruz Pirdoğan; Genç, Abdullah; Dalkıran, Mihriban; Uyar, Ece Türkyilmaz; Deniz, İpek; Özer, Ömer Akil; Karamustafalıoğlu, Kayıhan Oğuz

    2018-01-03

    Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas. This study included 27 treatment-resistant unipolar depression patients and 29 healthy subjects. Patients were evaluated by Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HARS) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) before and after rTMS application. 23 of TRD patients were applied high-frequency rTMS over left DLPFC for 2 to 4weeks and plasma TRX levels of patients and healthy subjects were measured. No significant difference was determined between the TRX levels of patients and healthy subjects (p>0.05). After rTMS application there were significant decrease in severity of depression (pTRX levels of the patients after rTMS application (p>0.005). High language scores of the patients were found to be associated with high TRX levels (pTRX levels cannot be used as a marker for TRD or rTMS treatment in TRD. In spite of this TRX levels have a positive correlation with language functions of the patients of TRD. More extensive studies are required to clarify the mechanism of action of TRX and the effect of TRX on cognitive functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. A multicenter, prospective, single arm, open label, observational study of sTMS for migraine prevention (ESPOUSE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal J; Tepper, Stewart J; Marmura, Michael J; Shamim, Ejaz A; Robbins, Matthew S; Hindiyeh, Nada; Charles, Andrew C; Goadsby, Peter J; Lipton, Richard B; Silberstein, Stephen D; Gelfand, Amy A; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Dodick, David W

    2018-05-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) for the preventive treatment of migraine. Background sTMS was originally developed for the acute treatment of migraine with aura. Open label experience has suggested a preventive benefit. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sTMS for migraine prevention. Methods The eNeura SpringTMS Post-Market Observational U.S. Study of Migraine (ESPOUSE) Study was a multicenter, prospective, open label, observational study. From December 2014 to March 2016, patients with migraine (n = 263) were consented to complete a 1-month baseline headache diary followed by 3 months of treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of preventive (four pulses twice daily) and acute (three pulses repeated up to three times for each attack) treatment. Patients reported daily headache status, medication use, and device use with a monthly headache diary. The primary endpoint, mean reduction of headache days compared to baseline, was measured over the 28-day period during weeks 9 to 12. The primary endpoint was compared to a statistically-derived placebo estimate (performance goal). Secondary endpoints included: 50% responder rate, acute headache medication consumption, HIT-6, and mean reduction in total headache days from baseline of any intensity. Results Of a total of 263 consented subjects, 229 completed a baseline diary, and 220 were found to be eligible based on the number of headache days. The device was assigned to 217 subjects (Safety Data Set) and 132 were included in the intention to treat Full Analysis Set. For the primary endpoint, there was a -2.75 ± 0.40 mean reduction of headache days from baseline (9.06 days) compared to the performance goal (-0.63 days) ( p < 0.0001). The 50% responder rate of 46% (95% CI 37%, 56%) was also significantly higher ( p < 0.0001) than the performance goal (20%). There was a reduction of -2

  17. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF. Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay; the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  18. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  19. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeneke Susan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1 in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Methods Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures. The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself. Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs at the right hand muscle. Results Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. Conclusion This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  20. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Koeneke, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2007-08-07

    Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools) or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures). The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself). Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) at the right hand muscle. Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  1. The Efficacy of Daily Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS): A Randomized Controlled Single-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Badran, Bashar W; DeVries, William H; Moss, Jkeonye; Gonzales, Theresa; George, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning oral sensation without any corresponding abnormal findings. In some cases, BMS is refractory to pharmacologic treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left prefrontal cortex induces analgesic effect in both acute and chronic pain. However, its effect for BMS has not been evaluated. The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blind study was to assess the efficacy of prefrontal rTMS for BMS. Twenty patients with BMS were recruited and randomized to receive 30,000 pulses in total at 10 Hz TMS (n = 12) or sham TMS (n = 8). We assessed the change of BMS pain condition, functional status and mood until 2 months after the beginning of treatment. In the real group, the BMS pain intensity decreased 67%, and 75% of the patients reported >50% pain decrease on final assessment compared to baseline, without heavy side effects. There was significant pain reduction in subjects in the real group immediately after 1 week of treatment, whereas there was none in those in the sham group. Similar tendency was confirmed in change of functional status. Mood and the affective aspect of pain were not changed in this study. BMS pain was significantly improved with 2 weeks of treatment of high frequency rTMS over left DLPFC compared to sham stimulation. Further study is needed to refine and improve TMS as a potential treatment of BMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for major depression: a multisite, naturalistic, observational study of quality of life outcome measures in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicak, Philip G; Dunner, David L; Aaronson, Scott T; Carpenter, Linda L; Boyadjis, Terrence A; Brock, David G; Cook, Ian A; Lanocha, Karl; Solvason, Hugh B; Bonneh-Barkay, Dafna; Demitrack, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective and safe therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and functional status outcomes for depressed patients after an acute course of TMS. Forty-two, U.S.-based, clinical TMS practice sites treated 307 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of MDD and persistent symptoms despite prior adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Treatment parameters were based on individual clinical considerations and followed the labeled procedures for use of the approved TMS device. Patient self-reported QOL outcomes included change in the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) ratings from baseline to end of the acute treatment phase. Statistically significant improvement in functional status on a broad range of mental health and physical health domains was observed on the SF-36 following acute TMS treatment. Similarly, statistically significant improvement in patient-reported QOL was observed on all domains of the EQ-5D and on the General Health Perception and Health Index scores. Improvement on these measures was observed across the entire range of baseline depression symptom severity. These data confirm that TMS is effective in the acute treatment of MDD in routine clinical practice settings. This symptom benefit is accompanied by statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in patient-reported QOL and functional status outcomes.

  3. Improvements in symptoms following neuronavigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa: findings from two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Campbell, Iain C; Jacob, Shirabdi; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    Advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) are most likely to arise from targeted, brain-directed treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We describe findings from two individuals with treatment-resistant AN who received 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated, high frequency rTMS, applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within-session measures assessed changes pre-rTMS, post-rTMS in subjective eating disorder (ED) experiences. Weight, ED symptoms and mood were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 1 month follow-up. In both cases, there was improvement in ED symptomatology and mood after 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated rTMS, and these changes persisted or continued to improve at follow-up. Within sessions, Patient A demonstrated a consistent reduction in subjective ED experiences, and Patient B a reduction in some ED related experiences. These findings suggest that rTMS has potential as an adjunct to the treatment of AN and deserves further study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. TMS modeling toolbox for realistic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sun; Suh, Hyun Sang; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for brain stimulation using rapidly changing magnetic fields generated by coils. It has been established as an effective stimulation technique to treat patients suffering from damaged brain functions. Although TMS is known to be painless and noninvasive, it can also be harmful to the brain by incorrect focusing and excessive stimulation which might result in seizure. Therefore there is ongoing research effort to elucidate and better understand the effect and mechanism of TMS. Lately Boundary element method (BEM) and Finite element method (FEM) have been used to simulate the electromagnetic phenomenon of TMS. However, there is a lack of general tools to generate the models of TMS due to some difficulties in realistic modeling of the human head and TMS coils. In this study, we have developed a toolbox through which one can generate high-resolution FE TMS models. The toolbox allows creating FE models of the head with isotropic and anisotropic electrical conductivities in five different tissues of the head and the coils in 3D. The generated TMS model is importable to FE software packages such as ANSYS for further and efficient electromagnetic analysis. We present a set of demonstrative results of realistic simulation of TMS with our toolbox.

  5. Globalisierung der Wirtschaft : Auswirkungen auf lokale Unternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Inhalt: 1 Globalisierung der Wirtschaft; 1.1 Die Globalisierung als Prozeß; 1.2 Gründe für die fortschreitende Globalisierung; 1.3 Eine wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Interpretation der Globalisierung; 2 Auswirkungen der Globalisierung auf lokale Unternehmen; 2.1 Betroffenheit des Mittelstandes; 2.2 Erfahrungen mit der Globalisierung – Zwei Beispiele; 3 Strategien für den Mittelstand als Antwort auf die Globalisierung; 3.1 Strategie der Hidden Champions; 3.2 Strategie der Kooperation

  6. No influence of one right-sided prefrontal HF-rTMS session on alcohol craving in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients: results of a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, S C; Baeken, C; Vanderbruggen, N; Vanderhasselt, M A; Zeeuws, D; Santermans, L; De Raedt, R

    2012-01-01

    Prior research in substance dependence has suggested potential anti-craving effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) when applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, no single sham-controlled session studies applied to the right DLPFC have been carried-out in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Furthermore, no studies examined the effect of a single HF-rTMS session on craving in these patients' natural habitat. To further investigate the effect of high-frequency (HF)-rTMS of the right DLPFC on alcohol craving, we performed a prospective, single-blind, sham-controlled study involving 36 hospitalized patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. After successful detoxification, patients were allocated receiving one active or one sham HF-rTMS session. The obsessive-compulsive drinking scale (OCDS) was administered to evaluate the extent of craving just before and after the HF-rTMS session (on Friday), on Saturday and Sunday during the weekend at home, and on Monday when the patient returned to the hospital. One single blind sham-controlled HF-rTMS session applied to the right DLPFC did not result in changes in craving (neither immediately after the stimulation session, nor in patients' natural environment during the weekend). One HF-rTMS stimulation session applied to the right DLPFC had no significant effects on alcohol craving in alcohol dependent patients. One such session could have been too short to alter alcohol craving in a sample of alcohol dependent patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  9. Predictive value of dorso-lateral prefrontal connectivity for rTMS response in treatment-resistant depression: A brain perfusion SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Verger, Antoine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; David, Anthony; Lançon, Christophe; Cermolacce, Michel; Guedj, Eric

    2018-05-18

    Previous clinical trials have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a significant antidepressant effect in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, results remain heterogeneous with many patients without effective response. The aim of this SPECT study was to determine before treatment the predictive value of the connectivity of the stimulated area on further rTMS response in patients with TRD. Fifty-eight TRD patients performed a brain perfusion SPECT before high frequency rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A voxel based-analysis was achieved to compare connectivity of the left DLPFC in responders and non-responders using inter-regional correlations (p left DLPFC and the right cerebellum in comparison to non-responders, independently of age, gender, severity of depression, and severity of treatment resistance. The area under the curve for the combination of these two SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.756 (p left DLPFC predicts rTMS response before treatment. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J; Liemburg, Edith J; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S M; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia treated with active bilateral prefrontal rTMS as compared to sham-rTMS, as measured with 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham high-frequency rTMS. Pre-treatment and post-treatment 1 H-MRS data were available for 24 patients with schizophrenia with moderate to severe negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ≥ 15). Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated using LCModel with the water peak as reference. To explore the association between treatment condition and changes in concentration of Glx and NAA, we applied a linear regression model. We observed an increase of Glx concentration in the active treatment group and a decrease of Glx concentration in the group receiving sham treatment. The association between changes in Glx concentration and treatment condition was significant. No significant associations between changes in NAA and treatment condition were found. Noninvasive neurostimulation with high-frequency bilateral prefrontal rTMS may influence Glx concentration in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and further elucidate the underlying neural working mechanism of rTMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploratory Study of rTMS Neuromodulation Effects on Electrocortical Functional Measures of Performance in an Oddball Test and Behavioral Symptoms in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M. Sokhadze

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i.e., 6, 12, and 18. TMS consisted of trains of 1.0 Hz frequency pulses applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The experimental task was a visual oddball with illusory Kanizsa figures. Behavioral response variables included reaction time and error rate along with such neurophysiological indices such as stimulus and response-locked event-related potentials (ERP. One hundred and twelve patients completed the assigned number of TMS sessions. Results showed significant changes from baseline to posttest period in the following measures: motor responses accuracy [lower percentage of committed errors, slower latency of commission errors and restored normative post-error reaction time slowing in both early and later-stage ERP indices, enhanced magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN, improved error monitoring and post-error correction functions]. In addition, screening surveys showed significant reductions in aberrant behavior ratings and in both repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. These differences increased with the total number of treatment sessions. Our results suggest that rTMS, particularly after 18 sessions, facilitates cognitive control, attention and target stimuli recognition by improving discrimination between task-relevant and task-irrelevant illusory figures in an oddball test. The noted improvement in executive functions of behavioral performance monitoring further suggests that TMS has the

  12. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms : An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T.; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S. M.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx,

  13. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Volitional Saccades as Revealed by Lesion Studies with Neurological Patients and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Rene M.; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of the cortical control of reflexive and volitional saccades in humans. The main focus is on classical lesion studies and studies using the interference method of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To understand the behavioural function of a region, it is essential to assess…

  14. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  15. Therapeutic administration of atomoxetine combined with rTMS and occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a case series study of three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  16. Auswirkungen der pharmakologischen Osteoporosetherapie in der Zahnheilkunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die pharmakologische Osteoporosetherapie greift systemisch in den Knochenumbau ein und erreicht damit auch den Kieferknochen. Die komplexen Auswirkungen auf die Klinik der Parodontologie und Implantologie werden im vorliegenden Beitrag beispielhaft dargestellt. Vitamin D3 fördert die Heilung nach Parodontalchirurgie. Bisphosphonate können die parodontale Situation während der Nachsorgetherapie verbessern und möglicherweise die Einheilung von dentalen Implantaten fördern. Die meisten klinischen Studien zeigen keine negativen Effekte in Bezug auf die Entstehung von Osteonekrosen des Kieferknochens. Die Bedeutung von Strontium für die Zahnheilkunde ist primär in der Kariesprävention angesiedelt. Erste klinische Pilotstudien unterstützen eine mögliche Wirkung von Teriparatid auf die Einheilung dentaler Implantate. Bedeutsam erscheinen die positiven Effekte von Teriparatid bei der Regeneration nach chirurgischer Parodontaltherapie. Die vorliegenden Studien zeigen, dass die pharmakologische Osteoporosetherapie einen positiven Einfluss auf die Klinik der Parodontologie und Implantologie haben kann.

  17. TMS320C31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gwi Tae; Lee, Sang Rak

    1998-01-01

    This book is divided into four parts, which introduces TMS320C31 with C language. The first part deals with digital signal processor on what is DPS?, types of DPS and structure of TMS320C31. The second part introduces program development by C language, cstartup cord and C compiler. The third part describes OS30, Emile 30 and BIOS. The last part is for application board design of T31 and test examples of T31 board : external flag test, ram test, external read port test and communication test.

  18. Adjuvant low-frequency rTMS in treating auditory hallucinations in recent-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study investigating the effect of high-frequency priming stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective in reducing frequency and duration of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency rTMS stimulation followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to markedly enhance the neural response to the low-frequency stimulation train. However, this technique has not been investigated in recent onset schizophrenia patients. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the effects of rTMS on AVH can be enhanced with priming rTMS in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Forty recent onset schizophrenia patients completed the study. Patients were randomized over two groups: one receiving low-frequency rTMS preceded by priming and another receiving low-frequency rTMS without priming. Both treatments were directed at the left temporo-parietal region. The severity of AVH and other psychotic symptoms were assessed with the auditory hallucination subscale (AHRS) of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). We found that all the scores of these ratings significantly reduced over time (i.e. baseline through 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks) in both the treatment groups. We found no difference between the two groups on all measures, except for significantly greater improvement on loudness of AVH in the group with priming stimulation during the follow-ups (F = 2.72; p low-frequency rTMS alone and high-frequency priming of low-frequency rTMS do not elicit significant differences in treatment of overall psychopathology, particularly AVH when given in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Add on priming however, seems to be particularly better in faster reduction in loudness of AVH.

  19. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  20. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eGrau-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician’s brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning. Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  1. Auswirkungen eines Intensivtherapie-Programms für verhaltensgestörte Geistigbehinderte auf ihre Bezugspersonen im Heim

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Ulrich; Rohmann, Ulrich H.

    1994-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie dokumentiert die Auswirkungen eines Intensivtherapie-Programms für Geistigbehinderte mit schweren Verhaltensstörungen oder autistischen Verhaltensweisen auf ihre in das Programm mit einbezogenen Betreuer hinsichtlich ihrer fachlichen Kompetenz, ihrer Interaktionsqualität mit den Klienten, ihrer Teamkultur und ihrer Arbeitszufriedenheit. In einem quasiexperimentellen Design schätzten sich die Betreuer vor und nach dem Intensivtherapie-Programm mit einer Ratingskala im Hi...

  2. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MR-based measurements and simulations of the magnetic field created by a realistic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil and stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, Stefano; Petrov, Petar I; Neggers, Sebastian F W; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging technique that allows non-invasive neurostimulation. However, the correct validation of electromagnetic models of typical TMS coils and the correct assessment of the incident TMS field (B TMS ) produced by standard TMS stimulators are still lacking. Such a validation can be performed by mapping B TMS produced by a realistic TMS setup. In this study, we show that MRI can provide precise quantification of the magnetic field produced by a realistic TMS coil and a clinically used TMS stimulator in the region in which neurostimulation occurs. Measurements of the phase accumulation created by TMS pulses applied during a tailored MR sequence were performed in a phantom. Dedicated hardware was developed to synchronize a typical, clinically used, TMS setup with a 3-T MR scanner. For comparison purposes, electromagnetic simulations of B TMS were performed. MR-based measurements allow the mapping and quantification of B TMS starting 2.5 cm from the TMS coil. For closer regions, the intra-voxel dephasing induced by B TMS prohibits TMS field measurements. For 1% TMS output, the maximum measured value was ~0.1 mT. Simulations reflect quantitatively the experimental data. These measurements can be used to validate electromagnetic models of TMS coils, to guide TMS coil positioning, and for dosimetry and quality assessment of concurrent TMS-MRI studies without the need for crude methods, such as motor threshold, for stimulation dose determination. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Differential effects of motor cortical excitability and plasticity in young and old individuals: a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid eBashir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with changes in the motor system that, over time, can lead to functional impairments and contribute negatively to the ability to recover after brain damage. Unfortunately, there are still many questions surrounding the physiological mechanisms underlying these impairments. We examined cortico-spinal excitability and plasticity in a young cohort (age range: 19-31 and an elderly cohort (age range: 47-73 of healthy right-handed individuals using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS. Subjects were evaluated with a combination of physiological (motor evoked potentials (MEPs, motor threshold (MT, intracortical inhibition (ICI, intracortical facilitation (ICF, and silent period (SP and behavioral (reaction time (RT, pinch force, 9 hole peg task (HPT measures at baseline and following one session of low-frequency (1 Hz navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS to the right (non-dominant hemisphere.In the young cohort, the inhibitory effect of 1 Hz rTMS was significantly in the right hemisphere and a significant facilitatory effect was noted in the unstimulated hemisphere. Conversely, in the elderly cohort, we report only a trend toward a facilitatory effect in the unstimulated hemisphere, suggesting reduced cortical plasticity and interhemispheric commuinication. To this effect, we show that significant differences in hemispheric cortico-spinal excitability were present in the elderly cohort at baseline, with significantly reduced cortico-spinal excitability in the right hemisphere as compared to the left hemisphere. A correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship between cortical thickness of the selected region of interest and MEPs in either young or old subjects prior to and following rTMS. When combined with our preliminary results, further research into this topic could lead to the development of neurophysiological markers pertinent to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of neurological

  5. Automatic and Intentional Number Processing Both Rely on Intact Right Parietal Cortex: A Combined fMRI and Neuronavigated TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization. PMID:22347175

  6. A multi-center study on low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis in post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakuda Wataru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Based on these reports, we developed an inpatient combination protocol of these two modalities for the treatment of such patients. The aims of this pilot study were to confirm the safety and feasibility of the protocol in a large number of patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. Methods The study subjects were 204 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (mean age at admission 58.5 ± 13.4 years, mean time after stroke 5.0 ± 4.5 years, ± SD from five institutions in Japan. During 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 treatment sessions of 20-min low-frequency rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere over the primary motor area. The intensive OT, consisting of 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-exercise, was provided after the application of low-frequency rTMS. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT were performed serially. The physiatrists and occupational therapists involved in this study received training prior to the study to standardize the therapeutic protocol. Results All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score increased and WMFT log performance time decreased significantly at discharge, relative to the respective values at admission (change in FMA score: median at admission, 47 points; median at discharge, 51 points; p Conclusions The 15-day inpatient rTMS plus OT protocol is a safe, feasible, and clinically useful neurorehabilitative intervention for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. The response to the treatment was not influenced by age or time after stroke onset. The

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke: Ready for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Claire; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-09-01

    The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke research has increased dramatically over the last decade with two emerging and potentially useful functions identified. Firstly, the use of single pulse TMS as a tool for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, and secondly, the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment adjunct aimed at modifying the excitability of the motor cortex in preparation for rehabilitation. This review discusses recent advances in the use of TMS in both prediction and treatment after stroke. Prediction of recovery after stroke is a complex process and the use of TMS alone is not sufficient to provide accurate prediction for an individual after stroke. However, when applied in conjunction with other tools such as clinical assessment and MRI, accuracy of prediction using TMS is increased. rTMS temporarily modulates cortical excitability after stroke. Very few rTMS studies are completed in the acute or sub-acute stages after stroke and the translation of altered cortical excitability into gains in motor function are modest, with little evidence of long term effects. Although gains have been made in both of these areas, further investigation is needed before these techniques can be applied in routine clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronically switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Hoeft

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.

  9. Mechanisms of Short-Term Training-Induced Reaching Improvement in Severely Hemiparetic Stroke Patients: A TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Morton, Susanne M.; Perez, Monica A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying improved upper-extremity motor skills have been partially investigated in patients with good motor recovery but are poorly understood in more impaired individuals, the majority of stroke survivors. Objective The authors studied changes in primary motor cortex (M1) excitability (motor evoked potentials [MEPs], contralateral and ipsilateral silent periods [CSPs and ISPs] using transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) associated with training-induced reaching improvement in stroke patients with severe arm paresis (n = 11; Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer score (F-M) = 27 ± 6). Methods All patients underwent a single session of reaching training focused on moving the affected hand from a resting site to a target placed at 80% of maximum forward reaching amplitude in response to a visual “GO” cue. Triceps contribute primarily as agonist and biceps primarily as antagonist to the trained forward reaching movement. Response times were recorded for each reaching movement. Results Preceding training (baseline), greater interhemispheric inhibition (measured by ISP) in the affected triceps muscle, reflecting inhibition from the nonlesioned to the lesioned M1, was observed in patients with lower F-M scores (more severe motor impairment). Training-induced improvements in reaching were greater in patients with slower response times at baseline. Increased MEP amplitudes and decreased ISPs and CSPs were observed in the affected triceps but not in the biceps muscle after training. Conclusion These results indicate that along with training-induced motor improvements, training-specific modulation of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric mechanisms occurs after reaching practice in chronic stroke patients with substantial arm impairment. PMID:21343522

  10. On the Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS: How Brain State and Baseline Performance Level Determine Behavioral Effects of TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Silvanto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS can change qualitatively when stimulation is preceded by initial state manipulations such as priming or adaptation. In addition, baseline performance level of the participant has been shown to play a role in modulating the impact of TMS. Here we examined the link between these two factors. This was done using data from a previous study using a TMS-priming paradigm, in which, at group level, TMS selectively facilitated targets incongruent with the prime while having no statistically significant effects on other prime-target congruencies. Correlation and linear mixed-effects analyses indicated that, for all prime-target congruencies, a significant linear relationship between baseline performance and the magnitude of the induced TMS effect was present: low levels of baseline performance were associated with TMS-induced facilitations and high baseline performance with impairments. Thus as performance level increased, TMS effects turned from facilitation to impairment. The key finding was that priming shifted the transition from facilitatory to disruptive effects for targets incongruent with the prime, such that TMS-induced facilitations were obtained until a higher level of performance than for other prime-target congruencies. Given that brain state manipulations such as priming operate via modulations of neural excitability, this result is consistent with the view that neural excitability, coupled with non-linear neural effects, underlie behavioral effects of TMS.

  11. Right prefrontal rTMS treatment for refractory auditory command hallucinations - a neuroSPECT assisted case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Dannon, Pinhas N; Goshen, Elinor; Amiaz, Revital; Zwas, Tzila S; Grunhaus, Leon

    2002-11-30

    Auditory command hallucinations probably arise from the patient's failure to monitor his/her own 'inner speech', which is connected to activation of speech perception areas of the left cerebral cortex and to various degrees of dysfunction of cortical circuits involved in schizophrenia as supported by functional brain imaging. We hypothesized that rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), by increasing cortical activation of the right prefrontal brain region, would bring about a reduction of the hallucinations. We report our first schizophrenic patient affected with refractory command hallucinations treated with 10 Hz rTMS. Treatment was performed over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with 1200 magnetic stimulations administered daily for 20 days at 90% motor threshold. Regional cerebral blood flow changes were monitored with neuroSPECT. Clinical evaluation and scores on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale demonstrated a global improvement in the patient's condition, with no change in the intensity and frequency of the hallucinations. NeuroSPECT performed at intervals during and after treatment indicated a general improvement in cerebral perfusion. We conclude that right prefrontal rTMS may induce a general clinical improvement of schizophrenic brain function, without directly influencing the mechanism involved in auditory command hallucinations.

  12. Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.

  13. Neuromodulatory neurotransmitters influence LTP-like plasticity in human cortex: a pharmaco-TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchounov, Alexei; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-08-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy is considered a fundamental mechanism of learning and memory. At the cellular level a large body of evidence demonstrated that the major neuromodulatory neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and acetylcholine (ACh) influence LTP magnitude. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols provide the opportunity to study LTP-like plasticity at the systems level of human cortex. Here we applied paired associative stimulation (PAS) to induce LTP-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex of eight healthy subjects. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, the acute effects of a single oral dose of the neuromodulatory drugs cabergoline (DA agonist), haloperidol (DA antagonist), methylphenidate (indirect NE agonist), prazosine (NE antagonist), tacrine (ACh agonist), and biperiden (ACh antagonist) on PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity were examined. The antagonists haloperidol, prazosine, and biperiden depressed significantly the PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity observed under placebo, whereas the agonists cabergoline, methylphenidate, and tacrine had no effect. Findings demonstrate that antagonists in major neuromodulatory neurotransmitter systems suppress LTP-like plasticity at the systems level of human cortex, in accord with evidence of their modulating action of LTP at the cellular level. This provides further supportive evidence for the known detrimental effects of these drugs on LTP-dependent mechanisms such as learning and memory.

  14. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Stefani

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed when the observed (and simulated movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  15. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  16. Concatenation of Observed Grasp Phases with Observer’s Distal Movements: A Behavioural and TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific’s action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals. PMID:24278395

  17. Why Do Irrelevant Alternatives Matter? An fMRI-TMS Study of Context-Dependent Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Sjöström, Tomas; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Lu, Yi-Ta; Tsuo, Fu-Yun; Chen, Tzai-Shuen; Chang, Chi-Fu; Juan, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Huang, Chen-Ying

    2017-11-29

    Both humans and animals are known to exhibit a violation of rationality known as "decoy effect": introducing an irrelevant option (a decoy) can influence choices among other (relevant) options. Exactly how and why decoys trigger this effect is not known. It may be an example of fast heuristic decision-making, which is adaptive in natural environments, but may lead to biased choices in certain markets or experiments. We used fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the neural underpinning of the decoy effect of both sexes. The left ventral striatum was more active when the chosen option dominated the decoy. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of a decoy option influences the valuation of other options, making valuation context-dependent even when choices appear fully rational. Consistent with the idea that control is recruited to prevent heuristics from producing biased choices, the right inferior frontal gyrus, often implicated in inhibiting prepotent responses, connected more strongly with the striatum when subjects successfully overrode the decoy effect and made unbiased choices. This is further supported by our transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment: subjects whose right inferior frontal gyrus was temporarily disrupted made biased choices more often than a control group. Our results suggest that the neural basis of the decoy effect could be the context-dependent activation of the valuation area. But the differential connectivity from the frontal area may indicate how deliberate control monitors and corrects errors and biases in decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Standard theories of rational decision-making assume context-independent valuations of available options. Motivated by the importance of this basic assumption, we used fMRI to study how the human brain assigns values to available options. We found activity in the valuation area to be consistent with the hypothesis that values depend on irrelevant aspects

  18. Frontal and parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) disturbs programming of saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangemeister, W H; Canavan, A G; Hoemberg, V

    1995-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human motor cortex typically evoked motor responses. TMS has failed to elicit eye movements in humans, whereas prolongations of saccadic latency have been reported with TMS. In previous studied we demonstrated that saccades can be abolished or saccadic trajectories can be changed through TMS in the 100 msec before saccade onset. This effect was especially marked when TMS was applied parietally. TMS never influenced a saccade in flight. Simulations of predictive experimental saccades that were impaired through TMS of the frontal or parietal cortex demonstrated especially that the dynamics of small saccades were markedly influenced, resulting in a significant decrease in acceleration and amplitude, or an almost complete inhibition. The impact of inhibition through TMS was critically dependent on timing: early TMS (-70 msec) had a much larger inhibitory effect than late TMS (-20 msec) on experimental saccades. Differential timing of TMS in influencing the cortical control signal is demonstrated through simulations of a reciprocally innervated eye movement model that paralleled empirically determined changes in eye movement dynamics after real TMS. There is a reasonable match between the model and the experimental data. We conclude that the inhibitory action of a presaccadic disturbance, such as a TMS pulse, on saccadic programming is inversely related to timing and amplitude of the predicted saccade.

  19. Static field influences on transcranial magnetic stimulation: considerations for TMS in the scanner environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Jalinous, Reza; Cantarero, Gabriela L; Desmond, John E

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously manipulate and monitor human cortical responses. Although tremendous efforts have been directed at characterizing the impact of TMS on image acquisition, the influence of the scanner's static field on the TMS coil has received limited attention. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the scanner's static field on TMS. We hypothesized that spatial variations in the static field could account for TMS field variations in the scanner environment. Using an MRI-compatible TMS coil, we estimated TMS field strengths based on TMS-induced voltage changes measured in a search coil. We compared peak field strengths obtained with the TMS coil positioned at different locations (B0 field vs fringe field) and orientations in the static field. We also measured the scanner's static field to derive a field map to account for TMS field variations. TMS field strength scaled depending on coil location and orientation with respect to the static field. Larger TMS field variations were observed in fringe field regions near the gantry as compared to regions inside the bore or further removed from the bore. The scanner's static field also exhibited the greatest spatial variations in fringe field regions near the gantry. The scanner's static field influences TMS fields and spatial variations in the static field correlate with TMS field variations. Coil orientation changes in the B0 field did not result in substantial TMS field variations. TMS field variations can be minimized by delivering TMS in the bore or outside of the 0-70 cm region from the bore entrance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic mechanisms of rTMS: Implications in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Carrión Oscar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basic and clinical research suggests a potential role for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, compared to the growing number of clinical studies on its putative therapeutic properties, the studies on the basic mechanisms of rTMS are surprisingly scarce. Results Animal studies have broadened our understanding of how rTMS affects brain circuits and the causal chain in brain-behavior relationships. The observed changes are thought to be to neurotransmitter release, transsynaptic efficiency, signaling pathways and gene transcription. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that rTMS induces neurogenesis, neuronal viability and secretion of neuroprotective molecules. Conclusion The mechanisms underlying the disease-modifying effects of these and related rTMS in animals are the principle subject of the current review. The possible applications for treatment of Parkinson's disease are discussed.

  1. Does an intraneural interface short-term implant for robotic hand control modulate sensorimotor cortical integration? An EEG-TMS co-registration study on a human amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, F; Ponzo, D; Vollero, L; Guerra, A; Di Pino, G; Petrichella, S; Benvenuto, A; Tombini, M; Rossini, L; Denaro, L; Micera, S; Iannello, G; Guglielmelli, E; Denaro, V; Rossini, P M

    2014-01-01

    Following limb amputation, central and peripheral nervous system relays partially maintain their functions and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time by means of an EEG-TMS co-registration study, whether and how direct bidirectional connection between brain and hand prosthesis impacts on sensorimotor cortical topography. Within an experimental protocol for robotic hand control, a 26 years-old, left-hand amputated male was selected to have implanted four intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump for 4 weeks. Before tf-LIFE-4s implant (T0) and after the training period, once electrodes have been removed (T1), experimental subject's cortico-cortical excitability, connectivity and plasticity were tested via a neuronavigated EEG-TMS experiment. The statistical analysis clearly demonstrated a significant modulation (with t-test p < 0.0001) of EEG activity between 30 and 100 ms post-stimulus for the stimulation of the right hemisphere. When studying individual latencies in that time range, a global amplitude modulation was found in most of the TMS-evoked potentials; particularly, the GEE analysis showed significant differences between T0 and T1 condition at 30 ms (p < 0.0404), 46 ms (p < 0.0001) and 60 ms (p < 0.007) latencies. Finally, also a clear local decrement in N46 amplitude over C4 was evident. No differences between conditions were observed for the stimulation of the left hemisphere. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that bidirectional neural interface could redirect cortical areas -deprived of their original input/output functions- toward restorative neuroplasticity. This reorganization strongly involves bi-hemispheric networks and intracortical and transcortical modulation of GABAergic inhibition.

  2. A TMS coil positioning/holding system for MR image-guided TMS interleaved with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, Daryl E; Denslow, S; Bohning, P A; Walker, J A; George, M S

    2003-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be interleaved with fMRI to visualize regional brain activity in response to direct, non-invasive, cortical stimulation, making it a promising tool for studying brain function. A major practical difficulty is accurately positioning the TMS coil within the MRI scanner for stimulating a particular area of brain cortex. The objective of this work was to design and build a self-contained hardware/software system for MR-guided TMS coil positioning in interleaved TMS/fMRI studies. A compact, manually operated, articulated TMS coil positioner/holder with 6 calibrated degrees of freedom was developed for use inside a cylindrical RF head coil, along with a software package for transforming between MR image coordinates, MR scanner space coordinates, and positioner/holder settings. Phantom calibration studies gave an accuracy for positioning within setups of dx=+/-1.9 mm, dy=+/-1.4 mm, dz=+/-0.8 mm and a precision for multiple setups of dx=+/-0.8 mm, dy=+/-0.1 mm, dz=+/-0.1 mm. This self-contained, integrated MR-guided TMS system for interleaved TMS/fMRI studies provides fast, accurate location of motor cortex stimulation sites traditionally located functionally, and a means of consistent, anatomy-based TMS coil positioning for stimulation of brain areas without overt response.

  3. Scalp acupuncture plus low-frequency rTMS promotes repair of brain white matter tracts in stroke patients: A DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Jingna; Qiu, Mingguo; Wang, Chunrong; Xiang, Yun; Wang, Hui; Xie, Jingwen; Liu, Shu; Wu, Jing

    2018-01-01

    To study the clinical effects of scalp acupuncture plus low frequency rTMS in hemiplegic stroke patients. A total of 28 hemiplegic stroke patients were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (scalp acupuncture + low frequency rTMS + routine rehabilitation treatment) or the control group (scalp acupuncture + routine rehabilitation treatment). All patients received a diffusion tensor imaging examination on the day of admission and on the fourteenth day. Compared with pre-treatment, the upper limb motor function score and ability of daily life score increased significantly in the two groups, and motor function improvement was much greater in the experimental group. Fractional anisotropy values significantly increased in white matter tracts, such as the corticospinal tract, forceps minor, superior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus in the two groups. Compared with pre-treatment, the fractional anisotropy values increased and mean diffusion values decreased synchronously in the forceps minor, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left uncinate fasciculus in the experimental group. Before and after treatment, there were no significant differences in the changes of fractional anisotropy values between the two groups, but the changes of the mean diffusion values in the experimental group were much greater than those in the control group in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the left uncinate fasciculus (plow frequency rTMS can promote white matter tracts repair better than scalp acupuncture alone; the motor function improvement of the hemiplegic upper limb may be closely related to the rehabilitation of the forceps minor; the combination of scalp acupuncture and low frequency rTMS is expected to provide a more optimal rehabilitation protocol for stroke hemiplegic patients.

  4. Investigating the Causal Role of rOFA in Holistic Detection of Mooney Faces and Objects: An fMRI-guided TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Silvia; Cattaneo, Zaira; Silvanto, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The right occipital face area (rOFA) is known to be involved in face discrimination based on local featural information. Whether this region is also involved in global, holistic stimulus processing is not known. We used fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether rOFA is causally implicated in stimulus detection based on holistic processing, by the use of Mooney stimuli. Two studies were carried out: In Experiment 1, participants performed a detection task involving Mooney faces and Mooney objects; Mooney stimuli lack distinguishable local features and can be detected solely via holistic processing (i.e. at a global level) with top-down guidance from previously stored representations. Experiment 2 required participants to detect shapes which are recognized via bottom-up integration of local (collinear) Gabor elements and was performed to control for specificity of rOFA's implication in holistic detection. In Experiment 1, TMS over rOFA and rLO impaired detection of all stimulus categories, with no category-specific effect. In Experiment 2, shape detection was impaired when TMS was applied over rLO but not over rOFA. Our results demonstrate that rOFA is causally implicated in the type of top-down holistic detection required by Mooney stimuli and that such role is not face-selective. In contrast, rOFA does not appear to play a causal role in detection of shapes based on bottom-up integration of local components, demonstrating that its involvement in processing non-face stimuli is specific for holistic processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  6. Reduced Prefrontal Short—Latency Afferent Inhibition in Older Adults and Its Relation to Executive Function: A TMS-EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Blumberger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with electroencephalography (EEG allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI, is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC using simultaneous TMS–EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100. In this study, we aimed to investigate the age-related effects on TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs with the SAI from M1 and the DLPFC in younger (18–59 years old and older (≥60 years old participants. Older participants showed significantly lower N100 modulation in M1–SAI as well as DLPFC–SAI compared to the younger participants. Furthermore, the modulation of N100 by DLPFC–SAI in the older participants correlated with executive function as measured with the Trail making test. This paradigm has the potential to non-invasively identify cholinergic changes in cortical regions related to cognition in older participants.

  7. Effects of inhibitory theta burst TMS to different brain sites involved in visuospatial attention - a combined neuronavigated cTBS and behavioural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Schüttauf, Johannes; Aschenbach, Julia; Mengdehl, Christine; Lotze, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to alter visual spatial attention in young healthy subjects by a neuronavigated inhibitory rTMS protocol (cTBS-600) to right brain areas thought to be involved in visual attentional processes, i.e. the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG), and to test the reversibility of effects by an additional consecutive cTBS to the homologue left brain cortical areas. Healthy subjects showed a leftward bias of the egocentric perspective for both visual-perceptive and visual-exploratory tasks specifically for items presented in the left hemifield. cTBS to the right TPJ, and less systematically to the right pMFG reduced this bias for visuo-spatial and exploratory visuo-motor behaviour. Further, a consecutive cTBS to the left TPJ changed the bias again towards the left for a visual-perceptive task. The evidence supports the notion of an involvement of the right TPJ (and pMFG) in spatial visual attention. The observations further indicate that inhibitory non-invasive brain stimulation (cTBS) to the left TPJ has a potential for reversing a rightward bias of spatial attention when the right TPJ is dysfunctional. Accordingly, the findings could have implications for therapeutic rTMS development for right brain damaged patients with visual neglect.

  8. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu eMurakami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to a traditional view, speech perception and production are processed largely separately in sensory and motor brain areas. Recent psycholinguistic and neuroimaging studies provide novel evidence that the sensory and motor systems dynamically interact in speech processing, by demonstrating that speech perception and imitation share regional brain activations. However, the exact nature and mechanisms of these sensorimotor interactions are not completely understood yet.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in the cognitive neurosciences, including speech research, as a complementary technique to behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Here we provide an up-to-date review focusing on TMS studies that explored speech perception and imitation.Single-pulse TMS of the primary motor cortex (M1 demonstrated a speech specific and somatotopically specific increase of excitability of the M1 lip area during speech perception (listening to speech or lip reading. A paired-coil TMS approach showed increases in effective connectivity from brain regions that are involved in speech processing to the M1 lip area when listening to speech. TMS in virtual lesion mode applied to speech processing areas modulated performance of phonological recognition and imitation of perceived speech.In summary, TMS is an innovative tool to investigate processing of speech perception and imitation. TMS studies have provided strong evidence that the sensory system is critically involved in mapping sensory input onto motor output and that the motor system plays an important role in speech perception.

  9. Daily iTBS worsens hand motor training--a combined TMS, fMRI and mirror training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läppchen, C H; Ringer, T; Blessin, J; Schulz, K; Seidel, G; Lange, R; Hamzei, F

    2015-02-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to increase regional excitability to improve motor function in combination with training after neurological diseases or events such as stroke. We investigated whether a daily application of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS; a short-duration rTMS that increases regional excitability) improves the training effect compared with sham stimulation in association with a four-day hand training program using a mirror (mirror training, MT). The right dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC right) was chosen as the target region for iTBS because this region has recently been emphasized as a node within a network related to MT. Healthy subjects were randomized into the iTBS group or sham group (control group CG). In the iTBS group, iTBS was applied daily over dPMC right, which was functionally determined in an initial fMRI session prior to starting MT. MT involved 20 min of hand training daily in a mirror over four days. The hand tests, the intracortical excitability and fMRI were evaluated prior to and at the end of MT. The results of the hand training tests of the iTBS group were surprisingly significantly poorer compared with those from the CG group. Both groups showed a different course of excitability in both M1 and a different course of fMRI activation within the supplementary motor area and M1 left. We suggest the inter-regional functional balance was affected by daily iTBS over dPMC right. Maybe an inter-regional connectivity within a network is differentially balanced. An excitability increase within an inhibitory-balanced network would therefore disturb the underlying network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TMS320C31 master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Deok Yong

    1999-06-01

    The contents of this book are explanation of basic conception for DSP, perfect a complete master of TMS320C31, I/O interface design and memory, practice with PC print port, basic programing skill, assembly and C programing technique, timer and interrupt application skill, serial communication programing technique, application of digital conditioning and application of digital servo control. This book is divided into two parts, which is about TMS320C31 master of theory and application.

  11. Attenuating illusory binding with TMS of the right parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Esterman, Michael; Verstynen, Timothy; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    A number of neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies have implicated various regions of parietal cortex as playing a critical role in the binding of color and form into conjunctions. The current study investigates the role of two such regions by examining how parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences binding errors known as ‘illusory conjunctions.’ Participants made fewer binding errors after 1 Hz rTMS of the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), while basic perception of featur...

  12. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysianne eBeynel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and (ii mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for three weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1 and just after (S2 the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through MADRS scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the TMS-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a ‘trait vs. state’ objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  13. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  14. Methodological Improvements in Combining TMS and Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Moisa, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, when Bohning and colleagues demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of interleaving transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with blood oxygenation level dependency functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI), this combination became a very promising techniques to study brain connectivity. However, the implementation of a reliable setup for interleaved TMS/fMRI is still technically challenging. In this thesis, I intended to further explore and develop methodological i...

  15. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  16. Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H. Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

  17. Efficacy of intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) and 10-Hz high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, Samuel; Sébille, Veronique; Fayet, Guillemette; Thomas-Ollivier, Veronique; Deschamps, Thibault; Bonnin-Rivalland, Annabelle; Laforgue, Edouard; Pichot, Anne; Valrivière, Pierre; Auffray-Calvier, Elisabeth; Fortin, June; Péréon, Yann; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Sauvaget, Anne

    2017-01-13

    The treatment of depression remains a challenge since at least 40% of patients do not respond to initial antidepressant therapy and 20% present chronic symptoms (more than 2 years despite standard treatment administered correctly). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant therapy but still not ideal. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS), which has only been used recently in clinical practice, could have a faster and more intense effect compared to conventional protocols, including 10-Hz high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS). However, no controlled study has so far highlighted the superiority of iTBS in resistant unipolar depression. This paper focuses on the design of a randomised, controlled, double-blind, single-centre study with two parallel arms, carried out in France, in an attempt to assess the efficacy of an iTBS protocol versus a standard HF- rTMS protocol. Sixty patients aged between 18 and 75 years of age will be enrolled. They must be diagnosed with major depressive disorder persisting despite treatment with two antidepressants at an effective dose over a period of 6 weeks during the current episode. The study will consist of two phases: a treatment phase comprising 20 sessions of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, localised via a neuronavigation system and a 6-month longitudinal follow-up. The primary endpoint will be the number of responders per group, defined by a decrease of at least 50% in the initial score on the Montgomery and Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS) at the end of rTMS sessions. The secondary endpoints will be: response rate 1 month after rTMS sessions; number of remissions defined by a MADRS score of iTBS superiority in the management of unipolar depression and we will discuss its effect over time. In case of a significant increase in the number of therapeutic responses with a prolonged effect, the iTBS protocol could be considered a first-line protocol in resistant unipolar depression

  18. Effects of prefrontal rTMS on autonomic reactions to affective pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Domes, Gregor; Balschat, Johannes; Thome, Johannes; Höppner, Jacqueline

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of stimulated cortical areas, such as prefrontal areas involved in emotion regulation. Low frequency (LF) rTMS is expected to have inhibitory effects on prefrontal regions, and thereby should disinhibit limbic activity, resulting in enhanced emotional and autonomic reactions. For high frequency (HF) rTMS, the opposite pattern might be assumed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different rTMS frequencies applied to the right dlPFC on autonomic functions and on emotional perception. In a crossover design, two groups of 20 healthy young women were either stimulated with one session of LF rTMS (1 Hz) or one session of HF rTMS (10 Hz), compared to sham stimulation. We assessed phasic cardiac responses (PCR), skin conductance reactions (SCR), and emotional appraisal of emotional pictures as well as recognition memory after each rTMS application. After LF rTMS, PCR (heart rate deceleration) during presentation of pictures with negative and neutral valence was significantly increased compared to the presentation of positive pictures. In contrast, the modulatory effect of picture valence and arousal on the cardiac orienting response was absent after HF rTMS. Our results suggest that frontal LF rTMS indirectly activates the ANS via inhibition of the right dlPFC activity, likely by enhancing the sensory processing or attention to aversive and neutral stimuli.

  19. Comparison between electric-field-navigated and line-navigated TMS for cortical motor mapping in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Goblirsch-Kolb, Moritz F; Ille, Sebastian; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    For the navigation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), various techniques are available. Yet, there are two basic principles underlying them all: electric-field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (En-TMS) and line-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (Ln-TMS). The current study was designed to compare both methods. To explore whether there is a difference in clinical applicability, workflow, and mapping results of both techniques, we systematically compared motor mapping via En-TMS and Ln-TMS in 12 patients suffering from brain tumors. The number of motor-positive stimulation spots and the ratio of positive spots per overall stimulation numbers were significantly higher for En-TMS (motor-positive spots: En-TMS vs. Ln-TMS: 128.3 ± 35.0 vs. 41.3 ± 26.8, p mapping in the neurosurgical context for the first time. Although both TMS systems tested in the present study are explicitly designed for application during motor mapping in patients with brain lesions, there are differences in applicability, workflow, and results between En-TMS and Ln-TMS, which should be distinctly considered during clinical use of the technique. However, to draw final conclusions about accuracy, confirmation of motor-positive Ln-TMS spots by intraoperative stimulation is crucial within the scope of upcoming investigations.

  20. A TMS study on the contribution of visual area V5 to the perception of implied motion in art and its appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Schiavi, Susanna; Silvanto, Juha; Nadal, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have sought to understand the brain mechanisms involved in the appreciation of art. Previous studies reported an increased activity in sensory processing regions for artworks that participants find more appealing. Here we investigated the intriguing possibility that activity in cortical area V5-a region in the occipital cortex mediating physical and implied motion detection-is related not only to the generation of a sense of motion from visual cues used in artworks, but also to the appreciation of those artworks. Art-naïve participants viewed a series of paintings and quickly judged whether or not the paintings conveyed a sense of motion, and whether or not they liked them. Triple-pulse TMS applied over V5 while viewing the paintings significantly decreased the perceived sense of motion, and also significantly reduced liking of abstract (but not representational) paintings. Our data demonstrate that V5 is involved in extracting motion information even when the objects whose motion is implied are pictorial representations (as opposed to photographs or film frames), and even in the absence of any figurative content. Moreover, our study suggests that, in the case of untrained people, V5 activity plays a causal role in the appreciation of abstract but not of representational art.

  1. Comparison of TMS and DTT for predicting motor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Sakong, Joon; Byun, Woo Mok; Choi, Byung Yun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Bai, Daiseg; Son, Su Min

    2010-03-15

    TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and DTT (diffusion tensor tractography) have different advantages in evaluating stroke patients. TMS has good clinical accessibility and economical benefit. On the contrary, DTT has a unique advantage to visualize neural tracts three-dimensionally although it requires an expensive and large MRI machine. Many studies have demonstrated that TMS and DTT have predictive values for motor outcome in stroke patients. However, there has been no study on the comparison of these two evaluation tools. In the current study, we compared the abilities of TMS and DTT to predict upper motor outcome in patients with ICH (intracerebral hemorrhage). Fifty-three consecutive patients with severe motor weakness were evaluated by TMS and DTT at the early stage (7-28 days) of ICH. Modified Brunnstrom classification (MBC) and the motricity index of upper extremity (UMI) were evaluated at onset and 6 months after onset. Patients with the presence of a motor evoked potential (MEP) in TMS or a preserved corticospinal tract (CST) in DTT showed better motor outcomes than those without (p=0.000). TMS showed higher positive predictive value than DTT. In contrast, DTT showed higher negative predictive value than TMS. TMS and DTT had different advantages in predicting motor outcome, and this result could be a reference to predict final neurological deficit at the early stage of ICH.

  2. Music-supported therapy induces plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex in chronic stroke: a single-case study using multimodal imaging (fMRI-TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Nuria; Amengual, Julian; Juncadella, Montserrat; Rubio, Francisco; Camara, Estela; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Schneider, Sabine; Veciana, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Mohammadi, Bahram; Altenmüller, Eckart; Grau, Carles; Münte, Thomas F; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Music-Supported Therapy (MST) has been developed recently in order to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. This study investigated the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying effectiveness in a patient with chronic stroke. MST uses musical instruments, a midi piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. Data are presented from a patient with a chronic stroke (20 months post-stroke) with residual right-sided hemiparesis who took part in 20 MST sessions over the course of 4 weeks. Post-therapy, a marked improvement of movement quality, assessed by 3D movement analysis, was observed. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a sequential hand movement revealed distinct therapy-related changes in the form of a reduction of excess contralateral and ipsilateral activations. This was accompanied by changes in cortical excitability evidenced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Functional MRI in a music listening task suggests that one of the effects of MST is the task-dependent coupling of auditory and motor cortical areas. The MST appears to be a useful neurorehabilitation tool in patients with chronic stroke and leads to neural reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex.

  3. Capturing neuroplastic changes after bimanual intensive rehabilitation in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A combined DTI, TMS and fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Dricot, Laurence; Gilis, Nathalie; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Grandin, Cécile; Bleyenheuft, Corinne; Gordon, Andrew M; Friel, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation interventions have been shown to be efficacious in improving upper extremity function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). These interventions are based on motor learning principles and engage children in skillful movements. Improvements in upper extremity function are believed to be associated with neuroplastic changes. However, these neuroplastic changes have not been well-described in children with cerebral palsy, likely due to challenges in defining and implementing the optimal tools and tests in children. Here we documented the implementation of three different neurological assessments (diffusion tensor imaging-DTI, transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) before and after a bimanual intensive treatment (HABIT-ILE) in two children with USCP presenting differential corticospinal developmental reorganization (ipsilateral and contralateral). The aim of the study was to capture neurophysiological changes and to document the complementary relationship between these measures, the potential measurable changes and the feasibility of applying these techniques in children with USCP. Independent of cortical reorganization, both children showed increases in activation and size of the motor areas controlling the affected hand, quantified with different techniques. In addition, fMRI provided additional unexpected changes in the reward circuit while using the affected hand. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. The state-of-the-art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7-channel receive-only coil array for 3 T, which can be placed between the subject's head and the TMS, is presented. Interactions between the devices are investigated and the performance of the new setup is evaluated in comparison to the state-of-the-art setup. MR sensitivity obtained at the depth of the TMS stimulation is increased by a factor of five. Parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of two is feasible with low g-factors. Possible interactions between TMS and the novel hardware were investigated and were found negligible. The novel coil array is safe, strongly improves signal-to-noise ratio in concurrent TMS/fMRI experiments, enables parallel imaging, and allows for flexible positioning of the TMS on the head while ensuring efficient TMS stimulation due to its ultraslim design. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Interest of targeting either cortical area Brodmann 9 or 46 in rTMS treatment for depression: a preliminary randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak, Benoit; Meille, Vincent; Jonval, Lysiane; Schuffenecker, Nicolas; Haffen, Emmanuel; Schwan, Raymund; Bonin, Bernard; Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe

    2014-12-01

    To assess the interest of specifically targeting Brodmann Areas (BA) 9 or 46 for rTMS treatment of depression. Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression were randomly assigned to two treatment groups to receive either rTMS on BA 9 or on BA 46. Each patient underwent 10 sessions of 1Hz-rTMS for 2weeks. The Hamilton and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales (HDRS, MADRS) were used under blind conditions to assess the therapeutic response (50% improvement). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the depression rating scales scores obtained before and after the 10 rTMS sessions for each of the two groups. The therapeutic results in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. We also reported the effect sizes using Hedges's g. Fifteen patients were included. Stimulation of both BA 9 (n=7) and BA 46 (n=8) led to similar therapeutic responses in the two groups (with moderate effect size), such as the mean decrease in HDRS (BA 9: p=0.015; BA 46: p=0.010) and MADRS (BA 9: p=0.042; BA 46: p=0.038) scores. Our results do not come out in favor of one or the other BA. Stimulation of BA 9 and BA 46 appears to be equally effective in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex mediates the interaction between moral and aesthetic valuation: a TMS study on the beauty-is-good stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Nadal, Marcos; Schiavi, Susanna; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-05-01

    Attractive individuals are perceived as possessing more positive personal traits than unattractive individuals. This reliance on aesthetic features to infer moral character suggests a close link between aesthetic and moral valuation. Here we aimed to investigate the neural underpinnings of the interaction between aesthetic and moral valuation by combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a priming paradigm designed to assess the Beauty-is-Good stereotype. Participants evaluated the trustworthiness of a series of faces (targets), each of which was preceded by an adjective describing desirable, undesirable, or neutral aesthetic qualities (primes). TMS was applied between prime and target to interfere with activity in two regions known to be involved in aesthetic and moral valuation: the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, a core region in social cognition) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, critical in decision making). Our results showed that when TMS was applied over vertex (control) and over the dlPFC, participants judged faces as more trustworthy when preceded by positive than by negative aesthetic primes (as also shown in two behavioral experiments). However, when TMS was applied over the dmPFC, primes had no effect on trustworthiness judgments. A second Experiment corroborated this finding. Our results suggest that mPFC plays a causal role linking moral and aesthetic valuation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Contribution of TMS and rTMS in the Understanding of the Pathophysiology and in the Treatment of Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Richard, Alexandra; Masmoudi, Sana; Meppiel, Elodie; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre)-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a valuable tool to improve

  8. Contribution of TMS and rTMS in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the treatment of dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lozeron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug’s side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a

  9. Novel TMS coils designed using an inverse boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos Sánchez, Clemente; María Guerrero Rodriguez, Jose; Quirós Olozábal, Ángel; Blanco-Navarro, David

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new method to design TMS coils is presented. It is based on the inclusion of the concept of stream function of a quasi-static electric current into a boundary element method. The proposed TMS coil design approach is a powerful technique to produce stimulators of arbitrary shape, and remarkably versatile as it permits the prototyping of many different performance requirements and constraints. To illustrate the power of this approach, it has been used for the design of TMS coils wound on rectangular flat, spherical and hemispherical surfaces, subjected to different constraints, such as minimum stored magnetic energy or power dissipation. The performances of such coils have been additionally described; and the torque experienced by each stimulator in the presence of a main magnetic static field have theoretically found in order to study the prospect of using them to perform TMS and fMRI concurrently. The obtained results show that described method is an efficient tool for the design of TMS stimulators, which can be applied to a wide range of coil geometries and performance requirements.

  10. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  11. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of

  12. QUALITY OF NURSING DOCUMENTATION AND NURSE’S OBJECTIVE WORKLOAD BASED ON TIME AND MOTION STUDY (TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Amelynda Prakosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of documentation can decrease because of bad admission filling of documentation. Workload is one of the factor that can influence admission filling of documentation. This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between nurse’s objective workload and the quality of nursing documentation in RSU Haji. Method. The design of this study was descriptive correlation with cross-sectional approach. The population on this study was the nurse that works in Marwah 3 and 4 inpatient care in RSU Haji Surabaya. The number of the sample was 14 respondents were selected by simple random sampling. The independent variable was nurse’s objective workload and the dependent variable was quality of nursing documentation. The data were analyzed by using regression logistic. Result. Nurse’s objective workload in RSU Haji was 72%. There was no correlational between nurse’s objective workload with the completeness of nursing documentation (P= 0,999, also nurse’s objective workload with accurate of nursing documentation (P= 0,999. Discussion. This study concluded that nurse’s objective workload was low and quality of nursing documentation was accurate enough and complete enough. Next researcher should provide precise operational so the factors that affected the quality of documentation can be reached and the workload of the nurses in RSU Haji become ideal. Keyword:  nurses, quality of nursing documentation, objective workload

  13. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L.; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de las Heras, Misericordia; Montero Homs, Jordi; Rubio Borrego, Francisco Ramón; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority...

  15. Evaluation of effects of magnetic field by TMS on PET data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter

    2001-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the necessity of mu-metal shielding of PET scanner during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The aim of this study was to test the effects of magnetic field by TMS on PET data acquisition. With TMS on and off in PET field of view, transmission images were acquired for 9 minutes. The frequency and intensity of stimulation were set at 3 ∼ 5 Hz and 70% of the maximum output of the stimulator, respectively. Distance between TMS coil and patient port edge of the PET gantry was varied from 2 cm to 21 cm, and arrangement of TMS coil was varied between parallel or perpendicular orientation of the maximum field with the scanner's axis. On inspection of the sinograms of transmission PET scans and their subtraction images, there was no measurable difference between TMS on and off conditions for any distance and any orientation. The lack of effect may be due to the long distance between TMS coil and detector block in PET scanner with respect to quick fading of magnetic field with distance (3% of maximum field at 10 cm, in air) and the brief duration (∼250 μ sec) of TMS pulse relative to total PET acquisition time

  16. Determination of stimulation focality in heterogeneous head models during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erik; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an increasingly popular tool used by both the scientific and medical community to understand and treat the brain. TMS has the potential to help people with a wide range of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and PTSD, while currently being used to treat people with chronic, drug-resistant depression. Through computer simulations, we are able to see the electric field that TMS induces in anatomical human models, but there is no measure to quantify this electric field in a way that relates to a specific patient undergoing TMS therapy. We propose a way to quantify the focality of the induced electric field in a heterogeneous head model during TMS by relating the surface area of the brain being stimulated to the total volume of the brain being stimulated. This figure would be obtained by conducting finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of TMS therapy on a patient specific head model. Using this figure to assist in TMS therapy will allow clinicians and researchers to more accurately stimulate the desired region of a patient's brain and be more equipped to do comparative studies on the effects of TMS across different patients. This work was funded by the Carver Charitable Trust.

  17. Evaluation of effects of magnetic field by TMS on PET data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter [Health Science Center, Texas Univ., San Antonio (United States)

    2001-07-01

    There is a controversy regarding the necessity of mu-metal shielding of PET scanner during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The aim of this study was to test the effects of magnetic field by TMS on PET data acquisition. With TMS on and off in PET field of view, transmission images were acquired for 9 minutes. The frequency and intensity of stimulation were set at 3 {approx} 5 Hz and 70% of the maximum output of the stimulator, respectively. Distance between TMS coil and patient port edge of the PET gantry was varied from 2 cm to 21 cm, and arrangement of TMS coil was varied between parallel or perpendicular orientation of the maximum field with the scanner's axis. On inspection of the sinograms of transmission PET scans and their subtraction images, there was no measurable difference between TMS on and off conditions for any distance and any orientation. The lack of effect may be due to the long distance between TMS coil and detector block in PET scanner with respect to quick fading of magnetic field with distance (3% of maximum field at 10 cm, in air) and the brief duration ({approx}250 {mu} sec) of TMS pulse relative to total PET acquisition time.

  18. Effects of diazepam and levodopa single doses on motor cortex plasticity modulation in healthy human subjects: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nela V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Administration of pharmacological agents with specific actions on neurotransmitter systems is a powerful driver of functional cortical reorganization. Plastic reorganization of the motor cortex in humans studies by the use of non-invasive stimulation protocols, which mimic the Hebbian model of associative plasticity. Objective. Aiming to explore pharmacological modulation on human motor cortex plasticity, we tested healthy subjects after each dosage of diazepam, levodopa i placebo administration, using paired associative stimulation protocol (PAS that induce fenomena similar to a long-term potentiation and depression, as defined on the synaptic level. Methods. We analyzed effects of benzodiazepines (10 mg, levodopa (200 mg and placebo on PAS protocol in 14 healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. PAS consisted of electrical stimuli pairs at n.medianus and magnetic pulses over the scalp (transcranial magnetic stimulation in precisely defined intervals (ISI was 10 and 25 ms for a total of about 15 minutes (200 pairs. MEP amplitudes before and after (0, 10, 20 and 30 minutes later interventional protocols were compared. Results. When protocols were applied with placebo depending on ISI (10 ms - inhibitory, 25 ms - facilitatory effects, MEP amplitudes decreased or increased, while values in the postinterventional period (0, 10, 20 and 30 min were compared with initial values before the use of SAS. The use of benzodiazepines caused the occlusion of LTP-like effect, in contrast to amplification effects recorded after the administration of levodopa. With respect to the LTD-like protocol, the reverse was true (ANOVA for repeat measurements p<0.001. Conclusion. Administration of GABA-ergic agonist diazepam interferes with the induction of associative plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, as opposed to the use of levodopa, which stimulates these processes. The observed effects point at a

  19. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Mehndiratta, Amit; Hempel, Albrecht; Hempel, Eckhard; Kress, Kai R.; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  20. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, an increasing number of studies used geometrically accurate head models and finite element (FEM) or finite difference methods (FDM) to estimate the electric field induced by non-invasive neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial...

  1. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salviati M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS. The aim of this review is to investigate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of these three techniques in drug-free patients with pharmacoresistant unipolar depression.Methods: Three independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of methodological reporting of selected studies. The first outcome was the clinical response to the three different techniques defined as a percentage improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The second outcome was the evaluation of their neuropsychological effects. The third outcome was the evaluation of the number of remitted patients; remission was defined as an absolute HDRS-24 score of ≤11 or as an absolute HDRS-17 score of ≤8. Tolerability was the fourth outcome; it was evaluated by examining the number of dropped-out patients.Results: The comparative evaluation of HDRS percentage variations shows ECT as the most effective method after 4 weeks of therapy; on the other hand, a better efficacy is obtainable by deepTMS after 2 weeks of therapy. DeepTMS is the technique that gives the best improvement of cognitive performances. The percentage of remitted patients obtained with ECT treatment is the same obtained in the deepTMS group. Both techniques have a remitted patients percentage two times larger than the rTMS. DeepTMS shows a tolerability

  2. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe; Boyer, Laurent; Farisse, Jean; Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  3. Where and what TMS activates: Experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Murakami, Takenobu; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown. We studied the relationships between electrophysiological measurements and electric fields induced in the brain to locate the TMS activation site. The active and resting motor thresholds of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were recorded in 19 subjects (7 female, 12 male, age 22 ± 4 years) using anteromedially oriented monophasic TMS at multiple locations over the left primary motor cortex (M1). Structural MR images were used to construct electric field models of each subject's head and brain. The cortical activation site was estimated by finding where the calculated electric fields best explained the coil-location dependency of the measured MTs. The experiments and modeling showed individual variations both in the measured motor thresholds (MTs) and in the computed electric fields. When the TMS coil was moved on the scalp, the calculated electric fields in the hand knob region were shown to vary consistently with the measured MTs. Group-level analysis indicated that the electric fields were significantly correlated with the measured MTs. The strongest correlations (R 2  = 0.69), which indicated the most likely activation site, were found in the ventral and lateral part of the hand knob. The site was independent of voluntary contractions of the target muscle. The study showed that TMS combined with personalized electric field modeling can be used for high-resolution mapping of the motor cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.

    2007-10-01

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing.

  5. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing

  6. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  7. TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Cornelsen, Sonja; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to mask visual stimuli, disrupting visual task performance or preventing visual awareness. While TMS masking studies generally fix stimulation intensity, we hypothesized that varying the intensity of TMS pulses in a masking paradigm might inform several ongoing debates concerning TMS disruption of vision as measured subjectively versus objectively, and pre-stimulus (forward) versus post-stimulus (backward) TMS masking. We here show that both pre-stimulus TMS pulses and post-stimulus TMS pulses could strongly mask visual stimuli. We found no dissociations between TMS effects on the subjective and objective measures of vision for any masking window or intensity, ruling out the option that TMS intensity levels determine whether dissociations between subjective and objective vision are obtained. For the post-stimulus time window particularly, we suggest that these data provide new constraints for (e.g. recurrent) models of vision and visual awareness. Finally, our data are in line with the idea that pre-stimulus masking operates differently from conventional post-stimulus masking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  9. Language mapping using high gamma electrocorticography, fMRI, and TMS versus electrocortical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Narayana, Shalini; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Choudhri, Asim F; Fulton, Stephen P; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare localization of the language cortex using cortical stimulation mapping (CSM), high gamma electrocorticography (hgECoG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Language mapping using CSM, hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS were compared in nine patients with epilepsy. Considering CSM as reference, we compared language mapping approaches based on hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS using their sensitivity, specificity, and the results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Our results show that areas involved in language processing can be identified by hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS. The average sensitivity/specificity of hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS across all patients was 100%/85%, 50%/80%, and 67%/66%, respectively. The average area under the ROC curve of hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS across CSM-positive patients was 0.98, 0.76, and 0.68, respectively. There is considerable concordance between CSM, hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS language mapping. Our results reveal that hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS are valuable tools for presurgical language mapping. Language mapping on the basis of hgECoG, fMRI, and TMS can provide important additional information, therefore, these methods can be used in conjunction with CSM or as an alternative, when the latter is deemed impractical. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

  11. On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Kuniecki, Michal; Möller, Friderike

    2009-01-01

    in the contralateral first dorsal interosseus muscle was taken as an index of corticospinal excitability. Guided by the previous LRP measurement, magnetic stimuli were applied 0-90 ms after the individual LRP peak, to cover the epoch of conflict resolution. When flankers were incompatible with the target, excitability......An important aspect of human motor control is the ability to resolve conflicting response tendencies. Here we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to track the time course of excitability changes in the primary motor hand areas (M1(HAND)) while the motor system resolved...... response conflicts. Healthy volunteers had to respond fast with their right and left index fingers to right- and left-pointing arrows. These central target stimuli were preceded by flanking arrows, inducing premature response tendencies which competed with correct response activation. The time point...

  12. Study on singular radon releases from mining residues and the impact on the outdoor radon concentration; Untersuchungen zu singulaeren Radonfreisetzungen aus bergbaulichen Hinterlassenschaften und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Radonkonzentration im Freien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, Rene; Martin, Mirko; Pinka, Jana

    2012-03-15

    The G.E.O.S. mbH was assigned by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz to perform time resolved measurements of the radon release and time and spatial resolved studies on the atmospheric dispersion dependent on the topographic and meteorological conditions in the area of Haiden. The report includes data on the radon release from mining residues at the site Johanngeorgenstadt and measurements in other areas.

  13. Suppression of Extinction with TMS in Humans: From Healthy Controls to Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    We review a series of studies exemplifying some applications of single-pulse and paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the study of spatial attention and of its deficits. We will focus primarily on sensory extinction, the failure to consciously perceive a contralesional sensory stimulus only during bilateral stimulation of homologous surfaces. TMS studies in healthy controls show that it is possible either to interfere or modulate the excitability of the parietal cortex during sen...

  14. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  15. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants......Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection...

  16. TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

  17. Active Head Motion Compensation of TMS Robotic System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zakaria W.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS allows neuroscientist to study human brain behaviour and also become an important technique for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they sub serve. However, conventional manual procedure and robotized TMS are currently unable to precisely position the TMS coil because of unconstrained subject’s head movement and excessive contact force between the coil and subject’s head. This paper addressed this challenge by proposing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy force control to enable low contact force with a moving target surface. A learning and adaption mechanism is included in the control scheme to improve position disturbance estimation. The results show the ability of the proposed force control scheme to compensate subject’s head motions while maintaining desired contact force, thus allowing for more accurate and repeatable TMS procedures.

  18. The Effects of rTMS Combined with Motor Training on Functional Connectivity in Alpha Frequency Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Jin, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    It has recently been reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with motor training (rTMS-MT) could improve motor function in post-stroke patients. However, the effects of rTMS-MT on cortical function using functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis remain unclear. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive rTMS immediately before application of MT. Low frequency rTMS was delivered to the dominant hemisphere and non-dominant hand performed MT over 14 days. The reaction time of Nine-Hole Peg Test and electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed were recorded before and after rTMS-MT. Functional connectivity was assessed by phase synchronization index (PSI), and subsequently thresholded to construct undirected graphs in alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz). We found a significant decrease in reaction time after rTMS-MT. The functional connectivity between the parietal and frontal cortex, and the graph theory statistics of node degree and efficiency in the parietal cortex increased. Besides the functional connectivity between premotor and frontal cortex, the degree and efficiency of premotor cortex showed opposite results. In addition, the number of connections significantly increased within inter-hemispheres and inter-regions. In conclusion, this study could be helpful in our understanding of how rTMS-MT modulates brain activity. The methods and results in this study could be taken as reference in future studies of the effects of rTMS-MT in stroke patients.

  19. Response to deep TMS in depressive patients with previous electroconvulsive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Zangen, Abraham; Stryjer, Rafael; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2010-10-01

    The efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression has already been shown. Novel TMS coils allowing stimulation of deeper brain regions have recently been developed and studied. Our study is aimed at exploring the possible efficacy of deep TMS in patients with resistant depression, who previously underwent electroconvalsive therapy (ECT). Using Brainsway's deep TMS H1 coil, six patients who previously underwent ECT, were treated with 120% power of the motor threshold at a frequency of 20 Hz. Patients underwent five sessions per week, up to 4 weeks. Before the study, patients were evaluated using the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS, 24 items), the Hamilton anxiety scale, and the Beck depression inventory and were again evaluated after 5, 10, 15, and 20 daily treatments. Response to treatment was considered a reduction in the HDRS of at least 50%, and remission was considered a reduction of the HDRS-24 below 10 points. Two of six patients responded to the treatment with deep TMS, including one who achieved full remission. Our results suggest the possibility of a subpopulation of depressed patients who may benefit from deep TMS treatment, including patients who did not respond to ECT previously. However, the power of the study is small and similar larger samples are needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  1. Reliability of TMS metrics in patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, K A; Janini, D P; Frost, F S; Chabra, P; Varnerin, N; Cunningham, D A; Sankarasubramanian, V; Plow, E B

    2016-11-01

    Test-retest reliability analysis in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of neurophysiological metrics acquired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. TMS metrics of corticospinal excitability, output, inhibition and motor map distribution were collected in muscles with a higher MRC grade and muscles with a lower MRC grade on the more affected side of the body. Metrics denoting upper limb function were also collected. All metrics were collected at two sessions separated by a minimum of two weeks. Reliability between sessions was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficients and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). We found that TMS metrics that were acquired in higher MRC grade muscles were approximately two times more reliable than those collected in lower MRC grade muscles. TMS metrics of motor map output, however, demonstrated poor reliability regardless of muscle choice (P=0.34; CCC=0.51). Correlation analysis indicated that patients with more baseline impairment and/or those in a more chronic phase of iSCI demonstrated greater variability of metrics. In iSCI, reliability of TMS metrics varies depending on the muscle grade of the tested muscle. Variability is also influenced by factors such as baseline motor function and time post SCI. Future studies that use TMS metrics in longitudinal study designs to understand functional recovery should be cautious as choice of muscle and clinical characteristics can influence reliability.

  2. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  3. Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Hidding, Ute; Hamel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used and highly effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied to motor cortical areas has also been shown to improve symptoms in PD and modulate motor cortical...... excitability. Here, we compared clinical and neurophysiological effects of STN stimulation with those of 1 Hz rTMS given to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and those following intake of levodopa in a group of PD patients with advanced disease. Ten PD patients were studied on 2 consecutive days before...... and after surgery. Clinical effects were determined using the UPDRS motor score. Motor thresholds, motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes during slight voluntary contraction, and the cortical silent periods (SP) were measured using TMS. Before surgery effects of levodopa and 1 Hz PMd rTMS and after surgery...

  4. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  5. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  6. Is there potential for repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-09-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common and highly debilitating psychiatric disorder. Amongst OCD sufferers are a significant number (40-60%) of so-called non-responders who do not fully respond to commonly available treatments, which include medications (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors-SSRIs) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Modern 'neuromodulatory' techniques such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) potentially offer alternative forms of treatment for OCD patients who either do not respond to, or are unable or unwilling to take SSRIs and undergo CBT. Although shown to be effective in treatment resistant OCD, DBS requires invasive neurosurgical procedures with associated risks. On the other hand, rTMS and tDCS are non-invasive forms of treatment, which are largely risk free, but the evidence of their efficacy so far is somewhat limited, with only small number of published studies. In this brief survey we will address the potential of rTMS as a therapeutic tool for OCD and review the published literature on the cortical targets for rTMS used so far. We will also discuss some of the newer variants of rTMS techniques only a few of which have been employed so far, and speculate whether there might be a place for rTMS as a standard treatment in OCD, along side CBT, SSRIs and DBS.

  7. Dynamic multi-channel TMS with reconfigurable coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoli; Jansen, Ben H; Sheth, Bhavin R; Chen, Ji

    2013-05-01

    Investigations of the causal involvement of particular brain areas and interconnections in behavior require an external stimulation system with reasonable spatio-temporal resolution. Current transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology is limited to stimulating a single brain area once in a given trial. Here, we present a feasibility study for a novel TMS system based on multi-channel reconfigurable coils. With this hardware, researchers will be able to stimulate multiple brain sites in any temporal order in a trial. The system employs a wire-mesh coil, constructed using x- and y-directional wires. By varying the current direction and/or strength on each wire, we can configure the proposed mesh-wire coil into a standard loop coil and figure-eight coil of varying size. This provides maximum flexibility to the experimenter in that the location and extent of stimulation on the brain surface can be modified depending on experimental requirement. Moreover, one can dynamically and automatically modify the site(s) of stimulation several times within the span of seconds. By pre-storing various sequences of excitation patterns inside a control unit, one can explore the effect of dynamic TMS on behavior, in associative learning, and as rehabilitative therapy. Here, we present a computer simulation and bench experiments that show the feasibility of the dynamically-reconfigurable coil.

  8. Classifi c ati on of the Properties According To Turkish Accounti ng Standarts and Accounti ng of Investment Properti es in Scope of Tms - 40

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    With regard to intended use, property in the hands of business is subject to different standarts. Hand-held properties to get rental income and to acquire capital gain are different from other properties with respect to cash generation and capital gain. The objective of this study is to classify the property according to TMS and demonstrated of accounting of investment properties under the scope of the TMS-40. With this study, we explain TMS-40 and give examples for accounting of inves...

  9. Using a Double-Coil TMS Protocol to Assess Preparatory Inhibition Bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Pierre; Grandjean, Julien; Derosiere, Gerard; de Wilde, Ysaline; Quemener, Louise; Duque, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), elicits motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral limb muscles which are valuable indicators of corticospinal excitability (CSE) at the time of stimulation. So far, most studies have used single-coil TMS over one M1, yielding MEPs in muscles of a single limb-usually the hand. However, tracking CSE in the two hands simultaneously would be useful in many contexts. We recently showed that, in the resting state, double-coil stimulation of the two M1 with a 1 ms inter-pulse interval (double-coil 1 ms TMS) elicits MEPs in both hands that are comparable to MEPs obtained using single-coil TMS. To further evaluate this new technique, we considered the MEPs elicited by double-coil 1 ms TMS in an instructed-delay choice reaction time task where a prepared response has to be withheld until an imperative signal is displayed. Single-coil TMS studies have repetitively shown that in this type of task, the motor system is transiently inhibited during the delay period, as evident from the broad suppression of MEP amplitudes. Here, we aimed at investigating whether a comparable inhibitory effect can be observed with MEPs elicited using double-coil 1 ms TMS. To do so, we compared the amplitude as well as the coefficient of variation (CV) of MEPs produced by double-coil 1 ms or single-coil TMS during action preparation. We observed that MEPs were suppressed (smaller amplitude) and often less variable (smaller CV) during the delay period compared to baseline. Importantly, these effects were equivalent whether single-coil or double-coil 1 ms TMS was used. This suggests that double-coil 1 ms TMS is a reliable tool to assess CSE, not only when subjects are at rest, but also when they are involved in a task, opening new research horizons for scientists interested in the corticospinal correlates of human behavior.

  10. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Herremans

    Full Text Available In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network.

  11. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  12. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dollfus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS. Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI. After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities.

  14. 1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Hajak, Göran; Wolf, Stefan; Padberg, Frank; Klupp, Philipp; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Polak, Thomas; Höppner, Jacqueline; Haker, Rene; Cordes, Joachim; Klenzner, Thomas; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kammer, Thomas; Graf, Erika; Koller, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Pöppl, Timm B; Kreuzer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity. This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus. Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex. The primary outcome was the change in the sum score of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) of Goebel and Hiller from baseline to end of treatment. A total of 163 patients were enrolled in the study (real rTMS: 75; sham rTMS: 78). At day 12, the baseline mean of 43.1 TQ points in 71 patients assigned to real rTMS changed by -0.5 points; it changed by 0.5 points from a baseline of 42.1 in 75 patients randomized to sham rTMS (adjusted mean difference between groups: -1.0; 95.19% confidence interval: -3.2 to 1.2; p = 0.36). All secondary outcome measures including measures of depression and quality of life showed no significant differences either (p > 0.11). The number of participants with side-effects or adverse events did not differ between groups. Real 1-Hz-rTMS over the left temporal cortex was well tolerated but not superior compared with sham rTMS in improving tinnitus severity. These findings are in contrast to results from studies with smaller sample sizes and put the efficacy of this rTMS protocol for treatment of chronic tinnitus into question. Controlled Trials: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89848288. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of a pilot study on the involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception: an rTMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Vingerhoets, Guy; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background: The right hemisphere may play an important role in paralinguistic features such as the emotional melody in speech. The extent of this involvement however is unclear. Imaging studies have shown involvement of both left and right inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception. The

  16. Trend Monitoring System (TMS) graphics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications systems, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to evaluate the bus concept is considered. A set of FORTRAN-callable graphics subroutines for the host MODCOMP comuter, and an approach to splitting graphics work between the host and the system's intelligent graphics terminals are described. The graphics software in the MODCOMP and the operating software package written for the graphics terminals are included.

  17. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, B.

    1986-10-01

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.) [de

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): compared sensitivity of different motor response parameters in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, J; Trefouret, S; Attarian, S

    2000-06-01

    Owing to the low sensitivity of clinical signs in assessing upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement in ALS, there is a need for investigative tools capable of detecting abnormal function of the pyramidal tract. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may contribute to the diagnosis by reflecting a UMN dysfunction that is not clinically detectable. Several parameters for the motor responses to TMS can be evaluated with different levels of significance in healthy subjects compared with ALS patients. The central motor conduction time, however, is not sensitive in detecting subclinical UMN defects in individual ALS patients. The amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP), expressed as the percentage of the maximum wave, also has a low sensitivity. In some cases, the corticomotor threshold is decreased early in the disease course as a result of corticomotor neuron hyperexcitability induced by glutamate. Later, the threshold increases, indicating a loss of UMN. In our experience, a decreased silent period duration appears to be the most sensitive parameter when using motor TMS in ALS. TMS is also a sensitive technique for investigating the corticobulbar tract, which is difficult to study by other methods. TMS is a widely available, painless and safe technique with a good sensitivity that can visualize both corticospinal and corticobulbar tract abnormalities. The sensitivity can be improved further by taking into account the several MEP parameters, including latency and cortical silent period decreased duration.

  19. Magnetic motor threshold and response to TMS in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, O T; Dannon, P N; Schreiber, S; Grunhaus, L

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine motor threshold (MT) during treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The TMS was administered to 46 patients with depression and 13 controls. TMS was performed at 90% power of measured MT. The stimulation frequency was 10 Hz for 6 s, for 20 trains, with 30 s inter-train intervals. The trial included 20 sessions. Patients and controls were assessed on various outcome measures. The MT values were comparable between patients and controls. Neither demographic nor clinical variables were factors in determining MT. MT was not shown to have any predictive value regarding outcome of treatment. In this study, MT at baseline or changes in MT during the treatment period were not able to discriminate between patients and controls and were not found to have any predictive value with regard to treatment outcome. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2002.

  20. Dolmetscher/inneneinsatz in der qualitativen Sozialforschung. Zu Anforderungen und Auswirkungen in gedolmetschten Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolin Lauterbach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Dolmetscher/innen in der qualitativen Sozialforschung, insbesondere in qualitativen Interviews, stand bisher nicht im Mittelpunkt der Forschung, stellt jedoch die Interviewteilnehmer/innen vor Herausforderungen. Diese betreffen v.a. den Umgang mit dem Dolmetscher/der Dolmetscherin und deren Rolle sowie die Interviewauswertung und die Qualität der Daten und folgenden wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse. Aus der bisherigen Diskussion lassen sich nur bedingt methodische Leitlinien aus anderen, verwandten Bereichen ableiten. Anhand von Expert/inneninterviews mit Forscher/innen und Dolmetscher/innen werden daher Erfahrungen mit dem Dolmetscher/inneneinsatz in der qualitativen Sozialforschung dokumentiert und Handlungsempfehlungen abgeleitet. Mithilfe von Gesprächsaufzeichnungen gedolmetschter Interviews werden die Aushandlungen zwischen Originalen und Dolmetschungen aufgezeigt sowie Auswirkungen des Dolmetscher/inneneinsatzes auf den Interviewprozess dargelegt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140250

  1. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  2. Consensus: "Can tDCS and TMS enhance motor learning and memory formation?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Robertson, Edwin; Krakauer, John W; Rothwell, John; Marshall, Lisa; Gerloff, Christian; Wassermann, Eric; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Hummel, Friedhelm; Celnik, Pablo A; Classen, Joseph; Floel, Agnes; Ziemann, Ulf; Paulus, Walter; Siebner, Hartwig R; Born, Jan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2008-10-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation has developed as a promising tool for cognitive neuroscientists. Transcranial magnetic (TMS) and direct current (tDCS) stimulation allow researchers to purposefully enhance or decrease excitability in focal areas of the brain. The purpose of this paper is to review information on the use of TMS and tDCS as research tools to facilitate motor memory formation, motor performance and motor learning in healthy volunteers. Studies implemented so far have mostly focused on the ability of TMS and tDCS to elicit relatively short lasting motor improvements and the mechanisms underlying these changes have been only partially investigated. Despite limitations including the scarcity of data, work that has been already accomplished raises the exciting hypothesis that currently available noninvasive transcranial stimulation techniques could modulate motor learning and memory formation in healthy humans and potentially in patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  3. Subcortical substrates of TMS induced modulation of the cortico-cortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Otto, Birte

    2013-01-01

    pulse TMS to the primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy subjects to interfere the cortical oscillatory activity recorded by simultaneous EEG and calculated the cortico-cortical coherence and power in the alpha and beta band. To study the structural substrate of the functional connectivity we performed...... diffusion tensor imaging and fractional anisotropy analysis (FA). To capture the pathways involved we applied probabilistic tractography to reconstruct the entire network. RESULTS: Suprathreshold TMS of M1 induced a consistent enhancement of interhemispheric cortico-cortical alpha band coherence that lasted...... ca. 175 ms. after the pulse has been applied. The changes were confined to the interhemispheric central EEG electrodes (i.e. C3-C4). There were no consistent changes in the beta band. Power analysis revealed a longer lasting increase in the beta band after TMS pulses. A cluster in the contralateral...

  4. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  5. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  6. rTMS of the prefrontal cortex has analgesic effects on neuropathic pain in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Höller, Y; Langthaler, P B; Lochner, P; Golaszewski, S; Schwenker, K; Brigo, F; Trinka, E

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. The analgesic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic pain have been the focus of several studies. In particular, rTMS of the premotor cortex/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PMC/DLPFC) changes pain perception in healthy subjects and has analgesic effects in acute postoperative pain, as well as in fibromyalgia patients. However, its effect on neuropathic pain in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been assessed. Merano (Italy) and Salzburg (Austria). In this study, we performed PMC/DLPFC rTMS in subjects with SCI and neuropathic pain. Twelve subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were randomized to receive 1250 pulses at 10 Hz rTMS (n=6) or sham rTMS (n=6) treatment for 10 sessions over 2 weeks. The visual analog scale, the sensory and affective pain rating indices of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were used to assed pain and mood at baseline (T0), 1 day after the first week of treatment (T1), 1 day (T2), 1 week (T3) and 1 month (T4) after the last intervention. Subjects who received active rTMS had a statistically significant reduction in pain symptoms in comparison with their baseline pain, whereas sham rTMS participants had a non-significant change in daily pain from their baseline pain. The findings of this preliminary study in a small patient sample suggest that rTMS of the PMC/DLPFC may be effective in relieving neuropathic pain in SCI patients.

  7. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Therapy in Parkinson Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Shuster, Jonathan J; Chung, Jae Woo; Vaillancourt, David E; Patten, Carolynn; Ostrem, Jill; Okun, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy as an effective treatment for the control of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. The objective of the study is to quantify the overall efficacy of this treatment. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We reviewed the literature on clinical rTMS trials in Parkinson disease since the technique was introduced in 1980. We used the following databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Patients with Parkinson disease who were participating in prospective clinical trials that included an active arm and a control arm and change in motor scores on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as the primary outcome. We pooled data from 21 studies that met these criteria. We then analyzed separately the effects of low- and high-frequency rTMS on clinical motor improvements. The overall pooled mean difference between treatment and control groups in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score was significant (4.0 points, 95% confidence interval, 1.5, 6.7; P = .005). rTMS therapy was effective when low-frequency stimulation (≤ 1 Hz) was used with a pooled mean difference of 3.3 points (95% confidence interval 1.6, 5.0; P = .005). There was a trend for significance when high-frequency stimulation (≥ 5 Hz) studies were evaluated with a pooled mean difference of 3.9 points (95% confidence interval, -0.7, 8.5; P = .08). rTMS therapy demonstrated benefits at short-term follow-up (immediately after a treatment protocol) with a pooled mean difference of 3.4 points (95% confidence interval, 0.3, 6.6; P = .03) as well as at long-term follow-up (average follow-up 6 weeks) with mean difference of 4.1 points (95% confidence interval, -0.15, 8.4; P = .05). There were insufficient data to statistically analyze the effects of rTMS when we specifically examined bradykinesia, gait, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia using quantitative methods. rTMS therapy in patients with Parkinson

  8. Inhibitory rTMS applied on somatosensory cortex in Wilson's disease patients with hand dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Meppiel, Elodie; Masmoudi, Sana; Magnan, Thierry Peron; Vicaut, Eric; Houdart, Emmanuel; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Hand dystonia is a common complication of Wilson's disease (WD), responsible for handwriting difficulties and disability. Alteration of sensorimotor integration and overactivity of the somatosensory cortex have been demonstrated in dystonia. This study investigated the immediate after effect of an inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the somatosensory cortex on the writing function in WD patients with hand dystonia. We performed a pilot prospective randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover rTMS study. A 20-min 1-Hz rTMS session, stereotaxically guided, was applied over the left somatosensory cortex in 13 WD patients with right dystonic writer's cramp. After 3 days, each patient was crossed-over to the alternative treatment. Patients were clinically evaluated before and immediately after each rTMS session with the Unified Wilson's Disease rating scale (UWDRS), the Writers' Cramp Rating Scale (WCRS), a specifically designed scale for handwriting difficulties in Wilson's disease patients (FAR, flow, accuracy, and rhythmicity evaluation), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for handwriting discomfort. No significant change in UWDRS, WCRS, VAS, or FAR scores was observed in patients treated with somatosensory inhibitory rTMS compared to the sham protocol. The FAR negatively correlated with UWDRS (r = -0.6; P = 0.02), but not with the WCRS score, disease duration, MRI diffusion lesions, or with atrophy scores. In our experimental conditions, a single inhibitory rTMS session applied over somatosensory cortex did not improve dystonic writer cramp in WD patients.

  9. Prefrontal rTMS for treating depression: location and intensity results from the OPT-TMS multi-site clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin A; Baig, Mirza; Ramsey, Dave; Lisanby, Sarah H; Avery, David; McDonald, William M; Li, Xingbao; Bernhardt, Elisabeth R; Haynor, David R; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Sackeim, Harold A; George, Mark S; Nahas, Ziad

    2013-03-01

    Motor cortex localization and motor threshold determination often guide Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) placement and intensity settings for non-motor brain stimulation. However, anatomic variability results in variability of placement and effective intensity. Post-study analysis of the OPT-TMS Study reviewed both the final positioning and the effective intensity of stimulation (accounting for relative prefrontal scalp-cortex distances). We acquired MRI scans of 185 patients in a multi-site trial of left prefrontal TMS for depression. Scans had marked motor sites (localized with TMS) and marked prefrontal sites (5 cm anterior of motor cortex by the "5 cm rule"). Based on a visual determination made before the first treatment, TMS therapy occurred either at the 5 cm location or was adjusted 1 cm forward. Stimulation intensity was 120% of resting motor threshold. The "5 cm rule" would have placed stimulation in premotor cortex for 9% of patients, which was reduced to 4% with adjustments. We did not find a statistically significant effect of positioning on remission, but no patients with premotor stimulation achieved remission (0/7). Effective stimulation ranged from 93 to 156% of motor threshold, and no seizures were induced across this range. Patients experienced remission with effective stimulation intensity ranging from 93 to 146% of motor threshold, and we did not find a significant effect of effective intensity on remission. Our data indicates that individualized positioning methods are useful to reduce variability in placement. Stimulation at 120% of motor threshold, unadjusted for scalp-cortex distances, appears safe for a broad range of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of motor control in saccadic behaviors by TMS over the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Kuang; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2012-08-01

    The right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) has been found to be critical in shaping visual selection and distractor-induced saccade curvature in the context of predictive as well as nonpredictive visual cues by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interference. However, the dynamic details of how distractor-induced saccade curvatures are affected by rPPC TMS have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the key dynamic properties that cause saccades to curve away from distractors with different degrees of curvature in various TMS and target predictability conditions. Stochastic optimal feedback control theory was used to model the dynamics of the TMS saccade data. This allowed estimation of torques, which was used to identify the critical dynamic mechanisms producing saccade curvature. The critical mechanisms of distractor-induced saccade curvatures were found to be the motor commands and torques in the transverse direction. When an unpredictable saccade target occurred with rPPC TMS, there was an initial period of greater distractor-induced torque toward the side opposite the distractor in the transverse direction, immediately followed by a relatively long period of recovery torque that brought the deviated trace back toward the target. The results imply that the mechanisms of distractor-induced saccade curvature may be comprised of two mechanisms: the first causing the initial deviation and the second bringing the deviated trace back toward the target. The pattern of the initial torque in the transverse direction revealed the former mechanism. Conversely, the later mechanism could be well explained as a consequence of the control policy in this model. To summarize, rPPC TMS increased the initial torque away from the distractor as well as the recovery torque toward the target.

  11. Short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition of TMS-evoked EEG potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Király, Julia; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Zipser, Carl M; Rossini, Pierre; Zrenner, Christoph; Ziemann, Ulf; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    Inhibition in the human motor cortex can be probed by means of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) at interstimulus intervals of 2-3 ms (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) or ∼100 ms (long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). Conventionally, SICI and LICI are recorded as motor evoked potential (MEP) inhibition in the hand muscle. Pharmacological experiments indicate that they are mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. SICI and LICI of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) and their pharmacological properties have not been systematically studied. Here, we sought to examine SICI by ppTMS-evoked compared to single-pulse TMS-evoked TEPs, to investigate its pharmacological manipulation and to compare SICI with our previous results on LICI. PpTMS-EEG was applied to the left motor cortex in 16 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, testing the effects of a single oral dose 20 mg of diazepam, a positive modulator at the GABAA receptor, vs. 50 mg of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on SICI of TEPs. We found significant SICI of the N100 and P180 TEPs prior to drug intake. Diazepam reduced SICI of the N100 TEP, while baclofen enhanced it. Compared to our previous ppTMS-EEG results on LICI, the SICI effects on TEPs, including their drug modulation, were largely analogous. Findings suggest a similar interaction of paired-pulse effects on TEPs irrespective of the interstimulus interval. Therefore, SICI and LICI as measured with TEPs cannot be directly derived from SICI and LICI measured with MEPs, but may offer novel insight into paired-pulse responses recorded directly from the brain rather than muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resection of highly language-eloquent brain lesions based purely on rTMS language mapping without awake surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbours the risk of postoperative language impairment. Therefore the individual patient's language distribution is investigated by intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery. Yet, not all patients qualify for awake surgery. Non-invasive language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has frequently shown a high correlation in comparison with the results of DCS language mapping in terms of language-negative brain regions. The present study analyses the extent of resection (EOR) and functional outcome of patients who underwent left-sided perisylvian resection of brain lesions based purely on rTMS language mapping. Four patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions (two gliomas WHO III, one glioblastoma, one cavernous angioma) underwent rTMS language mapping prior to surgery. Data from rTMS language mapping and rTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fibre tracking (DTI-FT) were transferred to the intraoperative neuronavigation system. Preoperatively, 5 days after surgery (POD5), and 3 months after surgery (POM3) clinical follow-up examinations were performed. No patient suffered from a new surgery-related aphasia at POM3. Three patients underwent complete resection immediately, while one patient required a second rTMS-based resection some days later to achieve the final, complete resection. The present study shows for the first time the feasibility of successfully resecting language-eloquent brain lesions based purely on the results of negative language maps provided by rTMS language mapping and rTMS-based DTI-FT. In very select cases, this technique can provide a rescue strategy with an optimal functional outcome and EOR when awake surgery is not feasible.

  13. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported.

  14. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  15. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX, NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats.

  16. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL, lateral IPS (LIPS, and middle occipital gyrus (MoG, showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL, Superior occipital gyrus (SoG, and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+, showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, but that of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction.

  17. Validation of the Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N =

  18. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael D; Halko, Mark A; Eldaief, Mark C; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-10-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include using resting state fcMRI to guide target selection for TMS and using TMS to modulate pathological network interactions identified with resting state fcMRI. The combination of TMS and resting state fcMRI has the potential to accelerate the translation of both techniques into the clinical realm and promises a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases that demonstrate network pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Auswirkungen des Basel II Akkords auf österreichisches KMU

    OpenAIRE

    Heimer, Thomas; Köhler, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of the Basel II Accord on the financing of small and medium size enterprises (SME) in Austria. Although the Basel II Accord has not been established yet, the study tries to evaluate the expected impact of the Basel II Accord on SMEs, on the bases of the current financial data of SMEs. The empirical work used the NACE datapool for Austrian SME provided by KMU Forschung Austria. In the datapool, SMEs are defined as companies with a turnover of up to € 100 Mio. In ...

  20. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  1. Antidepressant effectiveness of deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with or without Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs): a 6-month, open label, follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Curto, Martina; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Del Casale, Antonio; Serata, Daniele; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Raccah, Ruggero Nessim; Digiacomantonio, Vittorio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Bersani, Giuseppe; Zangen, Abraham; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Co-occurrence of Major Depressive (MDD) and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) is frequent, causing more burden than each disorder separately. Since the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in both mood and reward and dysfunctional in both conditions, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dTMS stimulation of bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence in patients with MDD with or without concomitant AUD. Twelve MDD patients and 11 with concomitant MDD and AUD (MDD+AUD) received 20 dTMS sessions. Clinical status was assessed through the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGIs), craving through the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) in MDD+AUD, and functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). There were no significant differences between the two groups in sociodemographic (age, sex, years of education and duration of illness) and baseline clinical characteristics, including scores on assessment scales. Per cent drops on HDRS and CGIs scores at the end of the sessions were respectively 62.6% and 78.2% for MDD+AUD, and 55.2% and 67.1% for MDD (pdepressive episodes. The potential use of dTMS for mood modulation as an adjunct to treatment in patients with a depressive episode, with or without alcohol abuse, deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TMS over the right precuneus reduces the bilateral field advantage in visual short term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Antje; Dyrholm, Mads; Kehrer, Stefanie; Kaufmann, Christian; Bruening, Jovita; Kathmann, Norbert; Bundesen, Claus; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Brandt, Stephan A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a bilateral field advantage (BFA) in early visual attentional processing, that is, enhanced visual processing when stimuli are spread across both visual hemifields. The results are reminiscent of a hemispheric resource model of parallel visual attentional processing, suggesting more attentional resources on an early level of visual processing for bilateral displays [e.g. Sereno AB, Kosslyn SM. Discrimination within and between hemifields: a new constraint on theories of attention. Neuropsychologia 1991;29(7):659-75.]. Several studies have shown that the BFA extends beyond early stages of visual attentional processing, demonstrating that visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity is higher when stimuli are distributed bilaterally rather than unilaterally. Here we examine whether hemisphere-specific resources are also evident on later stages of visual attentional processing. Based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) [Bundesen C. A theory of visual attention. Psychol Rev 1990;97(4):523-47.] we used a whole report paradigm that allows investigating visual attention capacity variability in unilateral and bilateral displays during navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the precuneus region. A robust BFA in VSTM storage capacity was apparent after rTMS over the left precuneus and in the control condition without rTMS. In contrast, the BFA diminished with rTMS over the right precuneus. This finding indicates that the right precuneus plays a causal role in VSTM capacity, particularly in bilateral visual displays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The separation of Gln and Glu in STEAM: a comparison study using short and long TEs/TMs at 3 and 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Weiqiang; Kaufmann, Jörn; Li, Meng; Zhong, Kai; Walter, Martin; Speck, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal echo time (TE) and mixing time (TM) for in vivo glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) separation in stimulated-echo acquisition mode at 3 and 7 T. We applied a short TE/TM (20/10 ms) for a high signal-to-noise-ratio and a field-specific long TE/TM (3 T: 72/6 ms; 7 T: 74/68 ms) for optimal Gln and Glu separation of the Carbon-4 proton resonances. Corresponding Gln and Glu spectra were simulated using VeSPA software, and measured in a phantom and human brains at 3 and 7 T. Higher spectral separation for Gln and Glu was achieved at 7 than 3 T. At 7 T, short TE/TM provided comparable spectral separation and in vitro Gln and Glu quantification compared to long TE/TM. Moreover, it showed greater reliability in in vivo Gln and Glu detection and separation than long TE/TM, with significantly lower Cramer-Rao lower bounds (Gln: 14.9 vs. 75.8; Glu: 3.8 vs. 6.5) and correlation between Gln and Glu (p = 0.004). Based on the optimal separation for Gln and Glu, a short TE/TM at 7 T is proposed for future in vivo Gln and Glu acquisition.

  4. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  5. The role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling gender-stereotypical associations: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Platania, Elisa; Papagno, Costanza

    2011-06-01

    Stereotypes associated with gender, race, ethnicity and religion are powerful forces in human social interactions. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies point to a role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling stereotypical responses. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to highlight the possible causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) in controlling gender-stereotypical responses. Young male and female participants were tested. Our results showed that applying TMS over the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC increased the gender-stereotypical bias in male participants compared to when TMS was applied to a control site (vertex). This suggests that both the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC play a direct role in stereotyping. Females did not show a significant gender bias on the IAT; correspondingly their responses were unaffected by TMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A High-Resolution Terrestrial Modeling System (TMS): A Demonstration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q.; Dai, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, A.; Ji, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes a terrestrial modeling system (TMS) developed at Beijing Normal University. The TMS is designed to be driven by multi-sensor meteorological and land surface observations, including those from satellites and land based observing stations. The purposes of the TMS are (1) to provide a land surface parameterization scheme fully capable of being coupled with the Earth system models; (2) to provide a standalone platform for retrospective historical simulation and for forecasting of future land surface processes at different space and time scales; and (3) to provide a platform for studying human-Earth system interactions and for understanding climate change impacts. This system is built on capabilities among several groups at BNU, including the Common Land Model (CoLM) system, high-resolution atmospheric forcing data sets, high resolution land surface characteristics data sets, data assimilation and uncertainty analysis platforms, ensemble prediction platform, and high-performance computing facilities. This presentation intends to describe the system design and demonstrate the capabilities of TMS with results from a China-wide application.

  7. The TMS-1 corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, W A; Matilla, M T

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the accuracy of the TMS-1 videokeratoscope (Computed Anatomy Inc.) by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces. The ellipsoids were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis, which allowed for subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value. The videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The data provided by the instrument software were used to plot a graph of r2 verses y2, where r is the measured radius at y, the distance from the corneal point being measured to the optical axis of the instrument. The intercept on the ordinate of this graph gives the vertex radius, and the slope give the p value. The results arising from the Talysurf and the TMS-1 techniques were compared. The TMS-1 videokeratoscope gave readings for the vertex radius that were generally higher than those of the Talysurf analysis. The vertex radius was up to 0.09 mm greater. The p value results were similar by the two methods for p values of approximately 0.8; however, the TMS-1 results were higher, and the discrepancy increased as the p value approached that of a paraboloid. Although the videokeratoscope may be useful in comparative studies of the cornea, there must be some doubt about the absolute values displayed as the surface becomes increasingly aspheric.

  8. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  10. Behavioral and TMS markers of action observation might reflect distinct neuronal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, fourteen healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a predominant assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  11. Deep TMS in a resistant major depressive disorder: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, O; Shoenfeld, N; Zangen, A; Kotler, M; Dannon, P N

    2010-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has proven effective. Recently, a greater intracranial penetration coil has been developed. We tested the efficacy of the coil in the treatment of resistant major depression. Our sample included seven patients suffering from major depression who were treated using Brainsway's H1-coil connected to a Magstim rapid 2 stimulator. Deep TMS treatment was given to each patient in five sessions per week over a period of 4 weeks. Patients were treated with 120% intensity of the motor threshold and a frequency of 20 HZ with a total of 1,680 pulses per session. Five patients completed 20 sessions: one attained remission (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)=9); three patients reached a reduction of more than 50% in their pre-treatment HDRS; and one patient achieved a partial response (i.e., the HDRS score dropped from 21 to 12). Average HDRS score dropped to 12.6 and average Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score dropped to 9.Two patients dropped out: one due to insomnia and the second due to a lack of response. Compared to the pooled response and remission rates when treating major depression with rTMS, deep TMS as used in this study is at least similarly effective. Still, a severe limitation of this study is its small sample size, which makes the comparison of the two methods in terms of their effectiveness or side effects impossible. Greater numbers of subjects should be studied to achieve this aim. An H1 deep TMS coil could be used as an alternative treatment for major depressive disorder.

  12. Anaesthesia, not number of sessions, influences the magnitude and duration of an aHF-rTMS in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dockx

    Full Text Available Currently, the rat has been a useful animal model in brain stimulation research. Nevertheless, extrapolating results from rodent repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS research to humans contains several hurdles. This suggests the desperate need for a large animal model in translational rTMS research. The dog would be a valid choice, not only due to the fact that humans and dogs share a neurophysiological background, but a similar neuropathological background as well.In order to evaluate the feasibility of the canine rTMS animal model, this study aimed to evaluate the neurophysiological response in dogs on a, clinically used, accelerated high frequency (aHF rTMS protocol. This aHF-rTMS (20 Hz protocol was performed under anaesthesia or sedation and either 20 sessions or 5 sessions were given to each dog.21 healthy dogs were randomly subjected to one of the four aHF-rTMS protocols (1 sham and 3 active protocols. For each dog, the perfusion indices (PI, of a [99mTc]HMPAO scan at 4 time points, for the left frontal cortex (stimulation target were calculated for each protocol.Concerning sham stimulation, the average PI remained at the baseline level. The main result was the presence of a direct transitory increase in rCBF at the stimulation site, both under anaesthesia and sedation. Nevertheless the measured increase in rCBF was higher but shorter duration under sedation. The magnitude of this increase was not influenced by number of sessions. No changes in rCBF were found in remote brain regions.This study shows that, despite the influence of anaesthesia and sedation, comparable and clinically relevant effects on the rCBF can be obtained in dogs. Since less methodological hurdles have to be overcome and comparable results can be obtained, it would be acceptable to put the dog forward as an alternative translational rTMS animal model.

  13. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  14. Acute rCBF changes in depressed patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haindl, W.; Loo, C.; Mitchell, P.; Sachdev, P.; Zheng, X.; Som, S.; Walker, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Electroconvulsant therapy (ECT) is very effective in treatment resistant severe depression with response rates of 70-90%. However, ECT has major limitations including the need for anaesthesia, memory difficulties and public apprehension about its use. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used as a diagnostic technique in neurology with recent reports of potential benefit in depressed patients. In this study, 5 patients (3 females, 2 males aged 36-66 years, mean 48.6 years) with major depression underwent SPET brain scanning using a Picker 3000 triple-headed camera. Each patient had a baseline rCBF scan with 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAO injected intravenously during sham rTMS. On the following day, each patient received another 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAo during rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a Magstim Super Rapid magnetic stimulator with a 70-mm figure eight coil. The stimulator parameters were 15 Hz, 90% of resting motor threshold, 1 s on 3 s off for 30 trains prior to injection and 15-30 trains following injection. Each patient continued to receive their usual medication during this period. The reconstructed SPET data sets were normalized to the global mean, registered to the Talairach template and analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Compared with the baseline group, the rTMS group showed a significant perfusion increase in the pre-frontal cortices, especially on the left, and also in the anterior left temporal lobe (P < 0.05). Frontal lobe perfusion reduction is a common finding in depression. This study demonstrates the ability of rTMS to acutely increase frontal lobe perfusion, and therefore a possible mechanism for its therapeutic use as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy or as an alternative to ECT in depression

  15. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson’s disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson’s disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson’s disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson’s disease.

  16. A double-blind, randomized trial of deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kennedy, Hayley A; Arnold, Sara L; Elliot, David; Peachey, Amy; Zangen, Abraham; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical treatment options for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are extremely limited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and efficacious technique when targeting specific areas of cortical dysfunction in major depressive disorder, and a similar approach could yield therapeutic benefits in ASD, if applied to relevant cortical regions. The aim of this study was to examine whether deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex improves social relating in ASD. 28 adults diagnosed with either autistic disorder (high-functioning) or Asperger's disorder completed a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design with 2 weeks of daily weekday treatment. This involved deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (5 Hz, 10-s train duration, 20-s inter-train interval) for 15 min (1500 pulses per session) using a HAUT-Coil. The sham rTMS coil was encased in the same helmet of the active deep rTMS coil, but no effective field was delivered into the brain. Assessments were conducted before, after, and one month following treatment. Participants in the active condition showed a near significant reduction in self-reported social relating symptoms from pre-treatment to one month follow-up, and a significant reduction in social relating symptoms (relative to sham participants) for both post-treatment assessments. Those in the active condition also showed a reduction in self-oriented anxiety during difficult and emotional social situations from pre-treatment to one month follow-up. There were no changes for those in the sham condition. Deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex yielded a reduction in social relating impairment and socially-related anxiety. Further research in this area should employ extended rTMS protocols that approximate those used in depression in an attempt to replicate and amplify the clinical response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Event-related rTMS at encoding affects differently deep and shallow memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Iglis; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Feurra, Matteo; Polizzotto, Nicola R; Bianco, Giovanni; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone

    2010-10-15

    The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior with respect to the case in which the same stimuli are analyzed in terms of their perceptual features (shallow encoding). As suggested by previous neuroimaging studies and by some preliminary findings with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the left prefrontal cortex may play a role in semantic processing requiring the allocation of working memory resources. However, it still remains unclear whether deep and shallow encoding share or not the same cortical networks, as well as how these networks contribute to the "level of processing" effect. To investigate the brain areas casually involved in this phenomenon, we applied event-related repetitive TMS (rTMS) during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding of words. Retrieval was subsequently tested without rTMS interference. RTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abolished the beneficial effect of deep encoding on memory performance, both in terms of accuracy (decrease) and reaction times (increase). Neither accuracy nor reaction times were instead affected by rTMS to the right DLPFC or to an additional control site excluded by the memory process (vertex). The fact that online measures of semantic processing at encoding were unaffected suggests that the detrimental effect on memory performance for semantically encoded items took place in the subsequent consolidation phase. These results highlight the specific causal role of the left DLPFC among the wide left-lateralized cortical network engaged by long-term memory, suggesting that it probably represents a crucial node responsible for the improved memory performance induced by

  18. Double-Cone Coil TMS Stimulation of the Medial Cortex Inhibits Central Pain Habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico D'Agata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS applied over the medial line of the scalp affects the subjective perception of continuous pain induced by means of electric stimulation. In addition, we wanted to identify the point of stimulation where this effect was maximum.Superficial electrical stimulation was used to induce continuous pain on the dominant hand. At the beginning of the experiment we reached a pain rating of 5 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain and 10 = maximum tolerable pain for each subject by setting individually the current intensity. The TMS (five pulses at increasing intensities was applied on 5 equidistant points (one per session over the medial line of the scalp in 13 healthy volunteers using a double-cone coil to stimulate underlying parts of the brain cortex. In every experimental session the painful stimulation lasted 45 minutes, during which pain and distress intensities NRS were recorded continuously. We calculated the effect of adaptation and the immediate effect of the TMS stimulation for all locations. Additionally, an ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis was performed to compare our results with the neuroimaging literature on subjective pain rating.TMS stimulation temporarily decreased the pain ratings, and pain adaptation was suppressed when applying the TMS over the FCz site on the scalp. No effect was found for distress ratings.The present data suggest that the medial cortex in proximity of the cingulated gyrus has a causal role in adaptation mechanisms and in processing ongoing pain and subjective sensation of pain intensity.

  19. Classifi c ati on of the Properties According To Turkish Accounti ng Standarts and Accounti ng of Investment Properti es in Scope of Tms - 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yılmaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With regard to intended use, property in the hands of business is subject to different standarts. Hand-held properties to get rental income and to acquire capital gain are different from other properties with respect to cash generation and capital gain. The objective of this study is to classify the property according to TMS and demonstrated of accounting of investment properties under the scope of the TMS-40. With this study, we explain TMS-40 and give examples for accounting of investment property to analyze IAS 40 applications.

  20. Add-on deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) in patients with dysthymic disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder: a comparison with standard treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Rapinesi, Chiara; Chiarotti, Flavia; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Scatena, Paola; Mascioli, Flavia; Raccah, Ruggero N; Brugnoli, Roberto; Digiacomantonio, Vittorio; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Ferracuti, Stefano; Zangen, Abraham; Angeletti, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is dysfunctional in mood and substance use disorders. We predicted higher efficacy for add-on bilateral prefrontal high-frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS), compared with standard drug treatment (SDT) in patients with dysthymic disorder (DD)/alcohol use disorder (AUD) comorbidity. We carried-out a 6-month open-label study involving 20 abstinent patients with DSM-IV-TR AUD comorbid with previously developed DD. Ten patients received SDT for AUD with add-on bilateral dTMS (dTMS-AO) over the DLPFC, while another 10 received SDT alone. We rated alcohol craving with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), depression with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), clinical status with the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI), and global functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). At the end of the 20-session dTMS period (or an equivalent period in the SDT group), craving scores and depressive symptoms in the dTMS-AO group dropped significantly more than in the SDT group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.02, respectively). High frequency bilateral DLPFC dTMS with left preference was well tolerated and found to be effective as add-on in AUD. The potential of dTMS for reducing craving in substance use disorder patients deserves to be further investigated.

  1. Three and six-month outcome following courses of either ECT or rTMS in a population of severely depressed individuals--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Dolberg, Ornah T; Schreiber, Shaul; Grunhaus, Leon

    2002-04-15

    Recent studies have strengthened the claim that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for major depression. The longitudinal outcome of TMS-treated patients, however, has not been described. We report on the 3- and 6-month outcomes of a group of patients treated with either electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (n = 20) or (rTMS) (n = 21). Patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder with or without psychotic features referred for ECT were randomly assigned to receive either ECT or rTMS. Forty-one patients who responded to either treatment constituted the sample. Patients were followed on a monthly basis and outcomes were determined with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 items (HRSD) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales. Medications were routinely prescribed. There were no differences in the 6-month relapse rate between the groups. Overall, 20% of the patients relapsed (four from the ECT group and four from the rTMS group). Patients reported equally low and not significantly different scores in the HRSD (ECT group 8.4 +/- 5.6 and TMS group 7.9 +/- 7.1) and the GAF (ECT group 72.8 +/- 12 and TMS group 77.8 +/- 17.1) at the 6-month follow up. Patients treated with rTMS do as well as those treated with ECT at the 3- and 6-month follow-up points. These data suggest that the clinical gains obtained with rTMS last at least as long as those obtained with ECT.

  2. GC-ECNICI-MS/MS of eicosanoids as pentafluorobenzyl-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives: Evidence of CAD-induced intramolecular TMS ether-to-ester rearrangement using carboxy-18O-labelled eicosanoids and possible implications in quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    GC-MS and GC-MS/MS of pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether (PFB-TMS) derivatives of hydroxylated long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic acid metabolites, the eicosanoids, in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode are the most sensitive and accurate approaches to quantify carboxyl groups-containing compounds in complex biological fluids such as plasma and urine. Under ECNICI conditions, PFB-TMS derivatives of eicosanoids ionize to form very few ions, with the carboxylates [M-PFB] - being typically the most intense. Less intense ions may be additionally formed by consecutive neutral loss (NL) of trimethylsilanol (TMSOH, 90Da) groups ([M-PFB-(TMSOH) n ] - ). By using [1,1- 18 O 2 ]- and [1,ω- 18 O 2 ]-eicosanoids, we studied ion processes following collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the precursor ions [M-PFB] - . We found that CAD resulted in formation of product ions due to NL of a TMS 18 OH (92Da) group in monocarboxylic and of a PFB 18 OH (200Da) group in dicarboxylic eicosanoids. TMS 18 OH NL implies an intra-molecular transfer of the TMS group from hydroxyl groups to their carboxylate anions [M-PFB] - . From a mechanistic point of view, this rearrangement may explain formation of unique product ions in GC-MS/MS of eicosanoids under ECNICI conditions. From the quantitative point of view, quantification by GC-MS/MS of product ions due to [M-PFB-(TMSOH) n ] - and [M-PFB-TMS 18 OH-(TMSOH) n-1 ] - would reveal incorrect data, if [1,1- 18 O 2 ]-eicosanoids are used as internal standards and if no correction for the 18 O-loss is performed. In 18 O-labelled dicarboxylic eicosanoids, such as the major urinary metabolite (MUM) of E prostaglandins, i.e., [1,ω- 18 O 2 ]-PGE-MUM), no TMS ester/TMS ether rearrangement was observed. Yet, 18 O-loss occurred upon CAD of [M-PFB] - due to NL of PFB 18 OH (200Da). In both cases the extent of 18 O-loss needs to be determined and considered for accurate quantification

  3. ROS-TMS and Big Sensor Box: Platforms for Informationally Structured Environment

    OpenAIRE

    倉爪, 亮; ユンソク, ピョ; 辻, 徳生; 河村, 晃宏

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes new software and hardware platforms for an informationally structured environment named ROS-TMS and Big Sensor Box. We started the development of a management system for an informationally structured environment named TMS (Town Management System) in Robot Town Project in 2005. Since then we are continuing our efforts for the improvement of the performance and the enhancement of the functions of the TMS. Recently, we launched a new version of TMS named ROS-TMS, which resolv...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of triflic acid-functionalized mesoporous Zr-TMS catalysts: heterogenization of CF3SO3H over Zr-TMS and its catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chidambaram, M.; Curulla Ferre, D.; Singh, A.P.; Anderson, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Triflic acid-functionalized Zr-TMS (zirconium oxide with a mesostructured framework; TMS, transition metal oxide mesoporous molecular sieves) catalysts have been synthesized by functionalizing triflic acid onto the walls of Zr-TMS via post synthesis method. The synthesized materials were

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  6. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Michael D.; Halko, Mark A.; Eldaief, Mark C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include...

  7. Differing Time of Onset of Concurrent TMS-fMRI during Associative Memory Encoding: A Measure of Dynamic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hawco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a distinct shift in neuroimaging from localization of function into a more network based approach focused on connectivity. While fMRI has proven very fruitful for this, the hemodynamic signal is inherently slow which limits the temporal resolution of fMRI-only connectivity measures. The brain, however, works on a time scale of milliseconds. This study utilized concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-fMRI in a novel way to obtain measures of dynamic connectivity by measuring changes in fMRI signal amplitude in regions distal to the site of stimulation following differing TMS onset times. Seventeen healthy subjects completed an associative memory encoding task known to involve the DLPFC, viewing pairs of objects which could be semantically related or unrelated. Three pulses of 10 Hz repetitive TMS were applied over the left DLPFC starting either at 200, 600, or 1000 ms after stimulus onset. Associations for related pairs were better remembered than unrelated pairs in a post-scan cued recall test. Differences in neural activity were assessed across different TMS onsets, separately for related and unrelated pairs. Time specific TMS effects were observed in several regions, including those associated with higher-level processing (lateral frontal, anterior cingulate, visual areas (occipital, and regions involved in semantic processing (e.g., left mid-temporal and medial frontal. Activity in the frontal cortex was decreased at 200 ms post-stimulus for unrelated pairs, and 1000 ms post-stimulus for related pairs. This suggests differences in the timing across conditions in which the DLFPC interacts with other PFC regions, consistent with the notion that the DLPFC is facilitating extended semantic processing for related items. This study demonstrates that time-varying TMS onset inside the MRI can be used to reliably measure fast dynamic connectivity with a temporal resolution in the hundreds of milliseconds.

  8. Language pathway tracking: comparing nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking with a cubic ROIs-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negwer, Chiara; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Kirschke, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) has been widely used in glioma surgery in recent years. It can provide helpful information about subcortical structures, especially in patients with eloquent space-occupying lesions. This study compared the newly developed navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-based DTI FT of language pathways with the most reproducible protocol for language pathway tractography, using cubic regions of interest (ROIs) for the arcuate fascicle. METHODS Thirty-seven patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions underwent language mapping by repetitive nTMS. DTI FT was performed using the cubic ROIs-based protocol and the authors' nTMS-based DTI FT approach. The same minimal fiber length and fractional anisotropy were chosen (50 mm and 0.2, respectively). Both protocols were performed with standard clinical tractography software. RESULTS Both methods visualized language-related fiber tracts (i.e., corticonuclear tract, arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, superior longitudinal fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fibers, commissural fibers, corticothalamic fibers, and frontooccipital fascicle) in all 37 patients. Using the cubic ROIs-based protocol, 39.9% of these language-related fiber tracts were detected in the examined patients, as opposed to 76.0% when performing nTMS-based DTI FT. For specifically tracking the arcuate fascicle, however, the cubic ROIs-based approach showed better results (97.3% vs 75.7% with nTMS-based DTI FT). CONCLUSIONS The cubic ROIs-based protocol was designed for arcuate fascicle tractography, and this study shows that it is still useful for this intention. However, superior results were obtained using the nTMS-based DTI FT for visualization of other language-related fiber tracts.

  9. rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Dousset, Alix; Roussel, Philippe; Dossetto, Nathalie; Cammilleri, Serge; Piano, Virginie; Khalfa, Stéphanie; Mundler, Olivier; Donnet, Anne; Guedj, Eric

    2014-04-08

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on quality of life (QoL) of patients with fibromyalgia, and its possible brain metabolic substrate. Thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive high-frequency rTMS (n = 19) or sham stimulation (n = 19), applied to left primary motor cortex in 14 sessions over 10 weeks. Primary clinical outcomes were QoL changes at the end of week 11, measured using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Secondary clinical outcomes were mental and physical QoL component measured using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), but also pain, mood, and anxiety. Resting-state [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET metabolism was assessed at baseline, week 2, and week 11. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed to study between-group metabolic changes over time. At week 11, patients of the active rTMS group had greater QoL improvement in the FIQ (p = 0.032) and in the mental component of the SF-36 (p = 0.019) than the sham stimulation group. No significant impact was found for other clinical outcomes. Compared with the sham stimulation group, patients of the active rTMS group presented an increase in right medial temporal metabolism between baseline and week 11 (p FIQ and mental component SF-36 concomitant changes (r = -0.38, p = 0.043; r = 0.51, p = 0.009, respectively). QoL improvement involved mainly affective, emotional, and social dimensions. Our study shows that rTMS improves QoL of patients with fibromyalgia. This improvement is associated with a concomitant increase in right limbic metabolism, arguing for a neural substrate to the impact of rTMS on emotional dimensions involved in QoL. This study provides Class II evidence that rTMS compared with sham rTMS improves QoL in patients with fibromyalgia.

  10. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Leanza; Michela Balconi

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential), in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC) to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three) response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first e...

  11. Non-invasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS of the Motor Cortex for Neuropathic Pain—At the Tipping Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Treister

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “neuropathic pain” (NP refers to chronic pain caused by illnesses or injuries that damage peripheral or central pain-sensing neural pathways to cause them to fire inappropriately and signal pain without cause. Neuropathic pain is common, complicating diabetes, shingles, HIV, and cancer. Medications are often ineffective or cause various adverse effects, so better approaches are needed. Half a century ago, electrical stimulation of specific brain regions (neuromodulation was demonstrated to relieve refractory NP without distant effects, but the need for surgical electrode implantation limited use of deep brain stimulation. Next, electrodes applied to the dura outside the brain’s surface to stimulate the motor cortex were shown to relieve NP less invasively. Now, electromagnetic induction permits cortical neurons to be stimulated entirely non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repeated sessions of many TMS pulses (rTMS can trigger neuronal plasticity to produce long-lasting therapeutic benefit. Repeated TMS already has US and European regulatory approval for treating refractory depression, and multiple small studies report efficacy for neuropathic pain. Recent improvements include “frameless stereotactic” neuronavigation systems, in which patients’ head MRIs allow TMS to be applied to precise underlying cortical targets, minimizing variability between sessions and patients, which may enhance efficacy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation appears poised for the larger trials necessary for regulatory approval of a NP indication. Since few clinicians are familiar with TMS, we review its theoretical basis and historical development, summarize the neuropathic pain trial results, and identify issues to resolve before large-scale clinical trials.

  12. Insights on the neural basis of motor plasticity induced by theta burst stimulation from TMS-EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERNET, Marine; BASHIR, Shahid; YOO, Woo-Kyoung; PEREZ, Jennifer M.; NAJIB, Umer; PASCUAL-LEONE, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful tool to induce and measure plasticity in the human brain. However, the cortical effects are generally indirectly evaluated with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) reflective of modulation of cortico-spinal excitability. In this study, we aim to provide direct measures of cortical plasticity by combining TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of young healthy adults; and we measured modulation of (i) motor evoked-potentials (MEPs), (ii) TMS-induced EEG evoked potentials (TEPs), (iii) TMS-induced EEG synchronization and (iv) eyes-closed resting EEG. Our results show the expected cTBS-induced decrease in MEPs size, which we found to be paralleled by a modulation of a combination of TEPs. Furthermore, we found that cTBS increased the power in the theta band of eyes-closed resting EEG, whereas it decreased single-pulse TMS-induced power in the theta and alpha bands. In addition, cTBS decreased the power in the beta band of eyes-closed resting EEG, whereas it increased single-pulse TMS-induced power in the beta band. We suggest that cTBS acts by modulating the phase alignment between already active oscillators; it synchronizes low frequency (theta and/or alpha) oscillators and desynchronizes high frequency (beta) oscillators. These results provide novel insights into the cortical effects of cTBS and could be useful for exploring cTBS-induced plasticity outside of the motor cortex. PMID:23190020

  13. Low-frequency rTMS in the superior parietal cortex affects the working memory in horizontal axis during the spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica Alves; Marinho, Francisco Victor Costa; Rocha, Kaline; Magalhães, Francisco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Gupta, Daya; Teixeira, Silmar

    2018-03-01

    Spatial working memory has been extensively investigated with different tasks, treatments, and analysis tools. Several studies suggest that low frequency of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the parietal cortex may influence spatial working memory (SWM). However, it is not yet known if after low-frequency rTMS applied to the superior parietal cortex, according to Pz electroencephalography (EEG) electrode, would change the orientation interpretation about the vertical and horizontal axes coordinates in an SWM task. The current study aims at filling this gap and obtains a better understanding of the low-frequency rTMS effect in SWM. In this crossover study, we select 20 healthy subjects in two conditions (control and 1-Hz rTMS). The subjects performed an SWM task with two random coordinates. Our results presented that low-frequency rTMS applied over the superior parietal cortex may influence the SWM to lead to a larger distance of axes interception point (p low-frequency rTMS over the superior parietal cortex (SPC) changes the SWM performance, and it has more predominance in horizontal axis.

  14. Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2014-07-01

    The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure

  15. [Hospital production cost of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverrigaray, F; Bulteau, S; Machon, L O; Riche, V P; Mauduit, N; Tricot, R; Sellal, O; Sauvaget, A

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in resistant depression with mild to moderate intensity. This indication has not yet been approved in France. The cost and medico-economic value of rTMS in psychiatry remains unknown. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess rTMS cost production analysis as an in-hospital treatment for depression. The methodology, derived from analytical accounts, was validated by a multidisciplinary task force (clinicians, public health doctors, pharmacists, administrative officials and health economist). It was pragmatic, based on official and institutional documentary sources and from field practice. It included equipment, staff, and structure costs, to get an estimate as close to reality as possible. First, we estimated the production cost of rTMS session, based on our annual activity. We then estimated the cost of a cure, which includes 15 sessions. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. The hospital production cost of a cure for treating depression was estimated at € 1932.94 (€ 503.55 for equipment, € 1082.75 for the staff, and € 346.65 for structural expenses). This cost-estimate has resulted from an innovative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach. It is slightly higher but more comprehensive than the costs estimated by the few international studies. However, it is limited due to structure-specific problems and activity. This work could be repeated in other circumstances in order to obtain a more general estimate, potentially helpful for determining an official price for the French health care system. Moreover, budgetary constraints and public health choices should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Duecker

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided.

  17. A real electro-magnetic placebo (REMP) device for sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Simone; Ferro, Marisa; Cincotta, Massimo; Ulivelli, Monica; Bartalini, Sabina; Miniussi, Carlo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Passero, Stefano

    2007-03-01

    There is growing interest in neuropsychiatry for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a neuromodulatory treatment. However, there are limitations in interpreting rTMS effects as a real consequence of physiological brain changes or as placebo-mediated unspecific effects, which may be particularly strong in psychiatric patients. This is due to the fact that existing sham rTMS procedures are less than optimal. A new placebo tool is introduced here, called real electro-magnetic placebo (REMP) device, which can simulate the scalp sensation induced by the real TMS, while leaving both the visual impact and acoustic sensation of real TMS unaltered. Physical, neurophysiological and behavioural variables of monophasic and biphasic single-pulse TMS and biphasic 1Hz and 20Hz rTMS procedures (at different intensities) were tested in subjects who were expert or naïve of TMS. Results of the real TMS were compared with those induced by the REMP device and with two other currently used sham procedures, namely the commercially available Magstim sham coil and tilting the real coil by 90 degrees . The REMP device, besides producing scalp sensations similar to the real TMS, attenuated the TMS-induced electric field (as measured by a dipole probe) to a biologically inactive level. Behaviourally, neither expert nor naïve TMS subjects identified the "coil at 90 degrees " or the "Magstim sham coil" as a real TMS intervention, whilst naïve subjects were significantly more likely to identify the REMP-attenuated TMS as real. The "goodness of sham" of the REMP device is demonstrated by physical, neurophysiological, and behavioural results. Such placebo TMS is superior to the available sham procedures when applied on subjects naïve to TMS, as in case of patients undergoing a clinical rTMS trial.

  18. Language mapping in healthy volunteers and brain tumor patients with a novel navigated TMS system: evidence of tumor-induced plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, J; Niraula, B; Strack, V; Zdunczyk, A; Schilt, S; Savolainen, P; Lioumis, P; Mäkelä, J; Vajkoczy, P; Frey, D; Picht, T

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the feasibility of a novel repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rnTMS) system and compares language mapping results obtained by rnTMS in healthy volunteers and brain tumor patients. Fifteen right-handed healthy volunteers and 50 right-handed consecutive patients with left-sided gliomas were examined with a picture-naming task combined with time-locked rnTMS (5-10 Hz and 80-120% resting motor threshold) applied over both hemispheres. Induced errors were classified into four psycholinguistic types and assigned to their respective cortical areas according to the coil position during stimulation. In healthy volunteers, language disturbances were almost exclusively induced in the left hemisphere. In patients errors were more frequent and induced at a comparative rate over both hemispheres. Predominantly dysarthric errors were induced in volunteers, whereas semantic errors were most frequent in the patient group. The right hemisphere's increased sensitivity to rnTMS suggests reorganization in language representation in brain tumor patients. rnTMS is a novel technology for exploring cortical language representation. This study proves the feasibility and safety of rnTMS in patients with brain tumor. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ritzinger

    Full Text Available While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ. The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  1. Effectiveness of a second deep TMS in depression: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, O; Isserles, M; Levkovitz, Y; Kotler, M; Zangen, A; Dannon, P N

    2011-06-01

    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is an emerging and promising treatment for major depression. In our study, we explored the effectiveness of a second antidepressant course of deep TMS in major depression. We enrolled eight patients who had previously responded well to DTMS but relapsed within 1 year in order to evaluate whether a second course of DTMS would still be effective. Eight depressive patients who relapsed after a previous successful deep TMS course expressed their wish to be treated again. Upon their request, they were recruited and treated with 20 daily sessions of DTMS at 20 Hz using the Brainsway's H1 coil. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS) and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were used weekly to evaluate the response to treatment. Similar to the results obtained in the first course of treatment, the second course of treatment (after relapse) induced significant reductions in HDRS, HARS and BDI scores, compared to the ratings measured prior to treatment. The magnitude of response in the second course was smaller relative to that obtained in the first course of treatment. Our results suggest that depressive patients who previously responded well to deep TMS treatment are likely to respond again. However, the slight reduction in the magnitude of the response in the second treatment raises the question of whether tolerance or resistance to this treatment may eventually develop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of keratoconus in Asians: role of Orbscan II and Tomey TMS-2 corneal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Li; Wei, Rui Hua; Chan, Wing Kwong; Tan, Donald T H

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the corneal topographic patterns of Asian patients with keratoconus (KC). Prospective observational case-control study. Institutional. A total of 116 patients (both eyes included) with KC were recruited. The control group consisted of 70 laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) candidates with myopia. Patients with previous ocular surgery and trauma were excluded. Corneal topography was performed using the Tomey KC screening system (Topographic Modeling System, software version 2.4.2J, Tomey Corp, Nagoya, Japan) and Orbscan II corneal topography system (Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Orbtek Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA). Videokeratographic variables were analyzed and the eyes were grouped into KC, KC suspect, and control groups. The corneal topographic patterns of 196 eyes were analyzed. The topographic patterns displayed by Tomey (TMS-2N) and Orbscan II were similar. The majority of eyes with KC (71.2%) and KC suspect (70%) had asymmetric bowtie patterns. Thirteen indices of TMS-2N were analyzed and the means of the indices were found to be significantly higher in eyes in the KC group than the KC suspect group (P TMS-2N.

  3. Cortical modulation of short-latency TMS-evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica eVeniero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.

  4. Imaging the neural mechanisms of TMS neglect-like bias in healthy volunteers with the interleaved TMS/fMRI technique: preliminary evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eRicci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying a precisely timed pulse of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC can produce temporary visuo-spatial neglect-like effects. Although the TMS is applied over PPC, it is not clear what other brain regions are involved. We applied TMS within a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI scanner to investigate brain activity during TMS induction of neglect-like bias in three healthy volunteers, while they performed a line bisection judgment task (i.e. the landmark task. Single-pulse TMS at 115% of motor threshold was applied 150 ms after the visual stimulus onset. Participants completed two different TMS/fMRI sessions while performing this task: one session while single-pulse TMS was intermittently and time-locked applied to the right PPC and a control session with TMS positioned over the vertex. Perceptual rightward bias was observed when TMS was delivered over the right PPC. During neglect-like behavior, the fMRI maps showed decreased neural activity within parieto-frontal areas which are often lesioned or dysfunctional in patients with left neglect. Vertex TMS induced behavioral effects compatible with leftward response bias and increased BOLD signal in the left caudate (a site which has been linked to response bias. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings on neural networks subserving attention in space.

  5. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  6. Changes in cerebral activations during movement execution and imagery after parietal cortex TMS interleaved with 3T MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Walker, John A.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2009-01-01

    The left parietal cortex contributes to goal-directed hand movement. In this study, we targeted this region with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess the effects on a wider distributed circuitry related to motor control. Ten healthy subjects underwent 3 Tesla functional magnetic

  7. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  8. rTMS in fibromyalgia: a randomized trial evaluating QoL and its brain metabolic substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyer, L.; Dousset, A.; Roussel, P.; Dossetto, N.; Cammilleri, S.; Piano, V.M.M.; Khalfa, S.; Mundler, O.; Donnet, A.; Guedj, E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on quality of life (QoL) of patients with fibromyalgia, and its possible brain metabolic substrate. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned

  9. Long-term Follow-up of MDD Patients Who Respond to Deep rTMS: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Dinur Klein, Limor; Gersner, Roman; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is effective in treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and in re-treatment in case of relapse. Our study evaluates the long-term durability of dTMS in MDD. Seventeen patients that responded to dTMS treatment evaluated. Follow-up period was 9.3 months. Patients were considered as relapsed if: HDRS (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) score was 16 points or more, in case of change in antidepressants, hospitalization due to exacerbation, referral to ECT. Six months after last treatment three patients relapsed (17.6%). During the follow-up of 9.3 months, nine relapsed. Relapse rate was 5.6 per 100 person-months. Patients continued to improve in HDRS following the treatment. We have found number of treatment sessions, stimulation, age, age of depressive disorder onset, length of depressive episode prior to the first treatment, as well as number of depressive episodes to have no predictive value regarding propensity to relapse in these patients. The study's main limitations are the relatively small sample size, patients differing in follow-up periods and the lack of a control group. Relapse rates after dTMS are comparable to pharmacotherapy and ECT.

  10. Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjung, Tobias; Eichhammer, Peter; Langguth, Berthold; Jacob, Peter; Marienhagen, Joerg; Hajak, Goeran; Wolf, Stephan R; Strutz, Juergen

    2005-04-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanisms of idiopathic tinnitus remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrated focal brain activation in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to reduce cortical hyperexcitability. Fusing of the individual PET-scan with the structural MRI-scan (T1, MPRAGE) allowed us to identify exactly the area of increased metabolic activity in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. With the use of a neuronavigational system, this target area was exactly stimulated by the figure 8-shaped magnetic coil. In a prospective study, rTMS (110% motor threshold; 1 Hz; 2000 stimuli/day over 5 days) was performed using a placebo controlled cross-over design. Patients were blinded regarding the stimulus condition. For the sham stimulation a specific sham-coil system was used. Fourteen patients were followed for 6 months. Treatment outcome was assessed with a specific tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller). Tertiary referral medical center. Increased metabolic activation in the auditory cortex was verified in all patients. After 5 days of verum rTMS, a highly significant improvement of the tinnitus score was found whereas the sham treatment did not show any significant changes. The treatment outcome after 6 months still demonstrated significant reduction of tinnitus score. These preliminary results demonstrate that neuronavigated rTMS offers new possibilities in the understanding and treatment of chronic tinnitus.

  11. Federal subsidies for preliminary studies for small-scale hydropower installations: degree of implementation of preliminary study projects 1993-2001 - Short evaluation of the effect of federal subsidies; Bundesbeitraege an Vorstudien fuer Kleinwasserkraftwerke. Realisierungsstand der Vorstudienprojekte 1993 bis 2001. Kurzevaluation der Auswirkungen der Bundesbeitraege (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, J.; Suter, Ph.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a short survey of 70 projects that received support from the Swiss Federation during their preliminary study phases. Projects are reviewed for the period between 1993 and 2001. The results obtained from the survey are presented; these are considered by the authors to be well-founded as a result of the high questionnaire return rate of 84%. The report analyses the projects as far as their degree of realisation is concerned and discusses the results. The survey also provides information on the power produced by those installations that have already been realised. For those projects that were not realised, the reasons for the negative investment decision are noted. Projects that are in the process of being implemented are discussed.

  12. Les Troubles Musculosquelettiques (Tms) En Milieu Portuaire : Cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 11.3% of respondents dockers regular physical activity. To collect as much information through questionnaires to obtain an inventory of quality and offer a moment of expression dockworkers to ownership of the MSD problem this survey was aimed. It is presented as a process of action against the TMS assessment tool, ...

  13. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  14. Enhancement of Phonological Memory Following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonologically similar items (mell, rell, gell are more difficult to remember than dissimilar items (shen, floy, stap, likely because of mutual interference of the items in the phonological store. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to disrupt this phonological confusion by stimulation of the left inferior parietal (LIP lobule. Subjects received TMS or placebo stimulation while remembering sets of phonologically similar or dissimilar pseudo-words. Consistent with behavioral performance of patients with neurological damage, memory for phonologically similar, but not dissimilar, items was enhanced following TMS relative to placebo stimulation. Stimulation of a control region of the brain did not produce any changes in memory performance. These results provide new insights into how the brain processes verbal information by establishing the necessity of the inferior parietal region for optimal phonological storage. A mechanism is proposed for how TMS reduces phonological confusion and leads to facilitation of phonological memory.

  15. Image artifacts in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and fMRI caused by leakage currents: modeling and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Josephs, Oliver; Ruff, Christian C; Blankenburg, Felix; Featherstone, Eric; Thomas, Anthony; Bestmann, Sven; Driver, Jon; Deichmann, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    To characterize and eliminate a new type of image artifact in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (TMS-fMRI) caused by small leakage currents originating from the high-voltage capacitors in the TMS stimulator system. The artifacts in echo-planar images (EPI) caused by leakage currents were characterized and quantified in numerical simulations and phantom studies with different phantom-coil geometries. A relay-diode combination was devised and inserted in the TMS circuit that shorts the leakage current. Its effectiveness for artifact reduction was assessed in a phantom scan resembling a realistic TMS-fMRI experiment. The leakage-current-induced signal changes exhibited a multipolar spatial pattern and the maxima exceeded 1% at realistic coil-cortex distances. The relay-diode combination effectively reduced the artifact to a negligible level. The leakage-current artifacts potentially obscure effects of interest or lead to false-positives. Since the artifact depends on the experimental setup and design (eg, amplitude of the leakage current, coil orientation, paradigm, EPI parameters), we recommend its assessment for each experiment. The relay-diode combination can eliminate the artifacts if necessary.

  16. Image Artifacts in Concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and fMRI Caused by Leakage Currents: Modeling and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Josephs, Oliver; Ruff, Christian C; Blankenburg, Felix; Featherstone, Eric; Thomas, Anthony; Bestmann, Sven; Driver, Jon; Deichmann, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize and eliminate a new type of image artifact in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (TMS-fMRI) caused by small leakage currents originating from the high-voltage capacitors in the TMS stimulator system. Materials and Methods The artifacts in echo-planar images (EPI) caused by leakage currents were characterized and quantified in numerical simulations and phantom studies with different phantom-coil geometries. A relay-diode combination was devised and inserted in the TMS circuit that shorts the leakage current. Its effectiveness for artifact reduction was assessed in a phantom scan resembling a realistic TMS-fMRI experiment. Results The leakage-current-induced signal changes exhibited a multipolar spatial pattern and the maxima exceeded 1% at realistic coil-cortex distances. The relay-diode combination effectively reduced the artifact to a negligible level. Conclusion The leakage-current artifacts potentially obscure effects of interest or lead to false-positives. Since the artifact depends on the experimental setup and design (eg, amplitude of the leakage current, coil orientation, paradigm, EPI parameters), we recommend its assessment for each experiment. The relay-diode combination can eliminate the artifacts if necessary. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1211–1217. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19388099

  17. Equivalent brain SPECT perfusion changes underlying therapeutic efficiency in pharmacoresistant depression using either high-frequency left or low-frequency right prefrontal rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Boyer, Laurent; Padovani, Romain; Adida, Marc; Colavolpe, Cécile; Mundler, Olivier; Lançon, Christophe; Guedj, Eric

    2012-12-03

    Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested similar mechanisms underlying antidepressant effects of distinct therapeutics. This study aimed to determine and compare functional brain patterns underlying the antidepressant response of 2 distinct protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 99mTc-ECD SPECT was performed before and after rTMS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 61 drug-resistant right-handed patients with major depression, using high frequency (10Hz) left-side stimulation in 33 patients, and low frequency (1Hz) right-side stimulation in 28 patients. Efficiency of rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction of the baseline Beck Depression Inventory score. We compared the whole-brain voxel-based brain SPECT changes in perfusion after rTMS, between responders and non-responders in the whole sample (pleft- and right-stimulation. Before rTMS, the left- and right-prefrontal stimulation groups did not differ from clinical data and brain SPECT perfusion. rTMS efficiency (evaluated on % of responders) was statistically equivalent in the two groups of patients. In the whole-group of responder patients, a perfusion decrease was found after rTMS, in comparison to non-responders, within the left perirhinal cortex (BA35, BA36). This result was secondarily confirmed separately in the two subgroups, i.e. after either left stimulation (p=0.017) or right stimulation (pbrain functional changes associated to antidepressive efficiency, consisting to a remote brain limbic activity decrease within the left perirhinal cortex. However, these results will have to be confirmed in a double-blind randomized trial using a sham control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local Immediate versus Long-Range Delayed Changes in Functional Connectivity Following rTMS on the Visual Attention Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D; Plow, Ela B

    The interhemispheric competition hypothesis attributes the distribution of selective attention to a balance of mutual inhibition between homotopic, interhemispheric connections in parietal cortex (Kinsbourne 1977; Battelli et al., 2009). In support of this hypothesis, repetitive inhibitory TMS over right parietal cortex in healthy individuals rapidly induces interhemispheric imbalance in cortical activity that spreads beyond the site of stimulation (Plow et al., 2014). Behaviorally, the impacts of inhibitory rTMS may be long delayed from the onset of stimulation, as much as 30 minutes (Agosta et al., 2014; Hubl et al., 2008). In this study, we examine the temporal dynamics of inhibitory rTMS on cortical network integrity that supports sustained visual attention. Healthy individuals received 15 min of 1 Hz offline, inhibitory rTMS (or sham) over left parietal cortex, and then immediately engaged in a bilateral visual tracking task while we recorded brain activity with fMRI. We computed functional connectivity (FC) between three nodes of the attention network engaged by visual tracking: the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), frontal eye fields (FEF) and human MT+ (hMT+). FC immediately and significantly decreased between the stimulation site (left IPS) and all other regions, then recovered to normal levels within 30 minutes. rTMS increased FC between left and right FEF at approximately 36 min following stimulation, and between sites in the unstimulated hemisphere approximately 48 min after stimulation. These findings demonstrate large-scale changes in cortical organization following inhibitory rTMS. The immediate impact of rTMS on connectivity to the stimulation site dovetails with the putative role of interhemispheric balance for bilateral visual sustained attention. The delayed, compensatory increases in functional connectivity have implications for models of dynamic reorganization in networks supporting spatial and nonspatial selective attention, and

  19. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Casanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG and electrodermal activity pre-, post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R, time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV and skin conductance level (SCL. HRV measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals>50 ms different from preceding interval, power of high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate, increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of low frequency rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal.

  20. A Single Session of rTMS Enhances Small-Worldness in Writer’s Cramp: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose D. Bharath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS induces widespread changes in brain connectivity. As the network topology differences induced by a single session of rTMS are less known we undertook this study to ascertain whether the network alterations had a small-world morphology using multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.Method: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was acquired in duplicate before (R1 and after (R2 a single session of rTMS in 14 patients with Writer’s Cramp (WC. Whole brain neuronal and hemodynamic network connectivity were explored using the graph theory measures and clustering coefficient, path length and small-world index were calculated for EEG and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI. Multi-modal graph theory analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of EEG and fMRI clustering coefficients.Result: A single session of rTMS was found to increase the clustering coefficient and small-worldness significantly in both EEG and fMRI (p < 0.05. Multi-modal graph theory analysis revealed significant modulations in the fronto-parietal regions immediately after rTMS. The rsfMRI revealed additional modulations in several deep brain regions including cerebellum, insula and medial frontal lobe.Conclusion: Multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI can supplement motor physiology methods in understanding the neurobiology of rTMS in vivo. Coinciding evidence from EEG and rsfMRI reports small-world morphology for the acute phase network hyper-connectivity indicating changes ensuing low-frequency rTMS is probably not “noise”.

  1. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Different Cortical Targets Used in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Simone; Eslick, Guy D; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2018-02-09

    Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores. To determine whether rTMS parameters may have influenced treatment effectiveness, studies were further analysed according to cortical target, stimulation frequency, and length of follow-up. Data were obtained from 18 RCTs on rTMS in the treatment of OCD. Overall, rTMS yielded a modest effect in reducing Y-BOCS scores with Hedge's g of 0.79 (95% CI = 0.43-1.15, p OCD. The therapeutic effects of rTMS also appear to persist post-treatment and may offer beneficial long-term effectiveness. With our findings, it is suggested that future large-scale studies focus on the supplementary motor area and include follow-up periods of 12 weeks or more.

  3. A Lack of Clinical Effect of High-frequency rTMS to Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Bulimic Symptoms: A Randomised, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurelia; Jaussent, Isabelle; Sigaud, Torrance; Billard, Stephane; Attal, Jerome; Seneque, Maude; Galusca, Bogdan; Van Den Eynde, Frederique; Massoubre, Catherine; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2016-11-01

    Studies suggest that stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduces food craving in bulimic patients, but evidence supporting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool is lacking. We investigated the safety and therapeutic efficacy of an adjunct high-frequency rTMS programme targeting the left DLPFC. Forty-seven women with bulimia nervosa were randomised to a real or sham stimulation group. The real group underwent 10 rTMS sessions, each consisting of 20 trains of 5 seconds with 55-second intervals between trains, at a frequency of 10 Hz. The main outcome was the number of binge episodes in the 15 days following the end of stimulation. Overall, no significant improvement in bingeing and purging symptoms was noted after the programme. rTMS was well tolerated. This suggests that 10 sessions of high-frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC provide no greater benefit than placebo. Future studies should consider methodological issues as well as alternative targets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    Objectives: Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) can be used to assess short-term interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI) and facilitatory (ICF) networks. The degree of SICI and ICF varies with interstimulus intervals (ISI) and stimulus intensities of the conditioning stimulus...... ms were applied 8 times each in randomized order in two blocks (CS intensity of 70% and 80% of rMT, respectively). The amplitudes of the averaged MEPs were analyzed with analysis of variance. Results: There was an overall effect of ISI (P... intensities (P = 0.984). Post-hoc tests revealed that there was significant SICI with ppTMS ISI of 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 ms compared with single pulse stimulation (Pstimulation (P=0.988). There was no interaction between...

  5. Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  7. Low-frequency rTMS with language therapy over a 3-month period for sensory-dominant aphasia: case series of two post-stroke Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Uruma, Go; Kaito, Nobuyoshi; Watanabe, Motoi

    2010-01-01

    To examine the safety and feasibility of therapeutic application of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with language therapy for post-stroke patients with sensory-dominant aphasia. Two post-stroke Japanese patients with sensory-dominant aphasia were studied. In both patients, 10 sessions of 20-minute low-frequency rTMS with 1 Hz to the Wernicke's area were provided throughout 6-day hospitalization, followed by weekly outpatient rTMS treatment for 3 months. The language therapy was also provided through the period of in- and out-patient treatment. Language function was evaluated using the Token test and the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) at the start and end of the in-patient treatment and the end of the outpatient treatment. The therapeutic protocol was well tolerated throughout the in- and out-patient treatments, without any adverse effects. The scores of the Token test and certain sub-categories of SLTA increased in both patients after the in-patient rTMS treatment. Persistent improvement of the score was noted over the 3-month post-discharge period. The proposed protocol of long-term application of low-frequency rTMS to the Wernicke's area and language therapy is considered a safe and feasible therapeutic approach for post-stroke patients with sensory-dominant aphasia.

  8. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  10. Monitoring the response to rTMS in depression with visual analog scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, Leon; Dolberg, Ornah T; Polak, Dana; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2002-10-01

    Visual analog scales (VAS) administered on a daily basis provide a fast and reliable method for assessing clinical change during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We treated 40 patients with major depression with TMS and assessed their clinical condition with VAS. Response to TMS was defined with the Hamilton rating scale for depression and the Global assessment of function scale. Nineteen patients of 40 were responders to TMS (when the whole sample was considered) whereas 17 of 29 responded when only the non-psychotic patients were considered. Patients who eventually responded to TMS demonstrated early changes in the VAS scores. We conclude that monitoring with VAS scores can detect early response to TMS. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage in prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002) found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary somatosensory cortex (SI) early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence from human EEG and single-cell recording in primates that instead points to prefrontal cortex as the storage substrate for vibrotactile memory. In the present study, we use computational methods to demonstrate how Harris et al.'s results can be reproduced by TMS-induced activity in sensory cortex and subsequent feedforward interference with memory traces stored in prefrontal cortex, thereby reconciling discordant findings in the tactile memory literature.

  12. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage in prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Bancroft, Tyler D.; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Hockley, William E.; Servos, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002) found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary somatosensory cortex (SI) early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence f...

  13. Simulation of induced electric field distribution based on five-sphere model used in rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lina; Liu, Zhipeng; Yin, Tao; An, Hao; Li, Song

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a relatively new technique, which is non-invasive and painless used to stimulate the central and peripheral neural tissues. The principle is generating time-varying magnetic fields to stimulate the cerebral cortex neuron and inducing eddy current inside the tissues. Many researches study on the distributing of magnetic field and electric field induced inside the human brain, whereas the static electric field was neglected roughly in many studies. In this paper, a five-sphere model is established to simulate the human head used in rTMS. According to the different dielectric properties of the head tissues, the Laplace equation of static electric field is deduced by both of Gauss theorem and current's continuity principle. Boundary conditions used in different interface between two adjacent layers in the five-sphere model is proposed in this paper. Simulating study is conducted to calculate the distribution of the electric field in the model. Simulating results suggest that the model is useful to get the parameters of the most focus coil. Therefore this study could be potential to promote the development of rTMS stimulator.

  14. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal tract by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Schubert, Martin

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is extensively used to study cognitive and motor function in humans and might be of value in the treatment of various disorders. For a better understanding of the effects of rTMS and its more efficient application it is crucial to identify......-conditioning by testing interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -9 to 0 ms (for instance “ISI -3 ms” indicated that the H-reflex was elicited 3 ms before the supraspinal stimulus). The amplitude of the short-latency facilitation was expressed as percentage of the unconditioned control H-reflex and compared before and after...... is the synapses of the corticomotoneuronal neurones on the spinal motoneurones. Perez et al. (2005). Exp Brain Res 162, 202-212. Speer et al. (2003). Biol Psychiatry 54, 818-825....

  15. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) affects event-related potential measures of novelty processing in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate; Baruth, Joshua; Tasman, Allan; Mansoor, Mehreen; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sears, Lonnie; Mathai, Grace; El-Baz, Ayman; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-06-01

    In our previous study on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Sokhadze et al., Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:37-51, 2009a) we reported abnormalities in the attention-orienting frontal event-related potentials (ERP) and the sustained-attention centro-parietal ERPs in a visual oddball experiment. These results suggest that individuals with autism over-process information needed for the successful differentiation of target and novel stimuli. In the present study we examine the effects of low-frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on novelty processing as well as behavior and social functioning in 13 individuals with ASD. Our hypothesis was that low-frequency rTMS application to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) would result in an alteration of the cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance through the activation of inhibitory GABAergic double bouquet interneurons. We expected to find post-TMS differences in amplitude and latency of early and late ERP components. The results of our current study validate the use of low-frequency rTMS as a modulatory tool that altered the disrupted ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in autism. After rTMS the parieto-occipital P50 amplitude decreased to novel distracters but not to targets; also the amplitude and latency to targets increased for the frontal P50 while decreasing to non-target stimuli. Low-frequency rTMS minimized early cortical responses to irrelevant stimuli and increased responses to relevant stimuli. Improved selectivity in early cortical responses lead to better stimulus differentiation at later-stage responses as was made evident by our P3b and P3a component findings. These results indicate a significant change in early, middle-latency and late ERP components at the frontal, centro-parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of interest in response to target and distracter stimuli as a result of rTMS treatment. Overall, our preliminary results show that rTMS may prove to

  16. The effect of rTMS over the inferior parietal lobule on EEG sensorimotor reactivity differs according to self-reported traits of autism in typically developing individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Cantarella, Simona; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-12-06

    Previous research suggested that EEG markers of mirror neuron system activation may differ, in the normal population as a function of different levels of the autistic spectrum quotient; (AQ). The present study aimed at modulating the EEG sensorimotor reactivity induced by hand movement observation by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the inferior parietal lobule. We examined how the resulting rTMS modulation differed in relation to the self-reported autistic traits in the typically developing population. Results showed that during sham stimulation, all participants had significantly greater sensorimotor alpha reactivity (motor cortex-C electrodes) when observing hand movements compared to static hands. This sensorimotor alpha reactivity difference was reduced during active rTMS stimulation. Results also revealed that in the average AQ group at sham there was a significant increase in low beta during hand movement than static hand observation (pre-motor areas-FC electrodes) and that (like alpha over the C electrodes) this difference is abolished when active rTMS is delivered. Participants with high AQ scores showed no significant difference in low beta sensorimotor reactivity between active and sham rTMS during static hand or hand movement observation. These findings suggest that unlike sham, active rTMS over the IPL modulates the oscillatory activity of the low beta frequency of a distal area, namely the anterior sector of the sensorimotor cortex, when participants observe videos of static hand. Importantly, this modulation differs according to the degree of self-reported traits of autism in a typically developing population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractal Communication System Using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320c6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsyad Ramadhan Darlis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Wornell and Oppenheim did research on a modulation which is formed by using wavelet theory. In some other studies, proved that this modulation can survive on a few channels and has reliability in some applications. Because of this modulation using the concept of fractal, then it is called as fractalmodulation. Fractal modulation is formed by inserting information signal into fractal signals that are selffractal similary. This modulation technique has the potential to replace the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, which is currently used on some of the latest telecommunication technologies. The purpose of this research is to implement the fractal communication system using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320C6713 without using AWGN and Rayleigh channel in order to obtain the ideal performance of the system. From the simulation results using MATLAB7.4. it appears that this communication system has good performance on some channels than any other communication systems. While in terms of implementation by using (DSK via TMS320C6713 Code Composer Studio (CCS, it can be concluded that thefractal communication system has a better execution time on some tests.

  18. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Leanza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential, in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first evaluation of TV commercials without stimulation, rTMS was delivered in brain frontal areas (F3 and F4 areas before the vision of each stimulus. Following the stimulation, subjects evaluated advertising a second time by using the same semantic differential. An increase of TV commercials preference occurred in subjects who were inhibited on right DLPFC; while a decrease of advertising preference was shown in subjects who were inhibited on left DLPFC. These results reveal the important role of DLPFC for emotions’ elaboration. In particular, the left and right DLPFC seem to be related respectively to positive and negative evaluation of emotional stimuli.

  19. Empty 4f states in TmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, P.; Grioni, M.

    1998-01-01

    The reflectivity of TmS single crystals has been measured between 2 meV and 12 eV at room temperature and at 6 K. Besides 3p 6 -5d interband transitions a plasma edge due to free carriers is observed. In the middle infrared (near 50 meV) two sharp lines are found which are interpreted as transitions from the Fermi level into empty crystal field split 4f 13 states. A Bremsstrahlen isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) measurement supports the assumption that the empty 4f 13 state is close to the Fermi energy. (orig.)

  20. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePerini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press, while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver. Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions.

  1. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Francesca; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver) or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press), while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press) or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver). Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions.

  2. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eYamanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG, which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial. Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral or right (ipsilateral motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100, and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor

  3. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H215O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy. PMID:23867557

  4. What does low-intensity rTMS do to the cerebellum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellini, N; Grehl, S; Tang, A; Rodger, J; Mariani, J; Lohof, A M; Sherrard, R M

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation. We then evaluated whether LI-rTMS could induce climbing fibre (CF) reinnervation to denervated PCs. After unilateral pedunculotomy in adult mice and 2 weeks sham or BHFS stimulation, VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CF reinnervation. In contrast to sham, LI-rTMS induced CF reinnervation to the denervated hemicerebellum. To examine potential mechanisms underlying the LI-rTMS effect, we verified that BHFS could induce CF reinnervation using our in vitro olivocerebellar explants in which denervated cerebellar tissue is co-cultured adjacent to intact cerebella and treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (as a positive control), sham or LI-rTMS for 2 weeks. Compared with sham, BDNF and BHFS LI-rTMS significantly increased CF reinnervation, without additive effect. To identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined intracellular calcium flux during the 10-min stimulation. Complex high-frequency stimulation increased intracellular calcium by release from intracellular stores. Thus, even at low intensity, rTMS modifies PC structure and induces CF reinnervation.

  5. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R Ljubisavljevic

    Full Text Available Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS and intermittent (iTBS theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS. The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss

  6. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  7. Combined rTMS and virtual reality brain-computer interface training for motor recovery after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. N.; Carey, J.; Edelman, B. J.; Doud, A.; Grande, A.; Lakshminarayan, K.; He, B.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with brain-computer interface (BCI) training can address motor impairment after stroke by down-regulating exaggerated inhibition from the contralesional hemisphere and encouraging ipsilesional activation. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combined rTMS  +  BCI, compared to sham rTMS  +  BCI, on motor recovery after stroke in subjects with lasting motor paresis. Approach. Three stroke subjects approximately one year post-stroke participated in three weeks of combined rTMS (real or sham) and BCI, followed by three weeks of BCI alone. Behavioral and electrophysiological differences were evaluated at baseline, after three weeks, and after six weeks of treatment. Main results. Motor improvements were observed in both real rTMS  +  BCI and sham groups, but only the former showed significant alterations in inter-hemispheric inhibition in the desired direction and increased relative ipsilesional cortical activation from fMRI. In addition, significant improvements in BCI performance over time and adequate control of the virtual reality BCI paradigm were observed only in the former group. Significance. When combined, the results highlight the feasibility and efficacy of combined rTMS  +  BCI for motor recovery, demonstrated by increased ipsilesional motor activity and improvements in behavioral function for the real rTMS  +  BCI condition in particular. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of BCI training alone, as shown by behavioral improvements for the sham rTMS  +  BCI condition. This study is the first to evaluate combined rTMS and BCI training for motor rehabilitation and provides a foundation for continued work to evaluate the potential of both rTMS and virtual reality BCI training for motor recovery after stroke.

  8. A DTI-based model for TMS using the independent impedance method with frequency-dependent tissue parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Van Hecke, W.; Leemans, A.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate simulations on detailed realistic head models are necessary to gain a better understanding of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Hitherto, head models with simplified geometries and constant isotropic material properties are often used, whereas some biological tissues have anisotropic characteristics which vary naturally with frequency. Moreover, most computational methods do not take the tissue permittivity into account. Therefore, we calculate the electromagnetic behaviour due to TMS in a head model with realistic geometry and where realistic dispersive anisotropic tissue properties are incorporated, based on T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. This paper studies the impact of tissue anisotropy, permittivity and frequency dependence, using the anisotropic independent impedance method. The results show that anisotropy yields differences up to 32% and 19% of the maximum induced currents and electric field, respectively. Neglecting the permittivity values leads to a decrease of about 72% and 24% of the maximum currents and field, respectively. Implementing the dispersive effects of biological tissues results in a difference of 6% of the maximum currents. The cerebral voxels show limited sensitivity of the induced electric field to changes in conductivity and permittivity, whereas the field varies approximately linearly with frequency. These findings illustrate the importance of including each of the above parameters in the model and confirm the need for accuracy in the applied patient-specific method, which can be used in computer-assisted TMS.

  9. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  10. A Novel Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 μs to over 100 μs. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 μs, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  11. Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

  12. Ionization measurement as a function of the electric field in tetramethyl-silane (TMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daba, A.G.

    1992-07-01

    The WALIC collaboration has built a calorimeter prototype using the tetramethyl-pentane (TMP) as active medium and lead as absorber medium in order to study the response of electrons and hadrons. The aim of this work is to study the response of tetramethyl-silane to high electric fields knowing that TMP and TMS have similar properties and similar behaviour with electric field. A test bench is mounted to measure the charge deposited by electrons emitted by a ruthenium source. The trigger was made using a silicon detector. Low noise amplifiers were designed and built for the signal conditioning and in order to reduce the pick-up noise, the system is completely isolated in a double Faraday cage. A theoretical study of noise has been developed. The signal allowed to study the behaviour of warm liquid in presence of a high electric field

  13. Contribution of the pre-SMA to the production of words and non-speech oral motor gestures, as revealed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Gracco, Vincent L

    2009-05-01

    An emerging theoretical perspective, largely based on neuroimaging studies, suggests that the pre-SMA is involved in planning cognitive aspects of motor behavior and language, such as linguistic and non-linguistic response selection. Neuroimaging studies, however, cannot indicate whether a brain region is equally important to all tasks in which it is activated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the pre-SMA is an important component of response selection, using an interference technique. High frequency repetitive TMS (10 Hz) was used to interfere with the functioning of the pre-SMA during tasks requiring selection of words and oral gestures under different selection modes (forced, volitional) and attention levels (high attention, low attention). Results show that TMS applied to the pre-SMA interferes selectively with the volitional selection condition, resulting in longer RTs. The low- and high-attention forced selection conditions were unaffected by TMS, demonstrating that the pre-SMA is sensitive to selection mode but not attentional demands. TMS similarly affected the volitional selection of words and oral gestures, reflecting the response-independent nature of the pre-SMA contribution to response selection. The implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Effect of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Li Ren

    Full Text Available Small clinical trials have reported that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS might improve language recovery in patients with aphasia after stroke. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses studies have investigated the effect of rTMS on aphasia. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies that explored the effects of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients.We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, and Journals@Ovid for randomized controlled trials published between January 1965 and October 2013 using the keywords "aphasia OR language disorders OR anomia OR linguistic disorders AND repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation OR rTMS". We used fixed- and random-effects models to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD and a 95% CI for the language outcomes.Seven eligible studies involving 160 stroke patients were identified in this meta-analysis. A significant effect size of 1.26 was found for the language outcome severity of impairment (95% CI = 0.80 to 1.71 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.44. Further analyses demonstrated prominent effects for the naming subtest (SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.87, repetition (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.92, writing (SMD = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.22, and comprehension (the Token test: SMD = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.09 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%. The SMD of AAT and BDAE comprehension subtests was 0.32 (95% CI = -0.08 to 0.72 with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 32%,P = 0.22. The effect size did not change significantly even when any one trial was eliminated. None of the patients from the 7 included articles reported adverse effects from rTMS.Low-frequency rTMS with a 90% resting motor threshold that targets the triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG has a positive effect on language recovery in patients with aphasia following

  15. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D Bancroft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002 found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to primary somatosensory cortex (SI early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence from human EEG and single-cell recording in primates that instead points to prefrontal cortex as the storage substrate for vibrotactile memory. In the present study, we use computational methods to demonstrate how Harris et al.’s results can be reproduced by TMS-induced activity in sensory cortex and subsequent feedforward interference with memory traces stored in prefrontal cortex, thereby reconciling discordant findings in the tactile memory literature.

  16. Induction of plasticity in the human motor cortex by pairing an auditory stimulus with TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrick Sowman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic stimuli can cause a transient increase in the excitability of the motor cortex. The current study leverages this phenomenon to develop a method for testing the integrity of auditorimotor integration and the capacity for auditorimotor plasticity. We demonstrate that appropriately timed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the hand area, paired with auditorily mediated excitation of the motor cortex, induces an enhancement of motor cortex excitability that lasts beyond the time of stimulation. This result demonstrates for the first time that paired associative stimulation (PAS -induced plasticity within the motor cortex is applicable with auditory stimuli. We propose that the method developed here might provide a useful tool for future studies that measure auditory-motor connectivity in communication disorders.

  17. Improved language in a chronic nonfluent aphasia patient after treatment with CPAP and TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Lundgren, Kristine; Klein, Reva; Kaplan, Jerome; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Nicholas, Marjorie; Alonso, Miguel; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2010-03-01

    To present pretreatment and post-treatment language data for a nonfluent aphasia patient who received 2 treatment modalities: (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for his sleep apnea, starting 1-year poststroke; and (2) repetitive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS), starting 2 years poststroke. Language data were acquired beyond the spontaneous recovery period of 3 to 6 months poststroke onset. CPAP restores adequate oxygen flow throughout all stages of sleep, and may improve cognition. A series of slow, 1 Hz repetitive TMS treatments to suppress a posterior portion of right pars triangularis has been shown to improve phrase length and naming in chronic nonfluent aphasia. The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination and Boston Naming Test were administered pre-CPAP, and after 2 to 5 months of CPAP. These same tests were administered pre-TMS, and at 3 and 6 months post-TMS, and again 2.4 years later. Post-CPAP testing showed increased Phrase Length, Auditory Comprehension, and naming Animals and Tools/Implements (Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination). Testing at 3 and 6 months post-TMS showed significant increase in Phrase Length, Auditory Comprehension, and Boston Naming Test compared with pre-TMS. These gains were retained at 2.4 years post-TMS. CPAP use continued throughout. Physiologic treatment interventions may promote language recovery in chronic aphasia.

  18. Attention Modulates TMS-Locked Alpha Oscillations in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jim D; Thut, Gregor; Jensen, Ole; Bergmann, Til O

    2015-10-28

    Cortical oscillations, such as 8-12 Hz alpha-band activity, are thought to subserve gating of information processing in the human brain. While most of the supporting evidence is correlational, causal evidence comes from attempts to externally drive ("entrain") these oscillations by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Indeed, the frequency profile of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) closely resembles that of oscillations spontaneously emerging in the same brain region. However, it is unclear whether TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are produced by the same neuronal mechanisms. If so, they should react in a similar manner to top-down modulation by endogenous attention. To test this prediction, we assessed the alpha-like EEG response to TMS of the visual cortex during periods of high and low visual attention while participants attended to either the visual or auditory modality in a cross-modal attention task. We observed a TMS-locked local oscillatory alpha response lasting several cycles after TMS (but not after sham stimulation). Importantly, TMS-locked alpha power was suppressed during deployment of visual relative to auditory attention, mirroring spontaneous alpha amplitudes. In addition, the early N40 TEP component, located at the stimulation site, was amplified by visual attention. The extent of attentional modulation for both TMS-locked alpha power and N40 amplitude did depend, with opposite sign, on the individual ability to modulate spontaneous alpha power at the stimulation site. We therefore argue that TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are of common neurophysiological origin, whereas the N40 TEP component may serve as an index of current cortical excitability at the time of stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Herring et al.

  19. Evoked potentials in large-scale cortical networks elicited by TMS of the visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Emily D.; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) result in distal and long-lasting oscillations, a finding directly challenging the virtual lesion hypothesis. Previous research supporting this finding has primarily come from stimulation of the motor cortex. We have used single-pulse TMS with simultaneous EEG to target seven brain regions, six of which belong to the visual system [left and right primary visual area V1, motion-sensitive human middle temporal cortex, and a ventral temporal region], as determined with functional MRI-guided neuronavigation, and a vertex “control” site to measure the network effects of the TMS pulse. We found the TMS-evoked potential (TMS-EP) over visual cortex consists mostly of site-dependent theta- and alphaband oscillations. These site-dependent oscillations extended beyond the stimulation site to functionally connected cortical regions and correspond to time windows where the EEG responses maximally diverge (40, 200, and 385 ms). Correlations revealed two site-independent oscillations ∼350 ms after the TMS pulse: a theta-band oscillation carried by the frontal cortex, and an alpha-band oscillation over parietal and frontal cortical regions. A manipulation of stimulation intensity at one stimulation site (right hemisphere V1-V3) revealed sensitivity to the stimulation intensity at different regions of cortex, evidence of intensity tuning in regions distal to the site of stimulation. Together these results suggest that a TMS pulse applied to the visual cortex has a complex effect on brain function, engaging multiple brain networks functionally connected to the visual system with both invariant and site-specific spatiotemporal dynamics. With this characterization of TMS, we propose an alternative to the virtual lesion hypothesis. Rather than a technique that simulates lesions, we propose TMS generates natural brain signals and engages functional networks. PMID:21715670

  20. Witnessing loss of consciousness during TMS – Syncope in contrast to seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Riedel

    Full Text Available Objective: Transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC can occur during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. T-LOC during TMS can be caused by syncope or seizure. TMS operators explicitly screen participants and are also able to witness clinical manifestations of T-LOC during stimulation. Therefore they have direct access to information necessary to tell the two etiologies apart, if they are well trained on the clinical differences and not only sensitive to the potential risk of seizure induction. We here present a typical case of vasovagal syncope during TMS to contrast its clinical manifestations to that of seizures. Method: We describe an event of T-LOC in a 21 year old healthy woman during single-pulse TMS. Screening, setting, clinical manifestations and advanced diagnostics are reported. Discussion: Based on the detailed description of the case, we discuss why syncope is the most parsimonious etiology for the clinical picture observed in this participant. We provide information on typical clinical features of seizure that were particularly not observed. We also address potential benefits of further diagnostic tools. Additionally, we go into more parameters that can be useful to distinguish syncope from seizure. Conclusion: TMS operators should be well aware of the differentiation of T-LOC in syncopal or ictal in etiology, because they witness T-LOC during TMS. By presenting a typical case of vasovagal syncope during TMS the report in hand provides necessary information and literature to do so. Keywords: TMS, Seizure, Syncope, Adverse-event, T-LOC, Case-report

  1. Primary structure of the tms and prs genes of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Arnvig, Kirsten

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence was determined of a 3211 nucleotide pair EcoRI-PvuII DNA fragment containing the tms and prs genes as well as a part of the ctc gene of Bacillus subtilis. The prs gene encodes phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase, whereas the functioning of the tms and ctc gene...... products remains to be established. The prs gene contains an open reading frame of 317 codons resulting in a subunit Mr of 34828. An open reading frame comprising the tms gene contained 456 codons resulting in a putative translation product with an Mr of 49,554. Comparison of the deduced B. subtilis PRPP...

  2. tms-sim – Timing Models Scheduling Simulation Framework – Release 2016-07

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Florian

    2016-01-01

    tms-sim is a framework for the simulation and evaluation of scheduling algorithms. It is being developed to support our work on real-time task scheduling based on time-utility and history-cognisant utility functions. We publish tms-sim under the conditions of the GNU GPL to make our results reproducible and in the hope that it may be useful for others. This report describes the usage of the TMS framework libraries and how they can be used to build further simulation environments. It is not in...

  3. tms-sim - Timing Models Scheduling Simulation Framework: Release 2014-12

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Florian

    2015-01-01

    tms-sim is a framework for the simulation and evaluation of scheduling algorithms. It is being developed to support our work on real-time task scheduling based on time-utility and history-cognisant utility functions. We publish tms-sim under the conditions of the GNU GPL to make our results reproducible and in the hope that it may be useful for others. This report describes the usage of the TMS framework libraries and how they can be used to build further simulation environments. It is not in...

  4. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; André-Obadia, Nathalie; Antal, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    , consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) r...... for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and LF-rTMS of contralesional M1 in chronic motor stroke. The effects of rTMS in a number of indications reach level C (possible efficacy), including LF-rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in tinnitus and auditory hallucinations. It remains to determine how...

  5. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  6. rTMS of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex for major depression: safety, tolerability, effectiveness, and outcome predictors for 10 Hz versus intermittent theta-burst stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nathan; Shahab, Saba; Giacobbe, Peter; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Kennedy, Sidney H; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Conventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS). To compare safety, effectiveness, and outcome predictors for DMPFC-rTMS with 10 Hz (30 min) versus iTBS (6 min) protocols, in a large, naturalistic, retrospective case series. A chart review identified 185 patients with a medication-resistant major depressive episode who underwent 20-30 sessions of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, n = 98; iTBS, n = 87) at a single Canadian clinic from 2011 to 2014. Clinical characteristics of 10 Hz and iTBS patients did not differ prior to treatment, aside from significantly higher age in iTBS patients. A total 7912 runs of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, 4274; iTBS, 3638) were administered, without any seizures or other serious adverse events, and no significant differences in rates of premature discontinuation between groups. Dichotomous outcomes did not differ significantly between groups (Response/remission rates: Beck Depression Inventory-II: 10 Hz, 40.6%/29.2%; iTBS, 43.0%/31.0%. 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: 10 Hz, 50.6%/38.5%; iTBS, 48.5%/27.9%). On continuous outcomes, there was no significant difference between groups in pre-treatment or post-treatment scores, or percent improvement on either measure. Mixed-effects modeling revealed no significant group-by-time interaction on either measure. Both 10 Hz and iTBS DMPFC-rTMS appear safe and tolerable at 120% resting motor threshold. The effectiveness of 6 min iTBS and 30 min 10 Hz protocols appears comparable. Randomized trials comparing 10 Hz to iTBS may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LITA LIDYAWATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  8. Effects of stron UV-B radiation on air chemistry and climate; Auswirkungen verstaerkter UV-B-Strahlung auf Luftchemie und Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenemeyer, T.; Seidl, W.; Forkel, R.; Kuhn, M.; Wehrhahn, J.; Grell, G.

    1998-07-01

    Effects of enhanced UV radiation on air chemistry, climate and climate change were investigated, and its interactions with other environmental problems like acidification of soil and surface water, reduction in the variety of species, and desertification were gone into. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die bisher vorliegenden Erkenntnisse ueber die Auswirkungen erhoehter UV-Strahlung infolge des Abbaus von Ozon in der Stratosphaere auf Luftchemie und Klima zusammengetragen. Die Problematik wird in ihrer ganzen Breite beleuchtet und dabei deutlich gemacht, ueber welche zahlreichen Mechanismen eine erhoehte UV-Strahlung auch zu Klimaaenderungen fuehren kann. Dies unterstreicht die Notwendigkeit, Verknuepfungen mit anderen Umweltproblemen wie der Versauerung des Bodens und von Gewaessern, der Abnahme der Artenvielfalt sowie der zunehmenden Wuestenbildung herzustellen. (orig.)

  9. Investigative and therapeutic uses of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2016-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that affects children and young adults. It results in significant impairment of their educational, social and occupational functioning and is associated economic societal burden. Whilst there are effective medications (such as methylphenidate) as well as some psychobehavioural therapies that can help with management of symptoms of ADHD, the former can have significant cardiac side effects, which limit their use. For number of patients these treatment options lack efficacy or are not acceptable. There is need to improve our understanding of neurobiology of ADHD as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short paper, I will explore the potential role of TMS and rTMS in further improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well as possible treatment option.

  10. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  11. Effects of a railway line project on a colony of grey herons; Auswirkungen eines linienhaften Vorhabens (Eisenbahnstrecke) auf eine Graureiherkolonie (Bayern)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, P. [Inst. fuer Oekologie, Umweltvertraeglichkeit, Landschaftsplanung und Landesentwicklung, Westheim (Germany). igi Niedermeyer Inst.

    1997-12-01

    As part of the efforts made to collect ecological evidence in connection with the Nantenbach Bend project to link the Wuerzburg-Aschaffenburg-Frankfurt line with the new Wuerzburg-Hanover line the colony was observed at regular intervals after completion of the construction work with the intention of quantifying any effects on the population of grey herons. The counts that were carried out indicate that the number of breeding pairs halved in the period from 1990 to 1995 (49 pairs in 1995). On completion of the construction work the pairs once again increased in number, to 56 in 1996 and 52 in 1997. The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the effects of construction work on the environment in the immediate vicinity were the main cause of negative developments in a bird population and that such measures have more extensive effects than has been assumed in the past. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der oekologischen Beweissicherung zum Vorhaben der Nantenbacher Kurve, die die Anbindung der Eisenbahnstrecke Wuerzburg-Aschaffenburg-Frankfurt am Main an die Neubaustrecke Wuerzburg-Hannover ermoeglicht, wurde die Graureiherkolonie in regelmaessigen Zeitabstaenden nach Fertigstellung der Baumassnahme untersucht. Die Bestandsaufnahmen sollen dazu dienen moegliche Auswirkungen auf die Graureiherpopulation zu quantifizieren. Aufgrund der Bestandszaehlungen wurde vom Jahr 1990 bis 1995 eine Halbierung der Brutpaare (49 Bp. in 1995) in der Kolonie festgestellt. Nach Beendigung der Bautaetigkeiten nahmen die Brutpaare von 56 Bp. in 1996 und 52 Bp. in 1997 wieder zu. Dies laesst darauf schliessen, dass baubedingte Auswirkungen im unmittelbaren Umfeld die hauptsaechliche Ursache fuer die negative Entwicklung eines Bestandes darstellen und einen groesseren Wirkungsgrad haben, als dieser bisher immer angenommen wurde. (orig.)

  12. Effective electric fields along realistic DTI-based neural trajectories for modelling the stimulation mechanisms of TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Geeter, N; Crevecoeur, G; Dupré, L; Leemans, A

    2015-01-01

    In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an applied alternating magnetic field induces an electric field in the brain that can interact with the neural system. It is generally assumed that this induced electric field is the crucial effect exciting a certain region of the brain. More specifically, it is the component of this field parallel to the neuron’s local orientation, the so-called effective electric field, that can initiate neuronal stimulation. Deeper insights on the stimulation mechanisms can be acquired through extensive TMS modelling. Most models study simple representations of neurons with assumed geometries, whereas we embed realistic neural trajectories computed using tractography based on diffusion tensor images. This way of modelling ensures a more accurate spatial distribution of the effective electric field that is in addition patient and case specific. The case study of this paper focuses on the single pulse stimulation of the left primary motor cortex with a standard figure-of-eight coil. Including realistic neural geometry in the model demonstrates the strong and localized variations of the effective electric field between the tracts themselves and along them due to the interplay of factors such as the tract’s position and orientation in relation to the TMS coil, the neural trajectory and its course along the white and grey matter interface. Furthermore, the influence of changes in the coil orientation is studied. Investigating the impact of tissue anisotropy confirms that its contribution is not negligible. Moreover, assuming isotropic tissues lead to errors of the same size as rotating or tilting the coil with 10 degrees. In contrast, the model proves to be less sensitive towards the not well-known tissue conductivity values. (paper)

  13. rTMS: A Treatment to Restore Function After Severe TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which is a non-invasive technique to stimulate the brain. The evidence of therapeutic efficacy from the literature in non-TBI...Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Vegetative (VS), Minimally Conscious (MCS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Reflections of a TMS International Scholar: Sharing Research across Cultures and Continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Here, I was honored to be selected as the 2017 Japan Institute of Metals (JIM)/TMS Young Leaders International Scholar, an opportunity made possible by the TMS Foundation. One of the benefits of receiving this award for me was traveling to Japan to visit the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), and attending the 2017 JIM Annual Spring Meeting, held at the Tokyo Metropolitan University.

  15. [Treatment of chronic tinnitus with neuronavigated repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjung, T; Steffens, T; Langguth, B; Eichhammer, P; Marienhagen, J; Hajak, G; Strutz, J

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic tinnitus is a frequent and debilitating disorder of largely unknown pathophysiology. Focal brain activation in the auditory cortex has recently been demonstrated in chronic tinnitus. Low-frequency rTMS can reduce cortical hyperexcitability. In 12 patients with chronic tinnitus, fusion of [18F]deoxyglucose-PET and structural MRI (T1, MPRAGE) scans allowed the area of increased metabolic activity in the auditory cortex to be exactly identified; this area was selected as the target for rTMS. A neuronavigational system adapted for TMS positioning enabled the relative positions of the figure-8 coil and the target area to be monitored. Repetitive TMS (110% motor threshold; 1 Hz; 2000 stimuli per day over 5 days) was performed using a placebo-controlled crossover design. A sham coil system was used for the placebo stimulation. Treatment outcome was assessed with a specific tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller). In all 12 patients an asymmetrically increased metabolic activation of the gyrus of Heschl was detected. The tinnitus score was significantly improved after 5 days of active rTMS, an effect not seen after placebo stimulation. These preliminary results show that neuronavigated rTMS may improve our understanding and treatment of chronic tinnitus.

  16. TMS over the supramarginal gyrus delays selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching and grasping tools for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Tomás; Holmes, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Alan; Schürmann, Martin

    2018-03-09

    Tool use, a ubiquitous part of human behaviour, requires manipulation control and knowledge of tool purpose. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological research posit that these two processes are supported by separate brain regions, ventral premotor and inferior parietal for manipulation control, and posterior middle temporal cortex for tool knowledge, lateralised to the left hemisphere. Action plans for tool use need to integrate these two separate processes, which is likely supported by the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). However, whether this integration occurs during action execution is not known. To clarify the role of the SMG we conducted two experiments in which healthy participants reached to grasp everyday tools with the explicit instruction to use them directly following their grasp. To study the integration of manipulation control and tool knowledge within a narrow time window we mechanically perturbed the orientation of the tool to force participants to correct grasp orientation 'on-line' during the reaching movement. In experiment 1, twenty healthy participants reached with their left hand to grasp a tool. Double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied, in different blocks over left or right SMG at the onset of perturbation. Kinematic data revealed delayed and erroneous online correction after TMS over left and right SMG. In Experiment 2 twelve participants reached, in different blocks, with their left or right hand and TMS was applied over SMG ipsilateral to the reaching hand. A similar effect on correction was observed for ipsilateral stimulation when reaching with the left and right hands, and no effect of or interaction with hemisphere was observed. Our findings implicate a bilateral role of the SMG in correcting movements and selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching to grasp tools for use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Double-Coil TMS Method to Assess Corticospinal Excitability Changes at a Near-Simultaneous Time in the Two Hands during Movement Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Quoilin, Caroline; Petitjean, Charlotte; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have investigated corticospinal excitability changes occurring when choosing which hand to use for an action, one of the most frequent decision people make in daily life. So far, these studies have applied single-pulse TMS eliciting motor-evoked potential (MEP) in one hand when this hand is either selected or non-selected. Using such method, hand choices were shown to entail the operation of two inhibitory mechanisms, suppressing MEPs in the targeted hand either when it is non-selected (competition resolution, CR) or selected (impulse control, IC). However, an important limitation of this “Single-Coil” method is that MEPs are elicited in selected and non-selected conditions during separate trials and thus those two settings may not be completely comparable. Moreover, a more important problem is that MEPs are computed in relation to the movement of different hands. The goal of the present study was to test a “Double-Coil” method to evaluate IC and CR preceding the same hand responses by applying Double-Coil TMS over the two primary motor cortices (M1) at a near-simultaneous time (1 ms inter-pulse interval). Methods: MEPs were obtained in the left (MEPLEFT) and right (MEPRIGHT) hands while subjects chose between left and right hand key-presses in blocks using a Single-Coil or a Double-Coil method; in the latter blocks, TMS was either applied over left M1 first (TMSLRM1 group, n = 12) or right M1 first (TMSRLM1 group, n = 12). Results: MEPLEFT were suppressed preceding both left (IC) and right (CR) hand responses whereas MEPRIGHT were only suppressed preceding left (CR) but not right (IC) hand responses. This result was observed regardless of whether Single-Coil or Double-Coil TMS was applied in the two subject groups. However, in the TMSLRM1 group, the MEP suppression was attenuated in Double-Coil compared to Single-Coil blocks for both IC and CR, when probed with MEPLEFT (elicited by

  18. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  19. The TMS34010 graphic processor - an architecture for image visualization in NMR tomography; O processador grafico TMS34010 - uma arquitetura para visualizacao de imagem em tomografia por RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaets, Jan Frans Willem; Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo de; Almeida, Lirio O B

    1990-12-31

    This abstract presents a description of the minimum system implemented with the graphic processor TMS34010, which will be used in the reconstruction, treatment and interpretation f images obtained by NMR tomography. The project is being developed in the LIE (Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory), of the Sao Carlos Chemistry and Physical Institute, S P, Brazil and is already in operation 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The TMS34010 graphic processor - an architecture for image visualization in NMR tomography; O processador grafico TMS34010 - uma arquitetura para visualizacao de imagem em tomografia por RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaets, Jan Frans Willem; Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo de; Almeida, Lirio O.B

    1989-12-31

    This abstract presents a description of the minimum system implemented with the graphic processor TMS34010, which will be used in the reconstruction, treatment and interpretation f images obtained by NMR tomography. The project is being developed in the LIE (Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory), of the Sao Carlos Chemistry and Physical Institute, S P, Brazil and is already in operation 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Vom Phänomen zum Begriff: Auswirkungen von naturwissenschaftlichem Experimentieren auf die Sprachentwicklung von Grundschulkindern

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Initial Position and Objectives In german Science teaching, "language" usually stands for inconsistencies between everyday and sci-entific language (RINCKE 2007, ANTON 1999). LEISEN asked "Shall I now also teach language?" a few years ago (LEISEN 2005). Little research takes a constructive perspective on language (Lück 2009c, SCHEUER et al. 2010), WAGENSCHEIN being an early and rare exception (WAGENSCHEIN 1923). In his and Lück's wake, this study explores the links between doi...

  2. Fully Automated Trimethylsilyl (TMS) Derivatisation Protocol for Metabolite Profiling by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Erica; Boyle, Veronica; Rupprecht, Udo; Green, Saras; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Baker, Philip; Pinu, Farhana R

    2016-12-29

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) has long been used for metabolite profiling of a wide range of biological samples. Many derivatisation protocols are already available and among these, trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatisation is one of the most widely used in metabolomics. However, most TMS methods rely on off-line derivatisation prior to GC-MS analysis. In the case of manual off-line TMS derivatisation, the derivative created is unstable, so reduction in recoveries occurs over time. Thus, derivatisation is carried out in small batches. Here, we present a fully automated TMS derivatisation protocol using robotic autosamplers and we also evaluate a commercial software, Maestro available from Gerstel GmbH. Because of automation, there was no waiting time of derivatised samples on the autosamplers, thus reducing degradation of unstable metabolites. Moreover, this method allowed us to overlap samples and improved throughputs. We compared data obtained from both manual and automated TMS methods performed on three different matrices, including standard mix, wine, and plasma samples. The automated TMS method showed better reproducibility and higher peak intensity for most of the identified metabolites than the manual derivatisation method. We also validated the automated method using 114 quality control plasma samples. Additionally, we showed that this online method was highly reproducible for most of the metabolites detected and identified (RSD TMS method has been applied to analyse a large number of complex plasma samples. Furthermore, we found that this method was highly applicable for routine metabolite profiling (both targeted and untargeted) in any metabolomics laboratory.

  3. Fully Automated Trimethylsilyl (TMS Derivatisation Protocol for Metabolite Profiling by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Zarate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS has long been used for metabolite profiling of a wide range of biological samples. Many derivatisation protocols are already available and among these, trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatisation is one of the most widely used in metabolomics. However, most TMS methods rely on off-line derivatisation prior to GC-MS analysis. In the case of manual off-line TMS derivatisation, the derivative created is unstable, so reduction in recoveries occurs over time. Thus, derivatisation is carried out in small batches. Here, we present a fully automated TMS derivatisation protocol using robotic autosamplers and we also evaluate a commercial software, Maestro available from Gerstel GmbH. Because of automation, there was no waiting time of derivatised samples on the autosamplers, thus reducing degradation of unstable metabolites. Moreover, this method allowed us to overlap samples and improved throughputs. We compared data obtained from both manual and automated TMS methods performed on three different matrices, including standard mix, wine, and plasma samples. The automated TMS method showed better reproducibility and higher peak intensity for most of the identified metabolites than the manual derivatisation method. We also validated the automated method using 114 quality control plasma samples. Additionally, we showed that this online method was highly reproducible for most of the metabolites detected and identified (RSD < 20 and specifically achieved excellent results for sugars, sugar alcohols, and some organic acids. To the very best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the automated TMS method has been applied to analyse a large number of complex plasma samples. Furthermore, we found that this method was highly applicable for routine metabolite profiling (both targeted and untargeted in any metabolomics laboratory.

  4. Mechanical effects on the reactor pressure vessel; Mechanische Auswirkungen auf den Reaktordruckbehaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeller, B.; Krieg, R.; Stach, T.

    1995-08-01

    The mechanical RPV effects of a steam explosion are to be studied in an experimental program focusing on the BERDA tests. The BERDA facility has been completed. The analytical avaluation is difficult. Therefore the similarity attainable between the fluid/structure bouncing phenomena on different scales is investigated by the FLIPPER experiments. For an analytical description of the problem a model was used which had beeen developed by the CEA for the PLEXUS code. It is based on a discretization of the fluid plug by an assembly of spheres. The computational results, however, do not compare well with the FLIPPER tests and are also in disagreement with the continuum theoretical SLUGDY model. (orig.)

  5. The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Möller, Friderike; Kuniecki, Michal

    2010-01-01

    ) either as effective or as sham stimulation. In two experiments, either one of these two factors, hemisphere and effectiveness of rTMS, was varied within or between participants. Again, T2 was much better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field......In the present task, series of visual stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, containing two target stimuli, T1 and T2. In previous studies, T2 was better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field might reflect dominance exerted...... by the right over the left hemisphere. If so, then repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right parietal cortex might release the left hemisphere from right-hemispheric control, thereby improving T2 identification in the right visual field. Alternatively or additionally, the asymmetry in T2...

  6. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  7. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  8. Efficient and robust identification of cortical targets in concurrent TMS-fMRI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M.; Hua, Jun; Liao, Diana A.; Desmond, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be delivered during fMRI scans to evoke BOLD responses in distributed brain networks. While concurrent TMS-fMRI offers a potentially powerful tool for non-invasively investigating functional human neuroanatomy, the technique is currently limited by the lack of methods to rapidly and precisely localize targeted brain regions – a reliable procedure is necessary for validly relating stimulation targets to BOLD activation patterns, especially for cortical targets outside of motor and visual regions. Here we describe a convenient and practical method for visualizing coil position (in the scanner) and identifying the cortical location of TMS targets without requiring any calibration or any particular coil-mounting device. We quantified the precision and reliability of the target position estimates by testing the marker processing procedure on data from 9 scan sessions: Rigorous testing of the localization procedure revealed minimal variability in coil and target position estimates. We validated the marker processing procedure in concurrent TMS-fMRI experiments characterizing motor network connectivity. Together, these results indicate that our efficient method accurately and reliably identifies TMS targets in the MR scanner, which can be useful during scan sessions for optimizing coil placement and also for post-scan outlier identification. Notably, this method can be used generally to identify the position and orientation of MR-compatible hardware placed near the head in the MR scanner. PMID:23507384

  9. Measurement and imaging of brain function using MRI, MEG, and TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iramina, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews functional imaging techniques in neuroscience such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional MRI (fMRI), magnetoencephalogray (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). fMRI and MEG allow the neuronal activity of the brain to be measured non-invasively. MEG detects an electrical activity as neuronal activity, while, fMRI detects a hemodynamic response as neuronal activity. TMS is the application of a brief magnetic pulse or a train of pulses to the skull, which results in the induction of a local electric current in the underlying surface of the brain, thereby producing a localized axonal depolarization. As a non-invasive and effective method to make reversible lesions in the human brain, TMS has a long and successful history. All of these techniques have major potential for applications in the neuroscience and medicine. (author)

  10. TMS Over the Cerebellum Interferes with Short-term Memory of Visual Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C; Cattaneo, Z; Oldrati, V; Casiraghi, L; Castelli, F; D'Angelo, E; Vecchi, T

    2018-04-30

    Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum is not only involved in motor functions, but it significantly contributes to sensory and cognitive processing as well. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the cerebellum identifies recurrent serial events and recognizes their violations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the role of the cerebellum in short-term memory of visual sequences. In two experiments, we found that TMS over the right cerebellar hemisphere impaired participants' ability to recognize the correct order of appearance of geometrical stimuli varying in shape and/or size. In turn, cerebellar TMS did not affect recognition of highly familiar short sequences of letters or numbers. Overall, our data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in memorizing the order in which (concatenated) stimuli appear, this process being important for sequence learning.

  11. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    because the afferent information triggered the movement and therefore was important for motor performance. Alle et al. (2009). J Physiol 587:5163-5176 Chen et al. (1998). Ann Neurol 44:317-325 Tokimura et al. (2000). J Physiol 523 Pt 2:503-513......Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time...... of corticospinal cells to TMS, which starts approximately 100 ms prior to the onset of movement (Chen et al. 1998). Thus, it is hypothesized that the modulation of the MEP prior to movement is linked to the afferent volley arriving at the sensorimotor cortex. It might be speculated that the MEP was facilitated...

  12. Assessment of Event-Related EEG Power After Single-Pulse TMS in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Cavinato, Marianna; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco; Manganotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In patients without a behavioral response, non-invasive techniques and new methods of data analysis can complement existing diagnostic tools by providing a method for detecting covert signs of residual cognitive function and awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain oscillatory activities synchronized by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the primary motor area in the time-frequency domain in patients with the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state as compared to healthy controls. A time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transform was used to characterize rapid modifications of oscillatory EEG rhythms induced by TMS in patients as compared to healthy controls. The pattern of EEG changes in the patients differed from that of healthy controls. In the controls there was an early synchronization of slow waves immediately followed by a desynchronization of alpha and beta frequency bands over the frontal and centro-parietal electrodes, whereas an opposite early synchronization, particularly over motor areas for alpha and beta and over the frontal and parietal electrodes for beta power, was seen in the patients. In addition, no relevant modification in slow rhythms (delta and theta) after TMS was noted in patients. The clinical impact of these findings could be relevant in neurorehabilitation settings for increasing the awareness of these patients and defining new treatment procedures.

  13. Towards assessing corticospinal excitability bilaterally: Validation of a double-coil TMS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Julien; Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Quemener, Louise; Wilde, Ysaline de; Duque, Julie

    2018-01-01

    For several decades, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to monitor corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in various contexts. Habitually, single-coil TMS is applied over one primary motor cortex (M1), eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a contralateral limb muscle, usually a hand effector. However, in many situations, it would be useful to obtain MEPs in both hands simultaneously, to track CSE bilaterally. Such an approach requires stimulating both M1 concurrently while avoiding interference between the two descending stimuli. We examined MEPs obtained at rest using a double-coil TMS approach where the two M1 are stimulated with a 1ms inter-pulse interval (double-coil 1ms ). MEPs were acquired using double-coil 1ms (MEP double ) or single-coil (MEP single ) TMS, at five different intensities of stimulation (100, 115, 130, 145 or 160% of the resting motor threshold, rMT). Given the 1ms inter-pulse interval in double-coil 1ms trials, MEP double were either evoked by a 1st (MEP double-1 ) or a 2nd (MEP double-2 ) TMS pulse. All MEP TYPE (MEP TYPE =MEP single , MEP double-1 and MEP double-2 ) were equivalent, regardless of the hand within which they were elicited, the intensity of stimulation or the pulse order. This method allows one to observe state-related CSE changes for the two hands simultaneously on a trial-by-trial basis. These results infer the absence of any neural interactions between the two cortico-spinal volleys with double-coil 1ms TMS. Hence, this technique can be reliably used to assess CSE bilaterally, opening new research perspectives for scientists interested in physiological markers of activity in the motor output system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethanol modulates cortical activity: direct evidence with combined TMS and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, S; Kesäniemi, M; Nikouline, V V; Karhu, J; Ollikainen, M; Holi, M; Ilmoniemi, R J

    2001-08-01

    The motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects was stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after ethanol challenge (0.8 g/kg resulting in blood concentration of 0.77 +/- 0.14 ml/liter). The electrical brain activity resulting from the brief electromagnetic pulse was recorded with high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) and located using inversion algorithms. Focal magnetic pulses to the left motor cortex were delivered with a figure-of-eight coil at the random interstimulus interval of 1.5-2.5 s. The stimulation intensity was adjusted to the motor threshold of abductor digiti minimi. Two conditions before and after ethanol ingestion (30 min) were applied: (1) real TMS, with the coil pressed against the scalp; and (2) control condition, with the coil separated from the scalp by a 2-cm-thick piece of plastic. A separate EMG control recording of one subject during TMS was made with two bipolar platinum needle electrodes inserted to the left temporal muscle. In each condition, 120 pulses were delivered. The EEG was recorded from 60 scalp electrodes. A peak in the EEG signals was observed at 43 ms after the TMS pulse in the real-TMS condition but not in the control condition or in the control scalp EMG. Potential maps before and after ethanol ingestion were significantly different from each other (P = 0.01), but no differences were found in the control condition. Ethanol changed the TMS-evoked potentials over right frontal and left parietal areas, the underlying effect appearing to be largest in the right prefrontal area. Our findings suggest that ethanol may have changed the functional connectivity between prefrontal and motor cortices. This new noninvasive method provides direct evidence about the modulation of cortical connectivity after ethanol challenge. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Effects of radiation damage to TMP [tetramethylpentane], TMS [tetramethylsilane] and liquid argon solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of exposure of calorimeter liquids like tetramethylsilane (TMS), 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane (TMP) and liquid argon solutions to the large doses of ionizing radiation expected in the SCC environment is examined. Like other organic liquids TMS and TMP are decomposed by radiation to various products; thus, we must consider the effects these products may have on the calorimeter operation. Questions considered include how will radiation effect electron drift velocity and lifetime? Will gaseous products produce significant pressure buildup? Are dose rate effects significant? Do we expect different effects from neutrons compared to minimum ionizing radiation? 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Experiencias de haber crecido con un padre/madre con trastorno mental severo (TMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vivanco B, Gabriela; Grandón F, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La experiencia de vivir con personas que presentan un Trastorno Mental Severo (TMS) es difícil para las familias, en especial para los hijos quienes han sido poco estudiados. El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer cómo la experiencia de haber vivido con un padre o madre con un trastorno mental severo influyó en la infancia, adolescencia y adultez joven de sus hijos e hijas. Método. Se analizan las experiencias de convivencia con un padre/madre con TMS en 10 hijos (6 hombres...

  17. Effects of long-term exposure to raod traffic imissions on the pathogenesis of diseases of the skin and respiratory tract in children; Auswirkungen langfristiger Expositionen gegenueber Strassenverkehrsimissionen auf die Entwicklung von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Lange-Asschenfeldt, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany); Lieber, G.F.; Weinhold, H.; Eilts, M.

    2002-10-01

    The pathogenesis of allergies can be stimulated by adjuvant effects, i.e. air pollutants such as NO{sub x} and particles from diesel engines and also noise - the latter especially during the night. During sleep, noise signals that are associated with danger (e.g. noise from lorries) can potentially trigger stress reactions even if the noise level is low. Higher cortisol levels in the first half of the night seem to have an important role in this. In a blind interview study, the combined effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and noise upon the risk of allergic skin and respiratory diseases in children were studied. All children between 5 and 12 years of age who had consulted one of two of the participating pediatricians were included in the study. The paediatricians' diagnoses for 400 children were analysed together with their parents' answers to questions on the density of road traffic in the streets where they live and several confounding factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed relative risks of asthma, chronic bronchitis and neurodermitis that rose significantly with increasingly heavy traffic. A comparison with corresponding results reported in the literature for air pollution alone showed that traffic noise during the night might have an enhancing (adjuvant) effect in the pathogenesis of these diseases. (orig.) [German] Die Entstehung von Allergien kann durch adjuvante Effekte - z.B. Immissionen aus dem Verkehrsbereich - gefoerdert werden. Zu solchen Immissionen zaehlen gas- und partikelfoermige Schadstoffe wie Stickoxide und Dieselruss sowie Laerm, insbesondere in der Nacht. Waehrend des Schlafs koennen Geraeusche, die mit Gefahren assoziiert sind (z.B. Lkw-Geraeusche) auch bei niedrigen Pegeln Stressreaktionen ausloesen. Kortisolerhoehungen in der ersten Haelfte der Nacht scheinen dabei eine wichtige Rolle zu spielen. In einer 'einfach-blind' durchgefuehrten Befragungsstudie wurden langzeitige Auswirkungen

  18. A Method for Evaluation and Comparison of Parallel Robots for Safe Human Interaction, Applied to Robotic TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jan Johannes; Stienen, Arno; van der Wijk, V.; Wessels, Martijn; van der Kooij, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to modify behaviour of neurons in the brain. TMS is applied by running large currents through a coil close to the scalp. For consistent results it is required to maintain the coil position within millimetres of the targeted location,

  19. Investigating emotional top down modulation of ambiguous faces by single pulse TMS on early visual cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Adam Yaple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA, primary visual cortex (V1 and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces.

  20. Long lasting effects of daily theta burst rTMS sessions in the human amblyopic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-11-01

    It has been reported that a single session of 1 Hz or 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the visual cortex can temporarily improve contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. More recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the visual cortex has been found to improve contrast sensitivity in observers with normal vision. The aims of this study were to assess whether cTBS of the visual cortex could improve contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia and whether repeated sessions of cTBS would lead to more pronounced and/or longer lasting effects. cTBS was delivered to the visual cortex while patients viewed a high contrast stimulus with their non-amblyopic eye. This manipulation was designed to bias the effects of cTBS toward inputs from the amblyopic eye. Contrast sensitivity was measured before and after stimulation. The effects of one cTBS session were measured in five patients and the effects of five consecutive daily sessions were measured in four patients. Three patients were available for follow-up at varying intervals after the final session. cTBS improved amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity to high spatial frequencies (P enduring visual function improvements in adults with amblyopia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Mueller, W; Brune, M; Eckardt, J; Tatzky-Gerth, R; Ache, W; Goebbels, J [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J; Kerzdoerfer, H [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  2. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  3. The TMS34010 graphic processor - an architecture for image visualization in NMR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaets, Jan Frans Willem; Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo de; Almeida, Lirio O.B.

    1989-01-01

    This abstract presents a description of the minimum system implemented with the graphic processor TMS34010, which will be used in the reconstruction, treatment and interpretation f images obtained by NMR tomography. The project is being developed in the LIE (Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory), of the Sao Carlos Chemistry and Physical Institute, S P, Brazil and is already in operation

  4. Understanding hypnosis metacognitively: rTMS applied to left DLPFC increases hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltan; Hutton, Sam

    2013-02-01

    According to the cold control theory of hypnosis (Dienes and Perner, 2007), hypnotic response occurs because of inaccurate higher order thoughts of intending. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a region likely involved in constructing accurate higher order thoughts. Thus, disrupting DLPFC with low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) should make it harder to be aware of intending to perform an action. That is, it should be easier to respond to a hypnotic suggestion. Twenty-four medium hypnotisable subjects received low frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC and to a control site, the vertex, in counterbalanced order. The hypnotist was blind to which site had been stimulated. Subjects rated how strongly they expected to respond to each suggestion, and gave ratings on a 0-5 scale of the extent to which they experienced the response, for four suggestions (magnetic hands, arm levitation, rigid arm and taste hallucination). The experimenter also rated behavioural response. Low frequency rTMS to the DLPFC rather than vertex increased the degree of combined behavioural and subjective response. Further, subjects did not differ in their expectancy that they would respond in the two conditions, so the rTMS had an effect on hypnotic response above and beyond expectancies. The results support theories, including cold control theory, postulating a component of hypofrontality in hypnotic response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automatic and Controlled Semantic Retrieval: TMS Reveals Distinct Contributions of Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus and Angular Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, James; Cornelissen, Piers L; Thompson, Hannah E; Sonkusare, Saurabh; Hallam, Glyn; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-11-18

    Semantic retrieval involves both (1) automatic spreading activation between highly related concepts and (2) executive control processes that tailor this activation to suit the current context or goals. Two structures in left temporoparietal cortex, angular gyrus (AG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), are thought to be crucial to semantic retrieval and are often recruited together during semantic tasks; however, they show strikingly different patterns of functional connectivity at rest (coupling with the "default mode network" and "frontoparietal control system," respectively). Here, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to establish a causal yet dissociable role for these sites in semantic cognition in human volunteers. TMS to AG disrupted thematic judgments particularly when the link between probe and target was strong (e.g., a picture of an Alsatian with a bone), and impaired the identification of objects at a specific but not a superordinate level (for the verbal label "Alsatian" not "animal"). In contrast, TMS to pMTG disrupted thematic judgments for weak but not strong associations (e.g., a picture of an Alsatian with razor wire), and impaired identity matching for both superordinate and specific-level labels. Thus, stimulation to AG interfered with the automatic retrieval of specific concepts from the semantic store while stimulation of pMTG impaired semantic cognition when there was a requirement to flexibly shape conceptual activation in line with the task requirements. These results demonstrate that AG and pMTG make a dissociable contribution to automatic and controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. We demonstrate a novel functional dissociation between the angular gyrus (AG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) in conceptual processing. These sites are often coactivated during neuroimaging studies using semantic tasks, but their individual contributions are unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and tasks designed to

  6. Efficacy of deep rTMS for neuropathic pain in the lower limb: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of an H-coil and figure-8 coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Hosomi, Koichi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Goto, Yuko; Yokoe, Masaru; Kageyama, Yu; Shimokawa, Toshio; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Saitoh, Youichi

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Electrical motor cortex stimulation can relieve neuropathic pain (NP), but its use requires patients to undergo an invasive procedure. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) using a figure-8 coil can relieve NP noninvasively, but its ability to relieve lower limb pain is still limited. Deep rTMS using an H-coil can effectively stimulate deep brain regions and has been widely used for the treatment of various neurological diseases; however, there have been no clinical studies comparing the effectiveness of figure-8 coils and H-coils. This study assessed the clinical effectiveness of 5 once-daily stimulations with H-coils and figure-8 coils in patients with NP. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover trial examined 18 patients with NP who sequentially received 3 types of stimulations in the M1 for 5 consecutive days; each 5-day stimulation period was followed by a 17-day follow-up period before crossing over to the next type of stimulation. During each rTMS session, patients received a 5-Hz rTMS to the M1 region corresponding to the painful lower limb. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Japanese version of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ2-J) were used to measure pain intensity. The primary outcome was VAS score reduction immediately after and 1 hour after intervention. RESULTS Both the VAS and SF-MPQ2-J showed significant pain improvement immediately after deep rTMS with an H-coil as compared with the sham group (p H-coil (p = 0.004) but not 1 hour after rTMS using a figure-8 coil. None of the patients exhibited any serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS The current findings suggest that the use of deep rTMS with an H-coil in the lower limb region of the M1 in patients with NP was tolerable and could provide significant short-term pain relief. Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000010536 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ).

  7. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  8. Molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of dehairing Mn(2+) dependent alkaline serine protease (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2011-10-01

    Leather industries release a large amount of pollution-causing chemicals which creates one of the major industrial pollutions. The development of enzyme based processes as a potent alternative to pollution-causing chemicals is useful to overcome this issue. Proteases are enzymes which have extensive applications in leather processing and in several bioremediation processes due to their high alkaline protease activity and dehairing efficacy. In the present study, we report cloning, characterization of a Mn2+ dependent alkaline serine protease gene (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55. The gene encoding the protease from B. pumilus TMS55 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. Our analysis showed that this polypeptide is composed of 29 residues N-terminal signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids. We performed bioinformatics analysis to compare MASPT enzyme with other proteases. Homology modeling was employed to model three dimensional structure for MASPT. Structural analysis showed that MASPT structure is composed of nine α-helices and nine β-strands. It has 3 catalytic residues and 14 metal binding residues. Docking analysis showed that residues S223, A260, N263, T328 and S329 interact with Mn2+. This study allows initial inferences about the structure of the protease and will allow the rational design of its derivatives for structure-function studies and also for further improvement of the enzyme.

  9. Studie: Die Generation Y und deren organisatorische Implikationen

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie betrifft die Gen. Y und ihre spezifischen Anforderungen an die Unternehmensorganisation. Im Ergebnis einer durchgeführten Befragung ist festzuhalten, dass die Gen. Y die Kernkompetenzen eines Managers verstärkt einfordert und eine hohe Betreuungsintensität verlangt. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Führungsspanne, Planung und Kontrolle von Aufgaben, die Gestaltung der vertikalen und horizontalen Prozesse sowie die Zusammensetzung von Teamarbeitsformen. Projektarbeit sowie ...

  10. Stabilisation goals for concentrations of climate-relevant gaseous emissions: Effects and emission pathways. Final report; Stabilisierungsziele fuer Treibhausgaskonzentrationen: Eine Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen und der Emissionspfade. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onigkeit, J.; Alcamo, J.; Kaspar, F.; Roesch, T.

    2000-04-01

    beruecksichtigt. Neben einer Untersuchung der Reduktionsmassnahmen, die auf globaler Ebene notwendig sind, wurde ein Ansatz entwickelt, um die globalen Reduktionslasten auf Annex B und Nicht-Annex B Laender zu verteilen. Um ein Stabilisierungsziel von 550 ppm CO{sub 2} in der Atmosphaere zu erreichen, duerfen die jaehrlichen globalen anthropogenen CO{sub 2} aequivalenten Emissionen zwar bis 2030 leicht ansteigen, muessen aber bis 2100 auf das Emissionsniveau von 1990 zurueckkehren. Fuer das 450 ppm Ziel ist bis 2100 sogar eine Reduktion auf die Haelfte der Emissionen von 1990 notwendig. Es wurden die Konsequenzen des Klimawandels fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktivitaet, fuer die natuerliche Vegetation, die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und das Meeresspiegelniveau untersucht. Auch die Auswirkungen regional unterschiedlicher SO{sub 2} Emissionen wurden beruecksichtigt. Trotz umfangreicher Emissionskontrollen ist fuer beide Stabilisierungsziele mit einer schnellen Zunahme der Flaeche mit zurueckgehender landwirtschaftlicher Produktivitaet und mit einer Gefaehrdung der natuerlichen Vegetation zu rechnen. Die Hoehe der Auswirkungen variiert jedoch stark von Region zu Region. (orig.)

  11. Improve communications between TMC and TMS elements in a rural environment through a system that is deployable statewide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    An evaluation of communication technologies for application to TMC-TMS (Transportation Management Center : to Transportation Management Site) communications in Caltrans District 1. Wireless and wired technologies : have been evaluated for prospective...

  12. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, G.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Stippich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Neurosurgical resection of brain lesions aims to maximize excision while minimizing the risk of permanent injury to the surrounding intact brain tissue and resulting neurological deficits. While direct electrical cortical stimulation at the time of surgery allows the precise identification...... of essential cortex, it cannot provide information preoperatively for surgical planning.Brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly being used to localize functionally critical cortical......, if the stimulated cortex makes a critical contribution to the brain functions subserving the task. While the relationship between task and functional activation as revealed by fMRI is correlative in nature, the neurodisruptive effect of TMS reflects a causal effect on brain activity.The use of preoperative f...

  13. Changes of rCBF on major depressed patients following TMS treatment: and SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Changes of regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) on five drug-resistant depressed patients were examined by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99 Tc m - Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime ( 99 Tc m HMPAO) before and after Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The SPECT images were analysed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) package. TMS at the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) of the depressed patients resulted in an increase of rCBF at a focal region in the vicinity of the stimulation site. No change was observed at any remote region. A 34.8% global CBF reduction for the depressed patients was found in their raw data. SPM analysis of the globally scaled images shows that there are increases of rCBF in the parietal region for the depressed patients. Global CBF scaling might contribute to these increases. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Computer system cross-fertilization: making your TI 980 play your TMS 9900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, J.D.

    1979-02-01

    The desire to use TMS 9900 devices in several small control and data acquisition applications without paying for a development system to do it led to the development of several simple, effective techniques for doing TMS 9900 programing and debugging on a TI 980 system. The 980 assembler lends itself easily to the redefinition of operation codes required to assemble programs for the 9900. Also, a simple interconnection between the 980 and the 9900 allows operation of the 9900 and monitoring of the operation of the 980. Finally, special operation codes were developed within the 980 assembler which allow programing of hardware control on the 9900 system via a macro-language tailored to a particular 9900 hardware configuration. 4 figures

  15. Saturation of ionization signal in TMP and TMS at different angles and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Colas, J.; Ghez, Ph.; Lacotte, J.C.; Mansoulie, B.; Teiger, J.

    1989-09-01

    The saturation of ionization signal is measured for various electric fields and incidence angles in a double gap TMP chamber and a single gap TMS chamber with ionizing particles in the range 1.5 - 12 MeV/cm. Birks' constant Kb in TMP is found to be high (greater than 0.1 cm/MeV) for normal incidence for electric fields in the range 4.8 to 12 kV/cm but decreases by almost a factor 3 at 50 0 . The same behaviour (large Kb and variation with incidence angle) is observed in TMS which exhibits also a Kb decrease of about a factor 2 when the electric field is increased from 10 to 40 kV/cm

  16. Kinerja Modulasi BPSK Modem Software Defined Radio Pada DSK TMS320C6713

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Sapriesty Nainy

    2016-01-01

    — Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a signal processing technology that optimizes the use of PC as a device supporting. With the application of SDR in wireless communication system so it will provide possibility and flexibility on manipulating DSP without the need of hardware changes. SDR modems are designed to take advantage of Digital Signal Processor Starter Kit (DSK) TMS320C6713 for baseband signal processing. In the implementation phase, the DSK is programmed directly using Matlab Simulink...

  17. Software pi/4 DQPSK Modem: A Student Project Using the TMS320-C6201 EVM Board

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S; Braithwaite, SJ; Stewart, RD

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on a student project performed at the University of Southampton jointly by 4th year MEng students within the course "Advanced Radio Communications". The aim was to design a software modem capable of transmitting 16kb/s of data, whereby random number generation, advanced modulation, pulse shaping, synchronisation, and error counting techniques had to be applied. The ultimate aim was the implementation on a Texas Instruments TMS320-C6201 EVM board, which dictated some of the ...

  18. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in self-initiated elaborative cognitive processing during episodic memory encoding: rTMS evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hawco

    Full Text Available During episodic memory encoding, elaborative cognitive processing can improve later recall or recognition. While multiple studies examined the neural correlates of encoding strategies, few studies have explicitly focused on the self-initiation of elaborative encoding. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, a method which can transiently disrupt neural activity, was administered during an associative encoding task. rTMS was either applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or to the vertex (a control region not involved in memory encoding during presentation of pairs of words. Pairs could be semantically related or not related. Two encoding instructions were given, either cueing participants to analyze semantic relationships (cued condition, or to memorize the pair without any specific strategy cues (the self-initiated condition. Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding their use of memory strategies and performed a cued-recall task. We hypothesized that if the DLPFC plays a role in the self-initiation of elaborative encoding we would observe a reduction in memory performance in the self-initiated condition, particularly for related. We found a significant correlation between the effects of rTMS and strategy use, only in the self-initiated condition with related pairs. High strategy users showed reduced performance following DLPFC stimulation, while low strategy users tended to show increased recall following DLPFC stimulation during encoding. These results suggest the left DLPFC may be involved in the self-initiation of memory strategy use, and individuals may utilize different neural networks depending on their use of encoding strategies.

  19. New filter media development for effective control of trimethysilanol (TMS) and related low molecular weight silicon containing organic species in the photobay ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Anatoly; Belanger, Frank V.; Cate, Phillip; Ruede, David

    2007-03-01

    The authors present results of extensive studies on the chemical behavior of low molecular weight silicon-containing species (LMWS) and associated challenges of their analytical determination and control to prevent adverse influence on critical optical elements of exposure tools. In their paper the authors describe a non-traditional approach to the creation of a TMS gaseous source for filter media development and an engineering solution to the challenge of controlling LMWS - a solution that shows a significant advantage over currently existing approaches.

  20. Implementasi Encoder dan Decoder Cyclic Redundancy Check Pada TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Natalia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CRC merupakan metode yang paling populer digunakan saat ini karena kemampuanya paling baik dalam mendeteksi error. Pada Tugas Akhir ini memaparkan bagaimana CRC diimplementasikan pada TMS320C6416T. Evaluasi yang akan diteliti yaitu kinerja proses encoder dan decoder CRC sebagai fungsi Eb/No dari error per blok melalui kanal ideal AWGN  dengan modulasi BPSK serta melihat seberapa besar kemampuan CRC dalam mendeteksi kesalahan. Pengujian yang dilakukan melalui simulink matlab dan implementasi secara real ke dalam TMS320C6416T.  Adapun kode CRC yang dipilih yaitu CRC-8 dan CRC-16 dimana pada implementasi pada TMS dilakukan pengiriman sebesar 100.000 bit dalam 12.500 frame.  Hasil pengujian yang diperoleh yaitu jumlah error yang dideteksi pada CRC-8 rata-rata jumlah error adalah 2.750 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error bit informasi  1.957 bit. Sedangkan untuk CRC-16  rata-rata jumlah error adalah 3.520 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error per bit informasi yaitu 1.971 bit. Dari pengujian membuktikan bahwa kemampuan CRC-16 dalam menjaga keamanan data bit informasi jauh lebih baik dibandingkan dengan CRC-8.

  1. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation: A useful tool to understand the physiological effects of TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications of TMS. Here, we start by delineating three main challenges that need to be addressed to unravel their full potential. This comprises (i) identifying and dealing with the model uncertainties, (ii) establishing a clear link between the induced fields and the physiological stimulation effects, and (iii) improving the usability of the tools for field calculation to the level that they can be easily used by non-experts. We then introduce a new version of our pipeline for field calculations (www.simnibs.org) that substantially simplifies setting up and running TMS and tDCS simulations based on Finite-Element Methods (FEM). We conclude with a brief outlook on how the new version of SimNIBS can help to target the above identified challenges.

  2. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field). (paper)

  3. Targeted neural network interventions for auditory hallucinations: Can TMS inform DBS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph J; Krystal, John H; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gerrard, Jason Lee; Corlett, Philip R

    2017-09-29

    The debilitating and refractory nature of auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders has stimulated investigations into neuromodulatory interventions that target the aberrant neural networks associated with them. Internal or invasive forms of brain stimulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) are currently being explored for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The process of developing and implementing DBS is limited by symptom clustering within psychiatric constructs as well as a scarcity of causal tools with which to predict response, refine targeting or guide clinical decisions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an external or non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has shown some promise as a therapeutic intervention for AH but remains relatively underutilized as an investigational probe of clinically relevant neural networks. In this editorial, we propose that TMS has the potential to inform DBS by adding individualized causal evidence to an evaluation processes otherwise devoid of it in patients. Although there are significant limitations and safety concerns regarding DBS, the combination of TMS with computational modeling of neuroimaging and neurophysiological data could provide critical insights into more robust and adaptable network modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of edaravone in combined with rTMS on the free radicals and neurological function in patients with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of edaravone in combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on the free radicals and neurological function in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: A total of 90 patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI who were admitted in our hospital from September, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given blood pressure reduction, intracranial pressure reduction, blood lipid regulation, anti-platelet aggregation, symptomatic and supportive treatments, edaravone (30 mg + normal saline (100 mL, ivdrip, 2 times/d, continuously for 14 d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional rTMS. 7 d-treatment was regarded as one course, and the patients were treated for 4 courses. The morning fasting venous blood before treatment, 7 d and 14 d after treatment in the two groups was collected to detect NO, NOS, SOD, MDA, S-100β, and NSE. NIHSS before treatment, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d after treatment was evaluated. Results: NO, NOS, and MDA levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while SOD level was significantly higher than that in the control group. S-100β and NSE levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. NIHSS score after treatment in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusions: Edaravone in combined with rTMS in the treatment of ACI can significantly eliminate the free radicals, effectively improve the neurological function, and enhance the long-term efficacy.

  5. Reproducibility of Single-Pulse, Paired-Pulse, and Intermittent Theta-Burst TMS Measures in Healthy Aging, Type-2 Diabetes, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fried

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS can be used to assess neurophysiology and the mechanisms of cortical brain plasticity in humans in vivo. As the use of these measures in specific populations (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease; AD increases, it is critical to understand their reproducibility (i.e., test–retest reliability in the populations of interest.Objective: Reproducibility of TMS measures was evaluated in older adults, including healthy, AD, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM groups.Methods: Participants received two identical neurophysiological assessments within a year including motor thresholds, baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF, and MEP changes following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS. Cronbach’s α coefficients were calculated to assess reproducibility. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate factors related to intraindividual variability.Results: Reproducibility was highest for motor thresholds, followed by baseline MEPs, SICI and LICI, and was lowest for ICF and iTBS aftereffects. The AD group tended to show higher reproducibility than T2DM or controls. Intraindividual variability of baseline MEPs was related to age and variability of RMT, while the intraindividual variability in post-iTBS measures was related to baseline MEP variability, intervisit duration, and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF polymorphism.Conclusion: Increased reproducibility in AD may reflect pathophysiological declines in the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms. Reproducibility of iTBS aftereffects can be improved by keeping baseline MEPs consistent, controlling for BDNF genotype, and waiting at least a week between visits.Significance: These findings provide the first direct assessment of reproducibility of TMS measures in older clinical populations. Reproducibility coefficients may be used to adjust

  6. Challenges in comparing the acute cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) vs. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Schuchinsky, Maria; Gerkensmeier, Imke; Loo, Colleen

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment. Thus, acute and longer-term differences in cognitive outcomes both need to be investigated at precisely defined timeframes and with similar instruments assessing comparable functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Terreaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle. Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax⁡ /Mmax⁡ and T/Mmax⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  8. Benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for spastic subjects: clinical, functional, and biomechanical parameters for lower limb and walking in five hemiparetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreaux, Luc; Gross, Raphael; Leboeuf, Fabien; Desal, Hubert; Hamel, Olivier; Nguyen, Jean Paul; Pérot, Chantal; Buffenoir, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz) were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle). Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in H max⁡ /M max⁡ and T/M max⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  9. Effects of climate dependent modifications of the local conditions on the fauna of selected coastal ecological systems of the middle Baltic Sea. Final report; Auswirkungen von klimaabhaengigen Aenderungen der Standortbedingungen auf die Fauna ausgewaehlter Kuestenoekosysteme der mittleren Ostsee. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Motzfeld, G.; Schultz, R.; Loch, R.; Wohlrab, B.; Cartellieri, M.; Rulik, B.

    2000-07-01

    In the project 'Effects of climate dependent modifications of the local conditions on the fauna of selected coastal ecological systems of the middle Baltic Sea' carabid beetles and spiders were examined with pitfall traps in 1997 and 1998 on two different meadows at the southern Baltic Sea (NE Germany). The investigation areas were the 'Sundisch Meadow', located in the National Park 'Vorpommersche Bodenlandschaft', and the 'Karrendorf Meadows' near Greifswald. The epigeic fauna were examined with five parallel pitfall traps on transects in 20, 40, 60, 100 and 150 cm above NH. In both years investigations of the reference area seawards of the former dike took place on the Karrendorf Meadows, since this area is annually examined in the context of the monitoring 'Revitalisation of the Karrendorf Meadows'. On both investigation areas the regional climatic conditions and the hydrographic situation were registered. Additionally, several soil-parameters were measured at all trap locations: Carbon content, N-content, N{sub C}-relation, pH value, salinity, grain size, water content, damp and dry bulk density. In the context of the long-term monitoring programme 'Revitalisation of the Karrendorf Meadows' the development of the ground beetles and spiders was studied after the vitalisation of this former coastal transgression mire. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Teilprojektes 'Auswirkungen von klimaabhaengigen Aenderungen der Standortbedingungen auf die Fauna ausgewaehlter Kuestenoekosysteme der mittleren Ostsee' fanden 1997 und 1998 Bodenfallenuntersuchungen auf der Sundischen Wiese im Nationalpark Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft und auf den Karrendorfer Wiesen bei Greifswald statt. Untersucht wurde die Laufkaefer und Spinnenfauna mit Hilfe eines Transsektes von jeweils fuenf parallelen Bodenfallen in den Hoehenstufen 20, 40, 60, 100 und 150 cm ueber HN. Zusaetzlich wurde 1997 auf der Sundischen Wiese eine

  10. Investigation of the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}-concentrations during the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment-Experiment. Development of universal solutions; Untersuchung der Auswirkungen erhoehter atmosphaerischer CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen innerhalb des Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment-Experimentes. Ableitung allgemeiner Modelloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartschall, T.; Michaelis, P. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Globaler Wandel und Natuerliche Systeme; Graefe, J.; Waloszczyk, K. [Professor-Hellriegel-Institut e.V., Bernburg (Germany); Grossman-Clarke, S.

    1999-06-01

    An improved version of the wheat model demeter including modules for important and commonly usable ecosystem compartments (i) light interception in homogenous and rowed canopies (ii) energy and gas exchange including photosynthesis (iii) water, temperature, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in mineral soils was developed. Due to the generic properties of the detailed model solutions qualitative and quantitative explanations about direct and indirect impacts of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Graminaceae (C{sub 3}-Type) under limited water and nitrogen supply are possible. These solutions have been tested under a wide range of geographic (33 bis 52 N), soil and climatic conditions. The model was validated on a wide spectrum of temporal (time steps ranging from one minute up to one day, simulation periods ranging from several hours to several years) and spatial scales (Submodel photosynthesis of leaf level, the entire model on canopy level, regional yield studies for the entire State of Brandenburg). (orig.) [German] Es wurde eine verbesserte Version des Modells demeter mit modularem Aufbau fuer wichtige und allgemein anwendbare Oekosystemteile (i) Lichtverteilung in homogenen geschlossenen bzw. gereihten Bestaenden; (ii) Energie- und Gasaustausch einschliesslich Photosynthese; (iii) Dynamik von Wasser, Temperatur, Kohlenstoff- und Stickstoffumsatz in Mineralboeden; entwickelt. Durch den generischen Charakter der detaillierten Modelloesungen sind qualitative und quantitative Aussagen zu direkten und indirekten Auswirkungen erhoehter atmosphaerischer CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf Graminaceae des C{sub 3}-Typs bei Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung unter breiteren geographischen (33 bis 52 N), Boden- und klimatischen Bedingungen moeglich. Das Modell wurde auf einem breiten Spektrum zeitlicher (Taktzeiten von einer Minute bis zu einem Tag, Simulationszeiten von mehreren Stunden bis zu mehreren Jahren) und raeumlicher Skalen (Teilmodell Photosynthese auf

  11. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-generated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects’ SoA during self-generated movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-generated movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition, over the vertex (CZ (sham condition or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-generated movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P=0.002 and the stimulation-free control (P=0.042. The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements.

  12. Stability analysis for the TMS method: Influence of high spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Axel; Elster, Clemens; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Schulz, Michael

    2007-06-01

    The Traceable Multi Sensor (TMS) system is a scanning system for the measurement of the topography of large optical surfaces. The system uses a compact interferometer with an aperture of some millimetres to realize multiple distance sensors and an autocollimator for the angle measurement. In contrast to common stitching techniques, the systematic sensor errors are calculated in addition to the entire topography by the TMS algorithm. Additionally, piston and tilt at each position of the interferometer are determined by the algorithm. An essential requirement for the algorithm is the exact lateral positioning of the sensor at given locations. The goal of this paper is to investigate the influence of a class of error sources on the resulting topography estimation using computer simulations. The errors of this class result in inexact measurement positions of the distance sensors. Especially the lateral positioning errors of the scanning stage lead to increasing errors for short wavelengths. For topography wavelengths below 3mm with an amplitude of 100nm the resulting topography error increases to 3nm and more. For longer wavelengths the positioning errors are no longer the dominant error source and the root mean square error of the resulting topography is approximately 1 nm for positioning errors with a standard deviation of 5 μm. The pixel distance error and distortion of the interferometer strongly influence the topography measurement of specimens with large deviations from a plane. The simulations show that for a topography with a peak to valley of 50 μm the root mean square error of the reconstructed topography is below 10 nm. Furthermore, a possibility to compensate the lateral positioning error of the scanning stage is presented which makes the TMS method nearly independent of positioning errors of the scanning stage. As a consequence, it is possible to use systems of non equidistant distance sensors whose lateral distances are independent of the positioning

  13. Noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (TMS/tDCS)-From insights into human memory to therapy of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, Roland; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2008-04-01

    Noninvasive stimulation of the brain by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has driven important discoveries in the field of human memory functions. Stand-alone or in combination with other brain mapping techniques noninvasive brain stimulation can assess issues such as location and timing of brain activity, connectivity and plasticity of neural circuits and functional relevance of a circumscribed brain area to a given cognitive task. In this emerging field, major advances in technology have been made in a relatively short period. New stimulation protocols and, especially, the progress in the application of tDCS have made it possible to obtain longer and much clearer inhibitory or facilitatory effects even after the stimulation has ceased. In this introductory review, we outline the basic principles, discuss technical limitations and describe how noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to study human memory functions in vivo. Though improvement of cognitive functions through noninvasive brain stimulation is promising, it still remains an exciting challenge to extend the use of TMS and tDCS from research tools in neuroscience to the treatment of neurological and psychiatric patients.

  14. Normalizing biased spatial attention with parietal rTMS in a patient with focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-01-01

    We report the following case to highlight the possible relevance of biased spatial attention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). Deficient sensorimotor inhibition is a prominent pathophysiological feature of FHD [1,2]. Low-frequency repetitive Trascranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over contralateral...... premotor cortex (PMC) can reinforce cortical inhibition and improve motor performance and dystonic symptoms in some patients [3,4]. Here we report the case of a 41-year-old right-handed man (23 years of education) with severe task-dependent FHD, affecting the right hand index and middle fingers....

  15. An Approach to Analyzing Correlation between Songs/Artists Using iTMS Playlists

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Yufeng; Ito, Eisuke; Ikeda, Daisuke; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2005-01-01

    Digital audio devices have been changing music entertainment environment. Those devices are bundled with music jukebox software, such as Apple’s iTunes, Sony’s CONNECT player. Jukebox software not only enables us to recode, play, search, purchase music on PC, but also to manage playlist. Anybody can make his/her own playlists, and play music according to the list. In this paper, we focus on iTMS (iTunse Music Stroe) playlists and use them as the data minig resources for a music recommendation...

  16. Effects of low frequency rTMS treatment on brain networks for inner speech in patients with schizophrenia and auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Leonie; Liemburg, Edith; Vercammen, Ans; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2017-08-01

    Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation. The effects of rTMS on neural networks were investigated with an inner speech task during fMRI. Changes within and between neural networks were analyzed using Independent Component Analysis. rTMS of the left and bilateral TPJ areas resulted in a weaker network contribution of the left supramarginal gyrus to the bilateral fronto-temporal network. Left-sided rTMS resulted in stronger network contributions of the right superior temporal gyrus to the auditory-sensorimotor network, right inferior gyrus to the left fronto-parietal network, and left middle frontal gyrus to the default mode network. Bilateral rTMS was associated with a predominant inhibitory effect on network contribution. Sham stimulation showed different patterns of change compared to active rTMS. rTMS of the left temporo-parietal region decreased the contribution of the left supramarginal gyrus to the bilateral fronto-temporal network, which may reduce the likelihood of speech intrusions. On the other hand, left rTMS appeared to increase the contribution of functionally connected regions involved in perception, cognitive control and self-referential processing. These findings hint to potential neural mechanisms underlying rTMS for hallucinations but need corroboration in larger samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-observer reliability assessments in time motion studies: the foundation for meaningful clinical workflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A; Bai, Shasha; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert; Embi, Peter; Payne, Philip R O

    2013-01-01

    Understanding clinical workflow is critical for researchers and healthcare decision makers. Current workflow studies tend to oversimplify and underrepresent the complexity of clinical workflow. Continuous observation time motion studies (TMS) could enhance clinical workflow studies by providing rich quantitative data required for in-depth workflow analyses. However, methodological inconsistencies have been reported in continuous observation TMS, potentially reducing the validity of TMS' data and limiting their contribution to the general state of knowledge. We believe that a cornerstone in standardizing TMS is to ensure the reliability of the human observers. In this manuscript we review the approaches for inter-observer reliability assessment (IORA) in a representative sample of TMS focusing on clinical workflow. We found that IORA is an uncommon practice, inconsistently reported, and often uses methods that provide partial and overestimated measures of agreement. Since a comprehensive approach to IORA is yet to be proposed and validated, we provide initial recommendations for IORA reporting in continuous observation TMS.

  18. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  19. Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellum Modifies the TMS-Evoked N100 Potential, a Marker of GABA Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allanah Harrington

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP, a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS, continuous TBS (cTBS or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions. The first 8 participants received TBS at a stimulus intensity of 80% of active motor threshold (AMT, while the remainder received 90% of AMT. Motor evoked potentials (MEP and TEP were recorded before and after each treatment, by stimulating the first dorsal interosseus area of the left motor cortex. Analysis of the 13 right handed participants showed that iTBS at 90% of AMT increased the N100 amplitude compared to sham and cTBS, without significantly altering MEP amplitude. cTBS at 80% of active motor threshold decreased the N100 amplitude and cTBS overall reduced resting MEP amplitude. The study demonstrates effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on inhibitory cortical networks that may be useful for treatment of neurological conditions associated with dysfunctional intracortical inhibition.

  20. Major facilitator superfamily porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli appear to have evolved positionally dissimilar catalytic residues without rearrangement of 3-TMS repeat units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västermark, Ake; Lunt, Bryan; Saier, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Based on alleged functional residue correspondences between FucP and LacY, a recent study has resulted in a proposed model of 3-TMS unit rearrangements [Madej et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013;110:5870-5874]. We rebut this theory, using 7 different lines of evidence. Our observations suggest that these two transporters are homologous throughout their lengths, having evolved from a common ancestor without repeat unit rearrangements. We exploit the availability of the high-resolution XylE crystal structures in multiple conformations including the inward-facing state to render possible direct comparisons with LacY. Based on a Δdistance map, we confirm the conclusion of Quistgaard et al. [Nat Struct Mol Biol 2013;20:766-768] that the N-terminal 6 TMS halves of these transporters are internally less mobile than the second halves during the conformational transition from the outward occluded state to the inward occluded state and inward occluded state to inward open state. These observations, together with those of Madej et al. [2013], lead to the suggestion that functionally equivalent catalytic residues involved in substrate binding and transport catalysis have evolved in dissimilar positions, but apparently often in similar positions in the putative 3-TMS repeat units, from a single structural scaffold without intragenic rearrangement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) Porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli Appear to have Evolved Positionally Dissimilar Catalytic Residues without Rearrangement of 3-TMS Repeat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västermark, Åke; Lunt, Bryan; Saier, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Based on alleged functional residue correspondences between FucP and LacY, a recent study has resulted in a proposed model of 3-TMS unit rearrangements [Madej et al., 2013]. We rebut this theory, using seven different lines of evidence. Our observations suggest that these two transporters are homologous throughout their lengths, having evolved from a common ancestor without repeat unit rearrangements. We exploit the availability of the high resolution XylE crystal structures in multiple conformations including the inward facing state to render possible direct comparisons with LacY. Based on a Δdistance map, we confirm the conclusion of Quistgaard et al. 2013 that the N-terminal 6 TMS halves of these transporters are internally less mobile than the second halves during the conformational transition from the outward occluded state to the inward occluded state and inward occluded state to inward open state. These observations, together with those of Madej et al., 2013, lead to the suggestion that functionally equivalent catalytic residues involved in substrate binding and transport catalysis have evolved in dissimilar positions, but apparently often in similar positions in the putative 3-TMS repeat units, from a single structural scaffold without intragenic rearrangement. PMID:24603210

  2. The Effect of Lamotrigine and Levetiracetam on TMS-Evoked EEG Responses Depends on Stimulation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Premoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT, the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase. The experiment followed a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design, involving a single dose of either lamotrigine or levetiracetam. When a drug-induced increase of RMT occurred, post-drug measurements involved two blocks of stimulations, using unadjusted and adjusted stimulation intensity. A cluster based permutation analysis of differences in TEP amplitude between adjusted and unadjusted stimulation intensity showed that lamotrigine induced a stronger modulation of the N45 TEP component compared to levetiracetam. Results highlight the impact of adjusting stimulation intensity.

  3. A neural mass model of interconnected regions simulates rhythm propagation observed via TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, F; Zavaglia, M; Massimini, M; Rosanova, M; Ursino, M

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of cortical rhythms represents an important aspect of modern neuroscience, to understand how the brain realizes its functions. Recent data suggest that different regions in the brain may exhibit distinct electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms when perturbed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and that these rhythms can change due to the connectivity among regions. In this context, in silico simulations may help the validation of these hypotheses that would be difficult to be verified in vivo. Neural mass models can be very useful to simulate specific aspects of electrical brain activity and, above all, to analyze and identify the overall frequency content of EEG in a cortical region of interest (ROI). In this work we implemented a model of connectivity among cortical regions to fit the impulse responses in three ROIs recorded during a series of TMS/EEG experiments performed in five subjects and using three different impulse intensities. In particular we investigated Brodmann Area (BA) 19 (occipital lobe), BA 7 (parietal lobe) and BA 6 (frontal lobe). Results show that the model can reproduce the natural rhythms of the three regions quite well, acting on a few internal parameters. Moreover, the model can explain most rhythm changes induced by stimulation of another region, and inter-subject variability, by estimating just a few long-range connectivity parameters among ROIs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS on parietal and premotor cortex during planning of reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Busan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral activation during planning of reaching movements occurs both in the superior parietal lobule (SPL and premotor cortex (PM, and their activation seems to take place in parallel. METHODOLOGY: The activation of the SPL and PM has been investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS during planning of reaching movements under visual guidance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A facilitory effect was found when TMS was delivered on the parietal cortex at about half of the time from sight of the target to hand movement, independently of target location in space. Furthermore, at the same stimulation time, a similar facilitory effect was found in PM, which is probably related to movement preparation. CONCLUSIONS: This data contributes to the understanding of cortical dynamics in the parieto-frontal network, and suggests that it is possible to interfere with the planning of reaching movements at different cortical points within a particular time window. Since similar effects may be produced at similar times on both the SPL and PM, parallel processing of visuomotor information is likely to take place in these regions.

  5. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal pathway by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) may produce depression of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This depression is commonly assumed to reflect changes in cortical circuits. However, little is known about rTMS-induced effects on subcortical circuits. Therefore, the present st......-either at M1 and/or the CM synapse. As the early facilitation reflects activation of direct CM projections, the most likely site of action is the synapse of the CM neurons onto spinal motoneurons....

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of chronic widespread pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, David H; Zarkowski, Paul; Krashin, Daniel; Rho, Wang-Ku; Wajdik, Chandra; Joesch, Jutta M; Haynor, David R; Buchwald, Dedra; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to assess transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of chronic widespread pain. Nineteen participants were randomized into 2 groups: one group receiving active TMS (n = 7) and another group receiving sham stimulation (n = 11) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. During sham stimulation, subjects heard a sound similar to the sound heard by those receiving the active treatment and received an active electrical stimulus to the scalp. The stimulation protocol consisted of 15 sessions completed within a 4-week period. Blind assessments were done at baseline and after each 5 sessions followed by blind assessments at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last TMS sessions. The primary outcome variable was a pain measure, the Gracely Box Intensity Scale (BIRS). The percentage of subjects who guessed that they were receiving TMS was similar in the 2 groups. Both the TMS group and the sham group showed a statistically significant reduction in the BIRS scores from baseline during the acute phase of treatment and the follow-up phase. However, the TMS and sham groups did not differ in the change in the BIRS scores. Although some previous clinical studies and basic science studies of TMS in treating pain are promising, this study found no difference in the analgesic effect of TMS and sham stimulation. Future studies should use a sham condition that attempts to simulate the sound and sensation of the TMS stimulation. Stimulus location and other stimulus parameters should be explored in future studies.

  7. Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rTMS in Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina W.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe treatment method with few side effects However, efficacy for various psychiatric disorders is currently not clear Data sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2008 using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase

  8. Effects of climate change on the Swiss economy (national influences); Auswirkungen der Klimaaenderung auf die Schweizer Volkswirtschaft (nationale Einfluesse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to estimate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the Swiss economy. The authors state that no grave damage to the Swiss economy that could be caused by climate change are to be expected by the year 2030. Estimates for the year 2050 are presented and a prognosis showing a substantial increase of damage after this date is presented. Tourism and energy installations are noted as being the areas that will be most affected. Other areas affected include infrastructure, human health, water supplies, forestry and the farming economy. The methodologies used in the preparation of the study are described. Scenarios are presented and discussed. An overview of the costs incurred as a result of climate-related change is presented.

  9. Monitoring effects of river restoration on groundwater with radon; Ueberwachung der Auswirkungen von Flussaufweitungen auf das Grundwasser mittels Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Eduard [Eawag, Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    The restoration of the perialpine river Toess in a floodplain of northern Switzerland (Linsental) included the removal of bank reinforcements and tracer studies in the river and in oberservation wells of the adjacent alluvial groundwater. The river water is continuously recharging the aquifer system and the groundwater is used extensively as drinking water. Radon activity concentrations of freshly infiltrated groundwater are interpreted as radon groundwater age between the river and a well. A first flood after the restoration operations resulted in a widening of the river bed and in a reduction of the flow distance to the wells. Sixteen days after a second flood, the results of radon measurements were compared with those from before the restoration. The radon age of the groundwater between the river and the wells decreased, probably as a result of the reduction of the flow distances. Concentrations of autochthonous and coliform bacteria increased after the restoration operation and even more one day after the first flood. Thus the findings on the bacteria corroborate the interpretation of the radon concentrations. The restoration has not yet reduced the quality of the groundwater, which is pumped for drinking water. The study is contributing to the solution of land-use conflicts between river restoration and the supply of drinking water from the alluvial groundwater. (orig.) [German] Die Renaturierung des voralpinen Flusses Toess in der Schotterebene des Linsentals (suedlich Winterthur, Nordschweiz) mit einer Befreiung von seinen Uferverbauungen gab Anlass zu Traceruntersuchungen im Fluss und im Grundwasser des kiessandigen Schotters. In diesem Gebiet infiltriert der Fluss ueberall und immer natuerlicherweise ins Grundwasser, welches stark als Trinkwasser genutzt wird. Radon-Aktivitaetskonzentrationen von frisch infiltriertem Grundwasser wurden interpretiert als Radon-Grundwasseralter fuer Strecken zwischen dem Fluss und Grundwasserbeobachtungsrohren. Nach einem

  10. Consequences of nuclear accidents for human beings and the environment; Auswirkungen nuklearer Unfaelle auf den Menschen und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-03-15

    In the 1950s and 1960s many countries believed that they could become energy self-efficient with the help of nuclear power plants. For this reason, nuclear energy experienced internationally an enormous upswing during these years. In the following decades, many nuclear power plants were planned and built. Despite a few critics, who drew attention to the dangers of nuclear power use, an end to the upturn was not foreseeable. But in 1979, the nuclear accident in Three Mile Island in Harrisburg (USA) caused international attention and the critics of the nuclear power became stronger. However, many Europeans only were aware of the danger by nuclear power plants when in 1986 the nuclear disaster occurred in the Ukrainian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. The effects of this nuclear disaster were also felt in Central Europe. Recently, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant has prompted a nuclear phase-out in Germany and the rest of the world. This work focuses not on the political implications of these nuclear accidents, but rather on the impacts of nuclear accidents on human beings, animals and the environment. In particular, reports on the incidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima as well as studies on their effects are analysed and summarised.

  11. The effects of forecast errors on the merchandising of wind power; Auswirkungen von Prognosefehlern auf die Vermarktung von Windstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von

    2012-02-28

    A permanent balance between consumption and generation is essential for a stable supply of electricity. In order to ensure this balance, all relevant load data have to be announced for the following day. Consequently, a day-ahead forecast of the wind power generation is required, which also forms the basis for the sale of the wind power at the wholesale market. The main subject of the study is the short-term power supply, which compensates errors in wind power forecasting for balancing the wind power forecast errors at short notice. These forecast errors effects the revenues and the expenses by selling and buying power in the day-ahead, intraday and balance energy market. These price effects resulting from the forecast errors are derived from an empirical analysis. In a scenario for the year 2020 the potential of conventional power plants to supply power at short notice is evaluated from a technical and economic point of view by a time series analysis and a unit commitment simulation.

  12. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2014-01-01

    A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC) is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA). We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection...

  13. Functional anatomy of top-down visuospatial processing in the human brain : evidence from rTMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, A; Schutter, DJLG; Ramsey, NF; van Honk, J; Kessels, RPC; Hoogduin, JM; Postma, A; Kahn, RS; de Haan, EHF

    The hypothesis was tested that visuospatial mental imagery relies on processing in the posterior parietal lobe. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a cross-over, sham-controlled design, we compared involvement of right posterior parietal cortex with primary visual cortex.

  14. Effective electric fields along realistic DTI-based neural trajectories for modelling the stimulation mechanisms of TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Leemans, A.; Dupré, L.

    2015-01-01

    In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an applied alternating magnetic field induces an electric field in the brain that can interact with the neural system. It is generally assumed that this induced electric field is the crucial effect exciting a certain region of the brain. More specifically,

  15. Introducing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and its property of causal inference in investigating brain-function relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van; Panksepp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method capable of transiently modulating neural excitability. Depending on the stimulation parameters information processing in the brain can be either enhanced or disrupted. This way the contribution of different brain areas involved in mental processes

  16. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy and neurological subjects: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eTurriziani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during recognition memory retrieval.We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs and in 8 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings and words were used in different experiments.rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory of verbal and non verbal material in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance.Bilateral recruitment of the DLPFC could represent a dysfunctional use of brain resources in recognition memory. Inhibitory rTMS of the right DLPFC may modulate the activity in this dysfunctional network enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI.

  17. Dose distributions of asymmetric fields: comparison of the Helax-TMS with our developed 2D-program ASYMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the commercial 3D-treatment planning system Helax TMS to a simple 2D program ASYMM, concerning the calculation of dose distributions for asymmetric fields. The dose calculation algorithm in Helax-TMS is based on the polyenergetic pencil beam model of Ahnesjoe. Our own developed 2D treatment planning program ASYMM, based on the Thomas and Thomas method for asymmetric open fields, has been extended to calculate the dose distributions for open and wedged fields. Using both methods, dose distributions for various asymmetric open and wedged fields of a 4-MV Linear accelerator were calculated and compared with measured data in water. The agreement of the Helax-TMS and the ASYMM with the experiment was good, whereas ASYMM showed a better accuracy for larger asymmetric angles. The explanation for this result is based on the consideration of beam hardening within the flattening filter and edges for different asymmetric settings in ASYMM algorithm. The TMS, however, owns the diverse possibilities that the 3D calculation and corresponding representation provide and holds better application opportunities in clinical routine. (orig.) [de

  18. 78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Docket No. MCF 21054] Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS Corporation--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc. (Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC...

  19. Effect of low-rTMS in combined with edaravone on the inflammatory cytokines and cerebral metabolites in patients with cerebral infarction and aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of low-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (low-rTMS in combined with edaravone on the inflammatory cytokines and cerebral metabolites in patients with cerebral infarction and aphasia. Methods: A total of 70 patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI and motor aphasia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group, 35 in each group. The patients in the control group were given blood pressure reduction, intracranial pressure reduction, blood lipid regulation, anti-platelet aggregation, symptomatic and supportive treatments, edaravone (30 mg + normal saline (100 mL, ivdrip, 2 times/d, continuously for 2 weeks. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional rTMS, continuously for 10 d. Hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels before treatment, 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment in the two groups were detected. MRS was used to detect NAA and Cho in Broca district before treatment, 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment in the two groups. ABC was used to evaluate the linguistic function before treatment, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months in the two groups. Results: Hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. NAA value on the left side 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05, while Cho value was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05. ABC score 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone in combined with low-rTMS in the treatment of ACI can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction, improve the neurological deficit degree, and promote the

  20. Brain plasticity in the adult: modulation of function in amblyopia with rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin; Mansouri, Behzad; Koski, Lisa; Hess, Robert F

    2008-07-22

    Amblyopia is a cortically based visual disorder caused by disruption of vision during a critical early developmental period. It is often thought to be a largely intractable problem in adult patients because of a lack of neuronal plasticity after this critical period [1]; however, recent advances have suggested that plasticity is still present in the adult amblyopic visual cortex [2-6]. Here, we present data showing that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the visual cortex can temporarily improve contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic visual cortex. The results indicate continued plasticity of the amblyopic visual system in adulthood and open the way for a potential new therapeutic approach to the treatment of amblyopia.

  1. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [What is needed for rTMS to become a treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, J R; Luck, D; Chassagnon, S; Offerlin-Meyer, I; Pham, B-T

    2007-12-01

    Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate cortical excitability. Consequently, it appears appealing for the treatment of some affections such as depression or hallucinations. There is already some proof that the concept is valid, but rTMS is slow in progressing in the therapeutic field as a true armamentum. Indeed its effects are of short duration and even inconstant from one patient to the next. These drawbacks depend on certain factors that we will discuss. Until now, there has been inadequate control of the stimulation site. It is possible that this site could vary on an individual basis. It seems logical to propose the use of functional imaging for such a purpose, but its use should be adapted to the symptom. Even after localizing the site, the coil has to be placed accurately. This could be facilitated by a neuronavigator. Stimulation protocols are currently defined by three parameters: the frequency modulating the cortical action either as a stimulation (>5 Hz) or an inhibition (<1 Hz), the intensity and the number of stimuli influencing, notably, the amplitude and duration of the effect. Unfortunately, the effect is inconstant in a given patient and paradoxical reactions have been observed in more than 15% of normal individuals. Improved reliability and amplification of the effect rely on the better control of other parameters: pattern of stimulation, pre and post-conditioning, state of the cortex during stimulation, associated medications, endogenous idiosyncratic factors and related pathology. We will review the current physiological literature to discuss the possible options that would constitute a rational basis for setting up more efficient protocols.

  3. Pre-clinical test of the virtual wedge option of a PRIMUS linear accelerator and verification of the calculation algorithm in the treatment planning system HEAX-TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesheva-Atanassova, N.; Balabanova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to check the long-time stability of the wedge angle and the wedge factor (WF) of Virtual Wedges for 6 and 18 MV photon beams, and the accuracy of the TPS HELAX-TMS, in order to accept the virtual wedge technique for patient treatment. All measurements - dose profiles, central axis dose distributions and applied dose for pre-calculated monitor units, have been performed in water, applying a calibrated 0.3 cm 3 ion chamber, 47 ion chamber array LA48 and the beam analyzing system MP3. The measured data has been compared with the corresponding planned data. During a four years time period the long time stability checking revealed no changes in the central axis distributions and variations of the wedge angles are within ± 2 deg. The values of WFs and the differences between calculated and measured dose values are in the acceptable limits, except for the 6 MV beam with wedge angle 60 deg and field size 20x20 cm 2 , where the deviation reaches 6.5%. The dose profile for depth up to 10 cm showed a good coincidence. Non acceptable deviations have been found for beam profiles at depth 20 cm and field size 20x20 cm 2 for both 6 and 18 MV. The Virtual Wedge Option of PRIMUS in combination with HELAX-TMS can be applied with confidence for radiotherapy with wedged beams except for the combination of field 20x20 cm 2 and angle 60 deg

  4. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle eYoung-Bernier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI, a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. Methods: SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 HZ every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times. MEP responses (120% RMT were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Results: Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n=13 young and 10 older adults showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Conclusion: Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS.

  5. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Bernier, Marielle; Tanguay, Annick N; Davidson, Patrick S R; Tremblay, François

    2014-01-01

    Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 Hz every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times). MEP responses (120% resting motor threshold (RMT)) were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n = 13 young and 10 older adults) showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS.

  6. Impact of different intensities of intermittent theta burst stimulation on the cortical properties during TMS-EEG and working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Wook; Rogasch, Nigel C; Hoy, Kate E; Sullivan, Caley M; Cash, Robin F H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2018-02-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS. This study examined the influence of intensity on the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of iTBS in the prefrontal cortex. Sixteen healthy participants received iTBS over prefrontal cortex at either 50, 75 or 100% resting motor threshold in separate sessions. Single-pulse TMS and concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess changes in cortical reactivity measured as TMS-evoked potentials and oscillations. The n-back task was used to assess changes in working memory performance. The data can be summarised as an inverse U-shape relationship between intensity and iTBS plastic effects, where 75% iTBS yielded the largest neurophysiological changes. Improvement in reaction time in the 3-back task was supported by the change in alpha power, however, comparison between conditions revealed no significant differences. The assumption that higher intensity results in greater neuromodulatory effects may be false, at least in healthy individuals, and should be carefully considered for clinical populations. Neurophysiological changes associated with working memory following iTBS suggest functional relevance. However, the effects of different intensities on behavioural performance remain elusive in the present healthy sample. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intensified secondary prevention intending a reduction of recurrent events in TIA and minor stroke patients (INSPiRE-TMS: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leistner Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with recent stroke or TIA are at high risk for new vascular events. Several evidence based strategies in secondary prevention of stroke are available but frequently underused. Support programs with multifactorial risk factor modifications after stroke or TIA have not been investigated in large-scale prospective controlled trials so far. INSPiRE-TMS is a prospective, multi-center, randomized open intervention trial for intensified secondary prevention after minor stroke and TIA. Methods/design Patients with acute TIA or minor stroke admitted to the participating stroke centers are screened and recruited during in-hospital stay. Patients are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to intervention (support program and control (usual care arms. Inclusion of 2.082 patients is planned. The support program includes cardiovascular risk factor measurement and feedback, monitoring of medication adherence, coaching in lifestyle modifications, and active involvement of relatives. Standardized motivational interviewing is used to assess and enhance patients’ motivation. Primary objective is a reduction of new major vascular events defined as nonfatal stroke and myocardial infarction or vascular death. Recruitment time is planned for 3.5 years, follow up time is at least 2 years for every patient resulting in a total study time of 5 years (first patient in to last patient out. Discussion Given the high risk for vascular re-events in acute stroke and the available effective strategies in secondary prevention, the INSPIRE-TMS support program has the potential to lead to a relevant reduction of recurrent events and a prolongation of the event-free survival time. The trial will provide the basis for the decision whether an intensified secondary prevention program after stroke should be implemented into regular care. A cost-effectiveness evaluation will be performed. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: 01586702

  8. What is said or how it is said makes a difference: role of the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody as revealed by repetitive TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Aleman, André; van Diessen, Eric; Berckmoes, Celine; Vingerhoets, Guy; Kahn, René S

    2005-06-01

    Emotional signals in spoken language can be conveyed by semantic as well as prosodic cues. We investigated the role of the fronto-parietal operculum, a somatosensory area where the lips, tongue and jaw are represented, in the right hemisphere to detection of emotion in prosody vs. semantics. A total of 14 healthy volunteers participated in the present experiment, which involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with frameless stereotaxy. As predicted, compared with sham stimulation, TMS over the right fronto-parietal operculum differentially affected the reaction times for detection of emotional prosody vs. emotional semantics, showing that there is a dissociation at a neuroanatomical level. Detection of withdrawal emotions (fear and sadness) in prosody was delayed significantly by TMS. No effects of TMS were observed for approach emotions (happiness and anger). We propose that the right fronto-parietal operculum is not globally involved in emotion evaluation, but sensitive to specific forms of emotional discrimination and emotion types.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cocaine use: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Alberto; Leggio, Lorenzo; Saladini, Marina; Ermani, Mario; Bonci, Antonello; Gallimberti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent animal studies demonstrate that compulsive cocaine seeking strongly reduces prelimbic frontal cortex activity, while optogenetic stimulation of this brain area significantly inhibits compulsive cocaine seeking, providing a strong rationale for applying brain stimulation to reduce cocaine consumption. Thus, we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to test if dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation might prevent cocaine use in humans. Thirty-two cocaine-addicted patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (rTMS) on the left DLPFC, or to a control group (pharmacological agents) during a 29-day study (Stage 1). This was followed by a 63-day follow-up (Stage 2), during which all participants were offered rTMS treatment. Amongst the patients who completed Stage 1, 16 were in the rTMS group (100%) and 13 in the control group (81%). No significant adverse events were noted. During Stage 1, there were a significantly higher number of cocaine-free urine drug tests in the rTMS group compared to control (p=0.004). Craving for cocaine was also significantly lower in the rTMS group compared to the controls (p=0.038). Out of 13 patients who completed Stage 1 in the control group, 10 patients received rTMS treatment during Stage 2 and showed significant improvement with favorable outcomes becoming comparable to those of the rTMS group. The present preliminary findings support the safety of rTMS in cocaine-addicted patients, and suggest its potential therapeutic role for rTMS-driven PFC stimulation in reducing cocaine use, providing a strong rationale for developing larger placebo-controlled studies. Trial name: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in cocaine abusers, URL:〈http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15823943?q=&filters=&sort=&offset=8&totalResults=13530&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search〉, ISRCTN15823943. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Alternatives to the EEG levy. Possible effects of a reform of the energy transition financing on the industry; Alternativen zur EEG-Umlage. Moegliche Auswirkungen einer Reform der Energiewende-Finanzierung auf die Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyhing, Joerg [ECG Energie Consulting GmbH, Kehl (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Although it has been adjusted six times since the year 2000, it has not yet been possible to manage the unrestricted growth of the EEG levy. In the 2017 election year, it becomes therefore ever more obvious that an alternative way to finance the energy transition is high on the political agenda. This would lead to significant changes for energy-intensive companies, regardless of whether they have benefited from a release from the levy or not. At the same time, the alternatives currently discussed have quite different effects on the industrial companies concerned and thereby the industry location Germany. [German] Obwohl seit dem Jahr 2000 inzwischen sechsmal angepasst, ist es bisher nicht gelungen, den ungebremsten Anstieg der EEG-Umlage in den Griff zu bekommen. Im Wahljahr 2017 wird deshalb immer offensichtlicher, dass ein alternativer Weg zur Finanzierung der Energiewende weit oben auf der politischen Tagesordnung steht. Damit kaemen auf die energieintensiven Unternehmen signifikante Veraenderungen zu, und zwar unabhaengig davon, ob sie bisher von einer Befreiung von der Umlage profitiert haben oder nicht. Dabei haben die derzeit diskutierten Alternativen durchaus unterschiedliche Auswirkungen auf die betroffenen Industrieunternehmen und damit den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland.

  11. a randomized, placebo- controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Franziska van

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-tolerated non-invasive method, which has also been proved to have mild antidepressant effects and is used as “add-on“-therapy in treating pharmaco-resistant major depression. Objective: The efficacy of an escitalopram plus rTMS-combination-treatment was evaluated and compared to escitalopram plus sham rTMS. Methods: We designed a four week-, randomized, rater-blinded, and controlled add-on study with two trea...

  12. A multi-scale computational model of the effects of TMS on motor cortex [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The detailed biophysical mechanisms through which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS activates cortical circuits are still not fully understood. Here we present a multi-scale computational model to describe and explain the activation of different pyramidal cell types in motor cortex due to TMS. Our model determines precise electric fields based on an individual head model derived from magnetic resonance imaging and calculates how these electric fields activate morphologically detailed models of different neuron types. We predict neural activation patterns for different coil orientations consistent with experimental findings. Beyond this, our model allows us to calculate activation thresholds for individual neurons and precise initiation sites of individual action potentials on the neurons’ complex morphologies. Specifically, our model predicts that cortical layer 3 pyramidal neurons are generally easier to stimulate than layer 5 pyramidal neurons, thereby explaining the lower stimulation thresholds observed for I-waves compared to D-waves. It also shows differences in the regions of activated cortical layer 5 and layer 3 pyramidal cells depending on coil orientation. Finally, it predicts that under standard stimulation conditions, action potentials are mostly generated at the axon initial segment of cortical pyramidal cells, with a much less important activation site being the part of a layer 5 pyramidal cell axon where it crosses the boundary between grey matter and white matter. In conclusion, our computational model offers a detailed account of the mechanisms through which TMS activates different cortical pyramidal cell types, paving the way for more targeted application of TMS based on individual brain morphology in clinical and basic research settings.

  13. Low-Frequency rTMS Ameliorates Autistic-Like Behaviors in Rats Induced by Neonatal Isolation Through Regulating the Synaptic GABA Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown. By using our recent reported animal model with autistic-like behaviors induced by neonatal isolation (postnatal days 1–9, we found that low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS, 1 Hz treatment for 2 weeks effectively alleviated the acquired autistic-like symptoms, as reflected by an increase in social interaction and decrease in self-grooming, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in young adult rats compared to those in untreated animals. Furthermore, the amelioration in autistic-like behavior was accompanied by a restoration of the balance between E/I activity, especially at the level of synaptic transmission and receptors in synaptosomes. These findings indicated that LF-rTMS may alleviate the symptoms of ASD-like behaviors caused by neonatal isolation through regulating the synaptic GABA transmission, suggesting that LF-rTMS may be a potential therapeutic technique to treat ASD.

  14. Dissociable neural representations of grammatical gender in Broca's area investigated by the combination of satiation and TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Devlin, Joseph T; Vecchi, Tomaso; Silvanto, Juha

    2009-08-15

    Along with meaning and form, words can be described on the basis of their grammatical properties. Grammatical gender is often used to investigate the latter as it is a grammatical property that is independent of meaning. The left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been implicated in the encoding of grammatical gender, but its causal role in this process in neurologically normal observers has not been demonstrated. Here we combined verbal satiation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to demonstrate that subpopulations of neurons within Broca's area respond preferentially to different classes of grammatical gender. Subjects were asked to classify Italian nouns into living and nonliving categories; half of these words were of masculine and the other half of feminine grammatical gender. Prior to each test block, a satiation paradigm (a phenomenon in which verbal repetition of a category name leads to a reduced access to that category) was used to modulate the initial state of the representations of either masculine or feminine noun categories. In the No TMS condition, subjects were slower in responding to exemplars to the satiated category relative to exemplars of the nonsatiated category, implying that the neural representations for different classes of grammatical gender are partly dissociable. The application of TMS over Broca's area removed the behavioral impact of verbal (grammatical) satiation, demonstrating the causal role of this region in the encoding of grammatical gender. These results show that the neural representations for different cases of a grammatical property within Broca's area are dissociable.

  15. The influence of rTMS over prefrontal and motor areas in a morphological task: grammatical vs. semantic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerfo, Emanuele Lo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Torriero, Sara; Salerno, Silvia; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2008-01-31

    We investigated the differential role of two frontal regions in the processing of grammatical and semantic knowledge. Given the documented specificity of the prefrontal cortex for the grammatical class of verbs, and of the primary motor cortex for the semantic class of action words, we sought to investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is also sensitive to semantic effects, and whether the motor cortex is also sensitive to grammatical class effects. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefontal cortex (first experiment) and of the motor area (second experiment). In the first experiment we found that rTMS applied to the left prefrontal cortex delays the processing of action verbs' retrieval, but is not critical for retrieval of state verbs and state nouns. In the second experiment we found that rTMS applied to the left motor cortex delays the processing of action words, both name and verbs, while it is not critical for the processing of state words. These results support the notion that left prefrontal and motor cortex are involved in the process of action word retrieval. Left prefrontal cortex subserves processing of both grammatical and semantic information, whereas motor cortex contributes to the processing of semantic representation of action words without any involvement in the representation of grammatical categories.

  16. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  17. Prognostic value of cortically induced motor evoked activity by TMS in chronic stroke: Caveats from a revealing single clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amengual Julià L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand. Case presentation Multimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP, and Cortical Silent period (CSP as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST. Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG activity (indexed by CSP demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations. Conclusions The potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  18. rTMS on left prefrontal cortex contributes to memories for positive emotional cues: a comparison between pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, M; Cobelli, C

    2015-02-26

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of emotional memories in response to words and pictures. Subjects' performance (Accuracy Index, AI; response times, RTs; RTs/AI) was considered when a repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was applied on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC). Specifically, the role of LDLPFC was tested by performing a memory task, in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) emotional pictures/words had to be recognized. Valence (positive vs. negative) and arousing power (high vs. low) of stimuli were also modulated. Moreover, subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli in terms of valence/arousal was explored. We found significant performance improving (higher AI, reduced RTs, improved general performance) in response to rTMS. This "better recognition effect" was only related to specific emotional features, that is positive high arousal pictures or words. Moreover no significant differences were found between stimulus categories. A direct relationship was also observed between subjective evaluation of emotional cues and memory performance when rTMS was applied to LDLPFC. Supported by valence and approach model of emotions, we supposed that a left lateralized prefrontal system may induce a better recognition of positive high arousal words, and that evaluation of emotional cue is related to prefrontal activation, affecting the recognition memories of emotions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with implanted cortical electrodes. An ex-vivo study and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phielipp, Nicolás M; Saha, Utpal; Sankar, Tejas; Yugeta, Akihiro; Chen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with implanted subdural cortical electrodes. We performed ex-vivo experiments to test the temperature, displacement and current induced in the electrodes with single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from 10 to 100% of stimulator output and tested a typical rTMS protocol used in a clinical setting. We then used rTMS to the motor cortex to treat a patient with refractory post-herpetic neuralgia who had previously been implanted with a subdural motor cortical electrode for pain management. The rTMS protocol consisted of ten sessions of 2000 stimuli at 20Hz and 90% of resting motor threshold. The ex-vivo study showed an increase in the coil temperature of 2°C, a maximum induced charge density of 30.4μC/cm 2 /phase, and no electrode displacement with TMS. There was no serious adverse effect associated with rTMS treatment of the patient. Cortical tremor was observed in the intervals between trains of stimuli during one treatment session. TMS was safe in a patient with implanted Medtronic Resume II electrode (model 3587A) subdural cortical electrode. TMS may be used as a therapeutic, diagnostic or research tool in patients this type of with implanted cortical electrodes. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  1. [The European network of transfusion medicine societies (EuroNet-TMS): The White Book 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2005-06-01

    Europe is building up. It develops in a quite complex environment, in which health care represents an important field of activities. As for blood transfusion, it plays a major role especially in the development of medical activities as well as for the patients treatments. Today, blood components are still of human origin and there are no substitutes for them. As a medical discipline, Blood Transfusion represents a broad field in medicine which requests the involvement of numerous actors. It is up to professional medical/scientific societies to promote the discipline. This is why it has been considered necessary and relevant to build up a federation of transfusion medicine societies throughout the European Union (EU) ; it is called EuroNet-TMS, the European Network of Transfusion Medicine Societies. This network groups more than 7500 professionals of involved in blood transfusion activities. It has six major objectives: 1) To find coherent responses to issues at stake in transfusion; 2) To promote medical and scientific developments of blood transfusion in Europe; 3) To ensure the highest and most up-to-date scientific level to meet safety and quality standards; 4) To offer similar services to all EU citizens in the field of blood transfusion; 5) To share knowledge and date within Europe; 6) To develop interfaces with decision-makers among the diverse European countries. The first step is the writing of the "White Book 2005" which reports the state of the art of blood transfusion in Europe; a prospective plan is proposed to be discussed.

  2. New methods of minimally invasive brain modulation as therapies in psychiatry: TMS, MST, VNS and DBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mark S

    2002-08-01

    Over the past 20 years, new methods have been developed that have allowed scientists to visualize the human brain in action. Initially positron emission tomography (PET) and now functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are causing a paradigm shift in psychiatry and the neurosciences. Psychiatry is abandoning the pharmacological model of 'brain as soup', used for much of the past 20 years. Instead, there is new realization that both normal and abnormal behavior arise from chemical processes that occur within parallel distributed networks in specific brain regions. Many of these pathological circuits are becoming well characterized, in disorders ranging from Parkinson's disease, to obsessive-compulsive disorder, to depression. Most recently, there has been an explosion of new techniques that allow for direct stimulation of these brain circuits, without the need for open craniotomy and neurosurgical ablation. The techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). This review will describe these new tools, and overview their current and future potential for research and clinical neuropsychiatric use. The psychiatry of the future will be better grounded in a firm understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology (as well as pharmacology). These brain stimulation tools, or their next iterations, will play an ever-larger role in clinical neuropsychiatric practice.

  3. Add-on high frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to bilateral prefrontal cortex in depressive episodes of patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and major depressive with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Nicoletta; Zangen, Abraham; Sani, Gabriele; Raccah, Ruggero N; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Del Casale, Antonio

    2018-04-03

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in mood and alcohol use disorders. We aimed to investigate the safety of intervention with add-on bilateral prefrontal high-frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) and between-group differences in treatment response in patients with different types of depressive episodes, including major depressive episodes in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, type I (BD-I), and MDD with alcohol use disorder (MDAUD). We conducted a 6-month open-label study, involving 82 patients with DSM-5 Depressive Episode. Of these, 41 had diagnosis of MDD, 20 BD-I, and 21 MDAUD. All patients received standard drug treatment and add-on dTMS over the bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence for four weeks, with five sessions in each week. We rated mood state with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline, one-month, and six-month follow-up visits. Mean total HDRS scores dropped from 22.8 (SD = 5.9) at baseline to 10.4 (SD = 3.6) at 1 month, to 10.0 (SD = 4.5) at 6 months, while response/remission were 70.73% (N = 58) and 19.51% (N = 16) at 1 month and 76.83% (N = 63) and 32.93% (27) at 6 months, respectively, with no between-group differences. No patient experienced any side effects. High-frequency DLPFC dTMS was well tolerated and did not significantly differ on improvement of depression in MDD, BD-I, and MDAUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, M; Hoffman, R E

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  6. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  7. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP) and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  9. Regional economic impacts of the unconventional promotion of natural gas (Hydraulic Fracturing). Preliminary study; Regionaloekonomische Auswirkungen der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung (Hydraulic Fracturing). Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizer, Kilian; Bossmeyer, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Actually, there is a controversial public discussion on the exploitation of conventional natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing (Fracking). The contribution under consideration examines the geologic, toxicological or technical as well as legal points of contact with respect to the different effects for the actor groups. Based on the existing scientific realizations, the regional economic effects of the fracking technology and the subsequent promotion of unconventional natural gas deposits have to be worked out.

  10. How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Kassuba, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses a magnetic field to "carry" a short lasting electrical current pulse into the brain where it stimulates neurones, particularly in superficial regions of cerebral cortex. TMS can interfere with cognitive functions in two ways. A high intensity TMS pulse...... in the human brain. This transient neurodisruption has been termed a "virtual lesion". Smaller intensities of stimulation produce less activity; in such cases, cognitive operations can probably continue but are disrupted because of the added noisy input from the TMS pulse. It is usually argued that if a TMS...... pulse affects performance, then the area stimulated must provide an essential contribution to behaviour being studied. However, there is one exception to this: the pulse could be applied to an area that is not involved in the task but which has projections to the critical site. Activation of outputs...

  11. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base

  12. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: a TMS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  13. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: A tms study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elswijk, G.; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  14. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  15. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effectiveness of 1 Hz rTMS Over the Primary Motor Area of the Unaffected Hemisphere to Improve Hand Function After Stroke Depends on Hemispheric Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Theilig, Steven; Wiederer, Ralf; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of motor cortex excitability of the contralesional hemisphere may improve dexterity of the affected hand after stroke. 40 patients (17 dominant hemispheric stroke, 23 non-dominant hemispheric stroke) with a mild to moderate upper limb motor impairment were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel-groups. Both groups received 15 daily sessions of motor training preceded by either 1 Hz rTMS or sham rTMS. Behavioral and neurophysiological evaluations were performed at baseline, after the first week and after the third week of treatment, and after a 6 months follow-up. In both groups motor function of the affected hand improved significantly. Patients with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement, regardless of whether the motor training was preceded by sham or 1 Hz rTMS. Patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere had a less favorable improvement than those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere after motor training preceded by sham rTMS. However, when 1 Hz rTMS preceded the motor training, patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement as those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke is determined by dominance of the affected hemisphere. Stroke of the dominant hemisphere is associated with per se poorer improvement of the affected hand. 1 Hz rTMS over the contralesional M1 significantly improves dexterity of the affected hand in patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere, but not in those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  18. Proprioceptive drift in the rubber hand illusion is intensified following 1 Hz TMS of the left EBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eWold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI is a paradigm used to induce an illusory feeling of owning a dummy hand through congruent multisensory stimulation. Thus, it can grant insights into how our brain represents our body as our own. Recent research has demonstrated an involvement of the extrastriate body area (EBA, an area of the brain that is typically implicated in the perception of non-face body parts, in illusory body ownership. In this experiment we sought causal evidence for the involvement of the EBA in the RHI. 16 participants took part in a sham controlled, 1 Hz repetitive TMS (1200 pulse experiment where they received synchronous (RHI condition or asynchronous (control stroking and were asked to report the perceived location of their real hand as well as the intensity and the temporal onset of experienced ownership of the dummy hand. Following TMS of the left EBA, participants misjudged their real hand's location significantly more towards the rubber hand during synchronous stroking than after sham stimulation. This difference in proprioceptive drift provides the first causal evidence that the EBA is involved in the RHI and subsequently in body representation and further supports the view that the EBA is necessary for multimodal integration.

  19. TMS 2014 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Annual Meeting Supplemental Proceedings (ISBN: 978-1-118-88972-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K; Zhukov, A; Ipatov, M; Talaat, A; Blanco, J; Zhukova, V; Churyukanova, M; Kaloshkin, S; Zamiatkina, E; Shuvaeva, E; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L; Hernando, B

    2015-03-02

    The Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications IV, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 50 high-level technical talks were planned over the course of the event. In addition, the students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. Meeting global energy needs in a clean, efficient, secure and sustainable manner is arguably the greatest challenge facing mankind today. Magnetic materials play a critical role in myriad devices for the collection, conversion, transmission and storage of energy. For example, high performance permanent magnets are currently in great demand for the generators in wind turbines and electric motors in hybrid vehicles. Other classes of advanced magnetic materials are essential for efficient inductors/transformers and motors. Energy efficient cooling based on the magnetocaloric effect is another exciting possibility which is rapidly becoming industrially viable. The potential energy savings related to refrigeration and air conditioning based on magnetocaloric materials are highly attractive. This symposium allowed experts in areas relating to the advanced characterization, simulation, and optimization of magnetic materials to convene and present their latest research. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators

  20. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Early Diagnosis and Prognostication in Cortico-Basal Ganglia Degeneration (CBD) Syndromes: Review of Literature and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Nagaraju, B C

    2016-01-01

    Cortico basal degeneration (CBD) of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures, comparing both hemispheres, a differential pattern in TMS can be obtained which would help in early identification, prognostication and early therapeutic intervention. We describe a case of CBD with corroborative clinical and imaging picture wherein single pulse TMS was used over both the hemispheres measuring the following parameters of interest which included: Motor Threshold (MT), Central Motor Conduction Time (CMCT) and Silent Period (SP). Differential patterns of MT, CMCT and SP was obtained by stimulating over both the hemispheres with the affected hemisphere showing significantly reduced MT and prolonged CMCT implying early impairment of cortical and subcortical structures thereby revealing the potential application of TMS being utilized in a novel way for early detection and prognostication in CBD syndromes.

  1. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency? 301...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel Management Service § 301-73.105...

  3. Functional localization in the human brain: Gradient-echo, spin-echo, and arterial spin-labeling fMRI compared with neuronavigated TMS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekhoff, S.; Uludag, K.; Sparing, R.; Tittgemeyer, M.; von Cramon, D.Y.; Grefkes, C.

    2010-01-01

    A spatial mismatch of up to 14 mm between optimal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) site and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal has consistently been reported for the primary motor cortex. The underlying cause might be the effect of magnetic susceptibility around large

  4. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Chronic Widespread Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, David H.; Zarkowski, Paul; Krashin, Daniel; Rho, Wang-ku; Wajdik, Chandra; Joesch, Jutta M.; Haynor, David R.; Buchwald, Dedra; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to assess transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of chronic widespread pain (CWP). Methods Nineteen participants were randomized to two groups: one receiving active TMS (N=7) and another receiving sham stimulation (N=11) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. During sham stimulation, subjects heard a sound similar to the sound heard by those receiving the active treatment and received an active electrical stimulus to the scalp. The stimulation protocol consisted of 15 sessions completed within a 4-week period. Blind assessments were done at baseline and after each 5 sessions followed by blind assessments at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after the last TMS sessions. The primary outcome variable was a pain measure, the Gracely Box Intensity Scale (BIRS). Results The percentage of subjects who guessed that they were receiving TMS was similar in the two groups. Both the TMS group and the sham group showed a statistically significant reduction in the BIRS scores from baseline during the acute phase of treatment and the follow-up phase. However, the TMS and sham groups did not differ in the change in the BIRS scores. Discussion Although some previous clinical studies and basic science studies of TMS in treating pain are promising, this study found no difference in the analgesic effect of TMS and sham stimulation. Future studies should utilize a sham condition that attempts to simulate the sound and sensation of the TMS stimulation. Stimulus location and other stimulus parameters should be explored in future studies. PMID:24755729

  5. Te(II)/Te(IV) Mediated C-N Bond Formation on 2,5-Diphenyltellurophene and a Reassignment of the Product from the Reaction of PhI(OAc)2 with 2 TMS-OTf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Antonino; Iversen, Kalon J; Wilson, David J D; Dutton, Jason L

    2015-05-18

    We report a novel C-H to C-N bond metathesis at the 3-position of 1,2-diphenyltellurophene via oxidation of the Te(II) center to Te(IV) using the I(III) oxidant [PhI(4-DMAP)2](2+). Spontaneous reduction of a transient Te(IV) coordination compound to Te(II) generates an electrophilic equivalent of 4-DMAP that substitutes at a C-H bond at the 3-position of the tellurophene. Theoretical and synthetic reaction pathway studies confirm that a Te(IV) coordination complex with 4-DMAP is an intermediate. In the course of these pathway studies, it was also found that the identity of the I(III) oxidant generated from PhI(OAc)2 and 2 TMS-OTf is PhI(OAc)(OTf) and not PhI(OTf)2, as had been previously thought.

  6. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  7. Safety and Tolerability of Theta Burst Stimulation versus Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Comparative Study of 165 Pediatric Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejee H Hong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS is unknown.Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years.Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009-2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe. AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics.Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n=76, 95% CI: 4.7 - 19.7%, whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n=89, 95% CI: 6.3 - 21.0%. There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=0.71. In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6% were rated as minimal or mild. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=1.0. Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild.Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children.

  8. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with 18 F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. 18 F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. 18 F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  9. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Tian, Mei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. {sup 18}F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  10. Combination Protocol of Low-Frequency rTMS and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Post-stroke Upper Limb Hemiparesis: a 6-year Experience of More Than 1700 Japanese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Shimizu, Masato; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Kimura, Chikou; Kakita, Kiyohito; Hara, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Several years ago, we proposed a combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Subsequently, the number of patients treated with the protocol has increased in Japan. We aimed to present the latest data on our proposed combination protocol for post-stroke upper limb hemiparesis as a result of a multi-institutional study. After confirming that a patient met the inclusion criteria for the protocol, they were scheduled to receive the 15-day inpatient protocol. In the protocol, two sessions of 20-min rTMS and 120-min occupational therapy were provided daily, except for Sundays and the days of admission/discharge. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) at admission/discharge and at 4 weeks after discharge if possible. A total of 1725 post-stroke patients were studied (mean age at admission 61.4 ± 13.0 years). The scheduled 15-day protocol was completed by all patients. At discharge, the increase in FMA score, shortening in performance time of WMFT, and increase in functional ability scale (FAS) score of WMFT were significant (FMA score 46.8 ± 12.2 to 50.9 ± 11.4 points, p hemiparesis after stroke, although its efficacy should be confirmed in a randomized controlled study.

  11. Safety study of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomarev, M P; Kim, D Y; Richardson, S Pirio; Voller, B; Hallett, M

    2007-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential therapeutic tool to rehabilitate chronic stroke patients. In this study, the safety of high-frequency rTMS in stroke was investigated (Phase I). The safety of 20 and 25 Hz rTMS over the motor cortex (MC) of the affected hemisphere, with intensities of 110-130% of the motor threshold (MT), was evaluated using surface electromyography (EMG) of hand and arm muscles. Brief EMG bursts, possibly representing peripheral manifestations of after discharges, and spread of excitation to proximal muscles are considered to be associated with a high risk of seizure occurrence. These events were recorded after the rTMS trains. Neither increased MC excitability nor improved pinch force dynamometry was found after rTMS. Stimulation parameters for rTMS, which are safe for healthy volunteers, may lead to a higher risk for seizure occurrence in chronic stroke patients. rTMS at rates of 20 and 25 Hz using above threshold stimulation potentially increases the risk of seizures in patients with chronic stroke.

  12. Eignung von HAM-Nat und TMS-Modul "Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftliches Grundverständnis" für die Studienbewerberauswahl in der Medizin [Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hissbach, Johanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77 or the NatDenk test (N=85 in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote” and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7 semester” (Success7Sem. The Odds Ratios (OR for study success are reported.Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58. If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32 and their interaction effect (OR=1.80 are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21 significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the

  13. TA project 'Elements of a strategy for sustainable development in the energy sector'. Preliminary study; TA-Projekt 'Elemente einer Strategie fuer eine nachhaltige Energieversorgung'. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, T.; Gruenwald, R.; Oertel, D.; Paschen, H.

    2000-12-01

    The issue of projecting policies ensuring appropriate energy supply in the future has become more important in Germany after conclusion of the agreement on a long-term nuclear power phase-out. A recent comparative analysis of a selection of scientific studies forecasting the implications of a nuclear power phase-out has shown that there is demand for more studies examining the issue in greater detail, and on the basis of an enlarged scope of research topics. Hence the present study, intended as a preliminary analysis, will investigate the potential, conditions of successful application, conceivable support schemes, and effects of those policy options that in any case, apart from the nuclear power phase-out scenario, are of essential importance in the context of building the proper conditions for sustainable development of Germany's energy sector. The options and strategies examined are: stepping up energy efficiency programmes and incentives, enhancing exploitation of the considerable potential of renewable energy sources, considering problems and benefits of enhanced use of fossil energy sources, primarily natural gas. (orig./CB) [German] Die Frage der zukuenftigen Ausgestaltung der Energieversorgung hat nach der Vereinbarung ueber den langfristigen Kernenergie-Ausstieg einen hoeheren Stellenwert erhalten. Nach Vorliegen einer vergleichenden Analyse ausgewaehlter wissenschaftlicher Studien zu den Auswirkungen eines Ausstiegs aus der Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland wurde deutlich, dass vertiefende Untersuchungen noetig sind, und dass das Thema umfassender formuliert werden muss. Die vorliegende Analyse in der Form einer Vorstudie untersucht daher die Potenziale, Einsatzbedingungen, Foerdermoeglichleiten und Auswirkungen derjenigen strategischen Optionen, die auf jeden Fall, abgesehen von den Auswirkungen eines Ausstiegs aus der Kernenergie, von zentraler Bedeutung fuer eine langfristig nachhaltige Entwicklung im Energiesektor Deutschlands sein werden

  14. A Study of Retentive Properties of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Yanina, I V; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the size and shape of pores in track membranes (TMs) on the retention of polystyrene particles with the sizes from 40 to 100 nm has been studied. The relationship between the structural parameters of TMs and the efficiency of filtration of calibrated particles has been analyzed. Determination of the efficiency is based on measurements of absorption in ultraviolet spectral region. Potentialities and limitations of the method applied to nanometer-sized latex beads have been considered.

  15. Dose-dependent effects of theta burst rTMS on cortical excitability and resting-state connectivity of the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J; Kutscha, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2014-05-14

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a specific protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), induces changes in cortical excitability that last beyond stimulation. TBS-induced aftereffects, however, vary between subjects, and the mechanisms underlying these aftereffects to date remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing the number of pulses of intermittent TBS (iTBS) (1) increases cortical excitability as measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and (2) alters functional connectivity measured using resting-state fMRI, in a dose-dependent manner. Sixteen healthy, human subjects received three serially applied iTBS blocks of 600 pulses over the primary motor cortex (M1 stimulation) and the parieto-occipital vertex (sham stimulation) to test for dose-dependent iTBS effects on cortical excitability and functional connectivity (four sessions in total). iTBS over M1 increased MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation after each stimulation block. Although the increase in MEP amplitudes did not differ between the first and second block of M1 stimulation, we observed a significant increase after three blocks (1800 pulses). Furthermore, iTBS enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the stimulated M1 and premotor regions in both hemispheres. Functional connectivity between M1 and ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex further increased dose-dependently after 1800 pulses of iTBS over M1. However, no correlation between changes in MEP amplitudes and functional connectivity was detected. In summary, our data show that increasing the number of iTBS stimulation blocks results in dose-dependent effects at the local level (cortical excitability) as well as at a systems level (functional connectivity) with a dose-dependent enhancement of dorsal premotor cortex-M1 connectivity. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/346849-11$15.00/0.

  16. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  17. Probabilistic exposure assessment in environmental medicine and customer protection. Part 1. Probabilistic exposure assessment for assessing the health effects of environmental pollution; Probabilistische Expositionsabschaetzung in Umweltmedizin und Verbraucherschutz. T. 1. Probabilistische Expositionsabschaetzung zur Beurteilung der gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Umweltbelastungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermeyer, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Risikoabschaetzungen ueber die moeglichen gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Umweltbelastungen sind moeglichst exakte Abschaetzungen der Schadstoffexposition der Betroffenen unerlaesslich. Zur Durchfuehrung solcher Expositionsabschaetzungen koennen zwei grundlegend unterschiedliche Ansaetze verfolgt werden: Die traditionelle (deterministische) Methode der Expositionsabschaetzung geht von Messwerten einzelner Belastungsparameter (z.B. Schadstoff-Konzentration in der Luft, im Boden etc.) aus und verknuepft diese mit individuellen Einflussgroessen (z.B. Aufnahmerate, Koerpergewicht). Zur Beschreibung der Exposition und damit zur Ableitung des zu erwartenden Risikos wird fuer die in die Berechnung einfliessenden Groessen haeufig jeweils das 95. Perzentil verwendet. Dieses als Punktschaetzung fuer den sog. 'unguenstigen Fall' bezeichnete Verfahren kann eine u.U. unrealistische Ueberschaetzung der Exposition und damit des gesundheitlichen Risikos zur Folge haben. Der probabilistische Ansatz verwendet demgegenueber fuer alle verfuegbaren Parameter deren statistische Verteilungen und verknuepft sie miteinander. Beim Monte Carlo-Verfahren werden entsprechend der Verteilungsfunktionen der eingehenden Parameter Stichproben 'gezogen' und miteinander verknuepft. Mit zunehmendem Stichprobenumfang konvergieren die Simulationsergebnisse schliesslich gegen die gesuchte Expositionsverteilung. Gerade in den fuer die gesundheitliche Bewertung besonders relevanten Randbereichen der Verteilungen liegen zuweilen nur wenige Daten vor. Dies fuehrt zu Ungenauigkeiten in der Expositionsabschaetzung, da deren Qualitaet wesentlich von der Qualitaet, Quantitaet und Repraesentativitaet der vorhandenen Messwerte abhaengt, aus denen die Ausgangsverteilungen bestimmt werden. Dennoch ist bei ausreichender Datenbasis der probabilistische Ansatz der Verwendung von Punktschaetzern zur Expositionsabschaetzung deutlich ueberlegen und sollte daher zunehmend auch Eingang in die Praxis der Risikoabschaetzung

  18. Analyse der Auswirkungen zweier Infusionsregime auf den Säure-Basen-Haushalt mit Hilfe des Stewart-Modells im Rahmen einer intraoperativen zielgerichteten Hämodynamiktherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Intraoperative fluid and volume therapy is an essential component of anaesthesiologic patient care with the aim to maintain normovolaemia with minimal impact on acid-base balance. So far, there is little data of the effects of guided fluid regimens on the acid-base balance in the perioperative context. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different infusion regimens guided by a goal-directed intraoperative hemodynamic algorithm on th...

  19. Consequences of changed nuclear power plant lifetimes in Germany. Scenario analyses until 2035; Auswirkungen veraenderter Laufzeiten fuer Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland. Szenarioanalysen bis zum Jahre 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesl, Markus; Bruchof, David; Fahl, Ulrich; Kober, Tom; Kuder, Ralf; Beestermoeller, Robert; Goetz, Birgit; Voss, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    The report is aimed to discuss the implications of changed NPP lifetimes in Germany on energy policy, environment, energy cost and macroeconomics. An extensive scenario analysis is used considering the effects on the German energy system in the frame of the European context. It is shown that a nuclear phase-out until 2017 is technically feasible, but needs adequate replacement options that will change the German energy system in the medium term. The study shows that the time of nuclear phase-out has no significant influence on the use of renewable energies.

  20. Mobility needs of future customers and their impact on the drive train; Mobilitaetsbeduerfnisse der kommenden Kundengeneration und Auswirkungen auf den Antriebsstrang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Lutz; Ernst, Christian-Simon; Fassbender, Sven; Gnoerich, Bruno [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Kraftfahrzeuge

    2012-11-01

    This contribution summarises on the basis of recent studies customer requirements regarding future vehicles concepts and their drivetrain designs and also shows several development directions for alternative drivetrains. The discussion of the megatrends emission reduction, urbanisation and peak-oil, influences the future demand of mobility. The megatrends implicate an enlargement of the possible solution space for full vehicle concepts. Two studies coordinated by the ''Institut fuer Kraftfahrzeuge (ika)'' of RWTH Aachen University show in detail the changed general conditions of mobility needs of the next customer generation. Besides their general attitude towards the automobile, especially their demands towards the drivetrain in technical and economic regard are analysed. The focus of this analysis lies in the possibilities to electrify the drivetrain, with a differentiation for different markets. Based on fundamental descriptions of essential characteristics of different drivetrain concepts, the development demands of alternative drive mechanisms are shown and variable solutions will be connected to the customer requirements in a costs analysis. The for the total cost analysis important aspect of energy consumption of alternatively driven vehicles will then be described with concrete examples of two different research- and benchmarking-projects. An evaluation of drivetrain concepts with possible fields of application will conclude the contribution with regard to technical and economic criteria. (orig.)

  1. Long-term environmental consequences of the production and feeding of bio gas; Langfristige Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt bei der Erzeugung und Einspeisung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank; Koeppel, Wolfgang; Karch, Udo [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut; Kiefer, Joachim; Ball, Thomas [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden

    2010-03-15

    In the context of an investigation financed by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany), the effects of feeding bio gas into the natural gas grid on ground, plants, air and water were examined. The entire process chain was evaluated beginning with the biomass production till to the biogas production, processing of bio gas, feeding of bio gas and utilization of residues. The literature study was based on the results of a DVGW project finished in 2008 for the evaluation of the production of biomass for the energetic use from the view of the water protection and on an investigation of the process engineering of the cleaning of bio gas.

  2. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  3. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment; was kommt auf die regionen zu? Auswirkungen geologischer tiefenlager auf gesellschaft, wirtschaft und lebensraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair

  4. Changes of cortical excitability as markers of antidepressant response in bipolar depression: preliminary data obtained by combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Paola; Sferrazza Papa, Giovanna; Casali, Adenauer G; Schiena, Giandomenico; Fecchio, Matteo; Pigorini, Andrea; Smeraldi, Enrico; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    It is still unclear which biological changes are needed to recover from a major depressive episode. Current perspectives focus on cortical synaptic neuroplasticity. Measures of cortical responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) change with sleep homeostasic pressure in humans and approximate measures of synaptic strength in animal models. Using repeated total sleep deprivation as a model of antidepressant treatment, we aimed to correlate recovery from depression with these measures of cortical excitability. We recorded electroencephalographic responses to TMS in the prefrontal cortex of 21 depressed inpatients with bipolar disorder treated with repeated sleep deprivation combined with light therapy. We performed seven TMS/electroencephalography sessions during one week and calculated three measures of cortical excitability. Cortical excitability progressively increased during the antidepressant treatment and as a function of time awake. Higher values differentiated responders from non-responders at baseline and during and after treatment on all measures. Changes in measures of cortical excitability parallel and predict antidepressant response to combined sleep deprivation and light therapy. Data suggest that promoting cortical plasticity in bipolar depression could be a major effect of successful antidepressant treatments, and that patients not responding could suffer a persistent impairment in their neuroplasticity mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Paired-Pulse TMS and Fine-Wire Recordings Reveal Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition and Facilitation of Deep Multifidus Muscle Fascicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Massé-Alarie

    Full Text Available Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS is used to probe inhibitory and excitatory networks within the primary motor cortex (M1. These mechanisms are identified for limb muscles but it is unclear whether they share properties with trunk muscles. The aim was to determine whether it was possible to test the intracortical inhibition and facilitation of the deep multifidus muscle fascicles (DM and at which inter-stimulus intervals (ISI.In ten pain-free individuals, TMS was applied over M1 and motor evoked potentials (MEP were recorded using fine-wire electrodes in DM. MEPs were conditioned with subthreshold stimuli at ISIs of 1 to 12 ms to test short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and at 15 ms for long-interval intracortical facilitation. Short-interval facilitation (SICF was tested using 1-ms ISI.SICI of DM was consistently obtained with ISI of 1-, 3-, 4- and 12-ms. Facilitation of DM MEP was only identified using SICF paradigm.A similar pattern of MEP modulation with ISI changes for deep trunk and limb muscles implies that M1 networks share some functional properties.The ppTMS paradigm presents a potential to determine how M1 inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms participate in brain re-organization in back pain that affects control of trunk muscles.

  6. TMS interferes with lexical-semantic retrieval in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus: Evidence from cyclical picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We used TMS to investigate the contribution of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to lexical/semantic selection and retrieval processes using a cyclical naming paradigm. Participants named pictures that were presented repeatedly across six cycles, either in semantically related or unrelated sets. Previous research has suggested that selection demands are higher for related sets, especially after repetition, since participants experience competition from the activation of semantic neighbours. In contrast, retrieval demands are greater for unrelated sets in the absence of semantic priming, particularly on the first cycle when the target names have not been previously activated. Therefore, this paradigm can reveal independent effects of (i) retrieval demands (i.e., the ease of accessing picture names from visual input) and (ii) selection/competition. We found that rTMS to LIFG and pMTG produced similar behavioural effects: stimulation of both sites disrupted picture naming performance on early cycles (when participants were less practised at producing the picture names) and for semantically-related sets (when there was the potential for increased competition and yet also facilitation from semantic neighbours). There were no effects of TMS when either retrieval or selection requirements were maximal on their own. The data therefore support the view that both LIFG and pMTG contribute to picture name retrieval, with both sites playing a critical role in mediating the semantic facilitation of naming when retrieval demands are high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    Full Text Available Whole-body water immersion (WI has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI. The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0, intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1, a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2, a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3, a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4. SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  8. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF) and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI). The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0), intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1), a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2), a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3), a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4). SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  9. Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): development of a comprehensive application to support data capture for Time Motion Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopetegui, Marcelo; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert M; Embi, Peter J; Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    Time Motion Studies (TMS) have proved to be the gold standard method to measure and quantify clinical workflow, and have been widely used to assess the impact of health information systems implementation. Although there are tools available to conduct TMS, they provide different approaches for multitasking, interruptions, inter-observer reliability assessment and task taxonomy, making results across studies not comparable. We postulate that a significant contributing factor towards the standardization and spread of TMS would be the availability and spread of an accessible, scalable and dynamic tool. We present the development of a comprehensive Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): a web application developed to support data capture for TMS. Ongoing and continuous development of TimeCaT includes the development and validation of a realistic inter-observer reliability scoring algorithm, the creation of an online clinical tasks ontology, and a novel quantitative workflow comparison method.

  10. Inter-individual variability in cortical excitability and motor network connectivity following multiple blocks of rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J; Leimbach, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The responsiveness to non-invasive neuromodulation protocols shows high inter-individual variability, the reasons of which remain poorly understood. We here tested whether the response to intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) - an effective repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol for increasing cortical excitability - depends on network properties of the cortical motor system. We furthermore investigated whether the responsiveness to iTBS is dose-dependent. To this end, we used a sham-stimulation controlled, single-blinded within-subject design testing for the relationship between iTBS aftereffects and (i) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as well as (ii) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in 16 healthy subjects. In each session, three blocks of iTBS were applied, separated by 15min. We found that non-responders (subjects not showing an MEP increase of ≥10% after one iTBS block) featured stronger rsFC between the stimulated primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor areas before stimulation compared to responders. However, only the group of responders showed increases in rsFC and MEPs, while most non-responders remained close to baseline levels after all three blocks of iTBS. Importantly, there was still a large amount of variability in both groups. Our data suggest that responsiveness to iTBS at the local level (i.e., M1 excitability) depends upon the pre-interventional network connectivity of the stimulated region. Of note, increasing iTBS dose did not turn non-responders into responders. The finding that higher levels of pre-interventional connectivity precluded a response to iTBS could reflect a ceiling effect underlying non-responsiveness to iTBS at the systems level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  12. Climate change and the Lower Weser region: Direct and indirect consequences of a climate change for the ecological situation in the Weser, the forelands and in the diked marshes. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Direkte und indirekte Auswirkungen eines Klimawandels auf die oekologischen Verhaeltnisse in Weser, Vorland und Binnendeichsmarschen. Teilprojekt Oekologischer Komplex. T. A: Binnenland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Schirmer, M.

    2001-03-01

    In the subproject 'Ecological Complex' within the combined project 'Climate Change and the Lower Weser Region' (KLIMU), formerly 'Case Study Weser Estuary', the ecological effects of a climate change for the Lower Weser, the tidal forelands and the marshes protected by dikes are assessed. For the description of the ecological situation of the research area the biotope types acc. to DRACHENFELS are assessed and processed using a GIS (ARC View/ARC Info), complemented by relief data, status of protection, agricultural utilization and soil parameters. When a defined future climate (climate scenario) with +55 cm sea-level, +30 cm tidal rise, increased precipitation (but with -6% in summer.) and +2.7 C mean annual temperature acts upon this landscape, the following consequences will arise (without morphological adaptation), which are described in the final report part A for the marshes and in part B for the Lower Weser and the forelands: the shallow water areas of the Lower Weser increase by 29%, tidal areas by 55% and the tidal reeds by 250%; the grassland outside the summerdikes looses it's agricultural value and decreases by 30%. CO{sub 2}- and temperature-increase will rise the biomass production of the reeds by up to 25%, the invasion of neophytes and neozoans will be accelerated. In general the conditions in the foreland will become more natural. In the marshes protected by dikes the raised temperature will promote the invasion of thermophilic species as well; raised temperature and CO{sub 2}-contents of the atmosphere will allow an increase in productivity by 25% and thus help the agriculture. The biotope types of the moist grassland will remain dominated by agriculture, areas within 2 km from the dikes will tend to become more moist, areas far from there will in parts suffer from considerable drought during summer. The reaction options of the coastal protection result in the consumption of highly valued nature-areas (e.g. for a

  13. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  14. 'Virtual lesion' in pain research; a study on magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Y; Liem, K S; Weissman-Fogel, I; Yarnitsky, D; Chistyakov, A; Sinai, A

    2016-02-01

    'Virtual lesion' ('VL') is a transient disruption of cortical activity during task performance. It can be induced by single pulses or short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to functionally relevant brain areas. We applied 'VL' methodology of a short train of TMS given on top of experimental tonic pain, expecting to see changes in pain scores. Thirty young healthy subjects (15 women) were assessed with active ('VL') or 'sham' TMS in different sessions, randomly. In each session, 30 sec-long contact heat (47.5 °C, right forearm) was applied stand-alone ('baseline') and with 5 sec-long 10 Hz-TMS over left primary motor cortex (M1) starting at 17 sec of the heat stimulation. Pain scores decreased after 'VL' or 'sham' (p < 0.001). Independently of the type of TMS, pain reduction was stronger in women (p = 0.012). A triple Sex x Stimulation type ('VL' or 'sham') x Condition ('baseline' heat pain vs. heat pain with TMS) interaction (p = 0.027) indicated stronger pain reduction by 'VL' in women (p = 0.008) and not in men (p = 0.78) as compared to 'baseline'. Pain catastrophizing and perceived stress ratings affected the model (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively), but without sex differences. This study indicates that interactions between cortical excitability of the motor cortex and nociceptive processing may be gender-related. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. An Exploratory Study of Spectroscopic Glutamatergic Correlates of Cortical Excitability in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Lewis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS research has suggested dysfunction in cortical glutamatergic systems in depression, while proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies have demonstrated deficits in concentrations of glutamatergic metabolites in depressed individuals in several cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. However, few studies have combined TMS and MRS methods to examine relationships between glutamatergic neurochemistry and excitatory and inhibitory neural functions, and none have utilized TMS-MRS methodology in clinical populations or in youth. This exploratory study aimed to examine relationships between TMS measures of cortical excitability and inhibition and concentrations of glutamatergic metabolites as measured by 1H-MRS in depressed adolescents. Methods: Twenty-four children and adolescents (aged 11-18 years with depressive symptoms underwent TMS testing, which included measures of the resting motor threshold (RMT, cortical silent period (CSP, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, and intracortical facilitation (ICF. Fourteen participants from the same sample also completed 1H-MRS in a 3 T MRI scanner after TMS testing. Glutamate + glutamine (Glx concentrations were measured in medial ACC and left primary motor cortex voxels with a TE-optimized PRESS sequence. Metabolite concentrations were corrected for cerebrospinal fluid after tissue segmentation. Pearson product-moment and Spearman rank-order correlations were calculated to assess relationships between TMS measures and Glx. Results: In the left primary motor cortex voxel, Glx had a significant positive correlation with the RMT. In the medial ACC voxel, Glx had significant positive correlations with ICF at the 10-ms and 20-ms ISIs.Conclusions: These preliminary data implicate glutamate in cortical excitatory processes measured by TMS. Limitations included small sample size, lack of healthy control comparators

  16. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coinage Metal Complexes of the Germanium-Rich Metalloid Clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix S. Geitner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of novel coinage metal NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene compounds of the germanium-rich metalloid clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3. NHCDippCu{η3Ge9R3} with R = Si(iPr3 (1 represents a less bulky silyl group-substituted derivative of the known analogous compounds with R = Si(iBu3 or Si(TMS3. The coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moiety to the cluster unit occurs via one triangular face of the tri-capped trigonal prismatic [Ge9] cluster. Furthermore, a series of novel Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds of the type (NHCM2{η3Ge9RI2} (RI = Si(TMS3 M = Cu, Ag and Au; NHC = NHCDipp or NHCMes is presented. These novel compounds represent a new class of neutral dinuclear Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds, which are obtained either by the stepwise reaction of a suspension of K12Ge17 with Si(TMS3Cl and the coinage metal carbene complexes NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au, or via a homogenous reaction using the preformed bis-silylated cluster K2[Ge9(Si(TMS32] and the corresponding NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au complex. The molecular structures of NHCDippCu{η3Ge9(Si(iPr33} (1 and (NHCDippCu2{η3-Ge9(Si(TMS32} (2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. In 2, the coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moieties to the cluster unit takes place via both open triangular faces of the [Ge9] entity. Furthermore, all compounds were characterized by means of NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 29Si and ESI-MS.

  17. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements.

  18. Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct-current stimulation in neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy: a randomized sham-controlled comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Nadine; Ayache, Samar S; Ciampi De Andrade, Daniel; Mhalla, Alaa; Baudic, Sophie; Jazat, Frédérique; Ahdab, Rechdi; Neves, Danusa O; Sorel, Marc; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-06-01

    No study has directly compared the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in neuropathic pain (NP). In this 2-centre randomised double-blind sham-controlled study, we compared the efficacy of 10-Hz rTMS and anodal 2-mA tDCS of the motor cortex and sham stimulation contralateral to the painful area (3 daily sessions) in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy. Average pain intensity (primary outcome) was evaluated after each session and 5 days later. Secondary outcomes included neuropathic symptoms and thermal pain thresholds for the upper limbs. We used an innovative design that minimised bias by randomly assigning patients to 1 of 2 groups: active rTMS and tDCS or sham rTMS and tDCS. For each treatment group (active or sham), the order of the sessions was again randomised according to a crossover design. In total, 51 patients were screened and 35 (51% women) were randomized. Active rTMS was superior to tDCS and sham in pain intensity (F = 2.89 and P = 0.023). Transcranial direct-current stimulation was not superior to sham, but its analgesic effects were correlated to that of rTMS (P = 0.046), suggesting common mechanisms of action. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation lowered cold pain thresholds (P = 0.04) and its effect on cold pain was correlated with its analgesic efficacy (P = 0.006). However, rTMS had no impact on individual neuropathic symptoms. Thus, rTMS is more effective than tDCS and sham in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy and may modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain.

  20. Effect of CO{sub 2} and emissions-trading on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a multi-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen von CO{sub 2}-Abgaben und Emissionshandel fuer das Jahr 2020 - Analyse der volkswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen mit Hilfe eines allgemeinen Mehrlaender-Gleichgewichtsmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    This report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emissions legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The report presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, the amount of finance needed to do this, which effects on the economy in general (GDP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects of an active climate policy are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. A multi-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  1. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Medial Prefrontal and Cingulate Cortices Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD, which remains a public health problem that is refractory to treatment. The goal of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of rTMS on cocaine self-administration in the laboratory. In the self-administration sessions, CUD participants chose between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer (money in order to directly measure cocaine-seeking behavior. The rTMS was delivered with the H7 coil, which provides stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. These brain regions were targeted based on previous imaging studies demonstrating alterations in their activation and connectivity in CUD.MethodsVolunteers with CUD were admitted to an inpatient unit for the entire study and assigned to one of three rTMS groups: high frequency (10 Hz, low frequency (1 Hz, and sham. Six participants were included in each group and the rTMS was delivered on weekdays for 3 weeks. The cocaine self-administration sessions were performed at three time points: at baseline (pre-TMS, session 1, after 4 days of rTMS (session 2, and after 13 days of rTMS (session 3. During each self-administration session, the outcome measure was the number of choices for cocaine.ResultsThe results showed a significant group by time effect (p = 0.02, where the choices for cocaine decreased between sessions 2 and 3 in the high frequency group. There was no effect of rTMS on cocaine self-administration in the low frequency or sham groups.ConclusionTaken in the context of the existing literature, these results contribute to the data showing that high frequency rTMS to the prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential treatment for CUD.

  2. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a study on primary motor cortex excitability tested by 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, A; Gilio, F; D'Antonio, F; Cambieri, C; Ceccanti, M; de Lena, C; Inghilleri, M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate changes in cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity we delivered 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex in 11 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) before and after chronic therapy with rivastigmine. Resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP) after single stimulus and MEP facilitation during rTMS trains were tested three times during treatment. All patients underwent neuropsychological tests before and after receiving rivastigmine. rTMS data in patients were compared with those from age-matched healthy controls. At baseline, RMT was significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas CSP duration and single MEP amplitude were similar in both groups. In patients, rTMS failed to induce the normal MEP facilitation during the trains. Chronic rivastigmine intake significantly increased MEP amplitude after a single stimulus, whereas it left the other neurophysiological variables studied unchanged. No significant correlation was found between patients' neuropsychological test scores and TMS measures. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine has no influence on altered cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity as tested by 5 Hz-rTMS. The limited clinical