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Sample records for tmc207-tidp13-c117 interaction study

  1. Alecto 2 - interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Mougniot, J.C.; Penet, F.

    1965-01-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k eff , solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [fr

  2. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  3. Alecto 2 - interaction studies; Alecto 2 - etudes d'interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J P; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Mougniot, J C; Penet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k{sub eff}, solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [French] Une etude experimentale d'interactions faibles a ete faite entre la cuve de l'experience critique ALECTO II et une, deux ou trois bouteilles contenant des concentrations variees. On etudie, en particulier, la validite de certaines hypotheses classiques, effets d'ombre, d'ecrans, de semi-reflexion, importance du couplage thermique. On montre d'autre part que la methode du 'K{sub eff}, angle solide' peut s'appliquer a un tel systeme. La determination par divergence et neutrons pulses de la reactivite liee au millimetre de solution permet de traduire les hauteurs critiques obtenues, en terme de reactivite. (auteurs)

  4. Study of 12C interactions at HISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1982-12-01

    Single-particle inclusive measurements in high-energy nuclear physics have provided the foundation for a number of models of interacting nuclear fluids. Such measurements yield information on the endpoints of the evolution of highly excited nuclear systems. However, they suffer from the fact that observed particles can be formed in a large number of very different evolutionary paths. To learn more about how interactions proceed we have performed a series of experiments in which all fast nuclear fragments are analyzed for each individual interaction. These experiments were performed at the LBL Bevalac HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System) facility where we studied the interaction of 1 GeV/nuc 12C nuclei with targets of C, CH 2 , Cu, and U. In this paper we describe HISS and present some preliminary results of the experiment

  5. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  6. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  7. Context and Crossmodal Interactions: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Sarmiento

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous behavioural study, we reported that a particular context of stimulus congruency influenced audiovisual interactions. In particular, audiovisual interaction, measured in terms of congruency effect, was reduced when a high proportion of incongruent trials was presented. We argued that this modulation was due to changes in participants' control set as a function of the context of congruency, with greater control applied when most of the trials were incongruent. Since behavioural data do not allow to specify the level at which control was affecting audiovisual interaction, we conducted an event-related potentials (ERPs study to further investigate each context of audiovisual congruency. Participants performed an audiovisual congruency task, where the stimulus onset could be present on two different contexts mixed at random: a high proportion congruent context and a low proportion congruent context. The context manipulation was found to modulate brain ERPs related to perceptual and response selection processes, ie, the N2 and P3 components. The N2 amplitude was larger for the less common trials on both high and low congruent proportion contexts, while the P3 amplitude and latency were differentially modulated by incongruent trials on the two contexts.

  8. A fluvoxamine-caffeine interaction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1996-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between fluvoxam......The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between...... fluvoxamine and caffeine. The study was carried out as a randomized, in vivo, cross-over study including eight healthy volunteers. In Period A of the study, each subject took 200 mg caffeine orally, and in Period B, the subjects took fluvoxamine 50 mg per day for 4 days and 100 mg per day for 8 days. On day 8...... fluvoxamine treatment may lead to caffeine intoxication. Finally, our study provides additional evidence that fluvoxamine can be used to probe CYP1A2 in drug metabolism....

  9. Thermogravimetric studies of vapour-aerosol interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Newland, M.S.; Wood, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis has been used to study the interaction of iodine vapour with cadmium, silver and manganese monoxide substrates. These studies have demonstrated the importance of time-dependence data on reaction rates. Iodine did not react with manganese monoxide (as expected from thermodynamic considerations); however, extensive reaction did occur with silver and cadmium. Two rate limiting mechanisms were observed: mass transfer of iodine molecules from the gas phase (leading to linear reaction rates) and parabolic kinetics (ie inversely proportional to the extent of reaction) when the rate was limited by a diffusion process through the reaction product. (author)

  10. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  11. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions studied by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the lipid matrix are known to influence function of integral membrane proteins. We report on a sample preparation method for reconstitution of membrane proteins which uses porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters with 200-nm-wide pores of high density. The substrate permits formation of tubular, single membranes that line the inner surface of pores. One square centimeter of filter with a thickness of 60μm yields on the order of 500cm(2) of solid-supported single bilayer surface, sufficient for NMR studies. The tubular bilayers are free of detergent, fully hydrated, and accessible for ligands from one side of the membrane. The use of AAO filters greatly improves reproducibility of the reconstitution process such that the influence of protein on lipid order parameters can be studied with high resolution. As an example, results for the G protein-coupled receptor of class A, bovine rhodopsin, are shown. By (2)H NMR order parameter measurements, it is detected that rhodopsin insertion elastically deforms membranes near the protein. Furthermore, by (1)H saturation-transfer NMR under conditions of magic angle spinning, we demonstrate detection of preferences in interactions of rhodopsin with particular lipid species. It is assumed that function of integral membrane proteins depends on both protein-induced elastic deformations of the lipid matrix and preferences for interaction of the protein with particular lipid species in the first layer of lipids surrounding the protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies of molybdenite interaction with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potashnikov, Yu.M.; Lutsik, V.I.; Chursanov, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Product composition and their effect on the reaction rate of molybdenite with nitric acid are specified. It is shown that alongside with NO NO 2 is included in the composition of the products of MoS 2 and HNO 3 interaction and it produces catalytic effect on the process considered. Under the conditions studied MoS 2 dissolution proceeds in the mixed regime, conditioned by similar values of molybdenite oxidation rate and reaction product diffusion into solution volume (Esub(act.=28.9 kJ/mol, K 298 =6.3x10 -7 , cmxs -1 ), at that due to catalytic effect of NO 2 the dependence V approximately αsup(-g.37) is observed

  13. Study of electron-positron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

    1990-01-01

    For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model

  14. Beam-Beam Interaction Studies at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Alemany Fernandez, R

    2011-01-01

    The beam-beam force is one of the most important limiting factors in the performance of a collider, mainly in the delivered luminosity. Therefore, it is essential to measure the effects in LHC. Moreover, adequate understanding of LHC beam-beam interaction is of crucial importance in the design phases of the LHC luminosity upgrade. Due to the complexity of this topic the work presented in this thesis concentrates on the beam-beam tune shift and orbit effects. The study of the Linear Coherent Beam-Beam Parameter at the LHC has been determined with head-on collisions with small number of bunches at injection energy (450 GeV). For high bunch intensities the beam-beam force is strong enough to expect orbit effects if the two beams do not collide head-on but with a crossing angle or with a given offset. As a consequence the closed orbit changes. The closed orbit of an unperturbed machine with respect to a machine where the beam-beam force becomes more and more important has been studied and the results are as well ...

  15. Interactions: A Study of Office Reference Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lederer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study was to analyze the data from a referencestatistics-gathering mechanism at Colorado State University (CSU Libraries. It aimedprimarily to better understand patron behaviours, particularly in an academic librarywith no reference desk.Methods – The researchers examined data from 2007 to 2010 of College LiaisonLibrarians’ consultations with patrons. Data were analyzed by various criteria,including patron type, contact method, and time spent with the patron. Theinformation was examined in the aggregate, meaning all librarians combined, andthen specifically from the Liberal Arts and Business subject areas.Results – The researchers found that the number of librarian reference consultationsis substantial. Referrals to librarians from CSU’s Morgan Library’s one public servicedesk have declined over time. The researchers also found that graduate students arethe primary patrons and email is the preferred contact method overall.Conclusion – The researchers found that interactions with patrons in librarians’ offices – either in person or virtually – remain substantial even without a traditional reference desk. The data suggest that librarians’ efforts at marketing themselves to departments, colleges, and patrons have been successful. This study will be of value to reference, subject specialist, and public service librarians, and library administrators as they consider ways to quantify their work, not only for administrative purposes, but in order to follow trends and provide services and staffing accordingly.

  16. Study of electron and neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers-in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  17. Runaway-electron-materials interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Miyahara, A.

    1990-03-01

    During the operation of magnetic fusion devices it has been frequently observed that runaway electrons can cause severe damage to plasma facing components. The energy of the runaway electrons could possibly reach several 100 MeV in a next generation device with an energy content in the plasma in the order of 100 MJ. In this study effects of high energy electron - materials interaction were determined by laboratory experiments using particle beam facilities, i.e. the Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University and the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the National Institute for Fusion Science. The experiments and further analyses lead to a first assessment of the damage thresholds of plasma facing materials and components under runaway electron impact. It was found that metals (stainless steel, molybdenum, tungsten) showed grain growth, crack formation and/or melting already below the threshold for crack initiation on graphite (14-33 MJ/m 2 ). Strong erosion of carbon materials would occur above 100 MJ/m 2 . Damage to metal coolant channels can occur already below an energy deposition of 100 MJ/m 2 . The energy deposited in the metal coolant channels depends on the thickness of the plasma facing carbon material D, with the shielding efficiency S of carbon approximately as S∼D 1.15 . (author) 304 refs. 12 tabs. 59 figs

  18. Experimental studies on beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Beam-handling technology has reached now at such a level as to enable highly controlled experiments of beam-plasma interaction. Varieties of hypotheses and suppositions about the beam propagation and interaction in space plasma can be proved and often be corrected by examining the specific processes in laboratory plasma. The experiments performed in this way by the author are briefed: ion beam instability in unmagnetized plasma; ion beam instability perpendicular to magnetic field; and electron beam instability. (Mori, K.)

  19. Advances in soil-structure interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    It is utmost important that lifeline infrastructures (such as bridges, hospitals, power plants, dams etc.) are safe and functional during earthquakes as damage or collapse of these structures may have far reaching implications. A lifeline's failure may hamper relief and rescue operations required just after an earthquake and secondly its indirect economical losses may be very severe. Therefore, safety of these structures during earthquakes is vital. Further, damage to nuclear facilities during earthquake may lead to disaster. These structures should be designed adequately taking into account all the important issues. Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) is one of the design issues, which is often overlooked and even in some cases ignored. The effects of dynamic SSI are well understood and practiced in the nuclear power industry (for large foundations of the nuclear containment structures) since sixties. However, in last decade, there are many advances in techniques of SSI and those need to be incorporated in practice. Failures of many structures occurred during the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge, California earthquakes and the 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake due to SSI or a related issue. Many jetties had failed in Andaman and Nicobar islands due to Sumatra earthquake and ensuing tsunamis. It is because of this recent experience that the importance of SSI on dynamic response of structures during earthquakes has been fully realized. General belief that the SSI effects are always beneficial for the structure is not correct. Some cases have been presented where it is shown that SSI effects are detrimental for the stability of the structure. This paper addresses the effects of dynamic SSI on the response of the structures and explains its importance. Further advances in SSI studies have been discussed

  20. Virus-membrane interactions : spectroscopic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A

  1. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  2. Plasma surface interaction studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamashina, T.

    1994-01-01

    In order to achieve a long burning time period in a fusion reactor, the interactions between the plasma facing materials and the fusion plasma have to be well controlled. Namely, the radiation loss due to impurities and deterioration of the energy confinement time due to fuel particle recyclings have to be suppressed, in addition to the requirement of heat removal based on a high heat flux component. Recently, in Japan, the plasma facing material/component has been very actively developed for ITER and Large Helical Device (LHD). In this review paper, we briefly introduce the following issues, (1) progress of plasma surface interactions in tokamaks and helical devices, (2) development of plasma facing materials, (3) divertor development, (4) boronization, (5) selective pumping of helium ash, (6) tritium retention, and (7) neutron damage of graphite plasma facing material. (author)

  3. Study of KN interaction in zero isospin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1977-04-01

    The low-energy parameters for kaon-nucleon interaction in the isospin T = 0 state are computed. The differential cross section for K + - deuteron scattering with charge exchange is calculated using the multiple scattering expansion. The various kinematical and dynamical possibilities are discussed. Wave parameters for s, p1/2 and p3/2 are determined by fitting the obtained cross section with the experimental data at low and intermediate energies. (Author) [pt

  4. Flicker Interaction Studies and Flickermeter Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Rong

    2009-06-04

    types are made in the PQ lab of TUE since the human eye is sensitive to the light color. The measurement results are analyzed by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the wavelength contributions to flicker of different lamp types are presented in this thesis. It provides important information on the light color variation of different lamp types under flicker conditions. Weighting factors of various lamp types are obtained by the corresponding wavelength contribution to the flicker weighted with the CIE photopic luminosity curve. These weighting factors indicate the human eye flicker response from the human eye spectrum sensitivity point of view. Then it is possible to develop a simplified flicker measurement method for different lamp types by adding an eye-brain flicker response model. A discussion about the simplified flicker measurement method and the eye-brain model is given in this thesis. Finally, the interaction between flicker and dimmers (the phase controlled dimmer and reverse phase controlled dimmer) is studied based on experimental work. The measurement results show that the phase controlled dimmer will increase the flicker problem. Solutions to avoid the flicker influence of dimmers are discussed in this thesis.

  5. Culture matters : a study on presence in an interactive movie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Bartneck, C.

    2008-01-01

    A cross cultural study was conducted to test the influences of different cultural backgrounds on the user's presence experience in interacting with a distributed interactive movie. The effects of embodied interaction on presence were also investigated because embodiment is often used to enrich the

  6. Microfluidic Devices for Studying Biomolecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wilbur W.; Garcia, Carlos d.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for monitoring biomolecular interactions have been invented. These devices are basically highly miniaturized liquid-chromatography columns. They are intended to be prototypes of miniature analytical devices of the laboratory on a chip type that could be fabricated rapidly and inexpensively and that, because of their small sizes, would yield analytical results from very small amounts of expensive analytes (typically, proteins). Other advantages to be gained by this scaling down of liquid-chromatography columns may include increases in resolution and speed, decreases in the consumption of reagents, and the possibility of performing multiple simultaneous and highly integrated analyses by use of multiple devices of this type, each possibly containing multiple parallel analytical microchannels. The principle of operation is the same as that of a macroscopic liquid-chromatography column: The column is a channel packed with particles, upon which are immobilized molecules of the protein of interest (or one of the proteins of interest if there are more than one). Starting at a known time, a solution or suspension containing molecules of the protein or other substance of interest is pumped into the channel at its inlet. The liquid emerging from the outlet of the channel is monitored to detect the molecules of the dissolved or suspended substance(s). The time that it takes these molecules to flow from the inlet to the outlet is a measure of the degree of interaction between the immobilized and the dissolved or suspended molecules. Depending on the precise natures of the molecules, this measure can be used for diverse purposes: examples include screening for solution conditions that favor crystallization of proteins, screening for interactions between drugs and proteins, and determining the functions of biomolecules.

  7. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  8. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  9. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, H.T.S.; Kaplan, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant

  10. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  11. Intermolecular interaction studies of glyphosate with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manon, Priti; Juglan, K. C.; Kaur, Kirandeep; Sethi, Nidhi; Kaur, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U) of glyphosate with water have been measured on different ultrasonic frequency ranges from 1MHz, 2MHz, 3MHz & 5MHz by varying concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, & 0.40%) at 30°C. The specific gravity bottle, Ostwald's viscometer and quartz crystal interferometer were used to determine density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U). These three factors contribute in evaluating the other parameters as acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic compressibility (β), relaxation time (τ), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2), Rao's constant (R), Wada's constant (W) and relative strength (R). Solute-solvent interaction is confirmed by ultrasonic velocity and viscosity values, which increases with increase in concentration indicates stronger association between solute and solvent molecules. With rise in ultrasonic frequency the interaction between the solute and solvent particles decreases. The linear variations in Rao's constant and Wada's constant suggest the absence of complex formation.

  12. Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [California Energy Commission (US); Morrison, M. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (US); Sinclair, K. [Dept. of Energy/National Renewable Energy Lab. (US); Strickland, D. [WEST, Inc. (US)

    1999-12-01

    This guidance document is a product of the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC). The NWCC was formed to better understand and promote responsible, credible, and comparable avian/wind energy interaction studies. Bird mortality is a concern and wind power is a potential clean and green source of electricity, making study of wind energy/bird interactions essential. This document provides an overview for regulators and stakeholders concerned with wind energy/bird interactions, as well as a more technical discussion of the basic concepts and tools for studying such interactions.

  13. Determinants of Internet Use for Interactive Learning: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Jonatan; Duart, Josep M.; Sancho-Vinuesa, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Internet in higher education teaching can facilitate the interactive learning process and thus improve educational outcomes. The aim of the study presented here is to explore which variables are linked to higher intensity of Internet-based interactive educational practices. The study is based on data obtained from an online survey…

  14. An Activity Theoretical Approach to Social Interaction during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…

  15. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  16. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop...

  17. Communication: The Study of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, C. David

    Designed to provide a comprehensive and broadly based introduction to the study of human communication, this book presents the concept of communication as interrelated constituent processes that operate at varying levels of complexity and acquire significance only in the context of larger intrapersonal, interpersonal, or socio-cultural systems of…

  18. Studies on phytoplankton-bacterial interactions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.

    community was most diverse during the pre- monsoon period. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in the water column as well as sediment. A seasonal cycling between vegetative and resting cysts of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates... governed by the environmental characteristics of the study area was observed. Temperature, salinity and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) were the main factors affecting dinoflagellate community structure in both the water column and sediment...

  19. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  20. A study of the flow field surrounding interacting line fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Maynard; Marko Princevac; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which...

  1. A theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with Au3 (Pakiari and Jamshidi 2007) and interaction of. ∗. Author for correspondence (harjinder.singh@iiit.ac.in) small gold clusters with xDNA base pairs (Sharma et al. 2009) have motivated us to carry out a theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold nanoparticles. Proline is unique among the natural amino acids ...

  2. A Usability Study of Interactive Web-Based Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the…

  3. From Child-Robot Interaction to Child-Robot-Therapist Interaction: A Case Study in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannopulu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Troubles in social communication as well as deficits in the cognitive treatment of emotions are supposed to be a fundamental part of autism. We present a case study based on multimodal interaction between a mobile robot and a child with autism in spontaneous, free game play. This case study tells us that the robot mediates the interaction between the autistic child and therapist once the robot-child interaction has been established. In addition, the child uses the robot as a mediator to express positive emotion playing with the therapist. It is thought that the three-pronged interaction i.e., child-robot-therapist could better facilitate the transfer of social and emotional abilities to real life settings. Robot therapy has a high potential to improve the condition of brain activity in autistic children.

  4. Strong interactions studies with medium energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1993-10-01

    This progress report refers to the period August 1992 to August 1993, which includes the first year of the three-year period December 1, 1992--November 30, 1995 of the existing research contract. As anticipated in the 1992--1995 proposal the major preoccupation during 1992--1993 was with Fermilab experiment E760. This experiment, whose primary objective is to make very high-resolution study of Charmonium Spectroscopy via proton-antiproton annihilations, has turned out to be a veritable gold-mine of exciting hadronic physics in other areas as well. These include the proton from factor in the time-life region, proton-antiproton forward scattering, QCD scaling laws, and light quark spectroscopy. A large fraction of the data from E760 have been analyzed during this year, and several papers have been published. In addition to the E760 experiment at Fermilab continued progress was made earlier nuclear physics-related experiments at LAMPF, MIT, and NIKHEF, and their results for publication. Topics include high- resolution electron scattering, quasi-free electron scattering and low-energy pion double charge exchange

  5. Water-clay interactions. Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Clay minerals contribute to the chemical composition of soil and sediment groundwaters via surface and dissolution/precipitation reactions. The understanding of those processes is still today fragmentary. In this context, our experimental purpose is to identify the contribution of each reaction in the chemical composition of water in a water/clay System. Kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite are the reference clays. After a fine mineralogical study, the exchange equilibria between K + and H + are characterised. Different exchange sites are identified and the exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients are quantified. Then, mixtures of the three clays are equilibrated with acidic and basic (I≤10 -2 M) solutions at 25 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C, during 320 days. The System evolution is observed by chemical analysis of the solutions and mineralogical analysis by TEM. We show that montmorillonite is unstable compared to the kaolinite/amorphous silica assemblage for solutions of pH<7. Aqueous silica is probably controlled by the kinetics of dissolution of the montmorillonite in moderate pH media. In more acidic solutions, amorphous silica precipitates. Al is under control of 'kaolinite' neo-formations. The use of the selectivity coefficients in a numerical simulation shows that K + concentration depends on exchange reactions. The pH has a more complicated evolution, which is not completely understood. This evolution depends on both exchange equilibria and organic acid occurrence. In this type of experiments, we have demonstrated that the equilibrium equations between smectite and kaolinite are inexact. The problem of the thermodynamic nature of clays remains and is not resolved by these solubility experiments. (author) [fr

  6. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere

  7. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. E-mail: niti-npc@sbor.net; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V

    2001-12-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere.

  8. Pharmacogenomic study using bio- and nanobioelectrochemistry: Drug-DNA interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Small molecules that bind genomic DNA have proven that they can be effective anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral therapeutic agents that affect the well-being of millions of people worldwide. Drug-DNA interaction affects DNA replication and division; causes strand breaks, and mutations. Therefore, the investigation of drug-DNA interaction is needed to understand the mechanism of drug action as well as in designing DNA-targeted drugs. On the other hand, the interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. For this purpose, electrochemical methods/biosensors can be used toward detection of drug-DNA interactions. The present paper reviews the drug-DNA interactions, their types and applications of electrochemical techniques used to study interactions between DNA and drugs or small ligand molecules that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. The results are used to determine drug binding sites and sequence preference, as well as conformational changes due to drug-DNA interactions. Also, the intention of this review is to give an overview of the present state of the drug-DNA interaction cognition. The applications of electrochemical techniques for investigation of drug-DNA interaction were reviewed and we have discussed the type of qualitative or quantitative information that can be obtained from the use of each technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observational study of drug-drug interactions in oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most frequent interactions. A standard database was used. Method: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp® database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X. Results: A total of 1 850 drug-drug interactions were detected in 218 treatments. The prevalence of treatments with at least one clinically relevant interaction was 95%, being 94.5% for those at level C and 26.1% for levels D and X. The drugs most commonly involved in the interactions detected were opioid analgesics, antipsychotics (butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, pyrazolones, glucocorticoids and heparins, whereas interactions with antineoplastics were minimal, highlighting those related to paclitaxel and between metamizole and various antineoplastics. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions rate was very high, highlighting the high risk percentage of them related to level of risk X. Due to the frequency of onset and potential severity, highlighted the concomitant use of central nervous system depressants drugs with risk of respiratory depression, the risk of onset of anticholinergic symptoms when combining morphine or haloperidol with butylscopolamine, ipratropium bromide or dexchlorpheniramine and the multiple interactions involving metamizole.

  10. Fragment molecular orbital method for studying lanthanide interactions with proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Satoru [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Komeiji, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Mochizuki, Y. [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    The binding affinity of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin towards Eu{sup 3+} was studied as a model for lanthanide protein interactions in the large family of ''EF-hand'' calcium-binding proteins.

  11. Simulation study of the beam-beam interaction at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, J.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional simulation study of the beam-beam interaction at SPEAR indicates that quantum fluctuations affecting the horizontal betatron oscillation play a critical role in the vertical beam blowup

  12. Quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper

    antimicrobial peptides interact with phospholipid membranes. Motivated by that fact, the scope of this thesis is to study these antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions. In particular, we attempt to study these interactions with a quantitative approach. For that purpose, we consider the three...... a significant problem for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions; namely that antimicrobial peptides adsorb to surfaces of glass and plastic. Specifically, we demonstrate that under standard experimental conditions, this effect is significant for mastoparan X, melittin...... lead to inaccurate conclusions, or even completely wrong conclusions, when interpreting the FCS data. We show that, if all of the pitfalls are avoided, then FCS is a technique with a large potential for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-induced leakage of fluorescent markers from large...

  13. Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between Bacillus mojavensis and Alternaria alternata. Asma Milet, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Laid Dehimat, Asma Ait Kaki, Mounira Kara Ali, Philippe Thonart ...

  14. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Atmosphere Water Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2011-07-04

    Understanding and quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange, and regional weat

  15. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  16. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola using an in vitro adsorption study. Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. kola was conducted at 37 ± 0.1 °C. Adsorption of quinine (2.5 - 40 μg/ml) to 2.5 % w/v G. kola suspension was studied. Thereafter, quinine desorption process ...

  17. Using interactive video technology in nursing education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, Daria M; Pulcher, Karen L

    2008-02-01

    A pilot study was conducted to analyze the benefits of using interactive technology with external assessors and graduating senior nursing students during Senior Nurse Leadership Assessment Day at the University of Central Missouri. The primary aim was to determine whether videoconferencing technology would promote recruitment and retention of professional nurse external assessors without compromising student learning. Among the issues discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of using interactive videoconferencing technology in education and the influence of external assessors in nursing education. The study results indicate that interactive videoconferencing is an effective, accepted format for educational opportunities such as Senior Nurse Leadership Assessment Day, based on the lived experiences of the study participants. In addition, the results demonstrate that interactive videoconferencing does not compromise student learning or assessment by external assessors.

  18. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  19. Interweaving interactions in virtual worlds: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantamesse, Matteo; Galimberti, Carlo; Giacoma, Gianandrea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing the online game World of Warcraft (WoW), both on adolescent's (effective) social interaction and on the competence they developed on it. Social interactions within the game environment have been investigated by integrating qualitative and quantitative methods: conversation analysis and social network analysis (SNA). From a psychosocial point of view, the in-game interactions, and in particular conversational exchanges, turn out to be a collaborative path of the joint definition of identities and social ties, with reflection on in-game processes and out-game relationship.

  20. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  1. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  2. Study on competitive interaction models in Cayley tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.G.M.A.

    1987-12-01

    We propose two kinds of models in the Cayley tree to simulate Ising models with axial anisotropy in the cubic lattice. The interaction in the direction of the anisotropy is simulated by the interaction along the branches of the tree. The interaction in the planes perpendicular to the anisotropy direction, in the first model, is simulated by interactions between spins in neighbour branches of the same generation arising from same site of the previous generation. In the second model, the simulation of the interaction in the planes are produced by mean field interactions among all spins in sites of the same generation arising from the same site of the previous generations. We study these models in the limit of infinite coordination number. First, we analyse a situation with antiferromagnetic interactions along the branches between first neighbours only, and we find the analogous of a metamagnetic Ising model. In the following, we introduce competitive interactions between first and second neighbours along the branches, to simulate the ANNNI model. We obtain one equation of differences which relates the magnetization of one generation with the magnetization of the two previous generations, to permit a detailed study of the modulated phase region. We note that the wave number of the modulation, for one fixed temperature, changes with the competition parameter to form a devil's staircase with a fractal dimension which increases with the temperature. We discuss the existence of strange atractors, related to a possible caothic phase. Finally, we show the obtained results when we consider interactions along the branches with three neighbours. (author)

  3. Study on Human-structure Dynamic Interaction in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Cao, Li Lin; Li, Xing Hua

    2018-06-01

    The research of human-structure dynamic interaction are reviewed. Firstly, the influence of the crowd load on structural dynamic characteristics is introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of different crowd load models are analyzed. Then, discussing the influence of structural vibration on the human-induced load, especially the influence of different stiffness structures on the crowd load. Finally, questions about human-structure interaction that require further study are presented.

  4. The pragmatics of therapeutic interaction: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.

  5. Gender interaction in coed physical education: a study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a long-standing debate about whether a single-sex or mixed-sex environment is better for students in many Western countries, coeducation is one of the taken-for-granted issues in the modern Turkish education system. This study examined commonly expressed concerns about gender equity in a mixed-sex environment within the context of physical education (PE) in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to examine teacher-student interaction in the coed PE classroom, focusing on gender-stereotyped beliefs. Participants consisted of two PE teachers and 37 eighth-grade students from a private school situated in suburban Ankara Turkey. The modified observational instrument with the combination of Teacher-Student Interaction (TSI) and Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching Observation System (INTERSECT) was used to assess teacher-student interaction in the classroom. In order to understand students' and teachers' gender-stereotyped beliefs, individual interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicated that both male and female PE teachers interact more frequently with boys, and this interaction was influenced by gender-stereotyped beliefs of both teachers and students. In sum, similar to many other western countries, the movement toward coeducation in Turkey has not automatically brought equal opportunities for girls or boys in PE.

  6. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au)

  7. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Div. of Nucl. Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au).

  8. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  9. PEER-FEEDBACK AND ONLINE INTERACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Espitia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL classroom has led to different practices and types of interaction. Online interaction allows teachers and students to use the target language beyond the classroom and provides students with more time to be exposed to and use the language. This case study aimed at understanding how a group of twelve students at Universidad de la Sabana, who participated in online forums as part of the requirements of a blended EFL course, interacted online to provide peer-feedback on written compositions. It also analyzed how online interaction was undertaken when using online forums. Findings suggest that participants raised awareness about the relevance of editing to avoid possible language problems by reviewing their peers' products and that the implementation of online peer feedback as an assessment strategy reveals students' beliefs towards language assessment.

  10. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  11. Organoid culture systems to study host-pathogen interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Devanjali; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in host-microbe interaction studies in organoid cultures have shown great promise and have laid the foundation for much more refined future studies using these systems. Modeling of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in cerebral organoids have helped us understand its association with

  12. Quadrupole interactions of Au in Be and lattice location studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perscheid, B.; Gayer, H.W.; Krien, K.; Freitag, K.

    1978-01-01

    The Moessbauer nucleus 197 Au is used as probe for quadrupole interaction (QI) studies in Be metal. The 77 keV Moessbauer level is populated by the β - decay of 197 Pt and the EC decay of 197 Hg. This fact enabled samples prepared in different ways to be studied. (Auth.)

  13. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  14. Teaching Social Interaction Skills in Social Studies Classroom and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a survey which was carried out with 110 sandwich students of university of Nigeria Nsukka. The focus was to ascertain the relevance of social studies programme of Nigerian universities in inculcating social interaction skills for maintaining peace and managing conflicts in the family. Four research questions ...

  15. Technique of studying the interaction of charges of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremov, E.I.; Kravtsov, V.S.; Myachina, N.I.; Rodak, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for studying the interaction of explosive charges which includes recording of the velocity of detonation of the studied charges, measurement of mechanical stresses developing in this case in the medium and determination of granulometric composition of the model with simultaneous and diverse initiation.

  16. Study on the Interaction between Two Hydrokinetic Savonius Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Golecha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Savonius turbine is simple in design and easy to fabricate at a lower cost. The drag is the basic driving force for Savonius turbine. Savonius turbines are mainly used for the small-scale electricity generation in remote areas. In real life, multiple Savonius turbines are to be arranged to form a farm to scale up the electricity generation. So, it is important to study the interaction among them to avoid the power loss due to negative interaction between turbines. The purpose of this investigation is to examine closely the effect of interaction between two Savonius turbines arranged in line. Experimental investigations are carried out to study the mutual interaction between turbines with water as the working medium at a Reynolds number of 1.2×105 based on the diameter of the turbine. Influence of separation gap between the two Savonius turbines is studied by varying the separation gap ratio (/ from 3 to 8. As the separation gap ratio increases from 3 to 8, becomes lesser the mutual interaction between the turbines. Results conclude that two turbines placed at a separation gap ratio of 8 performed independently without affecting the performance of each other.

  17. The feedback in the studies of interpersonal interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Amyaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problem of interpreting and studying the feedback in interpersonal interaction as a result of some reflective position. A scientist interested in the feedback has to study the reflective positions as well and to consider their ‘second order’, i. e. to identify the object of his research as a certain number of direct and reverse processes together with their possible subjective representation. Considering the interaction of the sociologist with his customer, this means the necessity to correctly understand and reflect the goals, interests and negotiating tools of the other party that determine the success of negotiations.

  18. Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives on Designing Video Studies of Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Rostvall

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the theoretical basis for the methodological decisions made during the course of a Swedish research project on interaction and learning. The purpose is to discuss how different theories are applied at separate levels of the study. The study is structured on three levels, with separate sets of research questions and theoretical concepts. The levels reflect a close-up description, a systematic analysis, and an interpretation of how teachers and students act and interact. The data consist of 12 hours of video-recorded and transcribed music lessons from high school and college. Through a multidisciplinary theoretical framework, the general understanding of teaching and learning in terms of interaction can be widened. The authors also present a software tool developed to facilitate the processes of transcription and analysis of the video data.

  19. FTIR Drug-Polymer Interactions Studies of Perindopril Erbumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modni, A.; Ahmad, S.; Din, I.; Hussain, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to prepare different combinations of Perindopril Erbumine with different polymers like Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M, Xanthan gum and Ethyl cellulose, thereby to determine any possible interactions between Perindopril erbumine and polymers. The analytical technique Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to take spectra of individual drug, polymers and combination of drug with polymers. The results were analyzed to find out any interactions of Perindopril erbumine and polymers. From this study it was concluded that there were no any significant changes in characteristic peaks of drug after combinations with polymers which indicated no interaction between Perindopril erbumine and polymers. (author)

  20. Controlled interaction: strategies for using virtual reality to study perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, Frank H; Li, Zhi

    2010-05-01

    Immersive virtual reality systems employing head-mounted displays offer great promise for the investigation of perception and action, but there are well-documented limitations to most virtual reality systems. In the present article, we suggest strategies for studying perception/action interactions that try to depend on both scale-invariant metrics (such as power function exponents) and careful consideration of the requirements of the interactions under investigation. New data concerning the effect of pincushion distortion on the perception of surface orientation are presented, as well as data documenting the perception of dynamic distortions associated with head movements with uncorrected optics. A review of several successful uses of virtual reality to study the interaction of perception and action emphasizes scale-free analysis strategies that can achieve theoretical goals while minimizing assumptions about the accuracy of virtual simulations.

  1. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  2. Context Matters: Increasing Understanding with Interactive Clicker Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Kang, Hosun; Wolter, Bjorn; delMas, Robert; Armstrong, Norris; Borsari, Bruno; Boury, Nancy; Brickman, Peggy; Hannam, Kristi; Heinz, Cheryl; Horvath, Thomas; Knabb, Maureen; Platt, Terry; Rice, Nancy; Rogers, Bill; Sharp, Joan; Ribbens, Eric; Maier, Kimberly S.; Deschryver, Mike; Hagley, Rodney; Goulet, Tamar; Herreid, Clyde F.

    2011-01-01

    Although interactive technology is presumed to increase student understanding in large classes, no previous research studies have empirically explored the effects of Clicker Cases on students' performance. A Clicker Case is a story (e.g., a problem someone is facing) that uses clickers (student response systems) to engage students in understanding…

  3. NMR studies concerning base-base interactions in oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogen, Y.T. van den.

    1988-01-01

    Two main subjects are treated in the present thesis. The firsst part principally deals with the base-base interactions in single-stranded oligoribonucleotides. The second part presents NMR and model-building studies of DNA and RNA duplexes containing an unpaired base. (author). 242 refs.; 26 figs.; 24 tabs

  4. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1 : Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using

  5. Electroreflectance and the problem of studying plasma-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preppernau, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    A long standing problem in low-temperature plasma discharge physics is to understand in detail the mutual interaction of real exposed surfaces (electrodes) with the reactive plasma environment. In particular, one wishes to discern the influence of these surfaces on the plasma parameters given their contributions from secondary electrons and ions. This paper briefly reviews the known surface interaction processes as well as currently available diagnostics to study the interface between plasmas and surfaces. Next comes a discussion describing the application of plasma-modulated electroreflectance to this research and some potential experimental techniques

  6. SPS ionosphere/microwave beam interactions: Arecibo experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the environmental impacts associated with the operation of the proposed SPS microwave power transmission system. It is expected that thermal effects will provide the dominant force driving the nonlinear ionosphere/microwave beam interactions. Collisional damping of radio waves, producing ohmic heating of the ionospheric plasma, depends inversely on the square of the radio wave frequency. Therefore, equivalent heating and equivalent thermal forces can be generated at lower radiated power densities by using lower radio wave frequencies. This principle is fundamental to a large part of the experimental program. An understanding of the physics of the specific interactions excited by the SPS microwave beam is also an important part of the assessment program. This program is designed to determine instability thresholds, the growth rates and spatial extent of the resultant ionospheric disturbances, and the frequency and power dependences of the interactions. How these interactions are affected by variations in the natural ionospheric conditions, how different instabilities occurring simultaneously may affect each other, and how distinct microwave beams might mutually interact are studied. Status of the program is described

  7. Study of weak interaction with p-p colliding beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, Jiro; Sugawara, Hirotaka

    1975-01-01

    Weak interaction in the energy range of TRISTAN project is discussed. The cross-section of production of weak boson in p-p reaction was calculated with the parton model. The observation of weak boson may be possible. The production rate of neutral weak boson was also estimated on the basis of the Weinberg model, and was almost same as that of weak boson. The method of observation of weak boson is suggested. The direct method is the observation of lepton pair due to the decay of neutral weak boson. It is expected that the spectrum of decay products (+ -) in the decay of weak boson shows a characteristic feature, and it shows the existence of weak boson. Weak interaction makes larger contribution in case of large momentum transfer than electromagnetic interaction. When the momentum transfer is larger than 60 GeV/c, the contribution of weak interaction is dominant over the others. Therefore, the experiments at high energy will give informations concerning the relations among the interactions of elementary particles. Possibility of study on the Higgs scalar meson is also discussed. (Kato, T.)

  8. CUSTOMER INTERACTION ON DIGITAL ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Tavares da Silva Cozer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On a digital economy context, customer interaction is fundamental to any company to provide competitive advantage. This research intends to give concrete answers for the sea of information complexity which is the Internet. The main case is to build a model of digital customer interaction. Customization extends beyond targeted media to include the design and delivery of the product itself. Venkatraman (1998 defines dynamic customization based on three principles: modularity, intelligence and organization. The research is based on Interaction Model and its variables are: Products, Modularity, Artificial Intelligence, Market driven organization, and virtual communities. Two organizations were studied, one with physical product and another with virtual product, and the results were shown from a qualitative research.

  9. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  10. A study of compound particles in pion-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tufail

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the phenomenon of multiparticle production has been studied using the nuclear emulsion technique. Nuclear emulsion is a material which memorises the tracks of charged particles. When an incident particle interacts with the nuclei of the emulsion, secondary particles are produced. These secondary particles are classified into three categories viz., shower (Ns), grey (Ng) and black (Nb) particles. The investigation of particle-nucleus collisions is fundamental for understanding the nature of the interaction process. In such studies most of the attention was paid to the relativistic charged particles that is showers (1-3). From the survey of literature it is found that slow particles (grey and black) are less studied in comparison to charged shower particles. Grey particles may provide some valuable information and it may be taken as good measure of number of collisions made by the incident particle

  11. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E) or the magnetic (B) field, or if combinations of static B and time-varying B fields represent an exposure metric for the cell. This question relates directly to understanding fundamental interaction mechanisms and to the development of a rationale for ELF dose threshold guidelines. The weight of

  12. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  13. [Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao-Ying; Chen, Lin; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin

  14. [Role of food interaction pharmacokinetic studies in drug development. Food interaction studies of theophylline and nifedipine retard and buspirone tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabant, S; Klebovich, I; Gachályi, B; Renczes, G; Farsang, C

    1998-09-01

    Due to several mechanism, meals may modify the pharmacokinetics of drug products, thereby eliciting to clinically significant food interaction. Food interactions with the drug substance and with the drug formulation should be distinguished. Food interaction of different drug products containing the same active ingredient can be various depending on the pharmaceutical formulation technology. Particularly, in the case of modified release products, the food/formulation interaction can play an important role in the development of food interaction. Well known example, that bioavailability of theophylline can be influenced in different way (either increased, decreased or unchanged) by concomitant intake of food in the case of different sustained release products. The role and methods of food interaction studies in the different kinds of drug development (new chemical entity, modified release products, generics) are reviewed. Prediction of food effect response on the basis of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug molecule or formulations is discussed. The results of three food interaction studies carried out the products of EGIS Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are also reviewed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophyllin 400 mg retard tablet were practically the same in both fasting condition and administration after consumption of a high fat containing standard breakfast. The ingestion of a high fat containing breakfast, increased the AUC of nifedipine from 259.0 +/- 101.2 ng h/ml to 326.7 +/- 122.5 ng h/ml and Cmax from 34.5 +/- 15.9 ng/ml to 74.3 +/- 23.9 ng/ml in case of nifedipine 20 mg retard tablet, in agreement with the data of literature. The statistical evaluation indicated significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters in the case of two administrations (before and after meal). The effect of a high fat containing breakfast for a generic version of buspiron 10 mg tablet and the bioequivalence after food consumption were

  15. Naphtha interaction with bitumen and clays : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afara, M.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a preliminary study conducted to characterize naphtha interactions with bitumen and clays. Coarse tailings, fluid-fine tailings, and froth treatment tailings are produced as a result of surface mine oil sands operations. Solvents are used to produce the bitumens, but the actual fraction of the solvent that evaporates and contributes to VOCs from tailing ponds is poorly understood. This study examined the interactions between the solvent, bitumen and mineral components in froth treatment tails. The study was conducted with aim of quantifying the VOC or solvent escaping from the froth treatment tailings. Samples containing bitumen, clay, a bitumen-clay mixture, or MFT were spiked with 3000 ppm of solvent. The amount of naphtha released was monitored by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flame ionization detection of the evolved gases. The results were expressed as a percentage of the total hydrocarbon peak area of the sample versus a control. Results of the study showed that the naphtha interacted more strongly with the bitumen than with kaolinite and the clay minerals from the oil sands. Although initial solvent evaporation was reduced in the presence of bitumens and clays, long-term solvent releases will need to be quantified. tabs., figs.

  16. Studies of interaction between two alkaloids and double helix DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yantao; Peng, Tingting; Zhao, Lei; Jiang, Dayu; Cui, Yuncheng

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the study on the interaction of two alkaloids (matrine and evodiamine) and hs-DNA by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), DNA melting and viscosity experiments. The spectroscopic studies suggested that two alkaloids can bind to DNA through an intercalative mode. The viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation also indicated that two alkaloids can intercalate to DNA. The binding constants (K A ) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined. At the same time, some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the alkaloids to DNA were obtained. Competitive binding studies revealed that alkaloids had an effect on ethidium bromide (EB) bound DNA. In addition, it was also proved that the fluorescence quenching was influenced by ionic strength. - Highlights: • Interaction between two alkaloids and DNA is studied by spectral methods. • The binding constant and the binding sites between two alkaloids and DNA are obtained. • There are a classical intercalative mode between alkaloids and DNA. • The binding of matrine with DNA is weaker than that of evodiamine. • It is important for us to understand the alkaloids–DNA interactions at a molecular level

  17. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  18. Theoretical Studies of Strongly Interacting Fine Particle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a system of fine magnetic particles as a function of applied field and temperature was carried out. The model used was based on a theory assuming Neel relaxation with a distribution of particle sizes. This theory predicted a linear variation of S_{max} with temperature and a finite intercept, which is not reflected by experimental observations. The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems were also investigated theoretically. It was shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot was found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is investigated. These results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally the results of the noise power spectral density for erased and saturated recording media are presented, so that characterisation of interparticle interactions may be carried out with greater accuracy.

  19. Experimental Studies of Thermal Interactions at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of the consequences of very severe reactor accidents in which fuel is melted involves evaluation of the nature of any thermal interaction between molten fuel or cladding and the reactor coolant. Work on these problems has been pursued in many countries, both experimentally and theoretically, but although much progress has been made there is as yet no well established theoretical description of large scale efficient thermal interactions. The need for further experimental data in this area was one of the main reasons for establishing a new range of experimental facilities at Winfrith which provide the ability to carry out experiments involving explosions under safe conditions. Experiments are set up inside a strong test cell situated in the centre of a 200 m exclusion area. Instrumentation is provided for transient measurements of pressure and strain, and for high speed cine photography. The first part of this programme started early in 1975, and is concerned with the propagation of thermal interaction through a metal/water system. This programme is not yet complete but some results of interest have been obtained. The first part of this paper will describe these experiments and discuss the significance of the results currently available. Such studies of large scale metal/water interactions should help to provide an improved understanding of the way in which propagation might occur in the reactor case, but must be complemented by experiments using reactor materials. The second stage of the Winfrith programme will study the UO 2 /Na system directly. Facilities for the production of pure uranium burning thermite charges will be commissioned early in 1976. This chemical technique for producing molten UO 2 will be used in two main types of experiment. Firstly the interaction of a two phase bubble of UO 2 with a surrounding pool of Na will be studied, extending the investigations of this kind started at AWRE Foulness. Secondly, the heat transfer rate from UO 2

  20. Intersegmental interactions in supercoiled DNA: atomic force microscope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Miloseska, Lela; Potaman, Vladimir N.; Sinden, Richard R.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2003-10-15

    Intersegmental interactions in DNA facilitated by the neutralization of electrostatic repulsion was studied as a function of salt concentration and DNA supercoiling. DNA samples with defined superhelical densities were deposited onto aminopropyl mica at different ionic conditions and imaged in air after drying of the samples. Similar to hydrodynamic data, we did not observe a collapse of supercoiled DNA, as proposed earlier by cryo-EM studies. Instead, the formation of the contacts between DNA helices within supercoiled loops with no visible space between the duplexes was observed. The length of such close contacts increased upon increasing NaCl concentration. DNA supercoiling was a critical factor for the stabilization of intersegmental contacts. Implications of the observed effect for understanding DNA compaction in the cell and for regulation DNA transactions via interaction of distantly separated DNA regions are discussed.

  1. ISOLTRAP Mass Measurements for Weak-Interaction Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerbauer, A.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; George, S.; Schweikhard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are two fundamental postulates of the Standard Model. While existing data on CVC supports vector current conservation, the unitarity test of the CKM matrix currently fails by more than two standard deviations. High-precision mass measurements performed with the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN provide crucial input for these fundamental studies by greatly improving our knowledge of the decay energy of super-allowed β decays. Recent results of mass measurements on the β emitters 18Ne, 22Mg, 34Ar, and 74Rb as pertaining to weak-interaction studies are presented

  2. Interaction Studies between Newly Synthesized Photosensitive Polymer and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information age, different kinds of photosensitive materials have been used in the manufacture of information storage devices. But these photosensitive materials have the bane of low diffraction efficiency. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesized a novel photosensitive polymer from epoxy-based azopolymers (with three types of azochromophores. Furthermore, we have studied the interaction between this newly synthesized azopolymer and ionic liquids (ILs. For this purpose, we have used the ammonium and imidazolium families of ILs, such as diethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DEAP, tributylammonium methyl sulfate (TBMS, triethylammonium 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid (TASA, and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl. To investigate the molecular interaction between azopolymer and ILs, we have used the following spectroscopic methods of analysis: UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and confocal Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we have developed new photosensitive materials by combining polymer with ILs.

  3. A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.

  4. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  5. Studies on Se-Cr interactions in mungbean using radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Karuna; Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, Rohit; Dass, Sahab; Prakash, Satya; Srivastava, M M [Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    The paper describes a preliminary report of hydroponic experiment on the effect of selenium (selenite and selenate) treatments on the absorption of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by mung bean (Phaseolus mungo) plant. The studies are mainly confined to animal system and little attention has been paid on Se-metal interactions, particularly with those of different oxidation states of selenium and chromium in plant system. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab.

  6. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Tidal Interactions in Solar type Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Meibom, S.; Mathieu, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an ongoing study on tidal interactions in late-type close binary stars. New results on tidal circularization are combined with existing data to test and constrain theoretical predictions of tidal circularization in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase and throughout the main-sequence phase of stellar evolution. Current data suggest that tidal circularization during the PMS phase sets the tidal cutoff period for binary populations younger than ~1 Gyr. Binary populations older than ~1 G...

  7. Studies on Se-Cr interactions in mungbean using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, Karuna; Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, Rohit; Dass, Sahab; Prakash, Satya; Srivastava, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary report of hydroponic experiment on the effect of selenium (selenite and selenate) treatments on the absorption of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by mung bean (Phaseolus mungo) plant. The studies are mainly confined to animal system and little attention has been paid on Se-metal interactions, particularly with those of different oxidation states of selenium and chromium in plant system. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  8. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hölzl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymity properties of the Crowds protocol, an anonymizing protocol.

  9. Morphology studies on gas hydrates interacting with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J.; Servio, P. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Clathrate hydrates or gas hydrates are non-stoichiometric, crystalline compounds that form when small molecules come in contact with water at certain temperatures and pressures. Natural gas hydrates are found in the ocean bottom and in permafrost regions. It is thought that the amount of energy stored in natural hydrates is at least twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. In addition, trapping carbon dioxide as a hydrate in the bottom of the ocean has been suggested as an alternative means of reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Naturally occurring clathrates are found in close interaction with fine grained particles of very small mean pore diameters. Even though an increasing amount of hydrate equilibrium data for small diameter porous media has become available, the morphological behavior of hydrates subject to such conditions is yet to be explored. This paper presented a study that visually examined hydrate formation and decomposition of gas hydrates while interacting with fine grains of silica gel. The study showed still frames from high-resolution video recordings for hydrate formation and decomposition. The paper discussed the experiment including the apparatus as well as the results of hydrate formation and hydrate dissociation. This study enabled for the first time to observe clathrate morphology while hydrates interacted closely with fine grain particles with small mean pore diameters. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Interactive television revisited: a case study in home economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    telephone lines or computer networks. The South African ... communication would be suitable to reach this level of interactivity ... specified, and the interaction has to be mediated through ... synchronous interaction is face-to-face contact. Live.

  11. Liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction studies in ISTTOK tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.; Alekseyv, A.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid metals have been pointed out as a suitable solution to solve problems related to the use of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing, simultaneously, an efficient heat exhaustion process from fusion devices. The most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state temperature range when compared with gallium. To explore further this property, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying liquid gallium jet with the plasma. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with this jet without noticeable discharge degradation and no severe effect on the main plasma parameters or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. Additionally the response of an infrared sensor, intended to measure the jet surface temperature increase during its interaction with the plasma, has been studied. The jet power extraction capability is extrapolated from the heat flux profiles measured in ISTTOK plasmas.

  12. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  13. Monte Carlo study of double exchange interaction in manganese oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naa, Christian Fredy, E-mail: chris@cphys.fi.itb.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Unité de Dynamique et Structure des Matérioux Moléculaires, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, Maison de la Reserche Blaise Pascal 50, rue Ferdinand Buisson, Calais, France email (France); Suprijadi,, E-mail: supri@fi.itb.ac.id; Viridi, Sparisoma, E-mail: dudung@fi.itb.ac.id; Djamal, Mitra, E-mail: mitra@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Fasquelle, Didier, E-mail: didier.fasquelle@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Dynamique et Structure des Matérioux Moléculaires, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, Maison de la Reserche Blaise Pascal 50, rue Ferdinand Buisson, Calais, France email (France)

    2015-09-30

    In this paper we study the magnetoresistance properties attributed by double exchange (DE) interaction in manganese oxide by Monte Carlo simulation. We construct a model based on mixed-valence Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} on the general system of Re{sub 2/3}Ae{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} in two dimensional system. The conduction mechanism is based on probability of e{sub g} electrons hopping from Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+}. The resistivity dependence on temperature and the external magnetic field are presented and the validity with related experimental results are discussed. We use the resistivity power law to fit our data on metallic region and basic activated behavior on insulator region. On metallic region, we found our result agree well with the quantum theory of DE interaction. From general arguments, we found our simulation agree qualitatively with experimental results.

  14. Sum frequency generation for studying plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of a plasma with a surface results in chemical and physical restructuring of the surface as well as the plasma in the vicinity of the surface. Studying such a reorganization of the atoms and molecules in the surface layer requires optical tools that can penetrate the plasma environment. At the same time, surface specificity is required. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is an optical method that fulfills these requirements. SFG has been developed into a surface specific probe during the eighties and nineties. Nowadays SFG is routinely applied in the research of complex interfaces. In such experiments, liquid/gas, solid/gas, solid/liquid, or liquid/liquid interfaces are probed, and the chemical surface composition, orientational distribution, order and chirality can be retrieved. An application to investigate plasma-wall interactions is feasible too.

  15. Discourse and Interaction Studies in the ‘New North’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The plenary roundtable draws together key scholars from the Nordic countries and scholars living in the Nordic region to discuss the future of discourse and interaction studies in the Nordic region. It will address what sorts of approaches in discourse studies do we need for studying and shaping...... 'the Nordic' in the twenty first century, and what theoretical concepts and methodological principles should we abide by or develop. For example, the roundtable could discuss the theme of challenges to 'the Nordic model'. How are the North's so-called social welfare and healthcare model and its...... understandings of itself as a community of peaceful, caring societies built on consensus social democracy challenged by neoliberalism, globalisation and immigration? How can discourse studies study these developments in a positive yet critical fashion, with tools crafted with our concerns (not Anglo American...

  16. Study of the Deformation/Interaction Model: How Interactions Increase the Reaction Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions (including weak interactions between dienophiles and dienes play an important role in the Diels-Alder reaction. To elucidate the influence of these interactions on the reactivity, a popular DFT functional and a variational DFT functional corrected with dispersion terms are used to investigate different substituent groups incorporated on the dienophiles and dienes. The bond order is used to track the trajectory of the cycloaddition reaction. The deformation/interaction model is used to obtain the interaction energy from the reactant complex to the inflection point until reaching the saddle point. The interaction energy initially increases with a decrease in the interatomic distance, reaching a maximum value, but then decreases when the dienophiles and dienes come closer. Reduced density gradient and chemical energy component analysis are used to analyse the interaction. Traditional transition state theory and variational transition state theory are used to obtain the reaction rates. The influence of tunneling on the reaction rate is also discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo studies on photon interactions in radiobiological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2018-01-01

    X-ray and γ-ray photons have been widely used for studying radiobiological effects of ionizing radiations. Photons are indirectly ionizing radiations so they need to set in motion electrons (which are a directly ionizing radiation) to perform the ionizations. When the photon dose decreases to below a certain limit, the number of electrons set in motion will become so small that not all cells in an “exposed” cell population can get at least one electron hit. When some cells in a cell population are not hit by a directly ionizing radiation (in other words not irradiated), there will be rescue effect between the irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells, and the resultant radiobiological effect observed for the “exposed” cell population will be different. In the present paper, the mechanisms underlying photon interactions in radiobiological experiments were studied using our developed NRUphoton computer code, which was benchmarked against the MCNP5 code by comparing the photon dose delivered to the cell layer underneath the water medium. The following conclusions were reached: (1) The interaction fractions decreased in the following order: 16O > 12C > 14N > 1H. Bulges in the interaction fractions (versus water medium thickness) were observed, which reflected changes in the energies of the propagating photons due to traversals of different amount of water medium as well as changes in the energy-dependent photon interaction cross-sections. (2) Photoelectric interaction and incoherent scattering dominated for lower-energy (10 keV) and high-energy (100 keV and 1 MeV) incident photons. (3) The fractions of electron ejection from different nuclei were mainly governed by the photoelectric effect cross-sections, and the fractions from the 1s subshell were the largest. (4) The penetration fractions in general decreased with increasing medium thickness, and increased with increasing incident photon energy, the latter being explained by the corresponding reduction in

  18. Monte Carlo studies on photon interactions in radiobiological experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni

    Full Text Available X-ray and γ-ray photons have been widely used for studying radiobiological effects of ionizing radiations. Photons are indirectly ionizing radiations so they need to set in motion electrons (which are a directly ionizing radiation to perform the ionizations. When the photon dose decreases to below a certain limit, the number of electrons set in motion will become so small that not all cells in an "exposed" cell population can get at least one electron hit. When some cells in a cell population are not hit by a directly ionizing radiation (in other words not irradiated, there will be rescue effect between the irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells, and the resultant radiobiological effect observed for the "exposed" cell population will be different. In the present paper, the mechanisms underlying photon interactions in radiobiological experiments were studied using our developed NRUphoton computer code, which was benchmarked against the MCNP5 code by comparing the photon dose delivered to the cell layer underneath the water medium. The following conclusions were reached: (1 The interaction fractions decreased in the following order: 16O > 12C > 14N > 1H. Bulges in the interaction fractions (versus water medium thickness were observed, which reflected changes in the energies of the propagating photons due to traversals of different amount of water medium as well as changes in the energy-dependent photon interaction cross-sections. (2 Photoelectric interaction and incoherent scattering dominated for lower-energy (10 keV and high-energy (100 keV and 1 MeV incident photons. (3 The fractions of electron ejection from different nuclei were mainly governed by the photoelectric effect cross-sections, and the fractions from the 1s subshell were the largest. (4 The penetration fractions in general decreased with increasing medium thickness, and increased with increasing incident photon energy, the latter being explained by the corresponding reduction in

  19. An experimental study on soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Akira; Kumagai, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction effects play an important role in the earthquake response of large scale structures such as nuclear power plants. Recent decades, many experimental and analytical studies have been conducted. Even though sophisticated analytical tools are ready to use, complicated soil-structure interaction problems such as those with a complex geometry can not be solved yet. For such problems a laboratory experiment is a powerful alternative. In the laboratory experiment, a device to absorb the reflected waves is always necessary to be attached on the boundaries of the soil model to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. But unfortunately absorbing devices currently available are far from satisfactory. In this paper, a new experimental method is employed for soil-structure interaction problems to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. The present method utilizes the characteristics of transient response to an impulse load so that no special treatment on the boundaries of the soil model is required. This technique is applicable to a linear elastic system whose impulse response decreases to a small enough value before observing the reflected waves. (author)

  20. Interactive Tutoring in Blended Studies: Hindrances and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ismail Ilyas (Al-Titinchy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach; and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach. It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’  at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in.

  1. DFT Studies on Interaction between Lanthanum and Hydroxyamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anindita; Kundu, T. K.; Pal, Snehanshu

    2018-03-01

    Extraction and separation of individual rare earth elements has been a challenge as they are chemically very similar. Solvent extraction is the most suitable way for extraction of rare earth elements. Acidic, basic, neutral, chelating are the major classes of extractants for solvent extraction of rare earth elements. The coordination complex of chelating extractants is very selective with positively charged metal ion. Hence they are widely used. Hydroxyamide is capable of forming chelates with metal cations. In this present study interactions of hydroxyamide ligand with lanthanum have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Two different functional such as raB97XD and B3LYP are applied along with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set for carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and SDD basis set for lanthanum. Stability of formed complexes has been evaluated based on calculated interaction energies and solvation energies. Frontier orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital or HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital or LUMO) energies of the molecule have also been calculated. Electronegativity, chemical hardness, chemical softness and chemical potential are also determined for these complexes to get an idea about the reactivity. From the partial charge distribution it is seen that oxygen atoms in hydroxyamide have higher negative charge. The double bonded oxygen atom present in the hydroxyamide structure has higher electron density and so it forms bond with lanthanum but the singly bonded oxygen atom in the hydroxyamide structure is weaker donor atom and so it is less available for interaction with lanthanum.

  2. Low-energy antikaon nucleon and nucleus interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Johann; Leannis Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The antikaon (K-) interaction on nucleons and nuclei at low energy is neither simple nor well understood. Kaonic hydrogen is a very interesting case where the strong interaction of K- with the proton leads to an energy shift and a broadening of the 1s ground state. These two observables can be precisely studied with x-ray spectroscopy. The behavior at threshold is influenced strongly by the elusive Lambda(1405) resonance. In Europe the DAFNE electron-positron collider at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) provides an unique source of monoenergetic kaons emitted in the Phi meson decay. Recently the experiment SIDDHARTA on kaonic hydrogen and helium isotopes was successfully performed at LNF. A European network LEANNIS with an outreach to J-PARC in Japan was set up which is promoting the research on the antikaon interactions with nucleons and nuclei. This talk will give an overview of LEANNIS research tasks, the present status and an outlook to future perspectives. Financial support by the EU project HadronPhysics2 is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Investigation of sodium - carbon dioxide interactions with calorimetric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Latge, C.; Gicquel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle could be a promising option to enhance the competitiveness of future Sodium fast reactors but it is highly necessary to get thermodynamic and kinetics information on potential sodium-CO 2 chemical reactions and their consequences. We have studied the interaction between Na and CO 2 via calorimetric methods. These methods are able to point out exothermic/endothermic phenomena and to measure heat of chemical reactions. The main feature of the Na/CO 2 interaction seems to be its sharp dependence on temperature. At low temperature, below 500 C degrees, CO 2 and sodium react and exhibit an induction time which decreases when temperature increases. Above 500 C degrees, we observe a global phenomenon with a fast and instantaneous chemical reaction which may be understood as an auto-combustion of CO 2 in sodium. We clearly demonstrated that Na/CO 2 interaction does not proceed as an auto-catalytic process and is more satisfactorily explained by the occurring of an auto-combustion phenomenon

  4. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  5. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Sarita, E-mail: saritaiitr2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Rani, Pooja [D.A.V. College, Sec-10, Chandigarh-160010 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO{sub 2} (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO{sub 2} has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=−21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  6. Use of interactive lecture demonstrations: A ten year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula D. Sharma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The widely held constructivist view of learning advocates student engagement via interactivity. Within the physics education research community, several specific interactive strategies have been developed to enhance conceptual understanding. One such strategy, the Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD is designed for large lecture classes and, if measured using specific conceptual surveys, is purported to provide learning gains of up to 80%. This paper reports on learning gains for two different Projects over ten years. In Project 1, the ILDs were implemented from 1999 to 2001 with students who had successfully completed senior high school physics. The learning gains for students not exposed to the ILDs were in the range 13% to 16% while those for students exposed to the ILDs was 31% to 50%. In Project 2, the ILDs were implemented from 2007 to 2009 with students who had not studied senior high school physics. Since the use of ILDs in Project 1 had produced positive results, ethical considerations dictated that all students be exposed to ILDs. The learning gains were from 28% to 42%. On the one hand it is pleasing to note that there is an increase in learning gains, yet on the other, we note that the gains are nowhere near the claimed 80%. This paper also reports on teacher experiences of using the ILDs, in Project 2.

  7. Tools to study pathogen-host interactions in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arinjay; Misra, Vikram; Schountz, Tony; Baker, Michelle L

    2018-03-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir. Although viruses can be readily detected in bats using molecular approaches, virus isolation is far more challenging. One of the limitations in using traditional culture systems from non-reservoir species is that cell types and culture conditions may not be compatible for isolation of bat-borne viruses. There is, therefore, a need to develop additional bat cell lines that correspond to different cell types, including less represented cell types such as immune cells, and culture them under more physiologically relevant conditions to study virus host interactions and for virus isolation. In this review, we highlight the current progress in understanding bat-virus interactions in bat cell line systems and some of the challenges and limitations associated with cell lines. Future directions to address some of these challenges to better understand host-pathogen interactions in these intriguing mammals are also discussed, not only in relation to viruses but also other pathogens carried by bats including bacteria and fungi. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the interaction of lidocaine with plasma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, J.

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to quantitate lidocaine's interaction with alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), human serum albumin (HSA), and AAG in the presence of HSA, and to determine the extent of displacement of lidocaine from its binding site(s) by selected cardiovascular drugs (dipyridamole, disopyramide and quinidine). Since the limited experimental work reported in this area has involved the use of a single lidocaine concentration, this study involved the evaluation of a range of lidocaine concentrations. Lidocaine interaction with plasma proteins (AAG and HSA) was studied at 37 0 C using an isothermal equilibrium dialysis system and 14 C-lidocaine HCl. A dialysis membrane (M.W. cutoff 12,000 to 14,000) separated the two chambers of each dialysis cell. The extent of 14 C-lidocaine dialysis was studied with respect to both drug and protein concentrations. Aliquots of each chamber of each of the cells were subjected to liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analyses for 14 C-lidocaine. The ratio of bound to free (R/F) lidocaine was evaluated as a function of AAG concentration from the LSC data. Scatchard and/or Rosenthal analyses were employed to evaluate n and k values where appropriate. Linear and multiple linear regression analyses of the data were appropriately performed

  9. Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2015-04-01

    Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained with a mean latency of 9.47 ms (SD 0.678 ms). Amplitudes are larger for 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC than for clicks. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at the downslope of wave V. Five hundred Hertz TB ABR-BIC is characterized by a broad positivity occurring at the level of wave V. The ABR-BIC is a useful technique to investigate binaural interaction in certain populations. Examples are bilateral hearing aid users, bilateral cochlear implant users and bimodal listeners. The latter refers to the combination of unilateral cochlear implantation and contralateral residual hearing. The majority of these patients have residual hearing in the low frequencies. The current study suggests that 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC may be a suitable technique to assess binaural interaction in this specific population of cochlear implant users. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A sensitivity study for soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunar, R.R.; White, D.C.; Ashdown, M.J.; Waker, C.H.; Daintith, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which the sensitivity of a containment building typical of one type of construction used in the nuclear reprocessing industry is examined for variations in soil data and seismic input. A number of dynamic soil-structure interaction analyses are performed on the structure and its foundations using parametric variations of the depth of soil layer, soil material properties, bedrock flexibility, seismic input location and time and phase characteristics of the earthquake excitation. Previous experience is combined with the results obtained to gneralise conclusions regarding the conditions under which each of the uncertainties will be significant enough to merit proper statistical treatment. (orig.)

  11. Study of Interaction of Reinforcement with Concrete by Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V. M.; Samoshkin, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the study of deformation of reinforced concrete. A mathematical model for the interaction of reinforcement with concrete, based on the introduction of a contact layer, whose mechanical characteristics are determined from the experimental data, is developed. The limiting state of concrete is described using the Drucker-Prager theory and the fracture criterion with respect to maximum plastic deformations. A series of problems of the theory of reinforced concrete are solved: stretching of concrete from a central-reinforced prism and pre-stressing of concrete. It is shown that the results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic studies on molten core-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.

    1986-10-01

    This report discusses studies carried out in connection with light water power reactor accidents. Recent assessments have indicated that the consequences of molten-core concrete interactions dominate the considerations of severe accidents. The two areas of interest that have been investigated are interlayer heat and mass transfer and liquid-liquid boiling. Interlayer heat and mass transfer refers to processes that occur within a core melt between the stratified, immiscible phases of core oxides and metals. Liquid-liquid boiling refers to processes that occur at the melt-concrete on melt-coolant interface

  13. Interaction of erythrocytes and hexavalent uranium compounds -an autoanalytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, W.I.; Shying, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    An automated analytical system was devised to measure the kinetics of hemolysis by uranyl compounds. Accurate plots of percentage hemolysis v. time were obtained; these, together with the corresponding differential curves, show that hemolysis of plasma-free erythrocytes is a two-stage process. The first stage of hemolysis is particularly affected by pH and anion content of uranyl solutions, and also by incubation of cell suspensions at 37 deg. before mixing with lysing solution. Complementary studies involving Coulter counting and microscopic observation established the general pattern of hemolysis and showed that cell agglutination is a prominent feature of the interaction of cells with uranyl solutions

  14. Studies of the beam-beam interaction for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Furman, M.A.; Turner, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have used the beam-beam simulation code CBI to study the beam-beam interaction for the LHC. We find that for nominal LHC parameters, and assuming only one bunch per beam, there are no collective (coherent) beam-beam instabilities. We have investigated the effect of sweeping one of the beams around the other (a procedure that could be used as a diagnostic for head-on beam-beam collisions). We find that this does not cause any problems at the nominal current, though at higher currents there can be beam blow-up and collective beam motion. consequence of quadrupole collective effects

  15. Study of Adhesion Interaction Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybos, J.; Pyka-Fosciak, G.; Lebed, K.; Lekka, M.; Stachura, Z.; Styczeñ, J.

    2003-05-01

    An atomic force microscope is a useful tool to study the interaction forces at molecular level. In particular the atomic force microscope can measure an unbinding force needed to separate the two single molecule complexes. Recent studies have shown that such unbinding force depends linearly on the logarithm of the applied loading rate, defined as a product of scanning velocity and the spring constant characterizing the investigated system (cantilever vs. surface). This dependence can be used to study the energy landscape shape of a molecular complex by the estimation of energy barrier locations and the related dissociation rates. In the present work the complex consisting of ethylene(di)aminetetraacetic acid and the bovine serum albumin was measured. The dependence between the unbinding force and the logarithm of the loading rate was linear. Using the Bell model describing the dissociation of the above molecules caused by the action of the external bond breaking force, two parameters were estimated: the dissociation rate and the position of the energy barrier needed to overcome during a transition from a bound to unbound state. The obtained results are similar to those obtained for a typical ligand--receptor interaction.

  16. Study of the interactions between organic matter and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Billon, A.; Theyssier, M.; Dellis, T.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the occurrence of humic substances present in natural waters and their physico-chemical properties, in particular their complexing behaviour, constitutes the main objectives of this research programme. In the first part, the report presents the description of the selected aquifer (representative of a granitic geological formation: Fanay-Augeres), the method for the collection and concentration of the humic substances (a sorption technique) and their characterization by different physico-chemical techniques (elementary and mineral composition, spectroscopic properties, size, proton capacity, datation). The results show that Fanay-Augeres humic substances (considered as site-specific humic substances) represent 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) present in the aquifer (2ppm) and have properties similar to other aquatic humic substances. The second part describes the study of the interactions occurring between these humic substances and trivalent cations (Eu and Am). Two different analytical methods have been developed to perform these investigations: spectrophotometry and size-exclusion chromatography. Interaction constants and complexing capacities have been determined and compared with literature data. Fanay-Augeres humic substances present complexing for trivalent actinides which agrees with published data. Further developments needed in complexation studies are described. 10 figs.; 15 tabs.; 39 refs

  17. User Interaction Modeling and Profile Extraction in Interactive Systems: A Groupware Application Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Duque, Rafael; Montaña, José L.

    2017-01-01

    A relevant goal in human–computer interaction is to produce applications that are easy to use and well-adjusted to their users’ needs. To address this problem it is important to know how users interact with the system. This work constitutes a methodological contribution capable of identifying the context of use in which users perform interactions with a groupware application (synchronous or asynchronous) and provides, using machine learning techniques, generative models of how users behave. Additionally, these models are transformed into a text that describes in natural language the main characteristics of the interaction of the users with the system. PMID:28726762

  18. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  19. Study of the interactions between riboflavin and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongwei; Zhang Zhaoxia; Zhu Hongping; Ge Min; Miao Jinling; Wang Wenfeng; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    Riboflavin (VB 2 ), a vitamin that is a natural constituent of living organisms, plays an important role in the process of metabolism and it is essential for normal cellular functions and growth. As an endogenous photosensitizer, riboflavin induces photooxidation damages to cells of skin and eye, causing inflammation, accelerated aging and mutation. The photodynamic actions of riboflavin on DNA have been studied extensively, however, its photodynamic actions on protein and enzyme are less studied due to the complex types and structures of proteins, and less attentions have been paid to photosensitive protein damages than DNA. In our lab, the interactions between riboflavin and serum albumin and lysozyme have been carried out by using transient absorption spectrometry, emission spectrometer analysis and electrophoresis techniques. It was found that stable state products and transient process of photosensitive damage to proteins were closely relative to concentration of riboflavin, time of irradiation and the atmosphere of the solutions. The results indicates that proteins can be photosensitive damaged by riboflavin irradiated by UV lights. Riboflavin can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of protein. Both dynamic and static quenching are simultaneous involved. The binding constants, the kinetics and spectroscopic properties of riboflavin interaction with albumin and lysozyme have also been investigated. Mechanisms of the photosensitive damages to proteins were discussed. The experiments also indicated that antioxidants such as melatonin and chlorogenic acid can reduce the damage of lysozyme effectively. (authors)

  20. Study of the interaction of kaempferol with bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianniao; Liu, Jiaqin; Tian, Xuan; Hu, Zhide; Chen, Xingguo

    2004-03-01

    The binding of kaempferol with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated at three temperatures, 296, 310 and 318 K, by the fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) at pH 7.40. The CD and FT-IR studies indicate that kaempferol binds strongly to BSA. The association constant K was determined by Stern-Volmer equation based on the quenching of the fluorescence BSA in the presence of kaempferol. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the dependence of enthalpy change on the temperature as follows: Δ H0 and Δ S0 possess small negative (-1.694 kJ/mol) and positive values (88.814 J/mol K), respectively. According to the displacement experimental and the thermodynamic results, it is considered that kaempferol binding site II (subdomain III) mainly by hydrophobic interaction. The results studied by FT-IR and CD experiments indicate that the secondary structures of the protein have been changed by the interaction of kaempferol with BSA. The distance between the tryptophan residues in BSA and kaempferol bound to site II was estimated to be 2.78 nm using Foster's equation on the basis of fluorescence energy transfer.

  1. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  2. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jae Min; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Ko, K. H.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Study on one dimensional atom cooling and trapping process which is basic to the development of atom manipulation technology has been performed. A Zeeman slower has been designed and manufactured for efficient cooling of atoms. The speed of atoms finally achieved is as slow as 15 m/s with proper cooling conditions. By six circularly-polarized laser beams and quadrupole magnetic field, the atoms which have been slowed down by zeeman slower have been trapped in a small spatial region inside MOT. The higher the intensity of the slowing laser is the more is the number of atoms slowed and the maximum number of atoms trapped has been 10 8 . The atoms of several tens of μK degree have been trapped by controlling the intensity of trapping laser and intensity gradient of magnetic field. EIT phenomena caused by atomic coherent interaction has been studied for the development of atom optical elements. For the investigation of the focusing phenomena induced by the coherent interaction, experimental measurements and theoretical analysis have been performed. Spatial dependency of spectrum and double distribution signal of coupling laser have been obtained. The deflection of laser beams utilizing the EIT effects has also been considered. (author)

  3. Benzene: a case study in parent chemical and metabolite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Schlosser, P M

    1995-12-28

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol for example) is apparently necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus, the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. However, zonal localization of Phase I and Phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus regulates this competition. Biologically-based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans.

  4. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform 13 C, 15 N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific 13 C and 15 N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions

  5. Hyperfine interaction studies with pulsed heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, P.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions using pulsed beams have had a strong impact on the study of hyperfine interactions. Unique advantages offered by this technique have considerably extended the scope, detail and systematic range of its applications beyond that possible with radioactivity or light-ion reaction. This survey will cover a brief description of the methodological aspects of the field and recent applications to selected problems in nuclear and solid state physiscs illustrating its role. These include measurements of nuclear magnetic and electric quadrupole moments of high spin isomers, measurements of hyperfine magnetic fields at impurities in 3d and rare-earths ferromagnetic hosts, studies of paramagnetic systems, especially those exhibiting valence instabilities, and investigations of electric field gradients of impurities in noncubic metals. Future prospects of this technique will be briefly assessed. (orig.)

  6. Study of $\\pi^{-}p$ interactions with neutral final states

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a study of the production of neutral particles or states decaying into photons in the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p \\rightarrow M^{0} + n$ at SPS energies. \\\\ \\\\ Special attention is paid to the measurement of the production of heavy particles with hidden quantum numbers and of possible new heavy spinless states decaying into two photons. \\\\ \\\\ The large four-momentum transfer behaviour of binary processes involving known neutral mesons and the production of new meson resonances with high mass and spin will also be studied. Complex multiparticle final states will be analysed as a by-product.\\\\ \\\\ The central unit of the experimental set-up is a 4000 cell Cerenkov hodoscope spectrometer (GAMS) which allows the measurement of the momentum vector of each $\\gamma$ in a multigamma event. \\\\ \\\\ The longitudinal position of the interaction point in the liquid hydrogen target is measured by the Cerenkov light intensity. \\\\ \\\\ A guard system, made of scintillation counters and lead-glass Cerenkov counters, ...

  7. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.E. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions.

  8. UO2/magnetite concrete interaction and penetration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadieh, R.; Purviance, R.; Carlson, N.

    1983-01-01

    The concrete structure represents a line of defense in safety assessment of containment integrity and possible minimization of radiological releases following a reactor accident. The penetration study of hot UO 2 particles into limestone concrete and basalt concrete highlighted some major differences between the two concretes. These included penetration rate, melting and dissolution phenomena, released gases, pressurization of the UO 2 chamber, and characteristics of post-test concrete. The present study focuses on the phenomena associated with core debris interaction with and penetration into magnetite type concrete. The real material experiment was carried out with UO 2 particles and magnetite concrete in a test apparatus similar to the one utilized in the UO 2 /limestone experiment

  9. Experimental and analytical studies of sodium interactions with various concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.; Smaardyk, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanistic models of sodium/concrete interactions are described. The SCAM model of interactions with basaltic concrete is being verified by experiments. Modelling of sodium interactions with limestone concrete is still at a preliminary stage but shows promise of being able to predict quantitatively the experimental data. Comparisons with experimental data are presented

  10. Phase equilibria and molecular interaction studies on (naphthols + vanillin) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Preeti; Agrawal, Tanvi; Das, Shiva Saran; Singh, Nakshatra Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of (naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied for the first time. ► Eutectic type phase diagrams are obtained. ► Eutectic mixtures show nonideal behaviour. ► There is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures. ► α-Naphthol–vanillin eutectic is more stable as compared to β-naphthol–vanillin. - Abstract: Phase equilibria between (α-naphthol + vanillin) and (β-naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied by thaw-melt method and the results show the formation of simple eutectic mixtures. Crystallization velocities of components and eutectic mixtures were determined at different stages under cooling. With the help of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the enthalpy of fusion of components and eutectic mixtures was determined and from the values excess thermodynamic functions viz., excess Gibbs free energy (G E ), excess entropy (S E ), excess enthalpy (H E ) of hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were calculated. Flexural strength measurements were made in order to understand the non-ideal nature of eutectics. FT-IR spectral studies indicate the formation of hydrogen bond in the eutectic mixture. Anisotropic and isotropic microstructural studies of components, hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were made. Jackson’s roughness parameter was calculated and found to be greater than 2 suggesting the faceted morphology with irregular structures. The overall results have shown that there is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures and the (α-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic is more stable as compared to the (β-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic system.

  11. Drug-polymer interaction studies of cytarabine loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, A.; Kashif, P.M.; Nazir, I.; Rehman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of possible incompatibilities between drug and excipients is an important parameter of preformulation stage during the pharmaceutical product development of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The potential physical and chemical interaction among the components of a delivery system can affect the chemical nature, bioavailability, stability, and subsequently therapeutic efficacy of drugs. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed to investigate the possible intermolecular interaction of Cytarabine with deacetylated chitosan and tripolyphosphate in the resulting physical blends and crosslinked nanoparticulate system. Two different strategies, physical blending and ionotropic gelation, were adopted to prepare binary or tertiary mixtures and nanoparticulate formulation, respectively. The IR spectra of CB showed characteristic peaks at 3438.27 cm-1 (primary amine), 3264.74 cm-1 (hydroxyl group) and 1654.98 cm-1 (C=O stretch in cyclic ring); CS at 3361.47 cm-1 (N-H stretching), 1646.18 cm-1 (C=O of Amide I), 1582.36 cm-1 (C=O of Amide II), and sTPP at 1135.77 cm-1 (P=O). CS-sTPP chemical interaction was confirmed from the shift in the absorption band of carbonyl groups (amide I, II) to 1634.66 cm-1 and 1541.17 cm-1 in blank chitosan nanoparticles, and 1636.87 cm-1, 1543.33 cm-1 in CSNP1 (2:6:1), and at 1646.15 cm-1 and 1557.04 cm-1 in CSNP2 (1:3:1). The characteristic peaks of CB were also present in chitosan formulation with a slight shift in the amino group at 3429.43 cm-1 and 3423.21 cm-1, in the hydroxyl group at 3274.54 cm-1 and 3270.73 cm-1, CSNP1 and CSNP2, respectively. The findings counseled no significant interaction in IR absorption pattern of cytarabine functional groups after encapsulation in CS-sTPP complex, which projected the potential of chitosan nanoparticulate system to entrap cytarabine. (author)

  12. An electrochemical study of neutral red-DNA interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heli, H.; Bathaie, S.Z.; Mousavi, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical methods were used to investigate the interaction of neutral red (NR) with double-stranded calf thymus DNA, in solution as well as using a DNA-modified glassy carbon (GC-DNA) electrode. The results were compared with those obtained from bare glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The formal potential of NR was more positive when GC-DNA electrode was used although the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer is as high as that of using GC electrode. GC-DNA electrode enables preconcentration of NR for chosen times on the electrode surface, despite the fact that the mass transfer effects in the thin DNA layer adsorbed on the surface was still observed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of NR, binding site size in base pairs and the ratio of the binding constants for the oxidized and reduced forms of the bound species were obtained. A binding isotherm for NR at GC-DNA electrode was obtained from coulometric titrations and gave an affinity constant equal to 2.76 x 10 4 L mol -1 . From the studies of the interaction in solution, the diffusion coefficient of free and DNA-bound NR, binding constant and binding site size of the DNA-NR complex was also obtained simultaneously by non-linear fitting analysis of voltammetric data

  13. Tetragonal Lysozyme Interactions Studied by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel J.; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1999-01-01

    A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth proceeds by the addition of aggregates, formed by reversible self association of the solute molecules in the bulk solution. Periodic bond chain and atomic force microscopy studies have indicated that the probable growth unit is at minimum a 43 tetramer, and most likely an octamer composed of two complete turns about the 43 axis. If these results are correct, then there are intermolecular interactions which are only formed in the solution and others only formed at the joining of the growth unit to the crystal surface. We have set out to study these interactions, and the correctness of this hypothesis, using site directed mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues involved in the different bonds. We had initially expressed wild type lysozyme in S. cervasiae with yields of approximately 5 mg/L, which were eventually raised to approximately 40 mg/L. We are now moving the expression to the Pichia system, with anticipated yields of 300 to (3)500 mg/L, comparable to what can be obtained from egg whites. An additional advantage of using recombinant protein is the greater genetic homogeneity of the material obtained and the absence of any other contaminating egg proteins. The first mutation experiments are TYR 23 (Registered) PHE or ALA and ASN 113 (Registered) ALA or ASP. Both TYR 23 and ASN 113 form part of the postulated dimerization intermolecular binding site which lead to the formation of the 43 helix. Tyrosine also participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond with ARG 114. The results of these and subsequent experiments will be discussed.

  14. Gene–obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Wood, Andrew R; Ames, Ryan M; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Beaumont, Robin N; Jones, Samuel E; Tuke, Marcus A; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Davey Smith, George; Joost, Stéphane; Guessous, Idris; Murray, Anna; Strachan, David P; Kutalik, Zoltán; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome and a 69-variant genetic risk score (GRS) for obesity and 12 measures of the obesogenic environment as exposures. These measures included Townsend deprivation index (TDI) as a measure of socio-economic position, TV watching, a ‘Westernized’ diet and physical activity. We performed several negative control tests, including randomly selecting groups of different average BMIs, using a simulated environment and including sun-protection use as an environment. Results: We found gene–environment interactions with TDI (Pinteraction = 3 × 10–10), self-reported TV watching (Pinteraction = 7 × 10–5) and self-reported physical activity (Pinteraction = 5 × 10–6). Within the group of 50% living in the most relatively deprived situations, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 3.8 kg extra weight in someone 1.73 m tall. In contrast, within the group of 50% living in the least deprivation, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 2.9 kg extra weight. The interactions were weaker, but present, with the negative controls, including sun-protection use, indicating that residual confounding is likely. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the obesogenic environment accentuates the risk of obesity in genetically susceptible adults. Of the factors we tested, relative social deprivation best captures the aspects of the obesogenic environment responsible. PMID:28073954

  15. Photon interaction studies using 241Am γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Karunakaran Nair, K.; Abdullah, K.K.; Varier, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out some photon interaction measurements using 59.54 keV γ-rays from a 241 Am source. These include γ attenuation studies as well as photoelectric absorption studies in various samples. The attenuation studies have been made using leaf and wood samples, samples like sand, sugar etc., which contain particles of varying sizes as well as pellets and aqueous solutions of rare earth compounds. In the case of the leaf and wood samples, we have used the γ-ray attenuation technique for the determination of the water content in fresh and dried samples. The variation of the attenuation coefficient with particle size has been investigated for sand and sugar samples. The attenuation studies as well as the photoelectric studies in the case of rare earth elements have been carried out on samples containing such elements whose K-absorption edge energies lie below and close to the γ-energy used. Suitable compounds of the rare earth elements have been chosen as mixture absorbers in these investigations. A narrow beam good geometry set-up was used for the attenuation measurements. A well-shielded scattering geometry was used for the photoelectric measurements. The mixture rule was invoked to extract the values of the mass attenuation coefficients for the elements from those of the corresponding compounds. The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. (author)

  16. Parent-child interactions during traditional and interactive media settings: A pilot randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Silje; Englund, Kjellrun T; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Lydersen, Stian; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2018-04-01

    Parent-child interactions are pivotal for children's socioemotional development, yet might suffer with increased attention to screen media, as research has suggested. In response, we hypothesized that parent-child play on a tablet computer, as representative of interactive media, would generate higher-quality parent-child interactions than toy play or watching TV. We examined the emotional availability of mothers and their 2-year-old child during the previous three contexts using a randomized crossover design (n = 22) in a laboratory room. Among other results, mothers were more sensitive and structuring during joint gaming on a tablet than when engaged in toy play or watching TV. In addition, mothers were more hostile toward their children during play with traditional toys than during joint tablet gaming and television co-viewing. Such findings provide new insights into the impact of new media on parent-child interactions, chiefly by demonstrating that interactive media devices such as tablets can afford growth-enhancing parent-child interactions. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. UV-SPR biosensor for biomolecular interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, F. A.; Fossati, S.; Khan, I.; Gisbert Quilis, N.; Knoll, W.; Dostalek, J.

    2017-05-01

    UV surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for direct in situ detection of protein binding events is reported. A crossed relief aluminum grating was employed for diffraction coupling to surface plasmons as an alternative to more commonly used attenuated total reflection method. Wavelength interrogation of SPR was carried out by using transmission measurements in order to probe odorant-binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The native oxide layer on the top of an aluminum grating sensor chip allows for covalent coupling of protein molecules by using regular silane-based linkers. The probing of bound OBP14 protein at UV with confined field of surface plasmons holds potential for further studies of interaction with recently developed artificial fluorescent odorants.

  18. Numerical Study of Shock-Cylinder Banks Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.P.; Anderson, M.H.; Oakley, J.G.; Bonazza, R.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical parametric study of shock-cylinder banks interactions is presented using a high resolution Euler solver. Staggered cylinder banks of five rows are chosen with the purpose of modeling IFE reactor cooling tube banks. The effect of the aspect ratio of the intercylinder pitch to the distance between successive cylinder rows on the vertical pressure forces acting on the cylinders with different geometries is investigated. Preliminary results show that the largest vertical force develops on the cylinders of the second or third row. This peak pressure force increases with decreasing values of the aspect ratio. It is shown that an increasing second force peak also appears on the successive rows, starting with the second one, with decreasing aspect ratio. It is also observed that the force on the last-row cylinders basically decreases to the level of that on the first row. The results are useful for the optimal design of the cooling tubes system of IFE reactors

  19. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, and at Indiana University (IUCF), as a collaborative effort among several laboratories and universities. The experimental activity at LAMPF involved measurements of new data on pion double-charge-exchange scattering, some initial work on a new Neutral Meson Spectrometer system, a search for deeply-bound pionic atoms, measurements of elastic scattering, and studies of the (n,p) reaction on various nuclei. At PSI measurements of pion quasielastic scattering were carried out, with detection of the recoil proton. Work on the analysis of data from a previous experiment at PSI on pion absorption in nuclei was continued. This experiment involved using a detector system that covered nearly the full solid angle

  20. Study of imploding liner-electrode wall interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, V K; Zharinov, E I; Mokhov, V N [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Acceleration of solid aluminium liners and their interaction with electrodes is studied experimentally. One of the main goal of the experiments is to find the method of improving the contact between the liner and the electrode during the acceleration process. Two independent liners connected in series in one discharge circuit are used. This arrangement makes it possible to record two different liner positions simultaneously at one discharge current. As an energy source, a helical explosive magnetic generator of the length of 0.7 m and 100 mm in diameter is used. The shape of liners at various stages of acceleration is recorded by using a flash radiographic facility. The measured liner flight velocity and the compression radius are compared with the results of MHD model calculations. (J.U.). 21 figs., 7 refs.

  1. A quantitative study of nanoparticle skin penetration with interactive segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, See Hyun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jaeyoung; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Oh, Chilhwan; Son, Sang Wook

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanotechnology techniques has expanded within diverse areas such as pharmacology, medicine, and optical science. Despite such wide-ranging possibilities for implementation into practice, the mechanisms behind nanoparticle skin absorption remain unknown. Moreover, the main mode of investigation has been qualitative analysis. Using interactive segmentation, this study suggests a method of objectively and quantitatively analyzing the mechanisms underlying the skin absorption of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy and applied to the human skin equivalent model. Captured fluorescence images of this model were used to evaluate degrees of skin penetration. These images underwent interactive segmentation and image processing in addition to statistical quantitative analyses of calculated image parameters including the mean, integrated density, skewness, kurtosis, and area fraction. In images from both groups, the distribution area and intensity of fluorescent silica gradually increased in proportion to time. Since statistical significance was achieved after 2 days in the negative charge group and after 4 days in the positive charge group, there is a periodic difference. Furthermore, the quantity of silica per unit area showed a dramatic change after 6 days in the negative charge group. Although this quantitative result is identical to results obtained by qualitative assessment, it is meaningful in that it was proven by statistical analysis with quantitation by using image processing. The present study suggests that the surface charge of SNPs could play an important role in the percutaneous absorption of NPs. These findings can help achieve a better understanding of the percutaneous transport of NPs. In addition, these results provide important guidance for the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  2. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S.; Abdel Gaber, Sara A.

    2017-06-01

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV.

  3. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-30

    This is the final report of a program of research on "Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate

  4. Analytical study on model tests of soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, M.; Suzuki, S.; Akino, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are stiff, heavy and partly-embedded, the behavior of those structures during an earthquake depends on the vibrational characteristics of not only the structure but also the soil. Accordingly, seismic response analyses considering the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) are extremely important for seismic design of NPP structures. Many studies have been conducted on analytical techniques concerning SSI and various analytical models and approaches have been proposed. Based on the studies, SSI analytical codes (computer programs) for NPP structures have been improved at JINS (Japan Institute of Nuclear Safety), one of the departments of NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center) in Japan. These codes are soil-spring lumped-mass code (SANLUM), finite element code (SANSSI), thin layered element code (SANSOL). In proceeding with the improvement of the analytical codes, in-situ large-scale forced vibration SSI tests were performed using models simulating light water reactor buildings, and simulation analyses were performed to verify the codes. This paper presents an analytical study to demonstrate the usefulness of the codes

  5. A study of the neutrino-gravitation interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the neutrino-gravitation interaction is made in the framework of Einstein-Dirac coupled equations. Two classes of solutions are obtained, corresponding to two specific physical situations. One cosmological model with expansion is obtained, having neutrinos as the only curvature source; their properties and the parameters which can to characterize the solution as a cosmological model are studied. The second class of solutions corresponds to a naive complete model of a spherically symmetric star emitting neutrinos: the inner region is suposed to be built up of a spherically symmetric distribution of a perfect fluid, bounded in space and which emitts neutrinos; the star matter is considered transparent for neutrinos; the outer region contains only neutrinos and gravitational field. The problem of neutrino compatibility with spherically symmetric gravitational fields is examined. The local conservation laws and the function conditions of the inner and outer solutions in the fluid surface are studied and permit to characterize two kinds of solutions. In one case, the solution describes the neutrino emission phase, with consequent configuration contraction, immediately before the fluid to be completely contained in the interior of the schwarzchild radius, when the neutrino emission and the star contraction stop. The other possibility can correspond to a quasi-stationary configuration, with neutrino emission, where the relativistic equation of radiative equilibrium permits to define the equivalent of 'Radiation pressure' for neutrinos, which acts in the same sense of the gravitational pressure. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Studying wind power-bird interactions during the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, M. [TransAlta Wind, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described TransAlta's ongoing study of wind power and bird interactions, and outlined the company's plans for the future. The deaths of large birds were noticed by the public as well as by the operators of wind farms built in response to the energy crisis of the 1970s. Post-construction casualty monitoring was established in 1994 in order to understand the direct effects of wind power projects on birds as well as to amass data and identify the broader issues affecting bird mortalities. Increased regulatory rigour led to a further clarification of the techniques used to monitor bird deaths. A study of the amassed data demonstrated that birds were not being killed in large numbers, but that common bird species in a given area were the most common casualties observed at wind farms. Particular species were not predisposed to be at risk. Significant declines in bird species have been noted in Canada, and many population declines have occurred in species located in landscapes well-suited for wind farms. The declines have meant that more scrutiny is placed on wind development projects and their potential cumulative effect. The direct effects of wind turbines on birds are not yet well-understood. The requirements for pre- and post-construction data collection must be reviewed and amended. Future studies will consider bird casualties as well as habitat and behavioural changes. tabs., figs.

  7. Flavonoid-surfactant interactions: A detailed physicochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Onkar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the interactions between flavonoids and surfactants with attention of finding the probable location of flavonoids in micellar media that can be used for controlling their antioxidant behavior. In present study, the micellar and interfacial behavior of twin tailed anionic surfactants viz. sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (NaDEHP) in the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin (QUE) and kaempferol (KFL) have been studied by surface tension measurements. UV-visible, fluorescence and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements have been employed to predict the probable location of flavonoids (QUE/KFL) within surfactant (AOT/NaDEHP) aggregates. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements further confirmed the solubilization of QUE/KFL in AOT/NaDEHP aggregates deduced from increased hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of aggregates in the presence of flavonoids. Both radical scavenging activity (RSA) and degradation rate constant (k) of flavonoids are found to be higher in NaDEHP micelles as compared to AOT micelles.

  8. Introducing Platform Interactions Model for Studying Multi-Sided Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multi-Sided Platforms (MSPs) function as socio-technical entities that facilitate direct interactions between various affiliated to them constituencies through developing and managing IT architecture. In this paper, we aim to explain the nature of the platform interactions as key characteristic o...

  9. Ideology and Interaction: Debating Determinisms in Literacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Ross; Street, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    In this exchange, Street and Collin debate the merits of the interaction model of literacy that Collin outlined in a recent issue of Reading Research Quarterly. Built as a complement and a counter to Street's ideological model of literacy, Collin's interaction model defines literacies as technologies that coevolve with sociocultural…

  10. Preferences in Interactive Systems: Technical Challenges and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Peintner, Bart; Viappiani, Paolo; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Interactive artificial intelligence systems employ preferences in both their reasoning and their interaction with the user. This survey considers preference handling in applications such as recommender systems, personal assistant agents, and personalized user interfaces. We survey the major questions and approaches, present illustrative examples, and give an outlook on potential benefits and challenges.

  11. Mother-Father-Infant Interaction: A Naturalistic Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Investigates infant preferences for interaction with mother v father, similarities and differences in maternal and paternal behavior, and the influence of a second parent's presence on parent-infant interaction. Families with infants 15 months of age were observed in their own homes. (Author/SS)

  12. Study of the interactions between naphthoquinone and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaoxia; Zhao Hongwei; Zhu Hongping; Ge Min; Hao Shumei; Wang Wenfeng; Li Wenxin

    2006-01-01

    Quinones are found in probably all respiring animal and plant cells. They are widely used as anticancer, antibacterial or antimalarial drugs and as fungicides. Over the last several decades, much attention has been paid to quinone compounds since they play important roles as electron and hydrogen atom acceptors in both chemistry and biochemistry. It has been known that the reactive states for the photoreduction of quinones are triplets. As for the photochemistry of simple quinones, such as benzoquinones (BQ), anthraquinones (AQ) and naphthoquinone (NQ), a large number of studies on their photochemical properties and elementary photoreactions. However little research on the protein electron transfer of triplet naphthoquinones ( 3 NQ * ) in organic solvents has been reported using laser flash photolysis. We have studied interactions between 3 NQ * and lysozyme in a mixture solution of acetonitrile and H 2 O (3:1, v/v) using 355 nm laser flash photolysis technique combined with the sample being irradiated in steady-state. Electron transfer reaction between 3 NQ * and lysozyme was found, and the rate constant was determined. On the other hand, the results of electrophoresis suggested that protein can be damaged induced by NQ irradiated with UVA light. It was indicated that the mechanisms and products of oxidative damage were relative to the concentration of riboflavin, the time of irradiation and the ambience. Mechanisms of photosensitive damage of protein were proposed. (authors)

  13. Study of ethanol-lysozyme interactions using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Mason, S.A.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction has been used to observe the interactions between deuterated ethanol (CD3CD2OH) and lysozyme in triclinic crystals of hen egg white lysozyme soaked in 25% (v/v) ethanol solutions. A total of 6047 observed reflections to a resolution of 2 A were used, and 13 possible ethanol sites were identified. The three highest occupied sites are close to locations for bromoethanol found in an earlier study by Yonath et al. [Yonath, A., Podjarny, A., Honig, B., Traub, W., Sielecki, A., Herzberg, O., and Moult, J. (1978) Biophys. Struct. Mech. 4, 27-36]. Structure refinements including a model for the flat solvent lead to a final crystallographic agreement factor of 0.097. Comparison with earlier neutron studies on triclinic lysozyme showed that neither the molecular structure nor the thermal motions were affected significantly by the ethanol. A detailed analysis of the ethanol-lysozyme contacts showed 61% of these to be with hydrophobic sites, in agreement with the dominant hydrophobic nature of ethanol. This, together with the fact that the molecular structure of lysozyme is not perturbed, suggests a model for denaturation of lysozyme by alcohol, which proceeds via a dehydration of the protein at high alcohol concentration

  14. Microscopic study of the α-16O interaction on the basis of the realistic effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinichiro; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro.

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the α- 16 O complex potential by the totally microscopic method where we use the many-body theory taking into account the Pauli principle explicitly and the realistic effective interactions. The comparison of the theoretical inter-nucleus potential with the phenomenological 'unique' optical potential is performed. (author)

  15. Towards future interactive intelligent systems for animals : Study and recognition of embodied interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Catala, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    User-centered design applied to non-human animals is showing to be a promising research line known as Animal Computer Interaction (ACI), aimed at improving animals' wellbeing using technology. Within this research line, intelligent systems for animal entertainment could have remarkable benefits for

  16. Presence in Video-Mediated Interactions: Case Studies at CSIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila

    Although telepresence and a sense of connectedness with others are frequently mentioned in media space studies, as far as we know, none of these studies report attempts at assessing this critical aspect of user experience. While some attempts have been made to measure presence in virtual reality or augmented reality, (a comprehensive review of existing measures is available in Baren and Ijsselsteijn [2004]), very little work has been reported in measuring presence in video-mediated collaboration systems. Traditional studies of video-mediated collaboration have mostly focused their evaluation on measures of task performance and user satisfaction. Videoconferencing systems can be seen as a type of media space; they rely on technologies of audio, video, and computing put together to create an environment extending the embodied mind. This chapter reports on a set of video-mediated collaboration studies conducted at CSIRO in which different aspects of presence are being investigated. The first study reports the sense of physical presence a specialist doctor experiences when engaged in a remote consultation of a patient using the virtual critical care unit (Alem et al., 2006). The Viccu system is an “always-on” system connecting two hospitals (Li et al., 2006). The presence measure focuses on the extent to which users of videoconferencing systems feel physically present in the remote location. The second study reports the sense of social presence users experience when playing a game of charades with remote partners using a video conference link (Kougianous et al., 2006). In this study the presence measure focuses on the extent to which users feel connected with their remote partners. The third study reports the sense of copresence users experience when building collaboratively a piece of Lego toy (Melo and Alem, 2007). The sense of copresence is the extent to which users feel present with their remote partner. In this final study the sense of copresence is

  17. NMR Studies of Protein Hydration and Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yuan

    Water on the surface of a protein is called hydration water. Hydration water is known to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including protein folding, enzymatic activation, and drug binding. Although the significance of hydration water has been recognized, the underlying mechanism remains far from being understood. This dissertation employs a unique in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique to study the mechanism of protein hydration and the role of hydration in alcohol-protein interactions. Water isotherms in proteins are measured at different temperatures via the in-situ NMR technique. Water is found to interact differently with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on the protein. Water adsorption on hydrophilic groups is hardly affected by the temperature, while water adsorption on hydrophobic groups strongly depends on the temperature around 10 C, below which the adsorption is substantially reduced. This effect is induced by the dramatic decrease in the protein flexibility below 10 C. Furthermore, nanosecond to microsecond protein dynamics and the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of protein hydration are studied as a function of hydration level and temperature. A crossover at 10 C in protein dynamics and thermodynamics is revealed. The effect of water at hydrophilic groups on protein dynamics and thermodynamics shows little temperature dependence, whereas water at hydrophobic groups has stronger effect above 10 C. In addition, I investigate the role of water in alcohol binding to the protein using the in-situ NMR detection. The isotherms of alcohols are first measured on dry proteins, then on proteins with a series of controlled hydration levels. The free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of alcohol binding are also determined. Two distinct types of alcohol binding are identified. On the one hand, alcohols can directly bind to a few specific sites on the protein. This type of binding is independent of temperature and can be

  18. Study of electron and neutrino interactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  19. Monte Carlo studies of high-transverse-energy hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    A four-jet Monte Carlo calculation has been used to simulate hadron-hadron interactions which deposit high transverse energy into a large-solid-angle calorimeter and limited solid-angle regions of the calorimeter. The calculation uses first-order QCD cross sections to generate two scattered jets and also produces beam and target jets. Field-Feynman fragmentation has been used in the hadronization. The sensitivity of the results to a few features of the Monte Carlo program has been studied. The results are found to be very sensitive to the method used to ensure overall energy conservation after the fragmentation of the four jets is complete. Results are also sensitive to the minimum momentum transfer in the QCD subprocesses and to the distribution of p/sub T/ to the jet axis and the multiplicities in the fragmentation. With reasonable choices of these features of the Monte Carlo program, good agreement with data at Fermilab/CERN SPS energies is obtained, comparable to the agreement achieved with more sophisticated parton-shower models. With other choices, however, the calculation gives qualitatively different results which are in strong disagreement with the data. These results have important implications for extracting physics conclusions from Monte Carlo calculations. It is not possible to test the validity of a particular model or distinguish between different models unless the Monte Carlo results are unambiguous and different models exhibit clearly different behavior

  20. Program for studying fundamental interactions at the PIK reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Vassiljev, A. V.; Varlamov, V. E.; Geltenbort, P.; Gridnev, K. A.; Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A.; Egorov, A. I.; Ezhov, V. F.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ivanov, S. A.; Kolomensky, E. A.; Konoplev, K. A.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Lasakov, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Martemyanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    A research program aimed at studying fundamental interactions by means of ultracold and polarized cold neutrons at the GEK-4-4′ channel of the PIK reactor is presented. The apparatus to be used includes a source of cold neutrons in the heavy-water reflector of the reactor, a source of ultracold neutrons based on superfluid helium and installed in a cold-neutron beam extracted from the GEK-4 channel, and a number of experimental facilities in neutron beams. An experiment devoted to searches for the neutron electric dipole moment and an experiment aimed at a measurement the neutron lifetime with the aid of a large gravitational trap are planned to be performed in a beam of ultracold neutrons. An experiment devoted to measuring neutron-decay asymmetries with the aid of a superconducting solenoid is planned in a beam of cold polarized neutrons from the GEK-4′ channel. The second ultracold-neutron source and an experiment aimed at measuring the neutron lifetime with the aid of a magnetic trap are planned in the neutron-guide system of the GEK-3 channel. In the realms of neutrino physics, an experiment intended for sterile-neutrino searches is designed. The state of affairs around the preparation of the experimental equipment for this program is discussed.

  1. Studies of neutron emission from relativistic nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Wang, Y L; Guo, H Y; Sá Ben-Hao; Zheng, Y M; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Wan, J S; Ochs, M; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Krivopustov, M I; Butsev, V S; Bradnova, V

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the yields and spatial distributions of secondary neutrons produced in the relativistic nuclear interactions of 1.5 GeV to 14.4 GeV projectiles p, d and alpha-particles with targets Pb and U/Pb. CR-39 track detectors were used to measure the neutrons. It shows that: (1) Secondary neutrons are produced in the whole length of Pb or U targets having a thickness of 20 cm. The neutron intensities produced by proton bombardments are reduced along the proton beam direction in the targets. The higher the energy of protons, the lower the reduction rate of the neutrons. The reduction rate of neutrons in U target is higher than in Pb target for the same energy of protons. (2) The radial intensities of neutrons decrease as the distance increases from the target central line. (3) The neutron yield in U target by proton bombardments is approx 55% higher than in Pb target. (4) The ratio of neutron yield by 14.4 GeV alpha to 7.3 GeV d bombardment in Pb target is 1.74+-0.20.

  2. A study of the phi phi system in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, I.R.M.

    1984-05-01

    The thesis presents a study of the phi phi system in hadronic interactions. Data were collected from the reaction π - Be → phi phiX, at 85 GeV/c, using the CERN OMEGA Spectrometer. The phi phi system was of interest because it has been suggested that the hadronic production of the Jsup(p)=O - hidden charm state etac(2980) may be observed through the decay to two phi mesons, and because it is expected that gluonium states exist in the mass range 2.0 to 2.5 GeV/c 2 , and these should decay to two phi mesons. Experimental details and data analysis of the experiment are given. The phi phi mass resolution was determined from the errors on the track parameters of the particles and from the examination of the observed phi and K 0 signals. The mass resolution was used in an examination of the phi phi mass spectrum for narrow resonances and in the estimation of the upper limits of the cross-section for a narrow resonance. (U.K.)

  3. Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Ostrander, Jonathan; Schad, Jonathon; Rebeyev, Eliran; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Gregory; Brainard, Robert L.

    2016-03-01

    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism - internal excitation - in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.

  4. Kaonic atoms – studies of the strong interaction with strangeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of charged antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime is a fascinating topic. The antikaon plays a peculiar role in hadron physics due to the strong attraction antikaon-nucleon which is a key question for possible kaonic nuclear bound states. A rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions to low-lying states in light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium. After the successful completion of precision measurements on kaonic hydrogen and helium isotopes by SIDDHARTA at DAΦNE/LNF, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. In the future with kaonic deuterium data the antikaon-nucleon isospin-dependent scattering lengths can be extracted for the first time. An overview of the experimental results of SIDDHARTA and an outlook to future perspectives in the SIDDHARTA2 experiments in this frontier research field will be given.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochicha O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are known to influence the biology (proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of overlying epithelia. In the intestine, myofibroblasts have been demonstrated to be essential for epithelial differentiation. It is therefore hypothesized that myofibroblasts may also be involved in intestinal metaplasia that is characteristic of Barrett esophagus. Objective: This study endeavors to immunohistologically evaluate epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett′s metaplasia. Materials and Methods: Nineteen archival esophageal endoscopic biopsies of Barrett′s metaplasia were immune-phenotyped for the following epithelial and myofibroblast antigens - cytokeratins (CK 8, 13, 18, CDX2 (Caudal type homeobox 2, a-smooth muscle actin (SMA. Results: α-SMA immunostaining revealed close association between myofibroblasts and metaplastic Barrett′s epithelium but not with normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Myofibroblasts were more prominent in dysplastic than in non-dysplastic Barrett metaplasia. CDX2 and CK 8/18, indicators of intestinal differentiation were expressed in Barrett metaplasia but not normal esophageal squamous epithelium, while the reverse was the case for CK 13, which only stained normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Conclusion: Although their precise role is yet to be clearly defined, sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are very likely involved in the pathogenesis of Barrett′s metaplasia.

  6. Study of direct photons produced in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyotakis, Y.

    1985-05-01

    This thesis studies direct photons produced by π + , π - and proton beams of 200 GeV/c, momentum interacting with a carbon target. QCD predicts that direct photons are produced either by the quark-antiquark annihilation qantiq → gγ, or by gluon scattering gq → qγ. The experiment was performed at CERN and used the NA3 spectrometer. Photons are converted within 10% conversion length, and resulting e + e - are detected by the trigger system which requires a minimum transverse momentum of 2.5 GeV/c. Electrons tracks are detected by the spectrometer, while energy and position of photons are measured by an electromagnetic calorimeter and a shower chamber. Direct photon's signal is obtained only statistically, after correcting the ''single photons'' candidats for the π 0 and eta 0 contribution. This correction is obtained only from a sophisticated Monte Carlo, in which electromagnetic shower simulation is difficult. We have observed a significant direct photon signal and we measured the cross section. The γ/π 0 ratio at psub(t) = 4.5 GeV/c is about 10% and seems to grow as a function of transverse momentum. Systematic errors, which are important, limit the precision on the gluon's structure function measurement [fr

  7. Program for studying fundamental interactions at the PIK reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebrov, A. P., E-mail: serebrov@pnpi.spb.ru; Vassiljev, A. V.; Varlamov, V. E. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Gridnev, K. A. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. I.; Ezhov, V. F.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ivanov, S. A.; Kolomensky, E. A.; Konoplev, K. A.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Lasakov, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Martemyanov, V. P. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-05-15

    A research program aimed at studying fundamental interactions by means of ultracold and polarized cold neutrons at the GEK-4-4′ channel of the PIK reactor is presented. The apparatus to be used includes a source of cold neutrons in the heavy-water reflector of the reactor, a source of ultracold neutrons based on superfluid helium and installed in a cold-neutron beam extracted from the GEK-4 channel, and a number of experimental facilities in neutron beams. An experiment devoted to searches for the neutron electric dipole moment and an experiment aimed at a measurement the neutron lifetime with the aid of a large gravitational trap are planned to be performed in a beam of ultracold neutrons. An experiment devoted to measuring neutron-decay asymmetries with the aid of a superconducting solenoid is planned in a beam of cold polarized neutrons from the GEK-4′ channel. The second ultracold-neutron source and an experiment aimed at measuring the neutron lifetime with the aid of a magnetic trap are planned in the neutron-guide system of the GEK-3 channel. In the realms of neutrino physics, an experiment intended for sterile-neutrino searches is designed. The state of affairs around the preparation of the experimental equipment for this program is discussed.

  8. Pellet-plasma interaction studies at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, G.; Belonohy, E.; Gal, K.; Kalvin, S.; Veres, G.; Lang, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    to localize the pellet cloud at a certain time (e. g. at the onset of the triggered ELMs). In order to facilitate scaling studies for the next generation of tokamaks, a database containing the decisive parameters of the pellet-plasma interaction was developed using the experimental results obtained at ASDEX Upgrade. Based upon this database a statistical multiple regression analysis is performed using the forward selection method to determine the penetration depth dependence on the main plasma and pellet parameters. Pellet ablation and cloud distribution is simulated by using 1D-Lagrangian cell code which was extended recently by combining it with the simulation of a neutral gas shielding model. Both a simple analytical approximation and a more elaborated quasi 2D approach were developed and validated with the experimental data. In this conference contribution the recent results of these investigations are presented with particular attention to the ELM triggering by pellets and pellet cloud dynamics and drift. (author)

  9. The Electron-Phonon Interaction as Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    With recent advances in energy and angle resolution, the effects of electron-phonon interactions are manifest in many valence-band photoelectron spectra (PES) for states near the Fermi level in metals

  10. Studying the Interaction of the Epistemology in e-Government, Organization Studies and Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneklis, Vassilis; Douligeris, Christos

    Although there are significant differences between Organization Studies, Information Systems and e-Government, certain boundaries between them have started to dissolve in the light of recent developments. Even though influences can be traced among all three concerning research results, epistemological interaction could produce interesting outcomes. In this paper we propose such an interaction in epistemology, and particularly in methods following the interpretive tradition, which has been notably underused. We present a brief review of literature in e-Government and after sketching its route, we propose ways to integrate in it perceptions and methods from Organization Studies and Information Systems.

  11. Studies of halo distributions under beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The halo distribution due to the beam-beam interaction in circular electron-positron colliders is simulated with a program which uses a technique that saves a factor of hundreds to thousands of CPU time. The distribution and the interference between the beam-beam interaction and lattice nonlinearities has been investigated. The effects on the halo distribution due to radiation damping misalignment at the collision point, and chromatic effect are presented

  12. Yakima River species interactions studies annual report, 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    2001-01-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the ninth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and develop methods to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with the chronology of ecological interactions that occur throughout a supplementation program, implementing NTT monitoring prescriptions for detecting potential impacts of hatchery supplementation, hatchery fish interactions, and monitoring fish predation indices. This report is organized into four chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns. Summaries of each of the chapters included in this report are described

  13. A preliminary study on titanium-clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Grolimund, D.; Kumpulainen, S.; Brendle, J.; Snellman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Posiva and SKB are developing a horizontal disposal design alternative, termed KBS-3H. In this design alternative, modules of a Cu-waste canister surrounded by bentonite blocks is placed in a perforated steel cylinder, a so-called supercontainer (SC), before emplacement in the deposition drifts. The current design for the SC is based on carbon steel. But because corrosion will lead to high hydrogen levels and iron-clay interactions, alternative materials are also being considered. A promising alternative are Ti alloys which display high strength and are known to behave as chemically inert materials under variety of conditions. Also for the Ti alloys, both the corrosion rate and interaction behaviour with other components in the drift needs to be known. In particular, it needs to be demonstrated that corrosion-derived Ti has no significant detrimental effects on the bentonite buffer which is one main barrier within the KBS-3H concept. Unfortunately, the benign inert behaviour of Ti makes it difficult to perform meaningful experiments. Hence, it is not surprising that so far, very little research work on this topic has been carried out and experience is very limited. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been launched to shed more light on Ti-clay interaction processes and on the Ti species resulting from these interactions. A series of experiments including purified MX-80 bentonite or synthetic 'Ti-free' montmorillonite were mixed with metallic Ti nano-powder or foil in 0.1 M NaCl solutions at different pH and temperature conditions. After several months, solid and solute samples from the first set of tests were analyzed by wet chemistry and spectroscopic methods. Ti speciation was analyzed with XAS combined with XRF as elemental mapping tool. A further series of tests will be analyzed in the near future. In addition to reacted samples, a number of reference and starting materials (e.g. MX-80, Rokle

  14. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  15. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  16. Experimental study of cadmium interaction with periphytic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.; Martinez, R.E.; Morin, S.; Baudrimont, M.; Duong, T.; Coste, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the interaction of Cd with natural biofilms of periphytic diatoms grown during different seasons in metal-contaminated and metal-non-contaminated streams, along a tributary of the Lot River, France. Specifically, it aims to test whether the biofilms from contaminated sites have developed a protective mechanism due to high Cd exposure. Towards this goal, reversible adsorption experiments on untreated biofilms were performed in 0.01 M NaNO 3 with a pH ranging from 2 to 8, Cd concentration from 0.5 to 10,000 μg/L and exposure time from 1 to 24 h. Two types of experiments, pH-dependent adsorption edge and constant-pH 'Langmuirian'-type isotherms were conducted. Results were adequately modeled using a Linear Programming Model. It was found that the adsorption capacities of natural biofilm consortia with respect to Cd do not depend on season and are not directly linked to the growth environment. The biofilms grown in non-contaminated (4.6 ppb Cd in solid) and contaminated (570 ppb Cd in solid) settings exhibit similar adsorption capacities in the Cd concentration range in solution of 100-10,000 μg/L but quite different capacities at low Cd concentration (0.5-100 μg/L); unexpectedly, the non-contaminated biofilm adsorbs approximately 10 times more Cd than the contaminated one. It is therefore possible that the strong low-abundant ligands (for example, phosphoryl or sulfhydryls) are already metal-saturated on surfaces of biofilm grown in the contaminated site whereas these sites are still available for metal adsorption in samples grown in non-contaminated sites.

  17. Experimental study of cadmium interaction with periphytic biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, O.S., E-mail: oleg@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [Geochimie et Biogeochimie Experimentale, UMR 5563, CNRS-OMP-Universite Toulouse, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Feurtet-Mazel, A. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Martinez, R.E. [Center for Applied Geosciences, Universitat Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Morin, S. [Unite de Recherche Reseaux, Epuration et Qualite des Eaux REQE, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Baudrimont, M. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Duong, T. [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)] [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Coste, M. [Unite de Recherche Reseaux, Epuration et Qualite des Eaux REQE, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study addresses the interaction of Cd with natural biofilms of periphytic diatoms grown during different seasons in metal-contaminated and metal-non-contaminated streams, along a tributary of the Lot River, France. Specifically, it aims to test whether the biofilms from contaminated sites have developed a protective mechanism due to high Cd exposure. Towards this goal, reversible adsorption experiments on untreated biofilms were performed in 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} with a pH ranging from 2 to 8, Cd concentration from 0.5 to 10,000 {mu}g/L and exposure time from 1 to 24 h. Two types of experiments, pH-dependent adsorption edge and constant-pH 'Langmuirian'-type isotherms were conducted. Results were adequately modeled using a Linear Programming Model. It was found that the adsorption capacities of natural biofilm consortia with respect to Cd do not depend on season and are not directly linked to the growth environment. The biofilms grown in non-contaminated (4.6 ppb Cd in solid) and contaminated (570 ppb Cd in solid) settings exhibit similar adsorption capacities in the Cd concentration range in solution of 100-10,000 {mu}g/L but quite different capacities at low Cd concentration (0.5-100 {mu}g/L); unexpectedly, the non-contaminated biofilm adsorbs approximately 10 times more Cd than the contaminated one. It is therefore possible that the strong low-abundant ligands (for example, phosphoryl or sulfhydryls) are already metal-saturated on surfaces of biofilm grown in the contaminated site whereas these sites are still available for metal adsorption in samples grown in non-contaminated sites.

  18. Interactions between imazethapyr and bovine serum albumin: Spectrofluorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Maria E. [Division Quimica Analitica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bruzzone, Liliana, E-mail: bruzzone@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Division Quimica Analitica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-10-15

    The interaction between imazethapyr (IMA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}) at three temperatures was evaluated in order to determine the quenching mechanism. The dependence of fluorescence quenching on viscosity was also evaluated for this purpose. The results showed that IMA quenches the fluorescence intensity of BSA through a static quenching process. The values of the binding constant for the formed BSA-IMA complex and the number of binding sites were found to be 1.51 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} and 0.77, respectively, at room temperature. Based on the calculated thermodynamic parameters, the forces that dominate the binding process are hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, and the binding process is spontaneous and exothermic. The quenching of protein fluorescence by iodide ion was used to probe the accessibility of tryptophan residues in BSA and the change in accessibility induced by the presence of IMA. According to the obtained results, the BSA-IMA complex is formed in the site where the Trp-134 is located, causing it to become less exposed to the solvent. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy helps to understand protein binding mechanisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching measurements reveal the nature of the binding process involved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iodine ion can be used to study the change in accessibility of tryptophan residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic parameters for the binding reaction confirm binding modes.

  19. [Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of nicotine and BSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Kong, Xiang-rong; Shen, Xinag-can; Liang, Hong

    2005-10-01

    The interaction of nicotine and bovine serum albumin(BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectra and UV-vis spectra. The fluorescence spectrum showed that BSA fluorescence quench regularly with the addition of nicotine.The fluorescence quenching mechanisms were also studied in pH 5.0, pH 7.4 and pH 11.0 by Stern-Volmer equation, indicating dynamic quenching(pH 5.0) and static quenching(pH 7.4 and pH 11.0) respectively. Association constants (k) of nicotine and BSA at pH 7.4 and pH 11.0 at the temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C were given by the Lineweaver-Buck equation, which are: k(20 degrees C) = 140.15 L x mol(-1) and k(37 degrees C) = 131.83 mol x L(-1) (pH 7.4), and k(20 degrees C) = 141.76 mol x L(-1), k(37 degrees C) = 27.79 mol x L(-1) (pH 11.0), suggesting that the association constant is effected by the temperature much more remarkably at pH 7.4 than that at pH 11.0 because of the different states of nicotine at different pHs. The UV-Vis spectra exhibit that the absorbance of BSA(210 nm) shifts to red and decreases gradually with the addition of nicotine, reflecting the transition of secondary structure of BSA, namely, the helix of BSA becomes looser. The UV-Vis second derivative spectra and synchronous spectra (delta wavelength = wavelength(em) - wavelength(ex) = 15 nm and delta wavelength = wavelength(em) - wavelength(ex) = 60 nm) imply the change of the microcircumstance of aromatic amino residues of BSA(Trp, Tyr and Phe) from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity at high concentration of nicotine.

  20. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the past year, our research program encompassed four major areas: the UA-6 experiment at CERN, the CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) experiment at Fermilab, the SDC (Solenoidal Detector Collaboration) experiment of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), and an R ampersand D project for the development of High Pressure Gas Calorimetry for high luminosity colliders. The UA-6 experiment studies direct-γ and J/ψ production in pp and bar pp interactions at √s = 22.5 GeV. In the CDF experiment we have concentrated in the plug calorimeter upgrade program, which involves replacing the plug and forward calorimetry with a more compact calorimeter based on scintillator tiles being readout with wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers. In the SDC experiment, we have taken primary responsibility for the Preshower/Shower-Maximum detectors. We wrote the original shower-maximum proposal for the SDC and have contributed to detector simulations, scintillator/WLS-fiber light yield measurements, building prototype preshower and shower-maximum detectors and measuring their performance in a test beam, and developing novel photosensitive devices to read out the fibers. The High Pressure Gas Calorimeter project has been very successful. A prototype parallel plate iron based electromagnetic calorimeter was designed, constructed and tested in an electron beam at Fermilab. The results were very encouraging. We are presently working on a new design, which would be more suitable for the construction of economical, large scale calorimeters, such as those needed for the forward region of SDC and FAD

  1. Interactions of acidic solutions with sediments: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Erikson, R.L.; Krupka, K.M.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology is presented for investigating the chemical interactions of acidic solutions with sediments. The MINTEQ geochemical computer code was used to predict solid-phase reactions that might occur when acidic solutions contact neutral sediments which, in turn, may control the concentrations of certain dissolved components. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis of laboratory samples of sediments that have been contacted with acidic uranium mill tailings solutions suggest gypsum and jarosite precipitated. These same mineralogical changes were identified in sediment samples collected from a drained uranium mill evaporation pond (Lucky Mc mine in Wyoming) with a 10-year history of acid attack. Geochemical modeling predicted that these same phases and several amorphous solids not identifiable by X-ray diffraction should have precipitated in the contacted sediments. An equilibrium conceptual model consisting of an assemblage of minerals and amorphous solid phases was then developed to represent a sediment column through which uranium mill tailings solutions were percolated. The MINTEQ code was used to predict effluent solution concentrations resulting from the reactions of the tailings solution with the assemblage of solid phases in the conceptual model. The conceptual model successfully predicted the concentrations of several of the macro-constituents (e.g., Ca, SO 4 , Al, Fe, and Mn), but was not successful in modeling the concentrations of trace elements. The lack of success in predicting the observed trace metal concentrations suggests that other mechanisms, such as adsorption, must be included in future models. The geochemical modeling methodology coupled with the laboratory and field studies should be applicable to a variety of waste disposal problems

  2. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  3. Studies on electrospun nylon-6/chitosan complex nanofiber interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Li Shubai; Branford White, Christopher J.; Ning Xin; Nie Huali; Zhu Limin

    2009-01-01

    Composite membranes of nylon-6/chitosan nanofibers with different weight ratio of nylon-6 to chitosan were fabricated successfully using electrospinning. Morphologies of the nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the intermolecular interactions of the nylon-6/chitosan complex were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing. We found that morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were influenced by the concentration of the solution and weight ratio of the blending component materials. Furthermore FT-IR analyses on interactions between components demonstrated an IR band frequency shift that appeared to be dependent on the amount of chitosan in the complex. Observations from XRD and DSC suggested that a new fraction of γ phase crystals appeared and increased with the increasing content of chitosan in blends, this indicated that intermolecular interactions occurred between nylon-6 and chitosan. Results from performance data in mechanical showed that intermolecular interactions varied with varying chitosan content in the fibers. It was concluded that a new composite product was created and the stability of this system was attributed to strong new interactions such as hydrogen bond formation between the nylon-6 polymers and chitosan structures.

  4. A numerical study of two interacting coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schmidt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction in the solar wind between two coronal mass ejections (CMEs is investigated using numerical simulations. We show that the nature of the interaction depends on whether the CME magnetic structures interact, but in all cases the result is an equilisation of the speed of the two CMEs. In the absence of magnetic interaction, the forward shock of the faster trailing CME interacts with the slow leading CME, and accelerates it. When the two CMEs have magnetic fields with the same sense of rotation, magnetic reconnection occurs between the two CMEs, leading to the formation of a single magnetic structure: in the most extreme cases, one CME "eats" the other. When the senses of rotation are opposite, reconnection does not occur, but the CMEs collide in a highly non-elastic manner, again forming a single structure. The possibility of enhanced particle acceleration in such processes is assessed. The presence of strong magnetic reconnection provides excellent opportunities for the acceleration of thermal particles, which then form a seed population for further acceleration at the CME shocks. The presence of a large population of seed particles will thus lead to an overall increase in energetic particle fluxes, as suggested by some observations.

  5. Using Neutrons to Study Fluid-Rock Interactions in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, V. H.; McFarlane, J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Gordon, A.; Hale, R. E.; Hunt, R. D.; Lewis, S. A., Sr.; Littrell, K. C.; Stack, A. G.; Chipera, S.; Perfect, E.; Bilheux, H.; Kolbus, L. M.; Bingham, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of hydrocarbons by hydraulic fracturing depends on complex fluid-rock interactions that we are beginning to understand using neutron imaging and scattering techniques. Organic matter is often thought to comprise the majority of porosity in a shale. In this study, correlations between the type of organic matter embedded in a shale and porosity were investigated experimentally. Selected shale cores from the Eagle Ford and Marcellus formations were subjected to pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric analysis, and organic solvent extraction with the resulting affluent analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pore size distribution of the microporosity (~1 nm to 2 µm) in the Eagle Ford shales was measured before and after solvent extraction using small angle neutron scattering. Organics representing mass fractions of between 0.1 to 1 wt.% were removed from the shales and porosity generally increased across the examined microporosity range, particularly at larger pore sizes, approximately 50 nm to 2 μm. This range reflects extraction of accessible organic material, including remaining gas molecules, bitumen, and kerogen derivatives, indicating where the larger amount of organic matter in shale is stored. An increase in porosity at smaller pore sizes, ~1-3 nm, was also present and could be indicative of extraction of organic material stored in the inter-particle spaces of clays. Additionally, a decrease in porosity after extraction for a sample was attributed to swelling of pores with solvent uptake. This occurred in a shale with high clay content and low thermal maturity. The extracted hydrocarbons were primarily paraffinic, although some breakdown of larger aromatic compounds was observed in toluene extractions. The amount of hydrocarbon extracted and an overall increase in porosity appeared to be primarily correlated with the clay percentage in the shale. This study complements fluid transport neutron

  6. Studies of final state interactions via femtoscopy in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Femtoscopy is a technique enabling measurements of the space-time characteristics of particle-emitting sources. However, the femtoscopic analysis is also sensitive to the interaction cross-section. In this paper we show the first preliminary measurements of $\\rm K^0_SK^{\\pm}$ correlation functions in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV. These correlations originate from the final-state interactions which proceed through the $a_0(980)$ resonance only and can be employed to constrain its parameters. A similar approach can be applied to baryon pairs to extract the unknown interaction cross-sections for some (anti-)baryon-(anti-)baryon pairs. We show baryon--baryon and baryon--anti-baryon correlation functions of protons and lambdas, as well as discuss shortly the fitting method.

  7. Study of the interaction of cysteamine and cystamine with the dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berleur, F.; Roman, V.; Jaskierowicz, D.; Audet, M.; Fatome, M.

    1984-10-01

    The thermodynamic study of the liposome-radioprotector system brings information on this interaction. The interaction is essentially electrostatic between the phosphate sites and the radioprotector cationic groups and this study could bring further information about the interaction between cysteamine and polyelectrolytic structures, DNA for example, and about the radioprotective properties of this drug [fr

  8. Cross-Racial Interactions during College: A Longitudinal Study of Four Forms of Interracial Interactions among Elite White College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carson Byrd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available College and universities present distinct opportunities to interact across racial and ethnic lines that may influence people’s prejudice toward different groups. This study examines the influence of four forms of cross-race interaction on traditional and modern forms of racial prejudice among white college students at 28 of the most selective colleges and universities in the US. This study finds that, although white students’ level of racial prejudice declines over four years, interracial contact during college does not significantly influence their level of prejudice. Moreover, a race-related form of social identity is the most consistent influence on students’ racial prejudice.

  9. Studying RNA-protein interactions in vivo by RNA immunoprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selth, Luke A; Close, Pierre; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2011-01-01

    and have significant effects on gene expression. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) is a powerful technique used to detect direct and indirect interactions between individual proteins and specific RNA molecules in vivo. Here, we describe RIP methods for both yeast and mammalian cells.......The crucial roles played by RNA-binding proteins in all aspects of RNA metabolism, particularly in the regulation of transcription, have become increasingly evident. Moreover, other factors that do not directly interact with RNA molecules can nevertheless function proximally to RNA polymerases...

  10. Studies of Positron Generation from Ultraintense Laser-Matter Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gerald Jackson

    Laser-produced pair jets possess unique characteristics that offer great potential for their use in laboratory-astrophysics experiments to study energetic phenomenon such as relativistic shock accelerations. High-flux, high-energy positron sources may also be used to study relativistic pair plasmas and useful as novel diagnostic tools for high energy density conditions. Copious amounts of positrons are produced with MeV energies from directly irradiating targets with ultraintense lasers where relativistic electrons, accelerated by the laser field, drive positron-electron pair production. Alternatively, laser wakefield accelerated electrons can produce pairs by the same mechanisms inside a secondary converter target. This dissertation describes a series of novel experiments that investigate the characteristics and scaling of pair production from ultraintense lasers, which are designed to establish a robust platform for laboratory-based relativistic pair plasmas. Results include a simple power-law scaling to estimate the effective positron yield for elemental targets for any Maxwellian electron source, typical of direct laser-target interactions. To facilitate these measurements, a solenoid electromagnetic coil was constructed to focus emitted particles, increasing the effective collection angle of the detector and enabling the investigation of pair production from thin targets and low-Z materials. Laser wakefield electron sources were also explored as a compact, high repetition rate platform for the production of high energy pairs with potential applications to the creation of charge-neutral relativistic pair plasmas. Plasma accelerators can produce low-divergence electron beams with energies approaching a GeV at Hz frequencies. It was found that, even for high-energy positrons, energy loss and scattering mechanisms in the target create a fundamental limit to the divergence and energy spectrum of the emitted positrons. The potential future application of laser

  11. Overview of OWI waste/rock interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of office of waste isolation (OWI) programs which fall within the waste/rock categories. Discussions are included on salt repository design, thermal powers and radiation intensities, maximum temperatures and gamma doses, salt temperatures around high level waste cannisters, projects concerned with radiation and thermal effects, projects concerned with long term interactions, and waste isolation safety assessment tasks

  12. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps us in understanding the nature and extent of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixtures. Further, theoretical values of ultrasonic speed were evaluated using theories and empirical relations. The relative merits of these theories and relations ...

  13. Hyperfine interaction study of F+ center in ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Galland, D.; Herve, A.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of ZnO monocrystals with 3MeV electron creates isolated zinc vacancies and F + centres. Analysis of angular variations of the ESR spectrum enabled the parameters of interaction of the F + centre with a Zn 67 nucleus to be determined [fr

  14. In vitro study of the interaction between some fluoroquinolones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cup diffusion method (CD) was used to evaluate the in vitro interaction of some fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and levofloxacin) with extracts of Kola nitida seed (KNS) against a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs was determined separately and in ...

  15. Drug interaction studies of Ximenia americana and Pavetta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic efficacy of single or multicomponent herbs is thought to reside in synergistic interactions between the bioactive constituents. The methanol extracts of X. americana and P. crassipes were initially screened against Gram positive and negative organisms as well as against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ...

  16. Study of interaction between antiobesity and hypolipidemic drugs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To explore the interaction between antiobesity drug, topiramate, and hypolipidemic drug, atorvastatin, in rats. METHODS: Obesity was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering cafeteria diet (CD) for 40 days and divided into 5 groups. While one group served as control, each other group received either ...

  17. Molecular dynamics study of the silica-water-SDA interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szyja, B.M.; Jansen, A.P.J.; Verstraelen, T.; Santen, van R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have applied the molecular dynamics simulations in order to analyse the role of the structure directing tetrapropylammonium ions in the aggregation process that leads to silicalite formation. We address the specific question of how the interactions between silica precursor species

  18. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Ham, Kenneth D.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the seventh of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and pre-supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and develop methods to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with monitoring potential impacts to support adaptive management of NTT and baseline monitoring of fish predation indices on spring chinook salmon smolts. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns

  19. Channeling studies of impurity-defect interactions in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggers, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with the mechanism of defect production and interaction of introduced defects with impurity atoms in silicon single crystals. Defects are created by irradiation with energetic light particles (.2 - 3 MeV H + or He + ions). Mostly simple defects like vacancies and interstitials are produced during bombardment. (Auth.)

  20. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  1. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  2. Design And Implementation Of An Interactive Website; A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interactive website has been designed for the Department of Physics, University of Uyo, using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) involving structuring, coding, and testing. This will enable the Department to gather, process, store and disseminate an up- to- date information to the whole world on the academic ...

  3. In vitro study of interaction between quinine and Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In vitro interaction between quinine and G. kola was conducted at 37 ± 0.1 °C. Adsorption of ... The amount of quinine adsorbed and desorbed was quantified using HPLC. A ..... first place, G. kola is known to contain flavonoids.

  4. Interactions between $U(1)$ Cosmic Strings: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Rivers, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    We derive analytic expressions for the interaction energy between two general $U(1)$ cosmic strings as the function of their relative orientation and the ratio of the coupling constants in the model. The results are relevant to the statistic description of strings away from critical coupling and shed some light on the mechanisms involved in string formation and the evolution of string networks.

  5. Studies of thermally assisted interactions of polysulphide polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... are engaged in the maintenance of protein shape and func- tion, as in keratin. ... a fixed conformation. In the modern world of .... The surface analysis of the .... Furthermore, there is a possibility of an electrostatic interaction ...

  6. Interaction between Protein, Phytate, and Microbial Phytase. In Vitro Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.; Jonge, de L.H.; Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between protein and phytate was investigated in vitro using proteins extracted from five common feedstuffs and from casein. The appearance of naturally present soluble protein-phytate complexes in the feedstuffs, the formation of complexes at different pHs, and the degradation of

  7. A systematic study of the strong interaction with PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, J. G.; Hosaka, A; Khemchandani, K; Nagahiro, H; Nawa, K

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) reproduces the strong interaction at distances much shorter than the size of the nucleon. At larger distance scales, the generation of hadron masses and confinement cannot yet be derived from first principles on basis of QCD. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

  8. A first principles study of the acetylene-water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeli, Demeter [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrain University of Athens, P.O. Box 64 004, 157 10 Zografou, Athens, (Greece); Mavridis, Aristides [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrain University of Athens, P.O. Box 64 004, 157 10 Zografou, Athens, (Greece); Xantheas, Sotiris S. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2000-04-08

    We present an extensive study of the stationary points on the acetylene-water (AW) ground-state potential energy surface (PES) aimed in establishing accurate energetics for the two different bonding scenarios that are considered. Those include arrangements in which water acts either as a proton acceptor from one of the acetylene hydrogen atoms or a proton donor to the triple bond. We used a hierarchy of theoretical methods to account for electron correlation [MP2 (second-order Moller-Plesset), MP4 (fourth-order Moller-Plesset), and CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster single double triple)] coupled with a series of increasing size augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=2,3,4). We furthermore examined the effect of corrections due to basis set superposition error (BSSE). We found that those have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the PES of the complex. They are responsible for producing a structure of higher (C{sub 2v}) symmetry for the global minimum. Zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections were found to increase the stability of the C{sub 2v} arrangement. For the global (water acceptor) minimum of C{sub 2v} symmetry our best estimates are {delta}E{sub e}=-2.87 kcal/mol ({delta}E{sub 0}=-2.04 kcal/mol) and a van der Waals distance of R{sub e}=2.190 Aa. The water donor arrangement lies 0.3 kcal/mol (0.5 kcal/mol including ZPE corrections) above the global minimum. The barrier for its isomerization to the global minimum is E{sub e}=0.18 kcal/mol; however, inclusion of BSSE- and ZPE-corrections destabilize the water donor arrangement suggesting that it can readily convert to the global minimum. We therefore conclude that there exists only one minimum on the PES in accordance with previous experimental observations. To this end, vibrational averaging and to a lesser extend proper description of intermolecular interactions (BSSE) were found to have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the ground-state PES of the acetylene

  9. A first principles study of the acetylene-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2000-01-01

    We present an extensive study of the stationary points on the acetylene-water (AW) ground-state potential energy surface (PES) aimed in establishing accurate energetics for the two different bonding scenarios that are considered. Those include arrangements in which water acts either as a proton acceptor from one of the acetylene hydrogen atoms or a proton donor to the triple bond. We used a hierarchy of theoretical methods to account for electron correlation [MP2 (second-order Moller-Plesset), MP4 (fourth-order Moller-Plesset), and CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster single double triple)] coupled with a series of increasing size augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=2,3,4). We furthermore examined the effect of corrections due to basis set superposition error (BSSE). We found that those have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the PES of the complex. They are responsible for producing a structure of higher (C 2v ) symmetry for the global minimum. Zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections were found to increase the stability of the C 2v arrangement. For the global (water acceptor) minimum of C 2v symmetry our best estimates are ΔE e =-2.87 kcal/mol (ΔE 0 =-2.04 kcal/mol) and a van der Waals distance of R e =2.190 Aa. The water donor arrangement lies 0.3 kcal/mol (0.5 kcal/mol including ZPE corrections) above the global minimum. The barrier for its isomerization to the global minimum is E e =0.18 kcal/mol; however, inclusion of BSSE- and ZPE-corrections destabilize the water donor arrangement suggesting that it can readily convert to the global minimum. We therefore conclude that there exists only one minimum on the PES in accordance with previous experimental observations. To this end, vibrational averaging and to a lesser extend proper description of intermolecular interactions (BSSE) were found to have a large effect in altering the qualitative features of the ground-state PES of the acetylene-water complex. (c) 2000 American Institute

  10. Study of the Λ(1116 interaction in cold nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of Λ hyperons with baryonic nuclear matter at saturation density is expected to be attractive. The interaction strength was extracted from hypernuclei data. A different approach to obtain the potential depth of the Λ mean-field potential is to compare experimental data with transport simulations. We analyze experimental data of Λ hyperons measured with the HADES detector in p+93Nb reactions with a kinetic beam energy of 3.5 GeV carried by the proton. The high statistic of measured Λ hyperons allows us to perform a double differential analysis in Lorentz-invariant observables of transverse momentum and rapidity. We present the analysis method and a comparison with simulations.

  11. Study on the interactions PVC/plasticizers by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Monteiro, Elisabeth E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Harris, Robin [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-12-31

    The nature of the interactions between PVC and plasticizers as di-butyl phthalate and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate can be investigated using proton/carbon-13 NMR techniques. The measurements of T{sub 1} for protons and carbon-13 and T{sub 1} P for protons can provide a good source of information about the complex behaviour for those two systems which were investigated. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A study of inclusive neutrino interactions in a marble target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panman, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on nuclei are presented. The data were taken with the calorimeter of the Amsterdam-CERN-Hamburg-Moscow-Rome (CHARM) collaboration at the narrow-band beam of the CERN SPS. The detector combines a large target mass with a high power of pattern recognition. The presently accepted theory of weak interactions of Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg is introduced. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nuclei are summarized. The properties of the narrow-band neutrino beam at CERN, which are relevant for the experiment are given. The neutrino energy spectrum and the flux monitors are described. Measurements of total cross-sections are presented. From the ratios of neutral-current and charged-current cross-sections of neutrinos and antineutrinos the coupling constants of the weak neutral-current are deduced. Some details of the methods used in the analysis of differential distributions are discussed. The differential charged-current cross-sections dsigma/dy and dsigma/dx are measured. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is presented in terms of x and Q 2 . (Auth.)

  13. A Systematic Study of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Costa, Luís.; Rybski, Diego; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have set the 2030 agenda to transform our world by tackling multiple challenges humankind is facing to ensure well-being, economic prosperity, and environmental protection. In contrast to conventional development agendas focusing on a restricted set of dimensions, the SDGs provide a holistic and multidimensional view on development. Hence, interactions among the SDGs may cause diverging results. To analyze the SDG interactions we systematize the identification of synergies and trade-offs using official SDG indicator data for 227 countries. A significant positive correlation between a pair of SDG indicators is classified as a synergy while a significant negative correlation is classified as a trade-off. We rank synergies and trade-offs between SDGs pairs on global and country scales in order to identify the most frequent SDG interactions. For a given SDG, positive correlations between indicator pairs were found to outweigh the negative ones in most countries. Among SDGs the positive and negative correlations between indicator pairs allowed for the identification of particular global patterns. SDG 1 (No poverty) has synergetic relationship with most of the other goals, whereas SDG 12 (Responsible consumption and production) is the goal most commonly associated with trade-offs. The attainment of the SDG agenda will greatly depend on whether the identified synergies among the goals can be leveraged. In addition, the highlighted trade-offs, which constitute obstacles in achieving the SDGs, need to be negotiated and made structurally nonobstructive by deeper changes in the current strategies.

  14. Attachment, attractiveness, and social interaction: a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, M C; Reis, H T; Shaver, P R

    1996-10-01

    To what extent are attachment styles manifested in natural social activity? A total of 125 participants categorized as possessing secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent attachment styles kept structured social interaction diaries for 1 week. Several theoretically important findings emerged. First, compared with secure and anxious-ambivalent persons, avoidant persons reported lower levels of intimacy, enjoyment, promotive interaction, and positive emotions, and higher levels of negative emotions, primarily in opposite-sex interactions. Analyses indicated that avoidant persons may structure social activities in ways that minimize closeness. Second, secure people differentiated more clearly than either insecure group between romantic and other opposite-sex partners. Third, the subjective experiences of anxious-ambivalent persons were more variable than those of the other groups. Finally, the authors examined and rejected the possibility that attachment effects might be confounded with physical attractiveness. These findings suggest that feeling and behaviors that arise during spontaneous, everyday social activity may contribute to the maintenance of attachment styles in adulthood.

  15. An Experimental Study of Embodied Interaction and Human Perception of Social Presence for Interactive Robots in Public Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith; Vlachos, Evgenios

    2018-01-01

    The human perception of cognitive robots as social depends on many factors, including those that do not necessarily pertain to a robot’s cognitive functioning. Experience Design offers a useful framework for evaluating when participants interact with robots as products or tools and when they regard...... them as social actors. This study describes a between-participants experiment conducted at a science museum, where visitors were invited to play a game of noughts and crosses with a Baxter robot. The goal is to foster meaningful interactions that promote engagement between the human and robot...... in a museum context. Using an Experience Design framework, we tested the robot in three different conditions to better understand which factors contribute to the perception of robots as social. The experiment also outlines best practices for conducting human-robot interaction research in museum exhibitions...

  16. Utility of Interactional Strategies in the Study of Formal Operations Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    This paper argues in favor of using interactional strategies in the study of formal operations reasoning. Interactional designs allow a convergent approach to specifying processes underlying the interaction of variables. In contrast, current methodologies contain two inherent disadvantages: they have limited utility in specifying the processes…

  17. Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Hj.Indirawaty; Syamsuddin AB

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe briefly on the application of social interaction which made nurses to clients while performing therapeutic communication at the Hospital of South Sulawesi with frame symbolic interactionism. Result achieved against the system carried nurse interaction with clients who patterned on therapeutic communication. At the stage of pre-interaction system is applied such as before the nurse interacts with the client well in advance to prepare the way of dressing re...

  18. The WITCH experiment: towards weak interactions studies. Status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V. Yu.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Herbane, M.; Kraev, I. S.; Severijns, N.; Wauters, F.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Wenander, F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Primary goal of the WITCH experiment is to test the Standard Model for a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in β-decay. This information will be inferred from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The experimental set-up was completed and is under intensive commissioning at ISOLDE (CERN). It combines a Penning trap to store the ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the recoil ion energy. A brief overview of the WITCH set-up and the results of commissioning tests performed until now are presented. Finally, perspectives of the physics program are reviewed.

  19. Photon Interaction Studies with Some Glasses and Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harvinder; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Gopi; Nathuram, R.; Sahota, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of some shielding materials, namely, Bakelite, black cement, white cement, plaster of paris, and concrete were determined at 356-, 511-, 662-, 1173-, and 1332-keV energies, and those of glasses containing oxides of B, Cd, Pb, and Bi were determined only at 662 keV using a narrow beam transmission method. These coefficients of glasses were then used to determine their interaction cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical values. It has been proven that glasses have a potential application as a transparent radiation shielding

  20. Seismic soil structure interaction: analysis and centrifuge model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, W.D.L.; Ledbetter, R.H.; Beratan, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    A method for non-linear dynamic effective stress analysis is introduced which is applicable to soil-structure interaction problems. Full interaction including slip between structure and foundation is taken into account and the major factors are included which must be considered when computing dynamic soil response. An experimental investigation was conducted using simulated earthquake tests on centrifuged geotechnical models in order to obtain prototype response data of foundation soils carrying both surface and embedded structures and to validate the dynamic effective stress analysis. Horizontal and vertical accelerations were measured at various points on structures and in the sand foundation. Seismically-induced pore water pressure changes were also measured at various locations in the foundation. Computer plots of the data were obtained while the centrifuge was in flight and representative samples are presented. The results show clearly the pronounced effect that increasing pore water pressures have on dynamic response. It is demonstrated that a coherent picture of dynamic response of soil-structure systems is provided by dynamic effective stress non-linear analysis. Based on preliminary results, it appears that the pore water pressure effects can be predicted

  1. Seismic soil-structure interaction: Analysis and centrifuge model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, W.D.L.; Ledbetter, R.H.; Beratan, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for nonlinear dynamic effective stress analysis applicable to soil-structure interaction problems is introduced. Full interaction including slip between structure and foundation is taken into account and the major factors that must be considered when computing dynamic soil response are included. An experimental investigation using simulated earthquake tests on centrifuged geotechnical models was conducted to obtain prototype response data of foundation soils carrying both surface and embedded structures and to validate the dynamic effective stress analysis. The centrifuge tests were conducted in the Geotechnical Centrifuge at Cambridge University, England. Horizontal and vertical accelerations were measured at various points on structures and in the sand foundation. Seismically induced pore water pressure changes were also measured at various locations in the foundation. Computer plots of the data were obtained while the centrifuge was in flight and representative samples are presented. The results clearly show the pronounced effect of increasing pore water pressures on dynamic response. It is demonstrated that a coherent picture of dynamic response of soil-structure systems is provided by dynamic effective stress nonlinear analysis. On the basis of preliminary results, it appears that the effects of pore water pressure can be predicted. (orig.)

  2. Spectral studies of Lanthanide interactions with membrane surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karukstis, K.K.; Kao, M.Y.; Savin, D.A.; Bittker, R.A.; Kaphengst, K.J.; Emetarom, C.M.; Naito, N.R.; Takamoto, D.Y. [Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States)

    1995-03-23

    We have monitored the interactions of the series of trivalent lanthanide cations with the thylakoid membrane surface of spinach chloroplasts using two complementary spectral techniques. Measurements of the fluorescence emission of the extrinsic probe 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) and the absorbance of the intrinsic chromophore chlorophyll provide two sensitive means of characterizing the dependence of the cation-membrane interaction on the nature of the cation. In these systems, added lanthanide cations adsorb onto the membrane surface to neutralize exposed segments of membrane-embedded protein complexes. The lanthanide-induced charge neutralization increases the proximity of added TNS anion to the membrane surface as evidenced by variations in the TNS fluorescence level and wavelength of maximum emission. Our results reveal a strong dependence of TNS fluorescence parameters on both lanthanide size and total orbital angular momentum L value. Lanthanides with greater charge density (small size and/or low L value) enhance the TNS fluorescence level to a greater extent. A possible origin for the lanthanide-dependent TNS fluorescence levels is suggested in terms of a heterogeneity in the number and type of TNS binding sites. The data are consistent with the proposal that larger lanthanides with smaller enthalpies of hydration induce more significant membrane appression. 59 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. WITCH, a Penning trap for weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    This work is the completion of the installation of the WITCH set-up and the first tests and commissioning of it. The first goal of the WITCH experiment is to improve the present limit on a scalar interaction in nuclear $\\beta$-decay by determining the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation parameter $a$ via a precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoil ions. The development of the WITCH set-up and its installation at ISOLDE (CERN) were recently completed. The principle of WITCH is based on a combination of a Penning trap to confine the radioactive ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions resulting from $\\beta$-decays in the trap. Extensive computer simulations show that for a reasonable measurement time a precision on the $a$-parameter of 0.5% can be achieved. This corresponds to an upper limit for the scalar interaction constant Cs/Cv < 9% at 95% C.L. Designing and constructing a set-up as large and complex as the WITCH set-up takes time, several y...

  4. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  5. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-02-09

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus.

  6. A study on the application of voice interaction in automotive human machine interface experience design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiemin

    2018-04-01

    This paper, firstly, introduces the application trend of the integration of multi-channel interactions in automotive HMI ((Human Machine Interface) from complex information models faced by existing automotive HMI and describes various interaction modes. By comparing voice interaction and touch screen, gestures and other interaction modes, the potential and feasibility of voice interaction in automotive HMI experience design are concluded. Then, the related theories of voice interaction, identification technologies, human beings' cognitive models of voices and voice design methods are further explored. And the research priority of this paper is proposed, i.e. how to design voice interaction to create more humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios to enhance interactive experiences of automotive HMI. The specific scenarios in driving behaviors suitable for the use of voice interaction are studied and classified, and the usability principles and key elements for automotive HMI voice design are proposed according to the scenario features. Then, through the user participatory usability testing experiment, the dialogue processes of voice interaction in automotive HMI are defined. The logics and grammars in voice interaction are classified according to the experimental results, and the mental models in the interaction processes are analyzed. At last, the voice interaction design method to create the humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios in the driving environment is proposed.

  7. Treatment of system dependencies and human interactions in PRA studies: a review and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Joksimovich, V.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the review and comparison of five PRA studies: Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Big Rock Point, Grand Gulf, Limerick, and Zion - Unit 1. The review has been conducted in two phases. The Phase I review may be characterized as a qualitative look into many aspects of a PRA study. The Phase II review was performed to quantify the extent that differences in analytical techniques or key assumptions in these areas affect the differences in study results. In each of the PRA studies reviewed, the general descriptions of analytical approaches and descriptions of the analyses of event tree, fault tree and human interaction analyses that affected the dominant core damage sequences were reviewed. When these descriptions aroused interest because of seeming inconsistencies within the study or with other studies, they were pursued in some depth. The approaches or assumptions were contrasted to similar elements from other studies, and sensitivity analyses were performed in many cases to test the significance of results to the analytical models or assumptions. Inferences were drawn from the results regarding significance of the item to plant-specific results and, where possible, were generalized to other PRAs. This paper describes the results of the review of system dependencies and human interactions

  8. 77 FR 9946 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... industry entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and... data analysis in the context of identifying potential drug interactions. The guidance also addresses... Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, and Implications for Dosing and Labeling.'' Comments were received...

  9. Gene-based testing of interactions in association studies of quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Various methods have been developed for identifying gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. However, most methods focus on individual markers as the testing unit, and the large number of such tests drastically erodes statistical power. In this study, we propose novel interaction tests of quantitative traits that are gene-based and that confer advantage in both statistical power and biological interpretation. The framework of gene-based gene-gene interaction (GGG tests combine marker-based interaction tests between all pairs of markers in two genes to produce a gene-level test for interaction between the two. The tests are based on an analytical formula we derive for the correlation between marker-based interaction tests due to linkage disequilibrium. We propose four GGG tests that extend the following P value combining methods: minimum P value, extended Simes procedure, truncated tail strength, and truncated P value product. Extensive simulations point to correct type I error rates of all tests and show that the two truncated tests are more powerful than the other tests in cases of markers involved in the underlying interaction not being directly genotyped and in cases of multiple underlying interactions. We applied our tests to pairs of genes that exhibit a protein-protein interaction to test for gene-level interactions underlying lipid levels using genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We identified five novel interactions that are not evident from marker-based interaction testing and successfully replicated one of these interactions, between SMAD3 and NEDD9, in an independent sample from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We conclude that our GGG tests show improved power to identify gene-level interactions in existing, as well as emerging, association studies.

  10. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulai, P.

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the α-α elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6 + and 8 + , at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 α-particle 0 + states in C 12 is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be 8 level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2 + , but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [fr

  11. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Han Jae; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M

    1999-01-01

    The doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of Na atoms has been performed and the proper conditions for the frequency stabilization of narrow band cw dye lasers, which was used as laser sources for the laser cooling and trapping, have been obtained as follows : a) optimum pressure of a Na vapor cell: 10 mTorr b) intensity of a pump laser : a few {mu}W c) intensity of a probe laser : 1/10 of that of a pump laser. EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) generated by coherent laser-atom interactions was investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The absorption of a probe laser could be remarkably reduced more than 90 % due to EIT effect. The EIT spectrum as narrow as 6 MHz which is even narrower than the natural linewidth of an excited state could be obtained under proper conditions.

  12. Fe dimers: a theoretical study of the hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Saitovitch, E.M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structures of diatomic molecules Fe 2 and FeM, where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu, are investigated by molecular orbitals calculations using a discrete variational method and a local approximation for the exchange interaction. The one-electron wave functions obtained are used to calculate electric field gradients, electronic charge and spin densities at the Fe nucleus and spin-dipolar hyperfine fields, which are related to measured hyperfine parameters reported from experiments in solid inert-gas matrices. Molecular orbitals energy schemes and population analysis are presented. These and other aspects of the electronic structure of the FeM molecules are used in a qualitative interpretation of the hyperfine data; in some cases, are given suggestions for the ground-state configuration. (Author) [pt

  13. Fluorescence Spectra Studies on the Interaction between Lanthanides and Calmodulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The conformation of Calmodulin(CaM) induced by lanthanides has been examined using fluorescence methods.With the addition of lanthanide (Ln3+), the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of CaM without calcium ions (Apo-CaM) first increases and then decreases.Ln3+ causes the decrease of intrinsic fluorescence intensity of calcium saturated CaM (Ca2+4-CaM) only at high concentrations.At low concentrations, Ln3+ results not only in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity of Apo-CaM, but also in a blue shift of the maximum emission wavelengh of dansyl labeled calmodulin(Apo-D-CaM).The molecular mechanism of the interaction between Ln3+ and CaM has been discussed in the light of the fluorescence spectra.

  14. Ultrasonic Studies of Molecular Interactions in Organic Binary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirumaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the mixtures of 1-alkanols such as 1-propanol and 1-butanol with N-N dimethylformamide (DMF at 303 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (β, free length (Lf, free volume (Vf and internal pressure (πi. The excess values of the above parameters are also evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the mixtures. It is obvious that there is a formation of hydrogen bonding between DMF and 1-alkanols. Further, the addition of DMF causes dissociation of hydrogen bonded structure of 1-alkanols. The evaluated excess values confirm that the molecular association is more pronounced in system-II comparing to the system-I.

  15. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.

    1989-01-01

    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Han Jae; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of Na atoms has been performed and the proper conditions for the frequency stabilization of narrow band cw dye lasers, which was used as laser sources for the laser cooling and trapping, have been obtained as follows : a) optimum pressure of a Na vapor cell: 10 mTorr b) intensity of a pump laser : a few μW c) intensity of a probe laser : 1/10 of that of a pump laser. EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) generated by coherent laser-atom interactions was investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The absorption of a probe laser could be remarkably reduced more than 90 % due to EIT effect. The EIT spectrum as narrow as 6 MHz which is even narrower than the natural linewidth of an excited state could be obtained under proper conditions

  17. Magnetic properties in kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the kagomé lattice have been studied with Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions in a spin-7/2 Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. The RKKY interaction between the two magnetic layers is considered for different distances. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities of this lattice are given for different triquadratic interactions around each triangular face. The critical temperature is obtained for a fixed size. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of kagomé lattice with RKKY interactions is obtained for different temperatures and for different crystal field with a fixed size of nonmagnetic layer. - Highlights: • We study the RKKY interaction in kagomé lattice using the Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperature is obtained for kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction. • The coercive field is obtained for kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction.

  18. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S; Abdel Gaber, Sara A

    2017-06-15

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1 HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactive scan control for kinematic study in open MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Kiyomi; Ito, Taeko; Nagao, Hisako; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    A tool to support the subject is generally used for kinematic joint imaging with an open MRI apparatus because of difficulty setting the image plane correctly. However, use of a support tool requires a complicated procedure to position the subject, and setting the image plane when the joint angle changes is time consuming. Allowing the subject to move freely enables better diagnoses when kinematic joint imaging is performed. We therefore developed an interactive scan control (ISC) to facilitate the easy, quick, and accurate setting of the image plane even when a support tool is not used. We used a 0.4T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system open in the horizontal direction. The ISC determines the image plane interactively on the basis of fluoroscopy images displayed on a user interface. The imaging pulse is a balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (SARGE) sequence with update time less than 2 s. Without using a tool to support the knee, we positioned the knee of a healthy volunteer at 4 different joint angles and set the image plane through the patella and femur at each of the angles. Lumbar imaging is also demonstrated with ISC. Setting the image plane was easy and quick at all knee angles, and images obtained clearly showed the patella and femur. Total imaging time was less than 10 min, a fourth of the time needed when a support tool is used. We also used our ISC in kinematic imaging of the lumbar. The ISC shortens total time for kinematic joint imaging, and because a support tool is not needed, imaging can be done more freely in an open MR imaging apparatus. (author)

  20. Electron microscopy study of antioxidant interaction with bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Oleg P.; Novikova, Olga V.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Gunkin, Ivan F.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    2000-10-01

    To maintain native microorganisms genotype and phenotype features a lyophylization technique is widely used. However in this case cells are affected by influences of vacuum and low temperature that cause a part of the cells population to be destruction. Another factor reduced microorganisms vitality is formation of reactive oxygen forms that damage certain biological targets (such as DNA, membranes etc.) Recently to raise microorganism's resistance against adverse condition natural and synthetic antioxidants are used. Antioxidant- are antagonists of free radicals. Introduction of antioxidants in protective medium for lyophylization increase bacteria storage life about 2,0-4,8 fold in comparison with reference samples. In the article the main results of our investigation of antioxidants interaction with microorganism cells is described. As bacteria cells we use vaccine strain yersinia pestis EV, that were grown for 48 h at 28 degree(s)C on the Hottinger agar (pH 7,2). Antioxidants are inserted on the agar surface in specimen under test. To investigate a localization of antioxidants for electron microscopy investigation, thallium organic antioxidants were used. The thallium organic compounds have an antioxidant features if thallium is in low concentration (about 1(mu) g/ml). The localization of the thallium organic antioxidants on bacteria Y. pestis EV is visible in electron microscopy images, thallium being heavy metal with high electron density. The negatively stained bacteria and bacteria thin sections with thallium organic compounds were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The localization of the thallium organic compounds is clearly visible in electron micrographs as small dark spots with size about 10-80nm. Probably mechanisms of interaction of antioxidants with bacteria cells are discussed.

  1. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in NMR peptide-membrane interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosol, S.

    2011-01-01

    Small membrane-bound proteins or peptides are involved in numerous essential biological processes, like cellular recognition, signaling, channel formation, and cytolysis. The secondary structure, orientation, mode of interaction and dynamics of these peptides can be as varied as their functions. Their localization in the membrane, the immersion depth, and their binding mode are factors critical to the function of these peptides. The atomic 3D solution structure of peptides bound to micelles can be determined by NMR spectroscopy. However, by employing paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) information on the complete topology of peptide bound to a micelle can be obtained. The antimicrobial peptide maximin H6, fst, a bacterial toxin, and the human peptide hormone ghrelin served as membrane-bound model peptides of similar sizes but strongly differing amino acid sequences. Their structures and binding behavior were determined and compared.The measured PREs provided suitable data for determining and distinguishing the different topologies of the investigated peptides bound to micelles. Maximin H6 and fst fold into α-helices upon insertion into a membrane, whereas the unstructured ghrelin is freely mobile in solution and interacts only via a covalently bound octanoyl group with the lipids. Maximin H6 is oriented parallel to the membrane surface, enabling the peptide to aggregate at the membrane water interface. Fst binds in transmembrane orientation with a protruding intrinsically disordered region near the C-terminus. Aside from determining the orientation of the bound peptides from the PREs, the moieties critical for membrane binding could be mapped in ghrelin. If suitable relaxation-edited spectra are acquired, the complete orientation and immersion depth of a peptide bound to a micelle can readily be obtained. (author) [de

  2. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danni Zheng

    Full Text Available Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2 participants on an hourly timescale.INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150-220 mmHg assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs and 95% CI.Low ambient temperature (≤10°C was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99-1.91 for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31-2.81 for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89-5.19 for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30-14.42 for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses.Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079.

  3. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Gasparrini, Antonio; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lo, Serigne; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) participants on an hourly timescale. Methods INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150–220 mmHg) assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg) or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg) BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Results Low ambient temperature (≤10°C) was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99–1.91) for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31–2.81) for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89–5.19) for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30–14.42) for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079 PMID:26859491

  4. Photon interaction studies using 241Am γ-rays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rays from a 241Am source. These include attenuation studies as well as photoelectric absorption studies in various samples. The attenuation studies have been made using leaf and wood samples, samples like sand, sugar etc., which ...

  5. Pilot Study of Person Robot Interaction in a Public Transit Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Bak, Thomas; Maler, Ouri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the effect of a human interactive robot placed in an urban transit space. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially interactive...... showed harder than expected to start interaction with commuters due to their determination and speed towards their goal. Further it was demonstrated that it was possible to track and follow people, who were not beforehand informed about the experiment. The evaluation indicated that the distance...... to initiate interaction was shorter than would be expected for normal human to human interaction....

  6. Calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, A.R.; Sharipov, D.Sh.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid. The calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid was carried out in order to determine the thermal effects of reactions. The results of interaction of Ba(OH) 4 ·8H 2 O with 5, 10, and 20% solution of hydrofluoric acid were considered.

  7. Theoretical studies of some nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of intense, monochromatic, electromagnetic radiation with plasma is considered in a number of special cases. The first part of the thesis serves as an introduction to three-wave interactions. A general formulation of the stimulated scattering of transverse waves by longitudinal modes in a warm, unmagnetized, uniform plasma is constructed. A general dispersion relation is derived that describes Raman and Brillouin scattering, modulational instability, and induced Thomson scattering. Raman scattering (the scattering of a photon into another photon and an electron plasma wave) is investigated as a possible plasma heating scheme. Analytic theory complemented by computer simulation is presented describing the nonlinear mode coupling of laser light with small and large amplitude, resonantly excited electron plasma waves. The simulated scattering of a coherent electromagnetic wave by low frequency density perturbations in homogeneous plasma is discussed. A composite picture of the linear dispersion relations for filamentation and Brillouin scattering is constructed. The absolute instability of Brillouin weak and strong coupling by analytic and numerical means is described

  8. An autosampling differential scanning calorimeter instrument for studying molecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Valerian; Rochalski, Andrew; Brandts, Michael; Brandts, John F; Williston, Samuel; Frasca, Verna; Lin, Lung-Nan

    2002-11-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) instrument is described, which utilizes autosampling for continuous operation. High scanning rates to 250 deg/h with rapid cooling and equilibration between scans facilitates higher sample throughput up to 50 samples during each 24 h of unattended operation. The instrument is suited for those pharmaceutical applications where higher throughput is important, such as screening drug candidates for binding constant or screening solution conditions for stability of liquid protein formulations. Results are presented on the binding of five different anionic inhibitors to ribonuclease A, which included cytidine 2'-monophosphate (2'CMP), 3'CMP, uridine 3'-monophosphate, pyrophosphate, and phosphate. Binding constants K(B) (or dissociation constants K(d)) are obtained from the shift in the transition temperature T(M) for ribonuclease thermal unfolding in the presence of ligand relative to the transition temperature in the absence of ligand. Measured binding constants ranged from 155 M(-1) (K(d) = 6.45 mM) for the weak-binding phosphate anion to 13100 M(-1) (K(d) = 76.3 microM) for the strongest binding ligand, 2'CMP. The DSC method for measuring binding constants can also be extended to ultratight interactions involving either ligand-protein or protein-protein binding.

  9. Small scale lithium-lead/water-interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranert, O.; Kottowski, H.

    1991-01-01

    One current concept in fusion blanket design is to utilize water as the coolant and liquid lithium-lead as the breeding/neutron multiplier material. Considering the complex design of the blanket module, it is likely that a water leakage into the liquid alloy may occur due to a tube rupture provoking an intolerable pressure increase in the blanket module. The pressure increase is caused by the combined chemical and thermohydraulic reaction of lithium-lead with water. Experiments which simulate such a transient event are necessary to obtain information which is important for the blanket module design. The interaction has been investigated by conducting small-scale experiments at various injection pressures, alloy- and coolant temperatures. Besides using eutectic Li 17 Pb 83 , Li 7 Pb 2 , lithium and lead have been used. Among other results, the experiments indicate increasing chemical reaction with increasing lithium concentration. At the same time, the chemical reaction inhibits violent thermohydaulic reactions due to the attenuating effect of the hydrogen produced. The preliminary epxerimental results from Li 17 Pb 83 and Li 7 Pb 2 reveal that the pressure- and temperature transients caused by the chemical and thermohydraulic reactions lie within technically manageable limits. (orig.)

  10. SHARP - a framework for incorporating human interactions into PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been given to understanding the role of humans in the safe operation of nuclear power plants. By virtue of the ability to combine equipment reliability with human reliability probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology was deemed capable of providing significant insights about the contributions of human interations in accident scenarios. EPRI recognized the need to strengthen the methodology for incorporating human interactions into PRAs as one element of their broad research program to improve the credibility of PRAs. This research project lead to the development and detailed description of SHARP (Systematic Human Application Reliability Procedure) in EPRI NP-3583. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the SHARP framework. This should help PRA analysts state more clearly their assumptions and approach no matter which human reliability assessment technique is used. SHARP includes a structure of seven analysis steps which can be formally or informally performed during PRAs. The seven steps are termed definition, screening, breakdown, representation, impact assessment, quantification, and documentation

  11. In vivo study of drug interaction with brain benzodiazepine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, O.; Shinotoh, H.; Ito, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Yamasaki, T.

    1985-05-01

    The possibility of direct estimation of in vivo Bz receptor occupancy in brain was evaluated using C-11, or H-3-flumazepil (Ro15-1788). In animal experiments, 1 ..mu..Ci of H-3-Ro15-1788 was injected at 0.5 or 20 hr after i.v. injection of various dosage of clonazepam. Then radioactivity in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and blood at 5 min. after injection of the tracer was compared. Competitive inhibition of in vivo binding was clearly observed when clonazepam was pretreated at 0.5 hr before injection of the tracer. On the other hand, brain radioactivity was increased when clonazepam was administered at 20 hr before injection of the tracer. This increase in binding of H-3-Ro15-1788 might be caused by rebound of Bz receptor function by treatment with Bz agonist, and this rebound may have an important role in physiological function. Clinical investigation concerning drug interaction with brain Bz receptor was performed in normal volunteer and patients with neurological disorders. The distribution of C-11-Ro15-1788 in the brain of patients chronically treated with clonazepam were significantly heterogeneous. However, cerebral blood flow estimated with N-13 NH3 of these patients were normal.

  12. Study on mechanical interaction between molten alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    Simulant experiments using low melting point molten alloy and water have been conducted to observe both fragmentation behavior of molten jet and boiling phenomena of water, and to measure both particle size and shape of fragmented solidified jet, focusing on post-pin-failure molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCl) which was important to evaluate the sequence of the initiating phase for metallic fueled FBR. In addition, characteristics of coolant boiling phenomena on FCIs have been investigated, focusing on the boiling heat transfer in the direct contact heat transfer mode. As a results, it is concluded that the fragmentation of poured molten alloy jet is affected by a degree of boiling of water and is classified into three modes by thermal conditions of both the instantaneous contact interface temperature of two liquids and subcooling of water. In the case of forced convection boiling in direct contact mode, it is found that the heat transfer performance is enhanced by increase of the heat transfer area, due to oscillation of the surface and fragmentation of molten alloy. As a results of preliminary investigation of FCI behavior for metallic fuel core based on these results, it is expected that the ejected molten fuel is fragmented into almost spherical particles due to the developed boiling of sodium. (author)

  13. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  14. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  15. Comprehensive study of tartrazine/cationic surfactant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh; Javadian, Soheila; Razavizadeh, Bi Bi Marzieh; Gharibi, Hussein

    2011-12-15

    Interaction of a food dye, tartrazine, with some cationic conventional and gemini surfactants, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), N,N'-ditetradecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (14,4,14), and N,N'-didodecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (12,4,12), were first investigated comprehensively employing conductometry, tensiometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Tartrazine was found to behave in the same manner as aromatic counterions. The formation of ion pairs reflected as a considerable increase of the surfactant efficiency in tensiometry plots and their stoichiometry were determined by Job's method of continuous variations. For the tartrazine/TTAB system, nonionic DS(3), ionic DS(2-), and/or DS(2)(-) ion pairs, their small premicelles, and tartrazine-rich micelles were constituted as well as dye-containing TTAB-rich micelles. Insoluble J-aggregates of DS(-) ion pairs and cylindrical surfactant-rich micelles were also formed in tartrazine/gemini surfactant systems and recognized by transmission electron microscopy. The zeta potential and the size of the aggregates were determined using dynamic light scattering and confirmed the suggested models for the processes happening in each system. Cyclic voltammetry was applied successfully to track all of these species using tartrazine's own reduction peak current for the first time.

  16. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Weber, Wolfgang J; Schuster, Peter; Grosjean, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at our repository extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progress in mathematical competence thus fostering motivation. Furthermore in case of learning difficulties he or she is given supplementary explanations and in case of individual needs supplementary exercises and applications. So the sequence of the studies is ind...

  17. Age differences in adults' daily social interactions: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Sliwinski, Martin J; Martire, Lynn M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-30

    Prevailing research has suggested that social relationships get better with age, but this evidence has been largely based on studies with lengthy reporting intervals. Using an ecological momentary assessment approach, the present study examined age differences in several characteristics of social interactions as reported in near-real time: the frequency, quality, and partner type. Participants (N = 173) ages 20-79 years reported their social interactions at 5 random times throughout the day for 1 week. Results revealed that age was associated with higher frequency of interacting with family and lower frequency of interacting with peripheral partners. These age effects, however, became nonsignificant after accounting for contextual factors such as race, gender, education, employment status, family structure, and living arrangement. In contrast, a curvilinear relationship best characterized age differences in both positive and negative ratings of daily social interaction quality, with middle-aged adults reporting the lowest positive ratings and older adults reporting the lowest negative ratings among all ages. Contextual factors did not account for these patterns of age differences in interaction quality. Furthermore, the intraindividual variability of interaction frequency with peripheral partners, partner diversity, and interaction quality (positivity and negativity) was lower among older adults than among younger adults. Findings from the present study portray a nuanced picture of social interactions in daily life and advance the understanding of social interactions across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A conceptual framework for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Diego P; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Urbani, Pasquinell; Valdovinos, Fernanda S

    2015-04-01

    The strength of species interactions influences strongly the structure and dynamics of ecological systems. Thus, quantifying such strength is crucial to understand how species interactions shape communities and ecosystems. Although the concepts and measurement of interaction strength in food webs have received much attention, there has been comparatively little progress in the context of mutualism. We propose a conceptual scheme for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. We first review the interaction strength concepts developed for food webs, and explore how these concepts have been applied to mutualistic interactions. We then outline and explain a conceptual framework for defining ecological effects in plant-animal mutualisms. We give recommendations for measuring interaction strength from data collected in field studies based on a proposed approach for the assessment of interaction strength in plant-animal mutualisms. This approach is conceptually integrative and methodologically feasible, as it focuses on two key variables usually measured in field studies: the frequency of interactions and the fitness components influenced by the interactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Model Plants for Studying the Interaction between Methylobacterium mesophilicum and Xylella fastidiosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, F.D.; Lacava, P.T.; Araújo, W.L.; Maccheroni Jr., W.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.; Azevedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, endophytic bacterial communities associated with citrus have been studied as key components interacting with Xylella fastidiosa. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between the citrus endophyte Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 and X. fastidiosa in

  20. Model plants for studying the interaction between Methylobacterium mesophilicum and Xylella fastidiosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, FD; Lacava, PT; Gai, CS; Araujo, WL; Maccheroni, W; van Overbeek, LS; van Elsas, JD; Azevedo, JL

    Over the last few years, endophytic bacterial communities associated with citrus have been studied as key components interacting with Xylella fastidiosa. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between the citrus endophyte Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 and X. fastidiosa in

  1. Teacher-Student Interactions: Four Case Studies of Gender in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathryn; Nicaise, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand gender interactions between teachers and students in high school physical education. Gender interactions were explored in relation to the theory of reflective practice. Interview data were examined as four case studies using individual and cross-case inductive analysis. Two common themes emerged: (a)…

  2. The Role of Interactive Whiteboard on Motivating Learners in Mathematics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mtchedlishvili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of motivation and enthusiasm by the use of interactive whiteboard has improved self- esteem, encouragement and success of many learners who have found mathematics difficult. This study aims to investigate whether the use of interactive whiteboard in mathematics classes promotes motivation of learners which facilitates learning process. 40 lecturers and 40 students were surveyed in the study and the results have been compared and it has been found that interactive whiteboard enhances interactivity, motivates learners and facilitates learning in mathematics classes.

  3. Communicative Case Studies for EFL--Lessons for Interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses use of case studies and role play throughout the curriculum at the Ecole de Hautes Etudes Commerciales du Nord, a French graduate school associated with the Catholic University of Lille. Provides a case study that was developed to reconcile conflicting needs in the business English classroom at the graduate level. Students require…

  4. Some significant but buried studies of embodiment and materiality in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    When preparing a recent review on rising interest in ‘embodiment’ in EM CA research on social interaction (Nevile 2015) (e.g. gesture, body, mobility; cf. ‘multimodality’), considering over 500 studies, I was delighted to be reminded of, or often ‘discover’, some less-well-known-and-cited studies...... some to highlight from the prominent journal Research on Language and Social Interaction. The paper argues that active recognition of the contribution of the body-in-interaction might be relatively recent, but scholarly awareness of it is not (in EM CA and beyond). My aim is to resurrect some early...... discussion of doing CA and EM as a research community. Goodwin, C. (2000) Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1489–1522. Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction. 48,2: 121...

  5. Final Report - Few-Body Studies Using Electromagnetic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Blaine [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-01-25

    The work discussed here is an extension of work previously funded by U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-97ER41025. Measurements of charged pion photoproduction from deuterium using the Laser Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory previously made by us, as members of the LEGS Collaboration, resulted in the most interesting result of two decades of work. By measuring the production of a charged pion (π+) in coincidence with an emitted photon we observed structures in the residual two-nucleon system. These indicated the existence of rare, long-lived states not explicable by standard nuclear theory; they suggested a set of configurations not explicable in terms of a nucleon-nucleon pair. The existence of such “exotic” structures has formed the foundation for most of the work that has ensued. Several measurements at various laboratories have supported, but not proved, the existence of these exotic states. The rarity of these states made their existence undetectable in most previous measurements. Only by observing characteristic signatures of such states (i.e., decay photons), by using very specific kinematics which isolate certain reaction products, or by measuring polarization-dependent observables. During the period of this grant we pursued and made progress on the development of experiments to be performed at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) of the Tri Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Our understanding of photon- and electron-induced nuclear reactions depends on understanding of the basic electron and photon interaction. Recently, the issue of two-photon contributions has arisen in the context of deeply inelastic electron scattering. One way to address this is to measure asymmetries in the Bethe-Heitler ee process. We also made progress in developing the detectors required to measure these asymmetries at HIGS. During the last several years the apparent discrepancy between the size of the proton as measured

  6. Surface modification for interaction study with bacteria and preosteoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing

    Surface modification plays a pivotal role in bioengineering. Polymer coatings can provide biocompatibility and biofunctionalities to biomaterials through surface modification. In this dissertation, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was utilized to coat two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) substrates with differently charged polyelectrolytes in order to generate antimicrobial and osteocompatible biomaterials. ICVD is a modified CVD technique that enables surface modification in an all-dry condition without substrate damage and solvent contamination. The free-radical polymerization allows the vinyl polymers to conformally coat on various micro- and nano-structured substrates and maintains the delicate structure of the functional groups. The vapor deposition of polycations provided antimicrobial activity to planar and porous substrates through destroying the negatively charged bacterial membrane and brought about high contact-killing efficiency (99.99%) against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polyampholytes synthesized by iCVD exhibited excellent antifouling performance against the adhesion of Gram-positive Listeria innocua and Gram-negative E. coli in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Their antifouling activities were attributed to the electrostatic interaction and hydration layers that served as physical and energetic barriers to prevent bacterial adhesion. The contact-killing and antifouling polymers synthesized by iCVD can be applied to surface modification of food processing equipment and medical devices with the aim of reducing foodborne diseases and medical infections. Moreover, the charged polyelectrolyte modified 2D polystyrene surfaces displayed good osteocompatibility and enhanced osteogenesis of preosteoblast cells than the un-modified polystyrene surface. In order to promote osteoinduction of hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, bioinspired polymer-controlled mineralization was conducted

  7. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Grosjean, Jean; Schuster, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is the basic language in physics and engineering. It is an essential tool which first and second year students have to master as soon as possible. A lack of competence in mathematics is the main reason for failure and drop out in the beginning periods of study. This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progre...

  8. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  9. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Interactive Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Case studies illustrate the kinds of decisions and dilemmas managers face every day, and as such provide an effective learning tool for project management. Due to...

  10. The Effects of Interactions between Management Control Systems and Strategy on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Melek Eker; Semih Eker

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in examining the relationships among management control systems, business strategy and firm performance. In this study, the interactions of management control systems and strategy with their impact on firm performance are examined with an empirical analysis, based on the data from 94 manufacturing firms from the top 500 in Turkey in 2014. The results support the postulate that high interaction between interactive control system (ICS) and differ...

  11. MFM study of magnetic interaction between recording and soft magnetic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yukio; Tanahashi, Kiwamu; Hirayama, Yoshiyuki; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy was used to study the magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers in double-layer perpendicular media by observing the magnetization structure from the soft magnetic layer side. There was a strong magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers. Introducing a thin nonmagnetic intermediate layer between the two layers greatly reduced the magnetic interaction and drastically reduced the medium noise

  12. Radioisotope studies of some effects and interactions of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The coordinated programme of ''isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture'', initiated in 1973, had involved the participation of 12 scientists from 10 countries. Pesticide residues, toxic metals, atmospheric sulphur dioxide were studied, and the use of radiotracer techniques as monitoring tools for existing contaminant levels or for their biological effects. The programme had been successful in the development and application of selected labelled substrate techniques. Specific aspects studied were the effects of environmental contaminants at the molecular level of the cell nucleus, the development and significance of radioimmunoassay procedure for trace contaminants, action and joint action of toxic elements, and the radiometric analysis of cholinesterase as an index of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Ten papers were presented and 12 coordinated investigations discussed. A number of recommendations were made

  13. Coevolution study of mitochondria respiratory chain proteins: toward the understanding of protein--protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ge, Yan; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Yu, Jun

    2011-05-20

    Coevolution can be seen as the interdependency between evolutionary histories. In the context of protein evolution, functional correlation proteins are ever-present coordinated evolutionary characters without disruption of organismal integrity. As to complex system, there are two forms of protein--protein interactions in vivo, which refer to inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction. In this paper, we studied the difference of coevolution characters between inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction using "Mirror tree" method on the respiratory chain (RC) proteins. We divided the correlation coefficients of every pairwise RC proteins into two groups corresponding to the binary protein--protein interaction in intra-complex and the binary protein--protein interaction in inter-complex, respectively. A dramatical discrepancy is detected between the coevolution characters of the two sets of protein interactions (Wilcoxon test, p-value = 4.4 × 10(-6)). Our finding reveals some critical information on coevolutionary study and assists the mechanical investigation of protein--protein interaction. Furthermore, the results also provide some unique clue for supramolecular organization of protein complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane. More detailed binding sites map and genome information of nuclear encoded RC proteins will be extraordinary valuable for the further mitochondria dynamics study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Modelling the Interaction Levels in HCI Using an Intelligent Hybrid System with Interactive Agents: A Case Study of an Interactive Museum Exhibition Module in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rosales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become a necessity in our everyday lives and essential for completing activities we typically take for granted; technologies can assist us by completing set tasks or achieving desired goals with optimal affect and in the most efficient way, thereby improving our interactive experiences. This paper presents research that explores the representation of user interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system approach with agents. We evaluate interaction levels of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI with the aim of enhancing user experiences. We consider the description of interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system to provide a decision-making system to an agent that evaluates interaction levels when using interactive modules of a museum exhibition. The agents represent a high-level abstraction of the system, where communication takes place between the user, the exhibition and the environment. In this paper, we provide a means to measure the interaction levels and natural behaviour of users, based on museum user-exhibition interaction. We consider that, by analysing user interaction in a museum, we can help to design better ways to interact with exhibition modules according to the properties and behaviour of the users. An interaction-evaluator agent is proposed to achieve the most suitable representation of the interaction levels with the aim of improving user interactions to offer the most appropriate directions, services, content and information, thereby improving the quality of interaction experienced between the user-agent and exhibition-agent.

  15. Connecting theoretical and empirical studies of trait-mediated interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolker, B.; Holyoak, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Rowe, L.; Schmitz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2003), s. 1101-1114 ISSN 0012-9658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : community models * competition * empirical study Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.701, year: 2003

  16. A comparative study of Interactions between chronic Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effects of drinking 10% alcohol solution for 12 weeks on daily body weight, and drinking and feeding behaviour were studied in Sprague – Dawley rats of both sexes. Daily measurement of body weight, fluid intake and food consumption were recorded and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was ...

  17. Plant--Pollinator Interactions: A Rich Area for Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines an adaptive framework for the study of plants and their pollinators in which both partners in the ecological relationship are seen as maximizing fitness through efficient use of the other as a resource. Suggests experimental projects to examine the validity of these assumptions giving an evolutionary emphasis. (Author/CW)

  18. Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of the protein–surfactant complex of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. At low concentrations, the CTAB monomers are observed to bind to the protein leading to an increase in its size. On the other hand at high concentrations, surfactant ...

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of the Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conformity with Beer\\'s law was evident over the concentration range 0.8 – 8.0 mg/100 ml of chloroquine phosphate; thus making it possible for an accurate quantitative determination of the drug. Conclusion: The studied complexation phenomenon formed a basis for the quantitative determination of both pure samples and ...

  20. Comparison of weighting approaches for genetic risk scores in gene-environment interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüls, Anke; Krämer, Ursula; Carlsten, Christopher; Schikowski, Tamara; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger

    2017-12-16

    Weighted genetic risk scores (GRS), defined as weighted sums of risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are statistically powerful for detection gene-environment (GxE) interactions. To assign weights, the gold standard is to use external weights from an independent study. However, appropriate external weights are not always available. In such situations and in the presence of predominant marginal genetic effects, we have shown in a previous study that GRS with internal weights from marginal genetic effects ("GRS-marginal-internal") are a powerful and reliable alternative to single SNP approaches or the use of unweighted GRS. However, this approach might not be appropriate for detecting predominant interactions, i.e. interactions showing an effect stronger than the marginal genetic effect. In this paper, we present a weighting approach for such predominant interactions ("GRS-interaction-training") in which parts of the data are used to estimate the weights from the interaction terms and the remaining data are used to determine the GRS. We conducted a simulation study for the detection of GxE interactions in which we evaluated power, type I error and sign-misspecification. We compared this new weighting approach to the GRS-marginal-internal approach and to GRS with external weights. Our simulation study showed that in the absence of external weights and with predominant interaction effects, the highest power was reached with the GRS-interaction-training approach. If marginal genetic effects were predominant, the GRS-marginal-internal approach was more appropriate. Furthermore, the power to detect interactions reached by the GRS-interaction-training approach was only slightly lower than the power achieved by GRS with external weights. The power of the GRS-interaction-training approach was confirmed in a real data application to the Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG) Study (N = 4465 observations). When appropriate external weights are unavailable, we

  1. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-12-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.

  2. A linguistic study of patient-centered interviewing: emergent interactional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Ashley M; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate interactional effects of patient-centered interviewing (PCI) compared to isolated clinician-centered interviewing (CCI). We conducted a pilot study comparing PCI (N=4) to CCI (N=4) for simulated new-patient visits. We rated interviews independently and measured patient satisfaction with the interaction via a validated questionnaire. We conducted interactional sociolinguistic analysis on the interviews and compared across three levels of analysis: turn, topic, and interaction. We found significant differences between PCI and CCI in physician responses to patients' psychosocial cues and concerns. The number and type of physician questions also differed significantly across PCI and CCI sets. Qualitatively, we noted several indicators of physician-patient attunement in the PCI interviews that were not present in the CCI interviews. They spanned diverse aspects of physician and patient speech, suggesting interactional accommodation on the part of both participants. This small pilot study highlights a variety of interactional variables that may underlie the effects associated with patient-centered interviewing (e.g., positive relationships, health outcomes). Question form, phonological accommodation processes, and use of stylistic markers are relatively unexplored in controlled studies of physician-patient interaction. This study characterizes several interactional variables for larger scale studies and contributes to models of patient-centeredness in practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A combination test for detection of gene-environment interaction in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; McGue, Matt

    2017-07-01

    Identifying gene-environment (G-E) interactions can contribute to a better understanding of disease etiology, which may help researchers develop disease prevention strategies and interventions. One big criticism of studying G-E interaction is the lack of power due to sample size. Studies often restrict the interaction search to the top few hundred hits from a genome-wide association study or focus on potential candidate genes. In this paper, we test interactions between a candidate gene and an environmental factor to improve power by analyzing multiple variants within a gene. We extend recently developed score statistic based genetic association testing approaches to the G-E interaction testing problem. We also propose tests for interaction using gene-based summary measures that pool variants together. Although it has recently been shown that these summary measures can be biased and may lead to inflated type I error, we show that under several realistic scenarios, we can still provide valid tests of interaction. These tests use significantly less degrees of freedom and thus can have much higher power to detect interaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that the iSeq-aSum-min test, which combines a gene-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-G, and an interaction-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-I, provides a powerful alternative to test G-E interaction. We demonstrate the performance of these approaches using simulation studies and illustrate their performance to study interaction between the SNPs in several candidate genes and family climate environment on alcohol consumption using the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research dataset. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. An in situ study of the adsorption behavior of functionalized particles on selfassembled monolayers via different chemical interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.Y.; Malaquin, Laurent; Reinhoudt, David; Wolf, Heiko; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    The formation of particle monolayers by convective assembly was studied in situ with three different kinds of particle-surface interactions: adsorption onto native surfaces, with additional electrostatic interactions, and with supramolecular host-guest interactions. In the first case

  5. [Theory of elementary particles studies in weak interaction and grand unification and studies in accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in high energy physics on the following topics: rare b decays; flavor changing top decays;neutrino physics; standard model; cp violation; heavy ion collisions; electron-positron interactions; electron-hadron interactions; hadron-hadron interactions; deep inelastic scattering; and grand unified models

  6. Toppar: an interactive browser for viewing association study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Banasik, Karina; Robertson, Neil R; Mott, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I

    2018-06-01

    Data integration and visualization help geneticists make sense of large amounts of data. To help facilitate interpretation of genetic association data we developed Toppar, a customizable visualization tool that stores results from association studies and enables browsing over multiple results, by combining features from existing tools and linking to appropriate external databases. Detailed information on Toppar's features and functionality are on our website http://mccarthy.well.ox.ac.uk/toppar/docs along with instructions on how to download, install and run Toppar. Our online version of Toppar is accessible from the website and can be test-driven using Firefox, Safari or Chrome on sub-sets of publicly available genome-wide association study anthropometric waist and body mass index data (Locke et al., 2015; Shungin et al., 2015) from the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits consortium. totajuliusd@gmail.com.

  7. Study of interaction of GNR with glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Cardoso-Avila, P. E.; Sridharan, Sangita; Sahu, Aditi; Nair, Jyothi; Dongre, Harsh; Goda, Jayant S.; Sawant, Sharada; Dutt, Shilpee; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation resistance is one of the major causes of recurrence and failure of radiotherapy. Different methods have been used to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy and at the same time restrict the radiation resistivity. From last few years nanoparticles have played a key role in the enhancement of radiosensitization. The densely packed nanoparticles can selectively scatter or absorb the high radiations, which allow better targeting of cellular components within the tumor hence resulting in increased radiation damage to the cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the highly radioresistant brain cancer. Current treatment methods are surgical resection followed by concurrent chemo and radiation therapy. In this study we have used in-house engineered gold nano rodes (GNR) and analyzed their effect on U-87MG cell lines. MTT assay was employed to determine the cytotoxic concentration of the nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the effect of gold nanoparticles on glioma cells, which was followed by transmission electron microscopic examinations to visualize their cellular penetration. Our data shows that GNR were able to penetrate the cells and induce cytotoxicity at the concentration of 198 μM as determined by MTT assay at 24 post GNP treatment. Additionally, we show that Raman spectroscopy, could classify spectra between untreated and cells treated with nanoparticles. Taken together, this study shows GNR penetration and cytotoxicity in glioma cells thereby providing a rationale to use them in cancer therapeutics. Future studies will be carried out to study the biological activity of the formulation as a radiosensitizer in GBM.

  8. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  9. A study of everyday repair: informing interaction design

    OpenAIRE

    Maestri, Leah Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Repair is typically seen in design as the restoration of broken objects to their original state. Repair by non-experts, or everyday repair, can often lead to novel forms of repair resulting in the creative repurposing of objects that are often unforeseen by designers. Using a grounded theory approach, this study describes key aspects of repair including: the techniques non-experts employ for repairing their objects; the motivations that prompt acts of repair; and the outcomes that result fr...

  10. Wave-Structure Interactions on Point Absorbers - an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller

    used in the case studies is a pitching point absorber (Wavestar). The central part of the thesis deals with the challenges, choices, and experi- ences gained during the Ph.D. The more in-depth technical details and results are presented in peer-reviewed publications and technical reports. The chal...... that combines waves and current in a meaningful way. The method needs to be inexpensive, easy to implement and reduce the turbulence without distorting the incident waves in a detrimental way....

  11. Lateral interactions in the photoreceptor membrane: a NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollevanger, L.C.P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The photoreceptor membrane has an exceptionally high content of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains combined with a high amount of phosphatidyl ethanolamine. It is situated in a cell organelle, the rod outer segment, with a high biological activity in which controlable trans-membrane currents of different ions play an important role. These characteristics make it a very interesting biological membrane to search for the existence of non-bilayer structures. Therefore in this thesis a detailed study of the polymorphic phase behaviour of the rod outer segment photoreceptor lipids was undertaken, concerning modulation of the polymorphic phase behaviour of photoreceptor membrane lipids by divalent cations and temperature, polymorphism of the individual phospholipid classes phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine and effects of cholesterol, bilayer stabilization by (rhod)opsin. Morphologically intact rod outer segment possesses a large magnetic anisotropy. This property is used to obtain 31 P-NMR of oriented photoreceptor membranes which allows spectral analysis and identification of individual phospholipid classes, and allows to study lateral lipid diffusion in intact disk membranes. The power of high resolution solid state 13 C-NMR to study the conformation of the chromophore in rhodopsin is demonstrated. (Auth.)

  12. Study of interaction of the bacterium cupriavidus metallidurans with strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussiga, Rim

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans strain Ch 34 (previously known as Ralstonia metallidurans, Ralstonia eutropha, and Alcaligenes eutrophus) is an ideal subject to study heavy metal disturbance of cellular processes. Moreover, the capacity of C. metallidurans Ch 34 for in situ bioremediation was assessed and proved to be feasible on pilot scale. In this work, the molecular and physiological response to strontium cations (Sr 2+ ) by C.metallidurans Ch 34 was studied. Results showed that C. metallidurans Ch 34 resisted to high concentrations of Sr (120 m M) and that this resistance is not linked to the presence of its 2 large plasmid pMOL30 or pMOL28. During this study, a tctCBA-dependent tripartite tricarboxylate transport (TTT) system in strain Ch 34 was discovered. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation of C.metallidurans challenged with strontium confirms the precipitation of Sr 2+ ) directly onto the surface of cells, inside and in the microenvironment around the cells. These results highlight the potential of C. metalliduras Ch 34 to endure environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of Sr-containing waste with Ch 34 might be feasible.

  13. A theoretical study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    the barrier for dissociation, whereas S will increase it. The interaction with alkali atoms is mainly of an electrostatic nature. The poisoning by S is due to two kinds of repulsive interactions: a Pauli repulsion and a reduced covalent bond strength between the adsorbate and the surface d-electrons. In order...... to investigate these different interactions in more detail, we look at three different species (N atoms, and terminally bonded N(2) and CO) and use them as probes to study their interaction with two modifier atoms (Na and S). The two modifier atoms have very different properties, which allows us to decouple...

  14. Computational studies on the interactions of nanomaterials with proteins and their impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An De-Yi; Li Jing-Yuan; Su Ji-Guo; Li Chun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The intensive concern over the biosafety of nanomaterials demands the systematic study of the mechanisms underlying their biological effects. Many of the effects of nanomaterials can be attributed to their interactions with proteins and their impacts on protein function. On the other hand, nanomaterials show potential for a variety of biomedical applications, many of which also involve direct interactions with proteins. In this paper, we review some recent computational studies on this subject, especially those investigating the interactions of carbon and gold nanomaterials. Beside hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions, the mode of interaction of carbon nanomaterials can also be regulated by their functional groups. The coatings of gold nanomaterials similarly adjust their mode of interaction, in addition to coordination interactions with the sulfur groups of cysteine residues and the imidazole groups of histidine residues. Nanomaterials can interact with multiple proteins and their impacts on protein activity are attributed to a wide spectrum of mechanisms. These findings on the mechanisms of nanomaterial–protein interactions can further guide the design and development of nanomaterials to realize their application in disease diagnosis and treatment. (paper)

  15. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics: Studies of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The New Mexico Center/UNM group research program includes the CDF experiment at Fermilab and the SDC experiment at the SSC. In both experiments the UNM group research focuses on silicon strip tracking systems. The present research goals are to develop and utilize precision silicon tracking to increase significantly the physics reach of the Tevatron, and to make possible the study of high-P t physics at the SSC. The search for the t-quark in CDF is the primary goal of the upcoming Tevatron runs. This Progress Report summarizes our research accomplishments from the last year

  16. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  17. Observed Sensitivity during Family Interactions and Cumulative Risk: A Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin…

  18. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  19. Studies on interfacial interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Studies on interfacial interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with bacterial cells under light and dark conditions by Swayamprava Dalai et al (pp 371–381). Graphical abstract. Sequence of events occurring in course of cell-NP interaction: Surface adsorption, internalization and bioaccumulation of NPs which leads to stress upon ...

  20. Interactions among Future Study Abroad Students: Exploring Potential Intercultural Learning Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, C.; Beaven, A.; Pugliese, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this article aims to explore if and how intercultural learning may take place in students' class interaction. It is grounded in the assumption that interculturality is not a clear-cut feature inherent to interactions occurring when individuals with presumed different linguistic and cultural/national backgrounds talk to each…

  1. Interaction between adrenaline and dibenzo-18-crown-6: Electrochemical, nuclear magnetic resonance, and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between adrenaline (Ad) and dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) was studied by cyclic voltammetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the theoretical calculations, respectively. The results show that DB18C6 will affect the electron transfer properties of Ad. DB18C6 can form stable supramolecular complexes with Ad through ion-dipole and hydrogen bond interactions.

  2. Shock-tube study of fusion plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.; Tien, J.K.; Jensen, B.; Panayotou, N.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of phenomena which occur when a hot (T 1 approximately equal to 6 x 10 6 0 K), dense (n approximately equal to 10 16 cm -3 ), deuterium plasma containing a transverse magnetic field is brought into sudden contact with a cold metal wall. These studies are motivated by the need to understand plasma and metallurgical conditions at the first-wall of a fusion reactor. Experiments were carried out in the Columbia high energy electromagnetic shock tube. Computational simulation was used to investigate the detailed physics of the fusion plasma boundary layer which develops at the wall. The rate of energy transfer from the plasma to the wall was calculated and conditions under which surface melting occurs are estimated. Experimental measurements of plasma-wall heat transfer rates up to 3 x 10 5 watts/cm 2 were obtained and agreement with computed values are good. Fusion reactor first-wall materials have been exposed to 6.0 x 10 21 eV cm -2 (1,000 shots) of deuterium plasma bombardment. Scanning electron micrograph photographs show preferential erosion at grain boundaries, formation of deuterium surface blisters, and evidence of local surface melting. Some cracking is observed along grain boundaries, and a decrease in tensile ductiity is measured

  3. Parental Interaction Patterns in Children with Adhd and Controls; a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami -Aghda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communicational patterns of the parents can either positively or negatively influence children's personality. Parenting manner has long-term effects on behavior, function, expectations and eventually people's future personality. This study investigates parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit- hyperactive disorder. Methods :In this study, 50 male children aged 7-12 years were selected in two groups including 1 25 students with ADHD referring to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan according to the diagnostic scale of DSM- IV and 2 25 healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan from Septamber 2005 until March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. Results: In "Communication" interaction pattern, the mean score of healthy children was 15.08, while the mean score of ADHD children was 13.42. In "admission" interactional pattern; the mean of the first group was 14.76, while the second group was 11.76. In "control" interactional pattern, mean of group one was 13.28 and the second group was 11.76. In "aggression control" interactional pattern, the mean of group one was 13 and the second group was 14.68. In "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional pattern, mean of the first group was 13.36 and the second group was 16.67. The mean scores of parental interactional pattern in healthy children were all higher than ADHD children except for "aggression control" and "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional patterns. Conclusion: The more the parental "admission" interactional pattern score, the lower the signs of ADHD in children. The signs of severity are lower in cases with more positive parental "control" interactional patterns. If the scores of "lack of aggressive/ attachment" and "aggressive/ control" interactional patterns are higher, ADHD signs are more severe.

  4. Study of μ e events produced in antineutrino interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Kochowski, C.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, Gh.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper, A. M.; Deck, L.; Erriquez, O.; Faulkener, P.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Iaselli, G.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Lagraa, M.; Leighton-Davis, S.; Middleton, R.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; van Doninck, W.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1984-12-01

    A study is presented of μ e events from an exposure of BEBC, filed with an heavy H 2/ Ne mixture, to a wide band antineutrino beam at the CERN SPS. The prompt μ + e - rate, based on the observation of 45 events with p μ>4 GeV/c and p e>0.8 GeV/c, is found to be 0.31±0.05±0.02%, in agreement with previous determinations made on much smaller statistics. The differential kinematical variables characterizing the events and the content of strange particles are as expected for the production of charmed hadrons which subsequently decay semi-leptonically. An upper limit of 2.0±10-4 at 90% C.L. is given for the production rate of prompt μ + e + events. No evidence is found for a significant production of Beauty hadrons.

  5. Experimental studies of ions and atoms interaction with insulating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villette, J.

    2000-10-01

    Grazing collisions ( + , Ne + , Ne 0 , Na + on LiF (001) single crystal, an ionic insulator, are investigated by a time of flight technique. The incident beam is chopped and the scattered particles are collected on a position sensitive detector providing differential cross section while the time of flight gives the energy loss. Deflection plates allow the charge state analysis. Secondary electrons are detected in coincidence allowing direct measurements of electron emission yield, angular and energetic distribution through time of flight measurements. The target electronic structure characterized by a large band gap, governs the collisional processes: charge exchange, electronic excitations and electron emission. In particular, these studies show that the population of local target excitations surface excitons is the major contribution to the kinetic energy transfer (stopping power). Auger neutralization of Ne + and He + ions reveals the population of quasi-molecular excitons, an exciton bound on two holes. Referenced in the literature as trion. A direct energy balance determines the binding energy associated with these excited states of the surface. Besides these electronic energy loss processes, two nuclear energy loss mechanisms are characterized. These processes imply momentum transfer to individual target atoms during close binary collisions or, if the projectile is charged, to collective mode of optical phonons induced by the projectile coulomb field. The effect of the temperature on the scattering profile, the contribution of topological surface defects to the energy loss profile and to skipping motion on the surface are analyzed in view of classical trajectory simulations. (author)

  6. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  7. Interactive value-based curriculum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman Peterson, Jill M; Duffy, Briar; Duran, Alisa; Gladding, Sophia P

    2018-03-06

    Current health care costs are unsustainable, with a large percentage of waste attributed to doctor practices. Medical educators are developing curricula to address value-based care (VBC) in education. There is, however, a paucity of curricula and assessments addressing levels higher than 'knows' at the base of Miller's pyramid of assessment. Our objective was to: (1) teach residents the principles of VBC using active learning strategies; and (2) develop and pilot a tool to assess residents' ability to apply principles of VBC at the higher level of 'knows how' on Miller's pyramid. Residents in medicine, medicine-paediatrics and medicine-dermatology participated in a 5-week VBC morning report curriculum using active learning techniques. Early sessions targeted knowledge and later sessions emphasised the application of VBC principles. Medical educators are developing curricula to address value-based care in education RESULTS: Thirty residents attended at least one session and completed both pre- and post-intervention tests, using a newly developed case-based assessment tool featuring a 'waste score' balanced with 'standard of care'. Residents, on average, reduced their waste score from pre-intervention to post-intervention [mean 8.8 (SD 6.3) versus mean 4.7 (SD 4.6), p = 0.001]. For those who reduced their waste score, most maintained or improved their standard of care. Our results suggest that residents may be able to decrease health care waste, with the majority maintaining or improving their management of care in a case-based assessment after participation in the curriculum. We are working to further incorporate VBC principles into more morning reports, and to develop further interventions and assessments to evaluate our residents at higher levels on Miller's pyramid of assessment. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  8. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY FOCUSED ON MOVEMENTS AND INTERACTIONS IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Bae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the interior layout of the workspace can affect employees’ number of steps and face-to-face interactions. Eighteen participants were recruited for the study and the data was collected over ten business days. The participants completed self-report forms to report the number of steps and interactions they had daily. A positive relationship was found between distance and the number of steps and interactions. A negative correlation was found between depth, a construct of the space syntax theory, and the number of steps and interactions. The findings further examined whether the results support a social ecological model with the relationships between distance, depth, the number of steps and interaction, and moderate variables (personal, environmental, and organizational factors. Findings indicated that the number of steps, as a function of human behavior, was affected by distance and depth (as environmental factors, age and years of working (as personal factors, and work hours (as an organizational factor.

  9. The genetic interacting landscape of 63 candidate genes in Major Depressive Disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekman, Magnus; Hössjer, Ola; Andrews, Peter; Källberg, Henrik; Uvehag, Daniel; Charney, Dennis; Manji, Husseini; Rush, John A; McMahon, Francis J; Moore, Jason H; Kockum, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Genetic contributions to major depressive disorder (MDD) are thought to result from multiple genes interacting with each other. Different procedures have been proposed to detect such interactions. Which approach is best for explaining the risk of developing disease is unclear. This study sought to elucidate the genetic interaction landscape in candidate genes for MDD by conducting a SNP-SNP interaction analysis using an exhaustive search through 3,704 SNP-markers in 1,732 cases and 1,783 controls provided from the GAIN MDD study. We used three different methods to detect interactions, two logistic regressions models (multiplicative and additive) and one data mining and machine learning (MDR) approach. Although none of the interaction survived correction for multiple comparisons, the results provide important information for future genetic interaction studies in complex disorders. Among the 0.5% most significant observations, none had been reported previously for risk to MDD. Within this group of interactions, less than 0.03% would have been detectable based on main effect approach or an a priori algorithm. We evaluated correlations among the three different models and conclude that all three algorithms detected the same interactions to a low degree. Although the top interactions had a surprisingly large effect size for MDD (e.g. additive dominant model Puncorrected = 9.10E-9 with attributable proportion (AP) value = 0.58 and multiplicative recessive model with Puncorrected = 6.95E-5 with odds ratio (OR estimated from β3) value = 4.99) the area under the curve (AUC) estimates were low (< 0.54). Moreover, the population attributable fraction (PAF) estimates were also low (< 0.15). We conclude that the top interactions on their own did not explain much of the genetic variance of MDD. The different statistical interaction methods we used in the present study did not identify the same pairs of interacting markers. Genetic interaction studies may uncover previously

  10. A two-hybrid assay to study protein interactions within the secretory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle H Dube

    Full Text Available Interactions of transcriptional activators are difficult to study using transcription-based two-hybrid assays due to potent activation resulting in false positives. Here we report the development of the Golgi two-hybrid (G2H, a method that interrogates protein interactions within the Golgi, where transcriptional activators can be assayed with negligible background. The G2H relies on cell surface glycosylation to report extracellularly on protein-protein interactions occurring within the secretory pathway. In the G2H, protein pairs are fused to modular domains of the reporter glycosyltransferase, Och1p, and proper cell wall formation due to Och1p activity is observed only when a pair of proteins interacts. Cells containing interacting protein pairs are identified by selectable phenotypes associated with Och1p activity and proper cell wall formation: cells that have interacting proteins grow under selective conditions and display weak wheat germ agglutinin (WGA binding by flow cytometry, whereas cells that lack interacting proteins display stunted growth and strong WGA binding. Using this assay, we detected the interaction between transcription factor MyoD and its binding partner Id2. Interfering mutations along the MyoD:Id2 interaction interface ablated signal in the G2H assay. Furthermore, we used the G2H to detect interactions of the activation domain of Gal4p with a variety of binding partners. Finally, selective conditions were used to enrich for cells encoding interacting partners. The G2H detects protein-protein interactions that cannot be identified via traditional two-hybrid methods and should be broadly useful for probing previously inaccessible subsets of the interactome, including transcriptional activators and proteins that traffic through the secretory pathway.

  11. Comparative study on collaborative interaction in non-immersive and immersive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Qonita M.; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Ko, Heedong; Mayangsari, Maria N.; Yamasaki, Shoko; Nishino, Hiroaki

    2007-09-01

    This research studies the Virtual Reality simulation for collaborative interaction so that different people from different places can interact with one object concurrently. Our focus is the real-time handling of inputs from multiple users, where object's behavior is determined by the combination of the multiple inputs. Issues addressed in this research are: 1) The effects of using haptics on a collaborative interaction, 2) The possibilities of collaboration between users from different environments. We conducted user tests on our system in several cases: 1) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over LAN, 2) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over Internet, and 3) Analysis of collaborative interaction between non-immersive and immersive display environments. The case studies are the interaction of users in two cases: collaborative authoring of a 3D model by two users, and collaborative haptic interaction by multiple users. In Virtual Dollhouse, users can observe physics law while constructing a dollhouse using existing building blocks, under gravity effects. In Virtual Stretcher, multiple users can collaborate on moving a stretcher together while feeling each other's haptic motions.

  12. Interactive design for self-study and developing students’ critical thinking skills in electromagnetic radiation topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarwati, D.; Suyatna, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research are to create interactive electronic school books (ESB) for electromagnetic radiation topic that can be used for self-study and increasing students’ critical thinking skills. The research method was based on the design of research and development (R&D) model of ADDIE. The research procedure is used limited the design of the product has been validated. Data source at interactive requirement analysis phase of ESB is student and high school teacher of class XII in Lampung province. The validation of interactive ESB designs is performed by experts in science education. The data of ESB interactive needs were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using quantitative descriptive. The results of the questionnaire obtained by 97% of books that are often used in the form of printed books from schools have not been interactive and foster critical thinking of students, and 55% of students stating physics books are used not meet expectations. Expectations of students in physics learning, teachers must use interactive electronic books. The results of the validation experts pointed out, the design of ESB produced is interactive, can be used for self-study, and increasing students’ critical thinking skills, which contains instruction manuals, learning objectives, learning materials, sample questions and discussion, video illustrations, animations, summaries, as well as interactive quizzes incorporating feedback exam practice and preparation for college entrance.

  13. Molecular interactions in the betaine monohydrate-polyol deep eutectic solvents: Experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza; Yanuar, Arry; Nasikin, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    DES (deep eutectic solvents) are a new class of ionic liquids that have excellent properties. The strength of interaction between molecules in the DES affects their properties and applications. In this work, the strength of molecular interactions between components in the betaine monohydrate salt and polyol (glycerol or/and propylene glycol) eutectic mixtures was studied by experimental and computational studies. The melting point and fusion enthalpy of the mixtures were measured using STA (Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer). The nature and strength of intermolecular interactions were observed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular dynamics simulation was used to determine the number of H-bonds, percent occupancy, and radial distribution functions in the eutectic mixtures. The interaction between betaine monohydrate and polyol is following order: betaine monohydrate-glycerol-propylene glycol > betaine monohydrate-glycerol > betaine monohydrate-propylene glycol, where the latter is the eutectic mixture with the lowest stability, strength and extent of the hydrogen bonding interactions between component molecules. The presence of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding interactions, the inter-molecular hydrogen bonding interactions between betaine molecule and polyol, and also interactions between polyol and H2O of betaine monohydrate in the eutectic mixtures.

  14. Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design studies: Still promising, still hazy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Bart; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; McKenney, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Ormel, B., Pareja, N., & McKenney, S. (2011, 8-10 June). Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design studies: Still promising, still hazy. Paper presentation at the ORD annual meeting, Maastricht.

  15. Effects of film/foil interactions on X-ray image quality - experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.J.; Goos, F.

    1985-01-01

    When assessing the quality of X-ray images, the interaction between film and foil should never be left out of account. Except for the case of green-emitting foils which require green-emitting films, films and foils are normally regarded separately, so that many variations are possible. The authors review the interaction between film and foil under practical aspects. Studies published so far have concentrated either on the amplification factor of foils or an the object imaging characteristics of certain films. Systematic studies on the interaction between film and foil have never been carried out. (orig.) [de

  16. Dynamical interactions between solute and solvent studied by nonlinear infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, K.; Tominaga, K.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between solute and solvent play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics and in many relaxation processes in condensed phases. Recently third-order nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy has shown to be useful to investigate solute-solvent interaction and dynamics of the vibrational transition. These studies provide detailed information on the energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited state, and the time scale and the magnitude of the time correlation functions of the vibrational frequency fluctuations. In this work we have studied vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of solutions and molecular complexes by nonlinear IR spectroscopy, especially IR pump-probe method, to understand the microscopic interactions in liquids. (authors)

  17. A molecular dynamics study on the interaction between epoxy and functionalized graphene sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melro, Liliana Sofia S. F. P.; Pyrz, Ryszard; Jensen, Lars Rosgaard

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between graphene and epoxy resin was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The interfacial shear strength and pull out force were calculated for functionalised graphene layers (carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl) and epoxy composites interfaces. The influence of functional...... groups, as well as their distribution and coverage density on the graphene sheets were also analysed through the determination of the Young's modulus. Functionalisation proved to be detrimental to the mechanical properties, nonetheless according to interfacial studies the interaction between graphene...

  18. Single camera analyses in studying pattern forming dynamics of player interactions in team sports.

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandes, Orlando; Folgado, Hugo; Araújo, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A network of patterned interactions between players characterises team ball sports. Thus, interpersonal coordination patterns are an important topic in the study of performance in such sports. A very useful method has been the study of inter-individual interactions captured by a single camera filming an extended performance area. The appropriate collection of positional data allows investigating the pattern forming dynamics emerging in different performance sub-phases of team ball sports. Thi...

  19. Molecular Interaction Study of some ortho and para Substituted Anilines with 1-Octanol

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha, M. S.; Sannappa, J.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between ortho and para substituents of anilines such as chloroaniline, methylaniline and methoxyaniline with 1-octanol have been studied in carbon tetrachloride. The most likely association of complex between 1-octanol and substituents of anilines is 1:1 stoichiometric complex, through hydroxyl group of 1-octanol and amine group of ortho and para substituents of anilines. Interactions are studied on the bases of formation constant and free energy changes. Formation constant of...

  20. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0175 TITLE: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions PRINCIPAL...Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0175 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...genetic diversity in the population, in hospitalized children with severe dengue illness and cluster investigation of their neighborhoods, and by using

  1. In Silico Studies of Mammalian δ-ALAD Interactions with Selenides and Selenoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei Nogara, Pablo; Batista Teixeira Rocha, João

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the mammalian δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) is inhibited by selenides and selenoxides, which can involve thiol oxidation. However, the precise molecular interaction of selenides and selenoxides with the active center of the enzyme is unknown. Here, we try to explain the interaction of selenides and the respective selenoxides with human δ-ALAD by in silico molecular docking. The in silico data indicated that Se atoms of selenoxides have higher electrophilic character than their respective selenides. Further, the presence of oxygen increased the interaction of selenoxides with the δ-ALAD active site by O…Zn coordination. The interaction of S atom from Cys124 with the Se atom indicated the importance of the nucleophilic attack of the enzyme thiolate to the organoselenium molecules. These observations help us to understand the interaction of target proteins with organoselenium compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.K. Manning (Alisa); H. Aschard (Hugues); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); M.R. Brown; A.C. Morrison (Alanna); M. Fornage (Myriam); L.-A. Lin (Li-An); Richard, M. (Melissa); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); C. Hayward (Caroline); O. Polasek (Ozren); J. Marten (Jonathan); I. Rudan (Igor); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Kraja (Aldi); M.A. Province (Mike); Deng, X. (Xuan); Fisher, V.A. (Virginia A.); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); B.H. Smith (Blair); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); Y. Liu (YongMei); Lohman, K. (Kurt); C. Bouchard (Claude); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); Rice, T.K. (Treva K.); D.K. Arnett (Donna); K. Schwander; X. Guo (Xiuqing); W. Palmas (Walter); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); Alfred, T. (Tamuno); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); N. Amin (Najaf); O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D. Vojinovic (Dina); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); P.M. Ridker (Paul); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); X. Zhu (Xiaofeng); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Gauderman, W.J. (W. James); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStudying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions

  3. A simulation study on estimating biomarker-treatment interaction effects in randomized trials with prognostic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bernhard; Ulm, Kurt

    2018-02-20

    To individualize treatment decisions based on patient characteristics, identification of an interaction between a biomarker and treatment is necessary. Often such potential interactions are analysed using data from randomized clinical trials intended for comparison of two treatments. Tests of interactions are often lacking statistical power and we investigated if and how a consideration of further prognostic variables can improve power and decrease the bias of estimated biomarker-treatment interactions in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes. A simulation study was performed to assess how prognostic factors affect the estimate of the biomarker-treatment interaction for a time-to-event outcome, when different approaches, like ignoring other prognostic factors, including all available covariates or using variable selection strategies, are applied. Different scenarios regarding the proportion of censored observations, the correlation structure between the covariate of interest and further potential prognostic variables, and the strength of the interaction were considered. The simulation study revealed that in a regression model for estimating a biomarker-treatment interaction, the probability of detecting a biomarker-treatment interaction can be increased by including prognostic variables that are associated with the outcome, and that the interaction estimate is biased when relevant prognostic variables are not considered. However, the probability of a false-positive finding increases if too many potential predictors are included or if variable selection is performed inadequately. We recommend undertaking an adequate literature search before data analysis to derive information about potential prognostic variables and to gain power for detecting true interaction effects and pre-specifying analyses to avoid selective reporting and increased false-positive rates.

  4. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using ethnomethod...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected.......This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...

  5. Mutual influence between triel bond and cation-π interactions: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Mousavian, Parisasadat

    2017-12-01

    Using ab initio calculations, the cooperative and solvent effects on cation-π and B...N interactions are studied in some model ternary complexes, where these interactions coexist. The nature of the interactions and the mechanism of cooperativity are investigated by means of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), noncovalent interaction (NCI) index and natural bond orbital analysis. The results indicate that all cation-π and B...N binding distances in the ternary complexes are shorter than those of corresponding binary systems. The QTAIM analysis reveals that ternary complexes have higher electron density at their bond critical points relative to the corresponding binary complexes. In addition, according to the QTAIM analysis, the formation of cation-π interaction increases covalency of B...N bonds. The NCI analysis indicates that the cooperative effects in the ternary complexes make a shift in the location of the spike associated with each interaction, which can be regarded as an evidence for the reinforcement of both cation-π and B...N interactions in these systems. Solvent effects on the cooperativity of cation-π and B...N interactions are also investigated.

  6. Network graph analysis of gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungyoung; Kwon, Min-Seok; Park, Taesung

    2012-12-01

    Most common complex traits, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cancers, are known to be associated with multiple genes, environmental factors, and their epistasis. Recently, the development of advanced genotyping technologies has allowed us to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs). For detecting the effects of multiple genes on complex traits, many approaches have been proposed for GWASs. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is one of the powerful and efficient methods for detecting high-order gene-gene (GxG) interactions. However, the biological interpretation of GxG interactions identified by MDR analysis is not easy. In order to aid the interpretation of MDR results, we propose a network graph analysis to elucidate the meaning of identified GxG interactions. The proposed network graph analysis consists of three steps. The first step is for performing GxG interaction analysis using MDR analysis. The second step is to draw the network graph using the MDR result. The third step is to provide biological evidence of the identified GxG interaction using external biological databases. The proposed method was applied to Korean Association Resource (KARE) data, containing 8838 individuals with 327,632 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in order to perform GxG interaction analysis of body mass index (BMI). Our network graph analysis successfully showed that many identified GxG interactions have known biological evidence related to BMI. We expect that our network graph analysis will be helpful to interpret the biological meaning of GxG interactions.

  7. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2017-01-01

    The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions. PMID:28611815

  8. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs, and chlorogenic acid (CGA, on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of the strong interaction between wakes of cylindrical obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of thermal-hydraulics of nuclear reactors, strong interaction between wakes is encountered in the bottom of reactor vessels where control and measurement rods of variable size and disposition interact with the overall wakes generated in these flow zones. This study deals with the strong interaction between two wakes developed downstream of two parallel cylinders with a small spacing. The analysis focusses on the effect of the Reynolds regime which controls the equilibrium between the inertia and viscosity forces of the fluid and influences the large scale behaviour of the flow with the development of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence. The document is organized as follows: the characteristic phenomena of wakes formation downstream of cylindrical obstacles are recalled in the first chapter (single cylinder, interaction between two tubes, case of a bundle of tubes perpendicular to the flow). The experimental setup (hydraulic loop, velocity and pressure measurement instrumentation) and the statistical procedures applied to the signals measured are detailed in chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 4 is devoted to the experimental study of the strong interaction between two tubes. Laser Doppler velocity measurements in the wakes close to cylinders and pressure measurements performed on tube walls are reported in this chapter. In chapter 5, a 2-D numerical simulation of two typical cases of interaction (Re = 1000 and Re = 5000) is performed. In the last chapter, a more complex application of strong interactions inside and downstream of a bunch of staggered tubes is analyzed experimentally for equivalent Reynolds regimes. (J.S.)

  10. A computational study of anion-modulated cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2012-05-24

    The interaction of anions with cation-π complexes formed by the guanidinium cation and benzene was thoroughly studied by means of computational methods. Potential energy surface scans were performed in order to evaluate the effect of the anion coming closer to the cation-π pair. Several structures of guanidinium-benzene complexes and anion approaching directions were examined. Supermolecule calculations were performed on ternary complexes formed by guanidinium, benzene, and one anion and the interaction energy was decomposed into its different two- and three-body contributions. The interaction energies were further dissected into their electrostatic, exchange, repulsion, polarization and dispersion contributions by means of local molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis. The results confirm that, besides the electrostatic cation-anion attraction, the effect of the anion over the cation-π interaction is mainly due to polarization and can be rationalized following the changes in the anion-π and the nonadditive (three-body) terms of the interaction. When the cation and the anion are on the same side of the π system, the three-body interaction is anticooperative, but when the anion and the cation are on opposite sides of the π system, the three-body interaction is cooperative. As far as we know, this is the first study where this kind of analysis is carried out with a structured cation as guanidinium with a significant biological interest.

  11. Study of interactions between hyaluronan and cationic surfactants by means of calorimetry, turbidimetry, potentiometry and conductometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouská, J; Pekař, M; Klučáková, M; Šarac, B; Bešter-Rogač, M

    2017-02-10

    The thermodynamics of the micelle formation of the cationic surfactants tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with and without the addition of hyaluronan of two molecular weights was studied in aqueous solution by titration calorimetry. Macroscopic phase separation, which was detected by calorimetry and also by conductometry, occurs when charges on the surfactant and hyaluronan are balanced. In contrast, turbidimetry and potentiometry showed hyaluronan-surfactant interactions at very low surfactant concentrations. The observed differences between systems prepared with CTAB and TTAB indicate that besides the electrostatic interactions, which probably predominate, hydrophobic effects also play a significant role in hyaluronan interactions with cationic surfactants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. STUDY OF INTERACTION OF DRUGS WITH BODY-ALIKE MACROMOLECULE (POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE BY ULTRA VIOLET SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHTAR SAEED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-visible spectrophotometric technique was used to study the interaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP with co-solutes: phenol, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, salicylic acid and acetyl salicylic acid in aqueous medium. Changes in the absorption spectra of the co-solutes were observed in the presence of PVP from 200 to 210 nm. The changes were attributed to interaction of PVP molecules with the co-solute molecules. As the concentration of the co-solute increased, a red shift in the bands was observed indicating an increase in interaction between PVP and the co-solute.

  13. Effect of cognitive biases on human-robot interaction: a case study of robot's misattribution

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mriganka; Murray, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for developing long-term human-robot interactions and social relationships based on the principle of 'human' cognitive biases applied to a robot. The aim of this work is to study how a robot influenced with human ‘misattribution’ helps to build better human-robot interactions than unbiased robots. The results presented in this paper suggest that it is important to know the effect of cognitive biases in human characteristics and interactions in order to better u...

  14. Structural Analysis of DNA Interactions with Magnesium Ion Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ponkumar; P. Duraisamy; N. Iyandurai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the present study, FT Raman spectroscopy had been used to extend our knowledge about Magnesium ion - DNA interactions at various volume ratios (1:50, 1:20, 1:10 and 1:5). Approach: The analysis of FT Raman data supported the existence of structural specificities in the interaction and also the stability of DNA secondary structure. Results: Results from the Raman spectra clearly indicate that the interaction of Magnesium ion with DNA is mainly through the phosphate groups...

  15. Study of the Hyperon-Nucleon Interaction in Exclusive Λ Photoproduction off the Deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Nicholas; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the nature of the nuclear force in terms of the fundamental degrees of freedom of the theory of strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is one of the primary goals of modern nuclear physics. While the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction has been studied for decades, a systematic description of the NN potential has been achieved only recently with the development of low-energy Effective Field Theories (EFT). To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the strong interaction, dynamics involving strange baryons must be studied. Currently, little is known about the properties of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) and the hyperon-hyperon (YY) interactions. In this talk I will describe our current research of the Λn interaction using the E06-103 experiment performed with the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The large kinematic coverage of the CLAS combined with the exceptionally high quality of the experimental data allows to identify and select final-state interaction events in the reaction γd -->K+ Λn and to establish their kinematical dependencies. The large set of observables we aim to obtain will provide tight constraints on modern YN potentials. I will present the current status of the project and will discuss future incentives. Understanding the nature of the nuclear force in terms of the fundamental degrees of freedom of the theory of strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is one of the primary goals of modern nuclear physics. While the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction has been studied for decades, a systematic description of the NN potential has been achieved only recently with the development of low-energy Effective Field Theories (EFT). To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the strong interaction, dynamics involving strange baryons must be studied. Currently, little is known about the properties of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) and the hyperon-hyperon (YY) interactions. In this talk I will describe our current research of the

  16. Fuel-Coolant Interactions - some Basic Studies at the UKAEA Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.A.; Dullforce, T.A.; Peckover, R.S.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    In a hypothetical fault sequence important effects of fuel-coolant interactions include voiding and dispersion of core debris as well as the pressure damage usually discussed. The development of the fuel-coolant interaction probably depends on any pre-mixing Weber break-up that may occur, and is therefore a function of the way the fuel and coolant come together. Four contact modes are identified: jetting, shock tube, drops and static, and Culham's experiments have been mainly concerned with simulating the falling drop mode by using molten tin in water. It was observed that the fuel-coolant interaction is a short series of violent coolant oscillations centred at a localized position on the drop, generating a spray of submillimeter sized debris. The interaction started spontaneously at a specific time after the drop first contacted the water. There was a definite limited fuel-coolant interaction zone on a plot of initial coolant temperature versus initial fuel temperature outside which interactions never occurred. The. interaction time was a function of the initial temperatures. Theoretical scaling formulae are given which describe the fuel-coolant interaction zone and dwell time. Bounds of fuel and coolant temperature below which fuel-coolant interactions do not occur are explained by freezing. Upper bounds of fuel and coolant temperatures above which there were no fuel-coolant interactions are interpreted in terms of heat transfer through vapour films of various thicknesses. In conclusion: We have considered the effects of fuel-coolant interactions in a hypothetical fault sequence, emphasising that debris and vapour production as well as the pressure pulse can be important factors. The fuel-coolant interaction has been classified into types, according to possible modes of mixing in the fault sequence. Culham has been studying one type, the self-triggering of falling drops, by simulant experiments. It is found that there is a definite zone of interaction on a plot

  17. Studies of the role of molten materials in interactions with UO2 and graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Heiberger, J.J.; Leibowitz, L.

    1979-01-01

    Graphite, which is being considered as a lower reactor shield in gas-cooled fast reactors, would be contacted by core debris during a core disruptive accident. Information on the interaction of graphite, UO 2 , and stainless steel is needed in assessing the safety of the GCFR. In an ongoing study of the interaction of graphite, UO 2 , and stainless steel, the effects of the steel components have been investigated by electron microprobe scans, x-ray diffraction, and reaction-rate measurements. Experiments to study the role of the reaction product, FeUC 2 , in the interaction suggested that FeUC 2 promotes the interaction by acting as a carrier to bring graphite to the reaction site. Additional experiments using pyrolytic graphite show that while the reaction rate is decreased at 2400 K, at higher temperatures the rate is similar to that using other grades of graphite

  18. Fluorescence spectral studies on interaction of fluorescent probes with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kaushik, E-mail: ghoshfcy@iitr.ac.in; Rathi, Sweety; Arora, Deepshikha

    2016-07-15

    Interaction of 2-(1-(naphthale-1-ylimino)ethyl)phenol (1), 2-methoxy-4-(((4-methoxyphenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (2) and 2-methoxy-4-((naphthalene-1-ylimino)methyl)phenol (3) with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was examined. Fluorescence spectral data were obtained from the probes by varying the concentration of BSA as well as from BSA by varying the concentration of probes. Synchronous fluorescence measurements were performed and binding constants of the probes were calculated. To understand mode of quenching, Stern–Volmer plot, absorption spectral studies and life time measurements were performed. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was also scrutinized. - Highlights: • Schiff bases with pendant phenolato function and interaction with BSA. • Synchronous fluorescence studies and a preferred interaction with tryptophan. • Probable interaction of probes with Trp-213 residue in the hydrophobic cavity. • 1:1 binding stoichiometry of probes and BSA in Benesi–Hildebrand graph.

  19. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second...

  20. A sensitivity study of seismic structure-soil-structure interaction problems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.; Magiera, G.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitivity study for the interaction effects of adjacent structures of nuclear power plants caused by horizontal seismic excitation has been performed. The key structural and soil parameters for linear and for nonlinear behaviour were varied within their applicable bandwidth. It has been shown that the interaction phenomena can contribute to the response of structures to such a large extent that it cannot be disregarded. (orig.)

  1. Matrix isolation study of the interaction between water and the aromatic π-electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, A.; Nelander, B.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of water (H 2 O, D 2 O, HDO) with toluene, the xylenes, pseudocumene, mesitylene, pentamethylbenzene, and hexamethylbenzene in argon matrices has been studied with infrared spectroscopy. Interaction energy estimates are given. The shapes of the observed absorption bands suggest that water executes a complicated motion relative to the ring plane of the aromatic hydrocarbon. The infrared spectrum of the benzene-water complex has been recorded as a function of temperature in argon, krypton, and nitrogen matrices

  2. Development of a chemically defined medium for studying foodborne bacterial-fungal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2015-01-01

    judged by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed. The medium supported growth of antifungal cultures such as Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii, as well as spoilage moulds and yeasts isolated from...... fermented milk products. Both strong and weak antifungal interactions observed in milk could be reproduced in CDIM. The medium seems suitable for studying antifungal activity of bacterial cultures....

  3. Interactive Effect of Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance Causal Circular Studies on Sharia Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaulan; Noor; wildan

    2017-01-01

    Research aims to confirm and test the interactive effect of motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance. This study applied to employees of Sharia Financial Institutions in Jakarta. The number of respondents is 70 employees with randomly selected samples stratified. Research analysis data using multiple indicators within analyzed using structural equation model. The results showed that there was a positive interactive effect motivation on job performance and job performance on motivatio...

  4. Thermodynamic Study of the Interaction of Bovine Serum Albumin and Amino Acids with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Salvatore; Eyley, Sam; Schütz, Christina; Van Gorp, Hans; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Van den Mooter, Guy; Thielemans, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with sulfated, carboxylated, and pyridinium-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was studied as a function of the degree of substitution by determining the adsorption isotherm and by directly measuring the thermodynamics of interaction. The adsorption of BSA onto positively charged pyridinium-grafted cellulose nanocrystals followed Langmuirian adsorption with the maximum amount of adsorbed protein increasing linearly with increasing degree of sub...

  5. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  6. Electrochemical Studies of Camptothecin and Its Interaction with Human Serum Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Xing, Wei; Huang, Junyi; Li, Genxi

    2007-01-01

    Camptothecin, an anticancer component from Camptotheca acuminate, may interact with human serum albumin (HSA) at the subdomain IIA (site I), and then convert to its inactive form(carboxylate form). In this paper, the detailed electrochemical behaviors of camptothecin at a pyrolytic graphite electrode is presented. The interaction between camptothecin and HSA is also studied by electrochemical technique. By comparing with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is highly homologous to HSA, we prove ...

  7. Study by nuclear techniques of the impurity-defect interaction in implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, Lionel.

    1978-01-01

    The properties of out equilibrium alloys formed by impurity implantation are strongly influenced by radiation damage created during implantation. This work presents a study, via hyperfine interaction and lattice location experiments, of the impurity-defect interaction in ion implanted metals. When the impurity and defect concentrations in the implanted layer are small, i.e. when impurities are uniformly recoil implanted in the whole crystal volume following a nuclear reaction (Aq In experiments), the impurity interacts with its own damage cascade. In this case, a vacancy is found to be trapped by a fraction of impurities during an athermal process. The value of this fraction does not seem to depend critically on impurity and host. When the impurity and defect concentrations are such that defect cascades interact, i.e. when impurities are implanted with an isotope separator (Fe Yb experiments), the observed impurity-vacancy (or vacancy cluster) interactions depend then strongly on the nature of impurity and host. An empirical relation, which indicates the importance of elastic effects, has been found between the proportion of impurities interacting with defects and the difference between impurity and host atom radii. At implantation temperature such that vacancies are mobile, the impurity-defect interaction depends essentially on vacancy migration. A model based on chemical kinetics has been developed to account for the variation with temperature of measured quantities [fr

  8. Selection of organisms for the co-evolution-based study of protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Dorota; Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Lopez, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2011-09-12

    The prediction and study of protein interactions and functional relationships based on similarity of phylogenetic trees, exemplified by the mirrortree and related methodologies, is being widely used. Although dependence between the performance of these methods and the set of organisms used to build the trees was suspected, so far nobody assessed it in an exhaustive way, and, in general, previous works used as many organisms as possible. In this work we asses the effect of using different sets of organism (chosen according with various phylogenetic criteria) on the performance of this methodology in detecting protein interactions of different nature. We show that the performance of three mirrortree-related methodologies depends on the set of organisms used for building the trees, and it is not always directly related to the number of organisms in a simple way. Certain subsets of organisms seem to be more suitable for the predictions of certain types of interactions. This relationship between type of interaction and optimal set of organism for detecting them makes sense in the light of the phylogenetic distribution of the organisms and the nature of the interactions. In order to obtain an optimal performance when predicting protein interactions, it is recommended to use different sets of organisms depending on the available computational resources and data, as well as the type of interactions of interest.

  9. Social consequences of subclinical negative symptoms: An EMG study of facial expressions within a social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Marcel; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to lower social functioning even in non-clinical samples, but little is known about the distinct social consequences of motivational and expressive negative symptoms. In this study we focused on expressive negative symptoms and examined how these symptoms and varying degrees of pro-social facial expressiveness (smiling and mimicry of smiling) relate to the social evaluations by face-to-face interaction partners and to social support. We examined 30 dyadic interactions within a sample of non-clinical participants (N = 60) who were rated on motivational and expressive negative symptoms with the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). We collected data on both interaction partners' smiling-muscle (zygomaticus major) activation simultaneously with electromyography and assessed the general amount of smiling and the synchrony of smiling muscle activations between interaction partners (mimicry of smiling). Interaction partners rated their willingness for future interactions with each other after the interactions. Interaction partners of participants scoring higher on expressive negative symptoms expressed less willingness for future interactions with these participants (r = -0.37; p = 0.01). Smiling behavior was negatively related to expressive negative symptoms but also explained by motivational negative symptoms. Mimicry of smiling and both negative symptom domains were also associated with participants' satisfaction with their social support network. Non-clinical sample with (relatively) low levels of symptoms. Expressive negative symptoms have tangible negative interpersonal consequences and directly relate to diminished pro-social behavior and social support, even in non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution to the study of the thermal interaction between uranium oxide and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental results of the fuel-coolant interactions carried out in the CORECT II device at the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre. A description is then given of a theoretical model of interaction which comprises three points: first a study of the coolant, that is to say of its hydrodynamic and thermodynamic behaviour, then the study of the fuel, namely the phenomena of fragmentation and heat transfer between the fuel and the coolant, and last the treatment of heat leaks to the structures. A study follows on the effect of the various parameters on the theoretical model as well as the effects of the assumptions on the fragmentation, transfer and losses of heat. Last, the interpretations of a few experiments carried out with two models of fragmentation are described. A discussion of these interpretations enables some generalizations to be made on the nature of the thermal interaction [fr

  11. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  12. Density functional study of molecular interactions in secondary structures of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yu; Kusaka, Ayumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play diverse and vital roles in biology, which are dominated by their three-dimensional structures. The three-dimensional structure of a protein determines its functions and chemical properties. Protein secondary structures, including α-helices and β-sheets, are key components of the protein architecture. Molecular interactions, in particular hydrogen bonds, play significant roles in the formation of protein secondary structures. Precise and quantitative estimations of these interactions are required to understand the principles underlying the formation of three-dimensional protein structures. In the present study, we have investigated the molecular interactions in α-helices and β-sheets, using ab initio wave function-based methods, the Hartree-Fock method (HF) and the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), density functional theory, and molecular mechanics. The characteristic interactions essential for forming the secondary structures are discussed quantitatively.

  13. Study of the chemical interactions of actinide cations in solution at macroscopic concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, C.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interactions of pentavalent neptunium in dodecane-diluted tributyl phosphate with other metallic cations, especially uranium VI and ruthenium present in reprocessing solutions. Pentavalent neptunium on its own was shown to exist in several forms complexed by water and TBP and also to dimerise. In the complex it forms with uranium VI the interaction via the neptunyl oxygen is considerably enhanced in organic solution. Dibutyl phosphoric acid strengthens the interaction between neptunium and uranium. The Np V-ruthenium interaction reveals the existence of a new cation-cation complex; the process takes place in two successive stage and leads to the formation, reinforced and accelerated by HDBP, of a highly to the formation, reinforced and accelerated by HDBP, of a highly stable complex. These results contribute towards a better knowledge of the behaviour of neptunium in the reprocessing operation [fr

  14. Theoretical Study on Interactions between N-Butylpyridinium Nitrate and Thiophenic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Renqing; Wang, Shutao; Lu, Yukun; Liu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    By using density functional theory calculations, we have performed a systemic study on the electronic structures and topological properties of interactions between N-butylpyridinium nitrate ([BPY] + [NO 3 ] - ) and thiophene (TS), benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), naphthalene (NAP). The most stable structure of [BPY] + [NO 3 ] - ion pair indicates that hydrogen bonding interactions between oxygen atoms on [NO 3 ] - anion and C2-H2 on pyridinium ring play a dominating role in the formation of ion pair. The occurrence of hydrogen bonding, π···H-C, and π···π interactions between [BPY] + [NO 3 ] - and TS, BT, DBT, NAP has been corroborated at the molecular level. But hydrogen bonding and π···π interactions between [BPY] + [NO 3 ] - and NAP are weak in terms of structural properties and NBO, AIM analyses. DBT is prior to adsorption on N-butylpyridinium nitrate ionic liquid

  15. A theoretical study of interaction effects on the remanence curves of particulate dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, M.; Chantrell, R. W.; Wohlfarth, E. P.

    1990-05-01

    The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems are investigated theoretically. It is shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs. the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot is found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is also investigated. The results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally, the effect of interactions on the Switching Field Distribution are investigated.

  16. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  17. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  18. Incorporating information on predicted solvent accessibility to the co-evolution-based study of protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2013-01-27

    A widespread family of methods for studying and predicting protein interactions using sequence information is based on co-evolution, quantified as similarity of phylogenetic trees. Part of the co-evolution observed between interacting proteins could be due to co-adaptation caused by inter-protein contacts. In this case, the co-evolution is expected to be more evident when evaluated on the surface of the proteins or the internal layers close to it. In this work we study the effect of incorporating information on predicted solvent accessibility to three methods for predicting protein interactions based on similarity of phylogenetic trees. We evaluate the performance of these methods in predicting different types of protein associations when trees based on positions with different characteristics of predicted accessibility are used as input. We found that predicted accessibility improves the results of two recent versions of the mirrortree methodology in predicting direct binary physical interactions, while it neither improves these methods, nor the original mirrortree method, in predicting other types of interactions. That improvement comes at no cost in terms of applicability since accessibility can be predicted for any sequence. We also found that predictions of protein-protein interactions are improved when multiple sequence alignments with a richer representation of sequences (including paralogs) are incorporated in the accessibility prediction.

  19. Social interaction in management group meetings: a case study of Finnish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laapotti, Tomi; Mikkola, Leena

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of management group meetings (MGMs) in hospital organization by examining the social interaction in these meetings. Design/methodology/approach - This case study approaches social interaction from a structuration point of view. Social network analysis and qualitative content analysis are applied. Findings - The findings show that MGMs are mainly forums for information sharing. Meetings are not held for problem solving or decision making, and operational coordinating is limited. Meeting interaction is very much focused on the chair, and most of the discussion takes place between the chair and one other member, not between members. The organizational structures are maintained and reproduced in the meeting interaction, and they appear to limit discussion. Meetings appear to fulfil their goals as a part of the organization's information structure and to some extent as an instrument for management. The significance of the relational side of MGMs was recognized. Research limitations/implications - The results of this study provide a basis for future research on hospital MGMs with wider datasets and other methodologies. Especially the relational role of MGMs needs more attention. Practical implications - The goals of MGMs should be reviewed and MG members should be made aware of meeting interaction structures. Originality/value - The paper provides new knowledge about interaction networks in hospital MGMs, and describes the complexity of the importance of MGMs for hospitals.

  20. Interaction of norfloxacin with bovine serum albumin studied by different spectrometric methods; displacement studies, molecular modeling and chemometrics approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, Abdolhossein, E-mail: a_naseri@tabrizu.ac.ir [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Soheila [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakery, Maryam; Khayamian, Taghi [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Serum albumins as major target proteins can bind to other ligands leading to alteration of their pharmacological properties. The mechanism of interaction between norfloxacin (NFLX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. Fuorescence quenching of serum albumin by this drug was found to be a static quenching process. The binding sites number, n, apparent binding constant, K, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated at different temperatures. The distance, r, between donor, BSA, and acceptor, NFLX, was calculated according to the Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. Also binding characteristics of NFLX with BSA together with its displacement from its binding site by kanamycin and effect of common metal ions on binding constant were investigated by the spectroscopic methods. The conformational change in the secondary structure of BSA upon interaction with NFLX was investigated qualitatively from synchronous fluorescence spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectrometric methods. Molecular docking studies were performed to obtain information on the possible residues involved in the interaction process and changes in accessible surface area of the interacting residues. The results showed that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of NFLX. For the first time, displacement studies were used for this interaction; displacement studies showed that NFLX was displaced by phenylbutazon and ketoprofen but was not displaced by ibuprofen indicating that the binding site of NFLX on albumin was site I. In addition a powerful chemometrics method, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square, was used for resolution of spectroscopic augmented data obtained in two different titration modes in order to extract spectral information regardless of spectral overlapping of components. - Highlights: • Interaction between norfloxacin and BSA is studied by spectral methods. • Chemometrics methods are used to

  1. Comparative analysis of three drug-drug interaction screening systems against probable clinically relevant drug-drug interactions: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhič, Neža; Mrhar, Ales; Brvar, Miran

    2017-07-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening systems report potential DDIs. This study aimed to find the prevalence of probable DDI-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and compare the clinical usefulness of different DDI screening systems to prevent or warn against these ADRs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients urgently admitted to medical departments. Potential DDIs were checked using Complete Drug Interaction®, Lexicomp® Online™, and Drug Interaction Checker®. The study team identified the patients with probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs on admission, the causality of which was assessed using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening systems to prevent or warn against probable DDI-related ADRs were evaluated. Overall, 50 probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs were found in 37 out of 795 included patients taking at least two drugs, most common of them were bleeding, hyperkalemia, digitalis toxicity, and hypotension. Complete Drug Interaction showed the best sensitivity (0.76) for actual DDI-related ADRs, followed by Lexicomp Online (0.50), and Drug Interaction Checker (0.40). Complete Drug Interaction and Drug Interaction Checker had positive predictive values of 0.07; Lexicomp Online had 0.04. We found no difference in specificity and negative predictive values among these systems. DDI screening systems differ significantly in their ability to detect probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value.

  2. Interaction and dynamics of homologous pairing protein 2 (HOP2) and DNA studied by MD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Pezza, Roberto; Zhou, Donghua

    2015-03-01

    The homologous pairing protein 2 (Hop2) plays an important role in meiosis and DNA repair. Together with protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. We recently determined the NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of Hop2 and proposed a model of Protein-DNA complex based on NMR chemical shift perturbations and mutagenesis studies (Moktan, J Biol Chem 2014 10.1074/jbc.M114.548180). However structure and dynamics of the complex have not been studied at the atomic level yet. Here, we used classical MD simulations to study the interactions between the N-terminal HOP2 and DNA. The simulated results indicate that helix3 (H3) interacts with DNA in major groove and wing1 (W1) interacts mostly in minor groove mainly via direct hydrogen bonds. Also it is found that binding leads to reduced fluctuations in both protein and DNA. Several water bridge interactions have been identified. The residue-wise contributions to the interaction energy were evaluated. Also the functional motion of the protein is analyzed using principal component analysis. The results confirmed the importance of H3 and W1 for the stability of the complex, which is consistent with our previous experimental studies.

  3. A Case Study: Implementing an Interactive Video Instruction System in Teaching Electronics and Industrial Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipe, Ron; And Others

    A study examined the development and implementation of an interactive video instruction system for teaching electronics and industrial maintenance at the University of Tennessee. The specific purposes of the study were to document unusual problems that may be encountered when this new technology is implemented, suggest corrective actions, and…

  4. Studies on the interaction of riboflavin 5'-phosphate with proteins with special attention to bacterial bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, R.

    1978-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interaction of FMN with proteins. For one of the proteins studied, the enzyme luciferase from bacteria, further investigations were done on the process of light emission.
    In chapter 2 and 3 studies are reported on the binding of FMN with relatively

  5. Effects of Mobile Apps for Nursing Students: Learning Motivation, Social Interaction and Study Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kam Cheong; Lee, Linda Yin-King; Wong, Suet-Lai; Yau, Ivy Sui-Yu; Wong, Billy Tak-Ming

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mobile apps on the learning motivation, social interaction and study performance of nursing students. A total of 20 students participated in focus group interviews to collect feedback on their use of mobile apps for learning and communicative activities. Two consecutive cohorts of students in a nursing programme,…

  6. Towards culture-specific robot customization : a study on greeting interaction with Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovato, G.; Zecca, M.; Sessa, S.; Jamone, L.; Ham, J.R.C.; Hashimoto, K.; Takanishi, A.

    2014-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between national cultural background and interaction with robots, and many earlier studies have investigated how people from different cultures perceive the inclusion of robots into society. Conversely, very few studies have investigated how robots, speaking and using

  7. Drug-drug interactions in patients treated for cancer : a prospective study on clinical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R. W. F.; Jansman, F. G. A.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; de Man, F.; Piran, F.; Vincenten, I.; Jager, A.; Rijneveld, A. W.; Brugma, J. D.; Mathijssen, R. H. J.; van Gelder, T.

    Background: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are of major concern in oncology, since cancer patients typically take many concomitant medications. Retrospective studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of DDIs. However, prospective studies on DDIs needing interventions in cancer patients

  8. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Børglum; D. Demontis; J. Grove (Jakob); J. Pallesen (J.); M.V. Hollegaard (Mads V); C.B. Pedersen (C.); A. Hedemand (A.); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Nyegaard (M.); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); C. Wiuf (Carsten); M. Didriksen (Michael); M. Nordentoft (M.); M.M. Nö then (M.); M. Rietschel (Marcella); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); S. Cichon (Sven); R.H. Yolken (Robert); D.M. Hougaard (David); P.B. Mortensen; O. Mors

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all

  9. Study of plasma formation in CW CO2 laser beam-metal surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Vasilchenko, Zh V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Gresev, A. N.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    An interaction of the cw CO2 laser beam and a moving metal surface has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamical parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopical methods. The subsonic radiation wave propagation in the erosion plasma torch has been studied.

  10. Structural study and investigation of NMR tensors in interaction of dopamine with Adenine and guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjia Xu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dopamine with adenine and guanine were studied at the Hartree-Fock level theory. The structural and vibrational properties of dopamine-4-N7GUA and dopamine-4-N3ADE were studied at level of HF/6-31G*. Interaction energies (ΔE were calculated to be -11.49 and -11.92 kcal/mol, respectively. Some of bond lengths, angels and tortions are compared. NBO studies were performed to the second-order and perturbative estimates of donor-acceptor interaction have been done. The procedures of gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO and continuous-set-of-gauge-transformation (CSGT were employed to calculate isotropic shielding, chemical shifts anisotropy and chemical shifts anisotropy asymmetry and effective anisotropy using 6-31G* basis set. These calculations yielded molecular geometries in good agreement with available experimental data.

  11. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  12. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P. [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-03-15

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r{sub 0}) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R{sub 0}) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  13. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P.; Renganathan, R.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r 0 ) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  14. Interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and western drugs in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan Chen; Lu, Richard; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Ko-Ching; Chen, Bi-Li; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Huang, Chih-Wei; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan; Tsai, Shin-Han

    2015-12-01

    Drug-drug interactions have long been an active research area in clinical medicine. In Taiwan, however, the widespread use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) presents additional complexity to the topic. Therefore, it is important to see the interaction between traditional Chinese and western medicine. (1) To create a comprehensive database of multi-herb/western drug interactions indexed according to the ways in which physicians actually practice and (2) to measure this database's impact on the detection of adverse effects between traditional Chinese medicine compounds and western medicines. First, a multi-herb/western medicine drug interactions database was created by separating each TCM compound into its constituent herbs. Each individual herb was then checked against an existing single-herb/western drug interactions database. The data source comes from the National Health Insurance research database, which spans the years 1998-2011. This study estimated the interaction prevalence rate and further separated the rates according to patient characteristics, distribution by county, and hospital accreditation levels. Finally, this new database was integrated into a computer order entry module of the electronic medical records system of a regional teaching hospital. The effects it had were measured for two months. The most commonly interacting Chinese herbs were Ephedrae Herba and Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Ephedrae Herba contains active ingredients similar to in ephedrine. 15 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contain Ephedrae Herba. Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix contain ingredients similar to coumarin, a blood thinner. 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contained Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. In the period from 1998 to 2011, the prevalence of herb-drug interactions related to Ephedrae Herba was 0.18%. The most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese compounds were

  15. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  16. Interactive map communication: pilot study of the visual perceptions and preferences of public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A; Samarasundera, E; Cheng, T

    2011-08-01

    To conduct a pilot study into the comprehension and visualisation preferences of geographic information by public health practitioners (PHPs), particularly in the context of interactive, Internet-based atlases. Structured human-computer interaction interviews. Seven academia-based PHPs were interviewed as information service users based on a structured questionnaire to assess their understanding of geographic representations of morbidity data, and identify their visualisation preferences in a geographic information systems environment. Awareness of area-based deprivation indices and the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 health and disability domain was near-universal. However, novice users of disease maps had difficulties in interpreting data classifications, in understanding supplementary information in the form of box plots and histograms, and in making use of links between interactive tabular and cartographic information. Choices for colour plans when viewing maps showed little agreement between users, although pre-viewing comments showed preferences for red-blue diverging schema. PHPs new to geographic information would benefit from enhanced interpretive support documentation to meet their needs when using Internet-based, interactive public health atlases, which are rarely provided at such sites. Technical, software-related support alone is insufficient. Increased interaction between PHPs and mapmakers would be beneficial to maximise the potential of the current growth in interactive, electronic atlases, and improve geographic information support for public health decision-making and informing the wider public. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Three Red Wine Polyphenols and Their Mixtures: An Interaction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kurin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known antioxidant activity of red wine is explained mostly by its polyphenols content, where the final effect is based on the wine components’ interaction. The aim of our work was the study of the interaction of three red wine polyphenols—quercetin, resveratrol and caffeic acid—alone and in their equimolar binary and ternary mixtures in different antioxidant/scavenging assays (inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation by hydroxyl radical, FRAP, Fe(III reducing power, DPPH, ABTS and NO scavenging, respectively. Interaction analysis, based on median effect equation, was performed for the determination of synergy and/or antagonism. The obtained results indicate that the mutual interactions of tested polyphenols in their mixtures are markedly different from each other, depending on the reaction mechanism of the assay used. The measured antioxidant activity of individual polyphenols is not a constant value when other substances are present in the mixture with this polyphenol. Interactions can cause the finally observed synergy/antagonism/additive effects without any possibility of predicting them from the known activities of single compounds. This “unpredictability” claim based on in vitro assay results should be very important in multiple systems and processes in Nature, where the interactions among compounds in mixtures need to be take into account.

  18. Interaction of chloroquine and its analogues with heme: An isothermal titration calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhawat, K; Thomas, C J; Surolia, N; Surolia, A

    2000-10-05

    Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. Identification of ferriprotoporphyrin IX ([Fe(III)PPIX], haematin) as the drug receptors for these antimalarials called for investigations of the binding affinity, mode of interaction, and the conditions affecting the interaction. The parameters obtained are significant in recent times with the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the malaria parasites. This has underlined the need to unravel the molecular mechanism of their action so as to meet the requirement of an alternative to the existing antimalarial drugs. The isothermal titration calorimetric studies on the interaction of chloroquine with haematin lead us to propose an altered mode of binding. The initial recognition is ionic in nature mediated by the propionyl group of haematin with the quaternary nitrogen on CQ. This ionic interaction induces a conformational change, such as to favour binding of subsequent CQ molecules. On the contrary, conditions emulating the cytosolic environment (pH 7.4 and 150 mM salt) reveal the hydrophobic force to be the sole contributor driving the interaction. Interaction of a carefully selected panel of quinoline antimalarial drugs with monomeric ferriprotoporphyrin IX has also been investigated at pH 5.6 mimicking the acidic environment prevalent in the food vacuoles of parasite, the center of drug activity, which are consistent with their antimalarial activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Exploratory study of molten core material/concrete interactions, July 1975--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Dahlgren, D.A.; Muir, J.F.; Murfin, W.D.

    1978-02-01

    An experimental study of the interaction between high-temperature molten materials and structural concrete is described. The experimental efforts focused on the interaction of melts of reactor core materials weighing 12 to 200 kg at temperatures 1700 to 2800 0 C with calcareous and basaltic concrete representative of that found in existing light-water nuclear reactors. Observations concerning the rate and mode of melt penetration into concrete, the nature and generation rate of gases liberated during the interaction, and heat transfer from the melt to the concrete are described. Concrete erosion is shown to be primarily a melting process with little contribution from mechanical spallation. Water and carbon dioxide thermally released from the concrete are extensively reduced to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Heat transfer from the melt to the concrete is shown to be dependent on gas generation rate and crucible geometry. Interpretation of results from the interaction experiments is supported by separate studies of the thermal decomposition of concretes, response of bulk concrete to intense heat fluxes (28 to 280 W/cm 2 ), and heat transfer from molten materials to decomposing solids. The experimental results are compared to assumptions made in previous analytic studies of core meltdown accidents in light-water nuclear reactors. A preliminary computer code, INTER, which models and extrapolates results of the experimental program is described. The code allows estimation of the effect of physical parameters on the nature of the melt/concrete interaction

  20. Network Graph Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Study Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most common complex traits, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cancers, are known to be associated with multiple genes, environmental factors, and their epistasis. Recently, the development of advanced genotyping technologies has allowed us to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs. For detecting the effects of multiple genes on complex traits, many approaches have been proposed for GWASs. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR is one of the powerful and efficient methods for detecting high-order gene-gene (GxG interactions. However, the biological interpretation of GxG interactions identified by MDR analysis is not easy. In order to aid the interpretation of MDR results, we propose a network graph analysis to elucidate the meaning of identified GxG interactions. The proposed network graph analysis consists of three steps. The first step is for performing GxG interaction analysis using MDR analysis. The second step is to draw the network graph using the MDR result. The third step is to provide biological evidence of the identified GxG interaction using external biological databases. The proposed method was applied to Korean Association Resource (KARE data, containing 8838 individuals with 327,632 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in order to perform GxG interaction analysis of body mass index (BMI. Our network graph analysis successfully showed that many identified GxG interactions have known biological evidence related to BMI. We expect that our network graph analysis will be helpful to interpret the biological meaning of GxG interactions.

  1. Nuclear effect study on nucleon structure functions, in comparison with antineutrino interactions on neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.

    1984-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear effects on high energy antineutrino charged current interactions by comparing the data which were taken in the Bubble Chamber BEBC filled with Neon and Deuterium. On the one hand, the study of nuclear reinteractions gave us the possibility to estimate the formation time of hadrons. On the other hand, the comparison of structure functions does not show any significant difference between Neon and Deuterium. Though this result does not contradict the effects observed with charged leptons by the EMC and SLAC experiments, it is strongly incompatible with certain theoretical interpretations which implied a stronger effect in antineutrino interactions [fr

  2. Computational and theoretical study of the wave-particle interaction of protons and waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Moya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the wave-particle interaction and the evolution of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma composed of electrons and protons, using two approaches. First, a quasilinear kinetic theory has been developed to study the energy transfer between waves and particles, with the subsequent acceleration and heating of protons. Second, a one-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation has been performed, with and without including an expanding-box model that emulates the spherical expansion of the solar wind, to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of this wave-particle interaction. Numerical results of both approaches show that there is an anisotropic evolution of proton temperature.

  3. Higher Order Inclusion Complexes and Secondary Interactions Studied by Global Analysis of Calorimetric Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Holm, René; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tool for studying molecular systems in which weaker secondary interactions are present in addition to a dominant primary interaction. Such systems are challenging since the signal pertaining to the stronger primary......). The results are validated by a 13C NMR titration and negative controls with a bile salt with no secondary binding site (glycocholate) (K = 2.96 ± 0.01 × 103 M–1). The method proved useful for detailed analysis of ITC data and may strengthen its use as a tool for studying molecular systems by advanced binding...

  4. Site specific interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and tyrosine: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satvinder; Singh, Janpreet; Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    First Principles Calculations have been performed on ZnO/Tyrosine atomic complex to study site specific interaction of Tyrosine and ZnO nanoparticles. Calculated results shows that -COOH group present in Tyrosine is energetically more favorable than -NH2 group. Interactions show ionic bonding between ZnO and Tyrosine. All the calculations have been performed under the Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework. Structural and electronic properties of (ZnO)3/Tyrosine complex have been studied. Gaussian basis set approach has been adopted for the calculations. A ring type most stable (ZnO)3 atomic cluster has been modeled, analyzed and used for the calculations.

  5. [Study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with a Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been analyzing 200 GeV/n S + Pb collision events with a Magnetic-Interactive-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC). The objectives of the research are to learn the nature of nuclear matter at high density of particles and to develop an all-particle tracking system for very high particle densities. To advance the study further, the detector capability has been improved so as to allow the best utilization of all-particle measurements. A design study for Pb + Pb interactions at 160 GeV/n was made for planned experiments in 1993

  6. Hydrogen interactions with ZrCo nanoclusters: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattaraj, D.; Parida, S.C.; Dash, Smruti; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Majumder, C.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is one of the fuels going to be used in fusion reactor program. But, this radioactive isotope should be stored safely. ZrCo intermetallic has been chosen as a tritium storage material in ITER program. It is important to study how hydrogen interacts with ZrCo in its different dimensions. In this study we have investigated the hydrogen interaction with the Zr m Co n (m+n = 2, 4 and 6) nanoclusters using the state-of-the-art first principles method

  7. Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator: A mean-field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cao, Jie [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2017-05-10

    The low-dimensional electron gas owing topological property has attracted many interests recently. In this work, we study the influence of the electron-electron interaction on the arbitrary Chern number insulator. Using the mean-field method, we approximately solve the Hubbard model in the half-filling case and obtain the phase diagrams in different parametric spaces. We further verify the results by calculating the entanglement spectrum, which contains C chiral modes and corresponds to a real space partitioning. - Highlights: • In this work, we made a mean-field study of the Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator. • We point out that how the Zeeman splitting, the local magnetization and the Hubbard interaction are intimately related. • The mean-field phase diagrams are obtained in different parametric spaces. • The Chern number phase is demonstrated by calculating the entanglement spectrum.

  8. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Molecular Interaction Study of some ortho and para Substituted Anilines with 1-Octanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Manjunatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between ortho and para substituents of anilines such as chloroaniline, methylaniline and methoxyaniline with 1-octanol have been studied in carbon tetrachloride. The most likely association of complex between 1-octanol and substituents of anilines is 1:1 stoichiometric complex, through hydroxyl group of 1-octanol and amine group of ortho and para substituents of anilines. Interactions are studied on the bases of formation constant and free energy changes. Formation constant of the complex has been calculated using Nash method. The result shows that molecular interaction of 1-octanol as proton donor with methyl and chloride substitution of anilines in ortho position is smaller than the para position substitution of anilines. The results shows, the ability of acceptors is in the order p-methoxyaniline < o-chloroaniline

  10. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei; Carroll, Raymond J.; Harden, Kathryn K.; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-01-01

    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  11. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2011-05-06

    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  12. Capturing the spectrum of interaction effects in genetic association studies by simulated evaporative cooling network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A McKinney

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from human genetic studies of several disorders suggests that interactions between alleles at multiple genes play an important role in influencing phenotypic expression. Analytical methods for identifying Mendelian disease genes are not appropriate when applied to common multigenic diseases, because such methods investigate association with the phenotype only one genetic locus at a time. New strategies are needed that can capture the spectrum of genetic effects, from Mendelian to multifactorial epistasis. Random Forests (RF and Relief-F are two powerful machine-learning methods that have been studied as filters for genetic case-control data due to their ability to account for the context of alleles at multiple genes when scoring the relevance of individual genetic variants to the phenotype. However, when variants interact strongly, the independence assumption of RF in the tree node-splitting criterion leads to diminished importance scores for relevant variants. Relief-F, on the other hand, was designed to detect strong interactions but is sensitive to large backgrounds of variants that are irrelevant to classification of the phenotype, which is an acute problem in genome-wide association studies. To overcome the weaknesses of these data mining approaches, we develop Evaporative Cooling (EC feature selection, a flexible machine learning method that can integrate multiple importance scores while removing irrelevant genetic variants. To characterize detailed interactions, we construct a genetic-association interaction network (GAIN, whose edges quantify the synergy between variants with respect to the phenotype. We use simulation analysis to show that EC is able to identify a wide range of interaction effects in genetic association data. We apply the EC filter to a smallpox vaccine cohort study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and infer a GAIN for a collection of SNPs associated with adverse events. Our results suggest an important

  13. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  14. FT-IR studies on interactions among components in hexanoyl chitosan-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winie, Tan; Arof, A. K.

    2006-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies have been undertaken to investigate the interactions among components in a system of hexanoyl chitosan-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3SO 3)-diethyl carbonate (DEC)/ethylene carbonate (EC). LiCF 3SO 3 interacts with the hexanoyl chitosan to form a hexanoyl chitosan-salt complex that results in the shifting of the N(COR) 2, C dbnd O sbnd NHR and OCOR bands to lower wavenumbers. Interactions between EC and DEC with LiCF 3SO 3 has been noted and discussed. Evidence of interaction between EC and DEC has been obtained experimentally. Studies on polymer-plasticizer spectra suggested that there is no interaction between the polymer host and plasticizers. Competition between plasticizer and polymer on associating with Li + ions was observed from the spectral data for gel polymer electrolytes. The obtained spectroscopic data has been correlated with the conductivity performance of hexanoyl chitosan-based polymer electrolytes.

  15. An experimental study of particle-bubble interaction and attachment in flotation

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Yanez, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    The particle-bubble interaction is found in industrial applications with the purpose of selective separation of materials especially in the mining industry. The separation is achieved with the use of bubbles that collect particles depending on their hydrophobicity. There are few experimental studies involving a single interaction between a bubble and a particle. The purpose of this work is to understand this interaction by the study of a single bubble interacting with a single particle. Experiments were conducted using ultra-pure water, glass particles and air bubbles. Single interactions of particles with bubbles were observed using two high speed cameras. The cameras were placed perpendicular to each other allowing to reconstruct the three-dimensional position of the particle, the bubble and the particle-bubble aggregate. A single size of particle was used varying the size for the bubbles. It was found that the attachment of a particle to a bubble depends on its degree of hydrophobicity and on the relative position of the particle and the bubble before they encounter.

  16. Annonalide and derivatives: Semisynthesis, cytotoxic activities and studies on interaction of annonalide with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo A; Gomes, Akenaton O C V; de Brito, Maria V; Dos Santos, Ana L P; da Silva, Gladyane S; de Lima, Leandro B; Nunes, Fátima M; de Mattos, Marcos C; de Oliveira, Fátima C E; do Ó Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; de Fátima, Ângelo; Franco, Lucas L; Silva, Marina de M; Dantas, Maria Dayanne de A; Santos, Josué C C; Figueiredo, Isis M; da Silva-Júnior, Edeíldo F; de Aquino, Thiago M; de Araújo-Júnior, João X; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A

    2018-02-01

    The cytotoxic activity of the pimarane diterpene annonalide (1) and nine of its semisynthetic derivatives (2-10) was investigated against the human tumor cell lines HL-60 (leukemia), PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma) and HCT-116 (colon cancer), and normal mouse fibroblast (L929) cells. The preparation of 2-10 involved derivatization of the side chain of 1 at C-13. Except for 2, all derivatives are being reported for the first time. Most of the tested compounds presented IC 50 s below 4.0 μM, being considered potential antitumor agents. The structures of all new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR and HRMS. Additionally, the interaction of annonalide (1) with ctDNA was evaluated using spectroscopic techniques, and the formation of a supramolecular complex with the macromolecule was confirmed. Competition assays with fluorescent probes (Hoechst and ethidium bromide) and theoretical studies confirmed that 1 interacts preferentially via DNA intercalation with stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 (1:ctDNA). The ΔG value was calculated as -28.24 kJ mol -1 , and indicated that the interaction process occurs spontaneously. Docking studies revealed that van der Walls is the most important interaction in 1-DNA and EB-DNA complexes, and that both ligands (1 and EB) interact with the same DNA residues (DA6, DA17 and DT19). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. User-Centered Design for Interactive Maps: A Case Study in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Roth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the topic of user-centered design (UCD for cartography, GIScience, and visual analytics. Interactive maps are ubiquitous in modern society, yet they often fail to “work” as they could or should. UCD describes the process of ensuring interface success—map-based or otherwise—by gathering input and feedback from target users throughout the design and development of the interface. We contribute to the expanding literature on UCD for interactive maps in two ways. First, we synthesize core concepts on UCD from cartography and related fields, as well as offer new ideas, in order to organize existing frameworks and recommendations regarding the UCD of interactive maps. Second, we report on a case study UCD process for GeoVISTA CrimeViz, an interactive and web-based mapping application supporting visual analytics of criminal activity in space and time. The GeoVISTA CrimeViz concept and interface were improved iteratively by working through a series of user→utility→usability loops in which target users provided input and feedback on needs and designs (user, prompting revisions to the conceptualization and functional requirements of the interface (utility, and ultimately leading to new mockups and prototypes of the interface (usability for additional evaluation by target users (user… and so on. Together, the background review and case study offer guidance for applying UCD to interactive mapping projects, and demonstrate the benefit of including target users throughout design and development.

  18. Coalescence and movement of nanobubbles studied with tapping mode AFM and tip-bubble interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Wang Yuliang; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Imaging of a polystyrene (PS) coated silicon wafer immersed in deionized (DI) water was conducted using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode (TMAFM). As reported earlier, spherical cap-like domains, referred to as nanobubbles, were observed to be distributed on the PS surface. Experiments reveal that, in addition to the well-known parameter of scan load, scan speed is also an important parameter which affects nanobubble coalescence. The process of nanobubble coalescence was studied. It was found that during coalescence, small nanobubbles were easily moved and merged into bigger ones. Based on the interaction between the AFM cantilever tip and a bubble in the so-called force modulation mode of TMAFM, bubble height and adhesive force information for a given bubble was extracted. A viscoelastic model is used to obtain the interaction stiffness and damping coefficient, which provides a method to obtain the mechanical properties of nanobubbles. The model was further used to study the effect of surface tension force on attractive interaction force and contact angle hysteresis on the changes of the interaction damping coefficient during tip-bubble interaction.

  19. Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hj.Indirawaty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe briefly on the application of social interaction which made nurses to clients while performing therapeutic communication at the Hospital of South Sulawesi with frame symbolic interactionism. Result achieved against the system carried nurse interaction with clients who patterned on therapeutic communication. At the stage of pre-interaction system is applied such as before the nurse interacts with the client well in advance to prepare the way of dressing reception duties of nurse and studying the book status of each client. Introduction or orientation phase nurses visit each client and when the first met uttered a greeting before asking the clients condition when the interaction takes place he uses verbal and non-verbal language and attitude shown in full client hospitality and courtesy. Stage work nurses do an evaluation or action on the clients condition in accordance with the termination task. Midwife stage nurse re-evaluate the client and conclude the development of the clients condition and report a doctor who handles client. The fourth aspect of the application using the analysis of symbolic interactionism

  20. Challenges and Opportunities in Genome-Wide Environmental Interaction (GWEI) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschard, Hugues; Lutz, Sharon; Maus, Bärbel; Duell, Eric J.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Van Steen, Kristel

    2012-01-01

    The interest in performing gene-environment interaction studies has seen a significant increase with the increase of advanced molecular genetics techniques. Practically, it became possible to investigate the role of environmental factors in disease risk and hence to investigate their role as genetic effect modifiers. The understanding that genetics is important in the uptake and metabolism of toxic substances is an example of how genetic profiles can modify important environmental risk factors to disease. Several rationales exist to set up gene-environment interaction studies and the technical challenges related to these studies – when the number of environmental or genetic risk factors is relatively small – has been described before. In the post-genomic era, it is now possible to study thousands of genes and their interaction with the environment. This brings along a whole range of new challenges and opportunities. Despite a continuing effort in developing efficient methods and optimal bioinformatics infrastructures to deal with the available wealth of data, the challenge remains how to best present and analyze Genome-Wide Environmental Interaction (GWEI) studies involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. Since GWEIs are performed at the intersection of statistical genetics, bioinformatics and epidemiology, usually similar problems need to be dealt with as for Genome-Wide Association gene-gene Interaction (GWAI) studies. However, additional complexities need to be considered which are typical for large-scale epidemiological studies, but are also related to “joining” two heterogeneous types of data in explaining complex disease trait variation or for prediction purposes. PMID:22760307

  1. A STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...

  2. Studies of the interaction between a magnet and a High Tc Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The last part is eight research papers which involve topics related to High T c superconductor (HTSC) studies. The main topic describes the interaction between a permanent magnet and a HTSC studied by a mechanical pendulum. The first part of the dissertation has two purposes. One is to give a brief introduction and background to the research papers, and the other is to outline the scientific findings from the HTSC studies. 94 refs., 2 figs

  3. How the perspectives of nursing assistants and frail elderly residents on their daily interaction in nursing homes affect their interaction: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chi-Chi; Liu, Justina Yat Wa

    2016-01-14

    Good support from and positive relations with institutional staff can enhance the psychosocial wellbeing of residents admitted to a nursing home. Nursing assistants (NAs) interact most frequently with residents and play an important role in developing good rapport with them. Most studies have described the daily interactions between NAs and residents as task oriented. Only few have attempted to explore the perspectives of NAs and residents on their daily interactions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the types of daily interactions perceived by NAs and residents. We also investigated those intentions/beliefs held by NAs and residents that might direct their interactive behaviors. A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative approach was used to explore the perspectives of 18 NAs (mean age: 51) and 15 residents (mean age: 84.4) on their daily interactions. Unstructured in-depth interviews were used to collect data. All of the interviews were conducted from July to December 2013. The collected data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by content analysis. Three types of interactions were found that described the NAs' and residents' perspectives on their daily interactions: (1) physiologically-oriented daily interactions; (2) cordial interactions intended to maintain a harmonious atmosphere; and (3) reciprocal social interactions intended to develop closer rapport. One or more themes reflecting the participants' intentions or beliefs were identified from each group to support each type of interaction. An over-emphasis on the formal caring relationship and over-concern about maintaining a harmonious atmosphere contributed to a superficial and distant relationship between the two parties. Building close rapport takes time and involves repeated reciprocal social interactions. The findings showed that with good intentions to establish closer rapport, both NAs and residents did favors for each other. All of those favors were easily integrated in the care

  4. Studies of the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn with bovine serum albumin under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li, E-mail: 2476625723@qq.com [Institute of Agricultural Quality Standards and Testing Technology Research, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science, Wuhan 430064 (China); Xiao, Ling [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots to BSA were studied. • The quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. • The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role; the binding processes are spontaneous. • The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was observed. • The probable mechanism is mainly a photo-induced free radical procedure. - Abstract: In this study, chitosan coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots) were obtained in aqueous media under ambient pressure. The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by means of ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and fluorescence (FL) spectra. It was found that the FL of BSA was quenched by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots. The dominating quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. Hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the CS@ZnS:Mn–BSA interaction; binding processes are spontaneous. Influencing factors such as illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentrations were considered. The FL quenching effect of BSA by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots is enhanced with the increase of illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentration. The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was also observed. It was proved that, the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA under UV illumination is mainly a result of a photo-induced free radical procedure. CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots may be used as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

  5. Studies of the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn with bovine serum albumin under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li; Xiao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots to BSA were studied. • The quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. • The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role; the binding processes are spontaneous. • The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was observed. • The probable mechanism is mainly a photo-induced free radical procedure. - Abstract: In this study, chitosan coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots) were obtained in aqueous media under ambient pressure. The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by means of ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and fluorescence (FL) spectra. It was found that the FL of BSA was quenched by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots. The dominating quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. Hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the CS@ZnS:Mn–BSA interaction; binding processes are spontaneous. Influencing factors such as illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentrations were considered. The FL quenching effect of BSA by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots is enhanced with the increase of illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentration. The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was also observed. It was proved that, the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA under UV illumination is mainly a result of a photo-induced free radical procedure. CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots may be used as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy

  6. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk: a Case Study in Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Anjana; Dolz, Jose; Kirisli, Hortense A; Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Massoptier, Laurent; Varga, Edit; Stappers, Pieter Jan; Niessen, Wiro J; Song, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently fail to provide satisfactory result, and post-processing corrections are often needed. Semi-automatic segmentation methods are designed to overcome these problems by combining physicians' expertise and computers' potential. This study evaluates two semi-automatic segmentation methods with different types of user interactions, named the "strokes" and the "contour", to provide insights into the role and impact of human-computer interaction. Two physicians participated in the experiment. In total, 42 case studies were carried out on five different types of organs at risk. For each case study, both the human-computer interaction process and quality of the segmentation results were measured subjectively and objectively. Furthermore, different measures of the process and the results were correlated. A total of 36 quantifiable and ten non-quantifiable correlations were identified for each type of interaction. Among those pairs of measures, 20 of the contour method and 22 of the strokes method were strongly or moderately correlated, either directly or inversely. Based on those correlated measures, it is concluded that: (1) in the design of semi-automatic segmentation methods, user interactions need to be less cognitively challenging; (2) based on the observed workflows and preferences of physicians, there is a need for flexibility in the interface design; (3) the correlated measures provide insights that can be used in improving user interaction design.

  7. The interaction of M13 coat protein with lipid bilayers : a spectroscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis a small part of the reproductive cycle of the M13 bacteriophage is studied in more detail, namely the interaction of the major coat protein (MW 5240) with lipid bilayers. During the infection process is the major coat protein of M13 bacteriophage stored in the cytoplasm

  8. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  9. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  10. Evidence for plasticity genotypes in a gene-gene-environment interaction : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E; Bouma, Esther; Riese, Harriette; Laceulle, Odilia; Ormel, J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to study how functional polymorphisms in the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF val66met) and the serotonin transporter gene linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR) interact with childhood adversities in predicting Effortful Control. Effortful Control refers to the ability to

  11. Embodying the institution - Object manipulation in developing interaction in study counselling meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    on how objects in the material surround are used in conjunction with talk, gaze and postural orientation to construct local social order in study guidance counselling meetings at a university. We explore here how co-participants utilize aggregates of interactional components to construct...

  12. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between high surface area nano-carbon catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acid (Nafion®) ionomer was studied 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F-NMR). The method was developed and improved for more...

  13. Studying screen interactions long-term : the library as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, W.T.; Veenstra, Mettina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and long-term study of BiebBeep, a large interactive touchscreen that has been developed with the aim to augment the information and social function of a library. BiebBeep displays user-generated and context-relevant content, such as information about local events and

  14. An interactive portal to empower cancer survivors: a qualitative study on user expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G.; Loos, Romy; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Portals are increasingly used to improve patient empowerment, but are still uncommon in oncology. In this study, we explored cancer survivors’ and health professionals’ expectations of possible features of an interactive portal. Methods We conducted three focus groups with breast cancer

  15. [Studies on the interaction of blood components with ultra-smooth polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine

    1989-04-17

    This report is in three parts, though each is briefly described data is provided. The three parts address (1) radioiodination of human thrombin and fibrinogen; (2) interaction of blood components with ultra- smooth polymer surfaces; and (3) initial studies of Tecoflex and treated Tecoflex cups with normal serum samples.

  16. Study of the interaction of Tb (III) with dextran through fluorescence spectroscopy and optical rotatory dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Sandra S.; Rodrigues, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the interaction of Tb(III) with dextran in aqueous solution was perform using fluorescence spectroscopy and optical rotatory dispersion. The results indicate the formation of a complex with the displacent of water from the cation coordinated sphere by hydroxyl groups at the second and third carbon atoms of the monomer unit. (Author) [pt

  17. InterCUBE: a study into merging action and interaction spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salem, B.I.; Peeters, H.; Baranauskas, C.; Palanque, P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a novel tangible interface we call the InterCUBE, a cube-shaped device with no external buttons or widgets. We study the implications of such a shape in terms of interactions, notably the degrees of freedom available and the manipulations possible. We also explain and

  18. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Studying Children’s friendship activities ethically using the Interaction Based Observation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to acknowledge the influence that the interaction based observation method developed by Mariane Hedegaard has had on my studies of young children’s friendship activities. Hedegaard has problematized how existing methods of evaluating children’s development were inadequate...

  20. Genotype * environment interaction: a case study for Douglas-fir in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert K. Campbell

    1992-01-01

    Unrecognized genotype x environment interactions (g,e) can bias genetic-gain predictions and models for predicting growth dynamics or species perturbations by global climate change. This study tested six sets of families in 10 plantation sites in a 78-thousand-hectare breeding zone. Plantation differences accounted for 71 percent of sums of squares (15-year heights),...

  1. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay to Study DNA/Drug Interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Article. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay to Study. DNA/Drug Interaction Based on Sequence Selective. Inhibition of Restriction Endonucleases. Syed A Hassan1*, Lata Chauhan2, Ritu Barthwal2 and Aparna Dixit3. 1 Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul Aziz University, Rabigh-21911 ...

  2. Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Bart; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Ormel, B., Pareja Roblin, N., McKenney, S., Voogt, J., & Pieters, J. (2012). Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy. Educational Technology Research & Development, 60(6), 967-986. doi:10.1007/s11423-012-9261-6

  3. Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to

  4. Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to

  5. A Study of Interactional Metadiscourse in English Abstracts of Chinese Economics Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Huang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    This study adopts the revised interpersonal model of metadiscourse to discover whether and to what extent Chinese authors employ a varying amount of Interactional Metadiscourse (IM) in the past decade in English abstracts of economics Research Articles (RAs). The data was drawn from a prestigious economics journal in China to compose a corpus of…

  6. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  7. The interaction between network ties and business modeling : Case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; Bossink, Bart; de Man, Ard Pieter

    2018-01-01

    A stream of literature is emerging where network development and business modeling intersect. Various authors emphasize that networks influence business models. This paper extends this stream of literature by studying two cases in which we analyze how business modeling and networking interact over

  8. The Interaction between network ties and business modeling : case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; Bossink, Bart; de Man, Ard-Pieter

    2018-01-01

    A stream of literature is emerging where network development and business modeling intersect. Various authors emphasize that networks influence business models. This paper extends this stream of literature by studying two cases in which we analyze how business modeling and networking interact over

  9. Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction: An Efficacy Study in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, Kimberly; Dostal, Hannah; Graham, Steve; Branum-Martin, Lee; Kilpatrick, Jennifer; Saulsburry, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction on 3rd-5th grade deaf and hard of hearing students' writing and written language compared to a business-as-usual condition (treatment group N = 41, comparison group N = 22). A total of 18 hours of instruction was provided for each of two…

  10. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  11. Study of pionic specific heat in 32S-emulsion interactions at 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Mallick, Asok Kumar; Chatterjee, Rini; Lahiri, Madhumita; Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Sahoo, Swarup Ranjan; Patra, Kanchan Kumar; Mondal, Mitali; Haldar, Prabir Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Multifractality reveals self-similarity in particle production process. Studies on multifractality of pions from 32 S-emulsion interactions at 200 AGeV by Takagi method which is assumed to be free from the shortcomings encountered by G-moment method is presented

  12. An atomic force microscopy study of the interactions between indolicidin and supported planar bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askou, Hans Jakob; Jakobsen, Rasmus Neergaard; Fojan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    . The present study indicates that the mode of action for indolicidin can be best described by a stepwise interaction of the peptide with the membrane. Formation of pores however can not be supported on the basis of our experiments. (Cited By) View on PubMed PMID: 19049026 Udgivelsesdato: SEP...

  13. Secondary Students' Perceptions of an Interactive Mathematics Review Program: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Crystal Burroughs

    2017-01-01

    The present action research study describes an Interactive Mathematics Review Program (IMRP) developed by the participant-researcher to enable remedial algebra students to learn in a cooperative classroom with pedagogy that promoted collaboration and hands-on, active learning. Data are comprised of surveys, field notes, semi-structured interviews,…

  14. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  15. Lysozyme-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles: Molecular interaction, bioactivity and release studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Medlicott, Natalie J.; Rades, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the adsorption behavior of lysozyme (LSZ) onto magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) at various pHs and to characterize the LSZ–MAS microparticles obtained from the molecular interaction between LSZ and MAS. The results showed that LSZ could be bound...

  16. The importance of phenology in studies of plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Thesis title: The importance of phenology in studies of plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions Author: Minghui Fei Abstract As food resources of herbivorous insects, the quality and quantity of plants can directly affect the performance of herbivorous insects and indirectly affect

  17. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  18. Information theory and robotics meet to study predator-prey interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Daniele; Ruberto, Tommaso; Cord-Cruz, Gabrielle; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-07-01

    Transfer entropy holds promise to advance our understanding of animal behavior, by affording the identification of causal relationships that underlie animal interactions. A critical step toward the reliable implementation of this powerful information-theoretic concept entails the design of experiments in which causal relationships could be systematically controlled. Here, we put forward a robotics-based experimental approach to test the validity of transfer entropy in the study of predator-prey interactions. We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to a fear-evoking robotic stimulus, designed after the morpho-physiology of the red tiger oscar and actuated along preprogrammed trajectories. From the time series of the positions of the zebrafish and the robotic stimulus, we demonstrate that transfer entropy correctly identifies the influence of the stimulus on the focal subject. Building on this evidence, we apply transfer entropy to study the interactions between zebrafish and a live red tiger oscar. The analysis of transfer entropy reveals a change in the direction of the information flow, suggesting a mutual influence between the predator and the prey, where the predator adapts its strategy as a function of the movement of the prey, which, in turn, adjusts its escape as a function of the predator motion. Through the integration of information theory and robotics, this study posits a new approach to study predator-prey interactions in freshwater fish.

  19. A study of the influence of forest gaps on fire–atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Kiefer; Warren E. Heilman; Shiyuan Zhong; Joseph J. (Jay) Charney; Xindi (Randy) Bian

    2016-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists regarding the possible role that gaps in forest canopies play in modulating fire–atmosphere interactions in otherwise horizontally homogeneous forests. This study examines the influence of gaps in forest canopies on atmospheric perturbations induced by a low-intensity fire using the ARPS-CANOPY model, a version of the Advanced Regional...

  20. Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs

  1. A proposed experiment for studying the direct neutron-neutron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Fikry, A.R.; Maayouf, R.M.A.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment for studying the direct neutron-neutron interaction is suggested. The experiment is based on the combined use of an accelerator, e.g., an electron linear accelerator, together with a mobile pulsed reactor; or using a pulsed beam reactor together with a mobile neutron generator

  2. An ultrastructural study of the interaction of human eosinophils with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; Garofalo, R; Welliver, RC; Fujihara, K; Ogra, PL

    It was shown previously that eosinophils are activated in vivo and in vitro by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Garofalo et al., J Pediatr 1992: 120: 28-32; Kimpen et al., Pediatr Res 1992: 32: 160-4). For study of the interaction of eosinophils and RSV on the ultrastructural level, normodense

  3. Effects of the Interaction of Caffeine and Water on Voice Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this "pilot" investigation was to study the effects of the interaction of caffeine and water intake on voice as evidenced by acoustic and aerodynamic measures, to determine whether ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine and various levels of water intake have an impact on voice. The participants were 48 females ranging in age…

  4. Numerical study of coupled fluid-structure interaction for combustion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatir, Z.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Cooper, R.K.; Watterson, J.W.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The computation of fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems requires solving simultaneously the coupled fluid and structure equations. A partitioned approach using a volume spline solution procedure is applied for the coupling of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics codes. For comparative study,

  5. Studying small molecule-aptamer interactions using MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzian, Clemens; Schubert, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Aptamers are potent and versatile binding molecules recognizing various classes of target molecules. Even challenging targets such as small molecules can be identified and bound by aptamers. Studying the interaction between aptamers and drugs, antibiotics or metabolites in detail is however difficult due to the lack of sophisticated analysis methods. Basic binding parameters of these small molecule-aptamer interactions such as binding affinity, stoichiometry and thermodynamics are elaborately to access using the state of the art technologies. The innovative MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a novel, rapid and precise method to characterize these small molecule-aptamer interactions in solution at microliter scale. The technology is based on the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis. The thermophoretic movement of a molecule depends - besides on its size - on charge and hydration shell. Upon the interaction of a small molecule and an aptamer, at least one of these parameters is altered, leading to a change in the movement behavior, which can be used to quantify molecular interactions independent of the size of the target molecule. The MST offers free choice of buffers, even measurements in complex bioliquids are possible. The dynamic affinity range covers the pM to mM range and is therefore perfectly suited to analyze small molecule-aptamer interactions. This section describes a protocol how quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-small molecule interactions can be obtained by MST. This is demonstrated by mapping down the binding site of the well-known ATP aptamer DH25.42 to a specific region at the adenine of the ATP molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  7. Interaction of biocompatible natural rosin-based surfactants with human serum albumin: A biophysical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Atta, Ayman M.; Al-Lohedan, H.A.; Nigam, Lokesh; Subbarao, Naidu; Hasan Khan, Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Biophysical insight into interaction of biocompatible rosin-based surfactants with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological conditions using various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking approaches. The binding constant (K b ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ), entropy (ΔS 0 ) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG 0 ) were calculated by spectroscopic and calorimetric method. We have also calculated the probability of energy transfer by FRET analysis. The circular dichroism study showed that the cationic surfactant QRMAE significantly altered the secondary structure of HSA as compared to the nonionic rosin surfactants. The thermodynamic study was performed by ITC to determine binding constant as well as change in enthalpy of HSA in presence of rosin surfactants. It clearly showed that hydrogen binding and hydrophobic interaction play an important role in the binding of HSA to rosin surfactants. We have also performed molecular docking studies to locate the binding site on HSA and to visualize the mode of interaction. The present study provides a significant insight into HSA–rosin surfactants interaction, which also improves our understanding of the possible effect of rosin surfactants on human health. - Highlights: • RMPEG 750 has the highest Kb, Kq and Ksv value as compared to other rosin surfactants. • The probability of energy transfer from HSA to rosin surfactants was maximum in the case of RMPEG 750. • Cationic surfactant QRMAE significantly altered the secondary structure of the HSA as compared to other rosin surfactants. • Molecular docking and ITC experiment studies, to locate the binding site on HSA and to investigate the mode of interaction

  8. Interaction of anthraquinone anti-cancer drugs with DNA:Experimental and computational quantum chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S.; Teesdale Spittle, Paul; El Gogary, Tarek M.

    2017-01-01

    Anthraquinones form the basis of several anticancer drugs. Anthraquinones anticancer drugs carry out their cytotoxic activities through their interaction with DNA, and inhibition of topoisomerase II activity. Anthraquinones (AQ4 and AQ4H) were synthesized and studied along with 1,4-DAAQ by computational and experimental tools. The purpose of this study is to shade more light on mechanism of interaction between anthraquinone DNA affinic agents and different types of DNA. This study will lead to gain of information useful for drug design and development. Molecular structures were optimized using DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G(d). Depending on intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions two conformers of AQ4 were detected and computed as 25.667 kcal/mol apart. Molecular reactivity of the anthraquinone compounds was explored using global and condensed descriptors (electrophilicity and Fukui functions). Molecular docking studies for the inhibition of CDK2 and DNA binding were carried out to explore the anti cancer potency of these drugs. NMR and UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra of anthraquinones/DNA were investigated at the physiological pH. The interaction of the three anthraquinones (AQ4, AQ4H and 1,4-DAAQ) were studied with three DNA (calf thymus DNA, (Poly[dA].Poly[dT]) and (Poly[dG].Poly[dC]). NMR study shows a qualitative pattern of drug/DNA interaction in terms of band shift and broadening. UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra were employed to measure the affinity constants of drug/DNA binding using Scatchard analysis.

  9. Interaction of biocompatible natural rosin-based surfactants with human serum albumin: A biophysical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtikhar, Mohd [Protein Biophysics Laboratory, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ali, Mohd Sajid [Surfactant Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Atta, Ayman M. [Surfactant Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Petroleum Application department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Ahmad Elzomor St., Nasr city, Cairo-11727 (Egypt); Al-Lohedan, H.A. [Surfactant Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Nigam, Lokesh; Subbarao, Naidu [Centre for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Hasan Khan, Rizwan, E-mail: rizwanhkhan@hotmail.com [Protein Biophysics Laboratory, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Biophysical insight into interaction of biocompatible rosin-based surfactants with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological conditions using various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking approaches. The binding constant (K{sub b}), enthalpy (ΔH{sup 0}), entropy (ΔS{sup 0}) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG{sup 0}) were calculated by spectroscopic and calorimetric method. We have also calculated the probability of energy transfer by FRET analysis. The circular dichroism study showed that the cationic surfactant QRMAE significantly altered the secondary structure of HSA as compared to the nonionic rosin surfactants. The thermodynamic study was performed by ITC to determine binding constant as well as change in enthalpy of HSA in presence of rosin surfactants. It clearly showed that hydrogen binding and hydrophobic interaction play an important role in the binding of HSA to rosin surfactants. We have also performed molecular docking studies to locate the binding site on HSA and to visualize the mode of interaction. The present study provides a significant insight into HSA–rosin surfactants interaction, which also improves our understanding of the possible effect of rosin surfactants on human health. - Highlights: • RMPEG 750 has the highest Kb, Kq and Ksv value as compared to other rosin surfactants. • The probability of energy transfer from HSA to rosin surfactants was maximum in the case of RMPEG 750. • Cationic surfactant QRMAE significantly altered the secondary structure of the HSA as compared to other rosin surfactants. • Molecular docking and ITC experiment studies, to locate the binding site on HSA and to investigate the mode of interaction.

  10. Studies of the relativistic electron source and related phenomena in Petawatt Laser matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Cowan, T.E.; Hatchett, S.P.; Henry, E.A.; Koch, J.A.; Landgon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; MacKinnon, A.; Offenberger, A.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Yasuike, K.; Snavely, R.; Roth, M.; Phillips, T.W.; Stoyer, M.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Singh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of laser radiation with solid targets at 1 petawatt power and intensity up to 3x10 20 Wcm -2 has been studied with emphasis on relativistic electrons and high energy ions. Secondary effects including Bremsstrahlung radiation, nuclear interactions and heating have been characterized. A collimated beam of protons with up to 55 MeV energy is emitted normal to the rear surface of thin targets and its characteristics and origin are discussed. The significance of the data for radiography, fast ignition and proton beam applications is summarized

  11. Study on the interaction of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin by fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Lihua; Zhao Huichun; Wang Xuebin; Wang Xu

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method is used to study the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin by its interaction with fleroxacin. The interaction association constants of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin are determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. According to the Foester dipole-dipole energy transfer, the distance to be measured between the fleroxacin and tryptophane is 4.37 nm. From thermodynamical coordination it can be judged that the binding power between fleroxacin and bovine serum albumin is static electric power

  12. A new facility for studying plasma interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, X.; Ou, W.; Tian, S.; Wang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, J.; Gou, F.; Yang, D.; Chen, S.

    2014-01-01

    A new facility to study plasmas interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface was designed and is constructing in Sichuan University. The integrated setup includes the liquid lithium circulating part and linear high density plasma generator. The circulating part is consisted of main loop, on-line monitor system, lithium purification system and temperature programmed desorption system. In our group a linear high density plasma generator was built in 2012. Three coils were mounted along the vessel to produce an axial magnetic field inside. The magnetic field strength is up to 0.45 T and work continuously. Experiments on plasmas interacting with free flowing liquid lithium surface will be performed

  13. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs. (orig.)

  14. Media portrayals and health inequalities: a case study of characterizations of Gene x Environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V

    2005-10-01

    This article examines how genetic and environmental interactions associated with health inequalities are constructed and framed in the presentation of scientific research. It uses the example of a major article about depression in a longitudinal study of young adults that appeared in Science in 2003. This portrayal of findings related to health inequalities uses a genetic lens that privileges genetic influences and diminishes environmental ones. The emphasis on the genetic side of Gene x Environment interactions can serve to deflect attention away from the important impact of social inequalities on health.

  15. Molecular modeling studies of interactions between sodium polyacrylate polymer and calcite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylikantola, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); Linnanto, J., E-mail: juha.m.linnanto@gmail.com [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, EE-51014 Tartu (Estonia); Knuutinen, J.; Oravilahti, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); Toivakka, M. [Åbo Akademi University, Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting and Center for Functional Materials, FI-20500 Turku/Åbo (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The interactions between calcite pigment and sodium polyacrylate dispersing agent, widely used in papermaking as paper coating components, were investigated using classical force field and quantum chemical approaches. The objective was to understand interactions between the calcite surface and sodium polyacrylate polymer at 300 K using molecular dynamics simulations. A quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree–Fock method was also used to obtain detailed information about the sodium polyacrylate polymer structure. The effect of water molecules (moisture) on the interactions was also examined. Calculations showed that molecular weight, branching and the orientation of sodium polyacrylate polymers influence the interactions between the calcite surface and the polymer. The force field applied, and also water molecules, were found to have an impact on all systems studied. Ab initio Hartree–Fock calculations indicated that there are two types of coordination between sodium atoms and carboxylate groups of the sodium polyacrylate polymer, inter- and intra-carboxylate group coordination. In addition, ab initio Hartree–Fock calculations of the structure of the sodium polyacrylate polymer produced important information regarding interactions between the polymers and carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex particles.

  16. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, H.

    1984-01-01

    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction [fr

  17. Parametric Study of Swept Impinging Oblique Shock/Boundary Layer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Adam; Threadgill, James; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Modern high-speed vehicles have increasingly complex 3D geometries featuring: surface curvature, variable aspect ratio inlet ducts and swept bodies. Such distortion to the flow field necessitates a further understanding of swept 3D Shock/Boundary Layer Interactions (SBLIs), where various regimes of spanwise interaction development have been observed. A parametric experimental study of swept oblique impinging SBLIs has been conducted comparing cylindrical and conical interaction structures to that of swept compression ramps in previous work. This investigation examines five shock generators with 2D deflection of θ = 12 .5° and varying degrees of sweep (ψ = 10 .0° , 15 .0° , 22 .5° , 30 .0° , 40 .0°), with an incoming turbulent flow at Mach 2.3 and 3.0. Parametric characterization of surface oil-flow visualizations has shown that the inception length of the interaction follows a similar trend to that seen in swept compression ramps as sweep is varied, namely that it increases as sweep approaches a critical angle. However, this criteria disagrees with direct observations of separation and reattachment angles. Similarities in mean pressures profiles have also been assessed and analyzed with respect to the onset of a cylindrical/conical interaction. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-15-1-0430).

  18. Investigation on molecular interactions of antibiotics in alcohols using volumetric and acoustic studies at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, Bushra; Iftikhar, Madeeha

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antibiotics in different alcohols are used to study their interactions in solutions. • Density and sound velocity for antibiotic solutions are measured at different temperatures. • Apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility are used to calculate partial molar quantities. • Acoustical parameters are calculated and discussed in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. - Abstract: The density and sound velocity for pure alcohols (methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol and n-butanol) and molal solutions of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole (MNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) have been measured at different temperatures (293.15–313.15 K). Different volumetric and acoustical parameters like apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), partial molar volume (VЛљ ϕ ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K ϕ ), partial molar isentropic compressibility (KЛљ ϕ ), hydration number (n H ), acoustic impedance (Z) and intermolecular free length (L f ) of antibiotic solutions were calculated from the experimental values of density and sound velocity. The derived values have been used to explore the solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. The V ϕ values are positive and K ϕ values are negative in both antibiotics, indicative of strong solute–solvent interactions and closely packed structure of antibiotics in alcohols. The decreasing trend of L f with increasing antibiotic concentration shows the presence of strong intermolecular interactions in solutions.

  19. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  20. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (plead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Interprofessional intensive care unit team interactions and medical crises: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Dominique; Reeves, Scott; Leblanc, Vicki R

    2009-05-01

    Research has suggested that interprofessional collaboration could improve patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). Maintaining optimal interprofessional interactions in a setting where unpredictable medical crises occur periodically is however challenging. Our study aimed to investigate the perceptions of ICU health care professionals regarding how acute medical crises affect their team interactions. We conducted 25 semi-structured interviews of ICU nurses, staff physicians, and respiratory therapists. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed, and the analysis was undertaken using an inductive thematic approach. Our data indicated that the nature of interprofessional interactions changed as teams passed through three key temporal periods around medical crises. During the "pre-crisis period", interactions were based on the mutual respect of each other's expertise. During the "crisis period", hierarchical interactions were expected and a certain lack of civility was tolerated. During the "post-crisis period", divergent perceptions emerged amongst health professionals. Post-crisis team dispersion left the nurses with questions and emotions not expressed by other team members. Nurses believed that systematic interprofessional feedback sessions held immediately after a crisis could address some of their needs. Further research is needed to establish the possible benefits of strategies addressing ICU health care professionals' specific needs for interprofessional feedback after a medical crisis.

  2. Evidence for gene-environment interaction in a genome wide study of nonsyndromic cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) is a common birth defect with a complex and heterogeneous etiology involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 550 case-parent trios, ascertained through a CP case collected in an international...... consortium. Family-based association tests of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and three common maternal exposures (maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and multivitamin supplementation) were used in a combined 2 df test for gene (G) and gene-environment (G × E) interaction simultaneously, plus...... multiple SNPs associated with higher risk of CP in the presence of maternal smoking. Additional evidence of reduced risk due to G × E interaction in the presence of multivitamin supplementation was observed for SNPs in BAALC on chr. 8. These results emphasize the need to consider G × E interaction when...

  3. Studies on the Interaction between Zinc-Hydroxybenzoite Complex and Genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacali Necefoglu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-Hydroxybenzoite ([Zn (H206] (p-HO-C6H4COO22H20 complex which wassynthesized and characterized by instrumental methods and the DNA samples which hadbeen isolated from cattle were allowed to interact at 37 oC for different time periods. Theinteraction of genomic DNA with this complex has been followed by agarose gelelectrophoresis at 50 V for 2 h. When DNA samples were allowed to interact with this metalcomplex, it was found that band intensities changed with the concentrations of the complex.In the result of interaction between this complex and genomic DNA samples, it wasdetermined that the intensities of bands were changed at the different concentrations of thecomplex. The brightness of the bands was increased and mobility of the bands wasdecreased, indicating the occurrence of increased covalent binding of the metal complexwith DNA. In this study it was concluded that the damage effect of ascorbate was reducedby Zinc-Hydroxybenzoite.

  4. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  5. SANS study of interaction of silica nanoparticles with BSA protein and their resultant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been carried out to study the interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Å) with globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (M.W. 66.4 kD) in aqueous solution. The measurements have been carried out on fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentration of BSA (0–5 wt %) at pH7. Results show that silica nanoparticles and BSA coexist as individual entities at low concentration of BSA where electrostatic repulsive interactions between them prevent their aggregation. However, as the concentration of BSA increases (≥ 0.5 wt %), it induces the attractive depletion interaction among nanoparticles leading to finally their aggregation at higher BSA concentration (2 wt %). The aggregates are found to be governed by the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) morphology of fractal nature having fractal dimension about 2.4

  6. Fission product vapour - aerosol interactions in the containment: simulant fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Falcon facility to study the interaction of fission product vapours released from simulant fuel samples with control rod aerosols. The aerosols generated from both the control rod and fuel sample were chemically distinct and had different deposition characteristics. Extensive interaction was observed between the fission product vapours and the control rod aerosol. The two dominant mechanisms were condensation of the vapours onto the aerosol, and chemical reactions between the two components; sorption phenomena were believed to be only of secondary importance. The interaction of fission product vapours and reactor materials aerosols could have a major impact on the transport characteristics of the radioactive emission from a degrading core. (author)

  7. Study of the pitting effects during the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Yuhua; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Zhao, Weiyu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    The propellant ignition mechanism has become a central issue in the electrothermal chemical (ETC) launch technology, and the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interactions are critical in determining the ignition characteristics. In this work, both an open-air ablation test and an interrupted burning test are conducted for three different propellants. A fused silica window, which is transparent in all relevant wavelengths, is utilized to investigate the role of the plasma radiation. Surface pitting of the propellants after interaction with the plasma is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of pits on the plasma ignition is then studied and a possible formation mechanism of pits is proposed. The input heat flux and the surface temperature of the propellants are obtained by solving a pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction model. The results shed light on the pre-ignition plasma ignition mechanisms and will assist in the development of propellants for an ETC launcher. (paper)

  8. Thermal transport through a spin-phonon interacting junction: A nonequilibrium Green's function method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we consider heat transport in an insulating ferromagnetic spin chain model with spin-phonon interaction under an external magnetic field. Employing the Holstein-Primakoff transformation to the spin system, we treat the resulted magnon-phonon interaction within the self-consistent Born approximation. We find the magnon-phonon coupling can change qualitatively the magnon thermal conductance in the high-temperature regime. At a spectral mismatched ferromagnetic-normal insulator interface, we also find thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance due to the magnon-phonon interaction. We show that these effects can be effectively tuned by the external applied magnetic field, a convenient advantage absent in anharmonic phonon and electron-phonon systems studied before.

  9. Microspectroscopic Study of Liposome-to-cell Interaction Revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimova, Svetlana L; Kurilchenko, Irina Yu; Tkacheva, Tatyana N; Kavok, Nataliya S; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Nataliya Yu; Chekhun, Vasyl F; Malyukin, Yuriy V

    2014-03-01

    We report the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeling of liposomal vesicles as an effective approach to study in dynamics the interaction of liposomes with living cells of different types (rat hepatocytes, rat bone marrow, mouse fibroblast-like cells and human breast cancer cells) and cell organelles (hepatocyte nuclei). The in vitro experiments were performed using fluorescent microspectroscopic technique. Two fluorescent dyes (DiO as the energy donor and DiI as an acceptor) were preloaded in lipid bilayers of phosphatidylcholine liposomes that ensures the necessary distance between the dyes for effective FRET. The change in time of the donor and acceptor relative fluorescence intensities was used to visualize and trace the liposome-to-cell interaction. We show that FRET-labeling of liposome vesicles allows one to reveal the differences in efficiency and dynamics of these interactions, which are associated with composition, fluidity, and metabolic activity of cell plasma membranes.

  10. Investigation of the molecular level interactions between mucins and food proteins: Spectroscopic, tribological and rheological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz

    The thesis investigated the structure and molecular-level interaction of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and mucins, representing major components of the dairy products and saliva/digestion systems, respectively. Mucins are long glycoprotein molecules responsible for the gel nature of the mucous layer covers...... epithelial surfaces throughout the body. A literature review of the interactions of different mucin types and saliva mucins with several food proteins and food protein emulsions, as well as their functional properties related to the food oral processing is presented at the first chapter of the thesis (Paper...... V). Most of the studies suggest an electrostatic attraction between positively charged food proteins with negatively charged moieties of mucins (mainly on glycosylated region of mucins). The structural changes occurring during the interaction between BLG, the major whey protein, and bovine...

  11. Spectroscopic studies of the interactions between β-lactoglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The zeta potentials of the proteins were also measured to provide information on the role of electrostatic forces in the interaction. The ratio between BLG and BSM was 1:1, and pH was adjusted to 3.0, 5.0 and 7.4 at room temperature. These spectroscopic results suggested......The structural changes occurring during the interaction between β-lactoglobulin (BLG), the major whey protein, and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), a major salivary protein, were studied using high and low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Circular...... in the BLG–BSM mixtures for water–protein interaction after aggregation of the two proteins....

  12. Theoretical study on the interaction of pregabalin and olanzapine with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZibaHooshiarSodagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims is to study the interaction of two drugs including pregabalin and olanzapine with DNA. For this purpose, density functional theory calculations and docking were used. The structure of pregabalin and olanzapine using B3Lyp theory level and the basis set 6-311 G(d,p was optimized. Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO calculated for each drugs. The obtained results showed that olanzapine is more reactive than pregabalin. Docking of drugs with DNA was performed and the results showed that binding affinity of olanzapine is higher than pregabalin. Also, the graphical results revealed that olanzapine interact with DNA via 5-terminal major groove of DNA, whereas pregabalin interact with DNA via 3- termind major groove.

  13. The nonlinear Dirac equation and the study of effective many-particle interactions in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, D.C.

    1987-12-01

    The starting point of the discussion was extended Lagrangian density for the classical Dirac field. The considered additional terms we had thereby interpreted as effective interactions because the corresponding field theory was not renormalizable. A scalar coupling as well as a vectorial coupling were put into calculation. The equation of motion for the system was thereby a one-particle equation which separated for s 1/2 and p 1/2 states and led to a system of coupled differential equations for the radial part. The derived radial equations were studied on three different levels. First we considered ordinary systems from atomic physics with ordinal numbers Z ≤ 110 in order to obtain from precision experiments of quantum electrodynamics upper bounds for the coupling constants. Second we have studied the influence of these additional interactions on the energy levels of the superheavy systems with ordinal numbers 110 ≤ Z ≤ 190. Third we have searched for bound states of a nonlinear Dirac equation which should exist only because of the effective interaction. In the further study we have then changed to a field-quantized consideration because our hitherto analysis was purely classical. In this connection we have studied the (e + e - ) 2 system with a (anti ΨΓΨ) 2 interaction. From the corresponding many-particle equation we have then by means of the Hartree-Fock method derived the one-particle equation of the system. Finally we had studied the electron-positron interaction by exchange of a massive intermediate vector boson. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Interaction study of rice stripe virus proteins reveals a region of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) required for NP self-interaction and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-04-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), which belongs to the genus Tenuivirus, is an emergent virus problem. The RSV genome is composed of four single-strand RNAs (RNA1-RNA4) and encodes seven proteins. We investigated interactions between six of the RSV proteins by yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) assay in vitro and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in planta. Y2H identified self-interaction of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and NS3, while BiFC revealed self-interaction of NP, NS3, and NCP. To identify regions(s) and/or crucial amino acid (aa) residues required for NP self-interaction, we generated various truncated and aa substitution mutants. Y2H assay showed that the N-terminal region of NP (aa 1-56) is necessary for NP self-interaction. Further analysis with substitution mutants demonstrated that additional aa residues located at 42-47 affected their interaction with full-length NP. These results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-36 and 42-47) is required for NP self-interaction. BiFC and co-localization studies showed that the region required for NP self-interaction is also required for NP localization at the nucleus. Overall, our results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-47) of the NP is important for NP self-interaction and that six aa residues (42-47) are essential for both NP self-interaction and nuclear localization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interaction on cognition in schizophrenia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Fryssira, Helen; Kleisas, Spyridon; Sofocleous, Christalena; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Gazi, Anthia; Boniatsi, Lucia; Chaidemenos, Alexandros; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2013-03-14

    The investigation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-[rs4680]) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-[rs1801133]) polymorphisms' interaction might shed light into the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In an exploratory study, we hypothesized that the MTHFR 677T allele which has been related to a hypoactive MTHFR enzyme would augment the unfavorable effects of COMT Val158 homozygosity which has been associated with COMT enzyme hyperfunction. 90 schizophrenia patients and 55 healthy volunteers were assessed on psychomotor speed, pattern and spatial recognition memory (SRM), spatial working memory (SWM), attentional flexibility and planning (Stockings of Cambridge-SOC). IQ scores in a random subgroup of patients were also measured. A significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on SWM (p=0.048) and planning (p=0.026) was revealed in both groups. Among COMT-Val/Val participants, MTHFR-C/C made more SWM errors (p=0.033) and solved fewer SOC problems (p=0.025) than MTHFR-T carriers. In patients, there was a significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on full scale IQ (p=0.035): among COMT-Met carriers, MTHFR-T carriers performed significantly worse than MTHFR-C/C (p=0.021), which was driven by a COMT×MTHFR interaction involving performance IQ (p=0.047). In conclusion, COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interacted on cognition, suggesting that the MTHFR enzyme activity might moderate the effects of the COMT enzyme. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, the MTHFR T-allele attenuated the cognitive effects of COMT Val homozygosity. In this preliminary study, we propose that dopaminergic and intracellular methylation mechanisms could interact on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the pluronic-silica interaction in synthesis of mesoporous silica under mild acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblom, Andreas; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2010-02-02

    The interaction between silica and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in water may appear trivial and it is generally stated that hydrogen bonding is responsible for the attraction. However, a literature search shows that there is not a consensus with respect to the mechanism behind the attractive interaction. Several papers claim that only hydrogen bonding is not sufficient to explain the binding. The silica-PEO interaction is interesting from an academic perspective and it is also exploited in the preparation of mesoporous silica, a material of considerable current interest. This study concerns the very early stage of synthesis of mesoporous silica under mild acidic conditions, pH 2-5, and the aim is to shed light on the interaction between silica and the PEO-containing structure directing agent. The synthesis comprises two steps. An organic silica source, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), is first hydrolyzed and Pluronic P123, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer, is subsequently added at different time periods following the hydrolysis of TEOS. It is shown that the interaction between the silica and the Pluronic is dependent both on the temperature and on the time between onset of TEOS hydrolysis and addition of the copolymer. The results show that the interaction is mainly driven by entropy. The effect of the synthesis temperature and of the time between hydrolysis and addition of the copolymer on the final material is also studied. The material with the highest degree of mesoorder was obtained when the reaction was performed at 20 degrees C and the copolymer was added 40 h after the start of TEOS hydrolysis. It is claimed that the reason for the good ordering of the silica is that whereas particle formation under these conditions is fast, the rate of silica condensation is relatively low.

  17. Study of neutrino interactions in the near detector of T2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Chiraz

    2014-01-01

    The T2K experiment studies the properties of neutrinos, particularly neutrino oscillations. It takes place in Japan and uses a muonic neutrino beam produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex, a near detector, ND280 on the J-PARC site in order to characterise the beam, and a far detector, Super-Kamiokande 295 km away in order to measure the neutrino oscillations. The near detector is also used to study the neutrino interactions and the goal of this thesis is the measurement of muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections.The thesis first introduces neutrino physics, then the T2K experiment and more particularly the time projection chambers of the near detector, and its data quality checking that I was in charge of. The analysis is based on the T2K data recorded until 2013. The selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions is then presented, as well as a preliminary study of the selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions with the production of a neutral pion. A criterion on track multiplicity allows enriching the former sample in interactions corresponding to a neutrino deep inelastic scattering. Finally a fit, first validated on simulated data, allows the extraction of the muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections. (author) [fr

  18. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  19. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  20. A study of the use of simulated work task situations in interactive information retrieval evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether....... The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study. Keywords Interactive information retrieval study, IIR study, Test design, Simulated work task situations, Meta-evaluation...... situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information...