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Sample records for tlkinud elbe kuldme

  1. Meie aja kangelased Taj stiilis / Rohit Deshpandé, Anjali Raina ; tõlkinud Elbe Kuldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deshpandé, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    India hotelliketi Taj Grupp pühendunud töötajatest: personali otsimisest, palkamisest, koolitamisest ja tunnustamisest. Taj Mumbai hotelli teenindajate tegutsemisest 6. nov. 2008. a. terrorirünnaku ajal

  2. Radioecological studies on the Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Kanisch, G.; Kellermann, H.J.; Nagel, G.; Vobach, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effluents from nuclear power plants situated on the banks of the Elbe (Stade, Brokdorf, Kruemmel) has not contributed to any measurable degree to an increase in the environmental radioactivity. In the upper Elbe regions, such incrases have chiefly been attributable to fallout from nuclear weapons and, in recent years, radioactive fallout of the Chernobyl power plant. In the lower Elbe, brackish waters and estuary, however, the effect of added radioactivity from the nuclear reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague is making itself evident. This was confirmed by large-scale studies using water, fish, sestone and sediment samples that were examined for their individual contents of radioactivity. If one considers the degree of exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity, radioactive exposure of the population on account of nuclear power stations must be judged as being within the negligible range. (DG) [de

  3. Cellular Electronic Logbook cELB Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ELB program provides data on Gulf shrimp fishing effort that is critical to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) and NOAA Fisheries in...

  4. Development and adaptation of the ELBIS Elbe river information system into a water quality information system of the ARGE-ELBE working group. Final report; Entwicklung und Anpassung des Elbeinformationssystems ELBIS fuer ein Gewaessergueteinformationssystem der ARGE-ELBE. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, B.; Prange, A.

    2001-07-01

    The geo-information system ELBIS was installed in mid-November 2000 to provide information on the web on Elbe water quality and other information. It presents the current results of the national Elbe monitoring programme of the ARGE Elbe working group, as well as the results of the 'Elbe 2000' programme of the nineties. [German] Das Geo-Informationssystem ELBIS informiert seit November 2000 im Internet ueber die Wasserqualitaet und verwandte Elbe-Themen. Mittels einer geografischen Oberflaeche stellt es die fortlaufenden, aktuellen Ergebnisse der nationalen Elbe-Messprogramme der ARGE Elbe (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe) dar sowie Forschungsdaten aus der 'Elbe 2000'-Schadstoffforschung der neunziger Jahre. Auf einfache und zeitgemaesse Weise macht ELBIS diese Ergebnisse der interessierten Oeffentlichkeit zugaenglich und bietet Fachleuten einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber die Datenlage. (orig.)

  5. Beam Loss Detection at Radiation Source ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, P; Schurig, R; Langenhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The Rossendorf superconducting Electron Linac of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) delivers an 40 MeV, 1 mA cw-beam for different applications such as bremsstrahlung production, electron channelling, free-electron lasers or secondary particle beam generation. In this energy region in case of collisions of the electron beam with the pipe nearly all beam power will be deposited into the pipe material. Therefore a reliable beam loss monitoring is essential for machine protection at ELBE. Different systems basing on photo multipliers, compton diodes and long ionization chambers were studied. The pros and cons of the different systems will be discussed. Ionization chambers based on air-isolated RF cables installed some cm away parallel to the beam line turned out to be the optimal solution. The beam shut-off threshold was adjusted to 1 μC integral charge loss during a 100 ms time interval. Due to the favourable geometry the monitor sensitivity varies less than ±50% along the beam line (di...

  6. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  7. Water quality data of the Elbe from Schnackenburg to the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The working pool for pollution control of the Elbe of the states Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein (ARGE ELBE) published in its annual reports 'water quality data of the Elbe' results of water quality analyses carried out within the scope of the joint ARGE ELBE measuring program in the section of the Elbe from Schnackenburg to the North Sea including the lower reaches of tributaries of the Elbe. The documentation of measuring data in numerical tables is aligned with the needs of specialized offices of the states and the government as well as of research and university institutes. (orig.) [de

  8. Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Wricke, B.; Sontheimer, H.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.) [de

  9. Performance of the ELBE BPM Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Evtushenko, P

    2003-01-01

    The ELBE radiation source is based on a superconducting linac. Initially it was designed to be used in CW mode with repetition rates either 13 MHz either 260 MHz. Later it was decided to operate the accelerator with reduced repetition rates for diagnostic reasons and for certain users. Now it is possible to operate at repetition rate 13/n MHz, where n can be 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128. It is required that the BPM system supports any of these operation modes. A core element of the BPM electronics is a logarithmic amplifier AD8313 made by Analog Devices Inc. The logarithmic amplifier is a direct RF to DC converter rated up to 2.5 GHz. Initial design of the BPM electronic was sophisticated only for CW operation with repetition rate more than 10 MHz, since bandwidth of the AD8313 is about of 10 MHz. Additionally a sample and hold amplifier is built in to provide enough time for an ADC to make measurements. The sample and hold amplifier is synchronized with a micropulse frequency. In the paper we present results...

  10. Geochemical characterisation of Elbe river high flood sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Rupp, H.; Meissner, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung; Lohse, M.; Buettner, O.; Friese, K. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Miehlich, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    2001-07-01

    Quality aims for land usage in flood plains have to be worked out in the Russian-German research project 'Effects of floods on the pollution of agricultural used flood plain soils of the Oka River and the Elbe River'. It is financed by the Germany Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 02 WT 9617/0). Beside the characterisation of the present pollution of soils for the middle Elbe, it is necessary to prognosticate the current pollutant input. At the examination site nearby Wittenberge, Elbe River kilometers 435 and 440, natural deposited flood sediments were sampled by artificial lawn mats. By the geochemical characterisation it is possible to record the metal input into the flood plain and to win knowledge about the sedimentation process. The results of sediment investigation of the high flood in spring 1997 are presented. (orig.)

  11. Ecological interdependences between fish fauna and habitat structures of the Elbe river; Oekologische Zusammenhaenge zwischen Fischgemeinschafts- und Lebensraumstrukturen der Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, R. [Institut fuer Hydrobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft - Elbelabor, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Buslovich, R.; Gerkens, M. [and others

    2000-07-01

    Fluvial fishes are good indicators of the habitat quality in river systems. However, no quantitative data about the relationships between the ecomorphology of the Elbe River and its fish community were available. Therefore, fish ecological assessments or predictions of the development of the fish populations were not possible. Since March 1997, a project financed by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology focuses on mathematical modelling of the habitat used of all life history stages of the fish fauna. The results of the project shall support decisions in the framework of changing ecomorphology in the Elbe River. (orig.)

  12. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - endocrineously active substances in the Elbe, its tributaries and the North Sea; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Endokrin wirksame Stoffe in der Elbe, in Nebenfluessen und in der Nordsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemken, O.P. [GALAB, Geesthacht (Germany); Theobald, N. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Hebbel, H. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Endocrineously active substances are discharged into surface bodies of water with communal and industrial effluents. Especially estrogenic substances like Bisphenol A, alkyl phenols and alkyl phenol ethoxylates in the Elbe and its tributaries have been neglected so far. In the context of an interdisciplinary project, chemists, biologists and mathematicians investigated the concentrations and fate of these xenoestrogens, relative potential effects of unknown water constituents and quantitative statistical mechanisms based on the available analytical findings. The contribution intends to contribute information on the pollutant situation of selected endocrineously active substances in the Elbe and its tributaries. [German] Ein relevanter Eintragspfad fuer endokrin wirksame Stoffe in die Oberflaechengewaesser sind die Abwaesser kommunaler und industrieller Klaeranlagen. Insbesondere das Vorkommen und der Verbleib von oestrogen wirkenden Stoffen wie Bisphenol A, den Alkylphenolen und Alkylphenolethoxylaten in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen wurde bisher zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. In einem interdisziplinaeren Projekt, an dem sich Chemiker, Biologen und Mathematiker beteiligten, wird versucht, eine erste Antwort zu geben ueber das Vorkommen und den Verbleib dieser Xenooestrogene, ueber relative Wirkpotenzen von unbekannten Wasserinhaltsstoffen durch die Anwendung von In-vitro-Tests und ueber quantitative statistische Zusammenhaenge, die auf vorhandenen Analysenergebnissen basieren. Dieser Bericht soll einen Beitrag leisten zur Immissionssituation von ausgewaehlten endokrin wirksamen Stoffen in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen. (orig.)

  13. Xenoestrogens in the River Elbe and its tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, Burkhard; Ehrhorn, Ute; Heemken, Olaf-Peter; Lepom, Peter; Reincke, Heinrich; Sawal, Georg; Theobald, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of organic chemicals in the River Elbe may be detrimental to aquatic organisms. - 4-Alkylphenols, 4-alkylphenol ethoxylates, 4-alkylphenoxy carboxylates, bisphenol A, bisphenol F, 4-hydroxyacetophenon, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and steroid hormones were analyzed in water samples of the River Elbe and its tributaries Schwarze Elster, Mulde, Saale, Havel and Schwinge. Additionally, freshly deposited sediments (FDS, composite samples) of the River Elbe and its tributaries were analyzed. The concentrations in water samples ranged from (in ng/l): bisphenol A 4 to 92, branched nonylphenol 13 to 87, branched nonylphenol ethoxylates <0.5 to 120, 4-tert. nonylphenoxy carboxylates <10 to 940 and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 4 to 12. Steroid hormones were only detected in the Czech tributaries Jizera and Vltava in concentrations near the limit of quantification. In FDS samples the concentrations amounted to (in μg/kg d.w.): bisphenol A 10-380, branched nonylphenol 27-430, branched nonylphenol ethoxylates 24-3700, nonylphenoxy carboxylates <50 and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 23-4400. Increased bisphenol A concentrations were found in water and FDS samples taken from the Czech-German border at Schmilka and the mouth of the Schwinge (only water sample). According to studies conducted in the Elbe Estuary and the German Bight, the River Elbe must be considered as a major source of pollution for the North Sea in respect of the compounds analyzed. A comparison of bisphenol A concentrations, 4-alkylphenols and the corresponding ethoxylates analyzed in the River Elbe and its tributaries with those found in other German surface waters indicated a low level of contamination. The evaluation of the data based on LOEC-values indicated that the concentrations were well below the effectivity threshold for some 4-alkylphenols. According to recent ecotoxicological investigations, for example, with prosobranch snails, bisphenol A concentrations found in water samples of the River Elbe and

  14. Sediment pollution of the Elbe River side structures - current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupova, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír

    2016-04-01

    The contribution brings the summarized results of a long-term research on sediment pollution of side structures of the Elbe River over the last 14 years. The investigation has been focused on old anthropogenic pollution of sediment cores taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain, as the sampling of deeper sediments outside the riverbed is not a part of systematic monitoring of sediment pollution of the Elbe. The Elbe River floodplain has been influenced by human activities since the Middle Ages, but the main anthropogenic pollution have been produced in the 20th century. The studied localities were chosen with the respect to the distance from the source of industrial pollution, the intensity of hydrological communication with the river and the surrounding landuse to determine the extend and the level of anthropogenic contamination in the Elbe River floodplain ecosystem. Apart from bathymetric measurements, observation of the hydrological regime in several fluvial lakes or water quality sampling at some localities, the research was focused above all on determination of metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) in all taken sediment cores, specific organic compounds (PCBs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PAHs etc.), total organic carbon at some localities and grain structure analyses. The data were also compared with the results of systematic sediment monitoring from the nearest riverbed sampling stations on the Elbe River. The highest concentrations of metals and specific organic compounds were determined in the sediments taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain (Zimní přístav PARAMO, Rosice fuvial Lake, Libiš pool etc.) situated in the vicinity of the main Elbe River polluters - Synthesia chemical plant and PARAMO refinery in Pardubice or Spolana chemical plant near Neratovice. However, there was also determined a significant role of the hydrological communication with the river proved with lower sediment pollution in separated localities. The realization of the

  15. Quarternary tectonics in the Lower Elbe region. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the Lower Elbe region, quarternary tectonic movements cannot be excluded, neither on the basis of ground survey findings and exploratory drills nor by evaluation of topographic and geological maps and geoscientific literature. It can be stated that: 1) The deep quarternary channels are neither tectonic structures nor fossil river beds cut into a foreland assumed to have been raised by 300-400 m but, rather, subglacially deepened erosion valleys; this hypothesis is proved not only by their shape and course but also by their being filled with purely nordic material. 2) Fracture-tectonic terrace movements cannot be proved; disturbances in geest regions are due to unit shortening of ice, dead ice subsidences, etc. 3) The river beds in the Lower Elbe region do not follow tectonic lines, and hydrographic 'anomalies' in the Gorleben region are randomly constructed. 4) The so-called 'crust movements' in the north-west GDR are, among others, relative movements against sea level and have many components whose order of magnitude is difficult to estimate. In particular, the apparently undisturbed location of the lower Elbe terrace makes tectonic mobility and earthquake hazards appear highly improbable. 5) Subrosion sinks and collapse sinks have so far not been detected over the Gorleben salt dome, and their existence is highly improbable. (orig.) [de

  16. Radioecological studies in the Elbe river. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Kanisch, G.; Kanisch, M.; Lauer, R.

    1983-01-01

    The plutonium contents in water samples taken from the upper Elbe was 5.3 E-05 Bq/l on average from 1979 to 1982 (excluding values below NWC). From 1978 to 1982, in the lawer Elbe 3.3 E-05 Bq/l were measured on average. Most of this activity originates with nuclear weapon test fallout. The activity of the isotope Pu-238 in the fallout is 1/10 to 1/25 of the cumulative activity of Pu 239 and 240. This result is satisfactorily reflected in the measured values shown herein. Specific activity in fish is about 10 times higher (concentration factor 10). In sediments, plutonium is enriched on average by the factor 6000. From 1978 to 1982, the tritium contents in the water of the Elbe was on average 7 Bq/l. The concentration factor for fish meat was determined as 1. The radiation exposure of the population as detemined from the measured activity values are radiobiologically absolutely negligible (whole-body dose [de

  17. Determination of volatile, toxic hydrogen phosphides in the sediments of the Elbe river, the Elbe estuaries and the Heligoland Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and concentraion of phosphines in the sediments of the Elbe river were determined by selective preparation and analysis. The concentration of phosphines in one kilogram wet sediment was in the range of 0.1 to 57 n g with the bulking, anaerobic mud from harbors having the highest and the sandy, aerobic sediments having the lowest concentrations. Phosphines in fluvial sediments were detected successfully for the first time applying the method described. (orig.) [de

  18. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  19. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - selected organic trace pollutants in the Elbe and its tributaries 1994-1999; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Ausgewaehlte organische Spurenverunreinigungen in der Elbe und Elbenebenfluessen im Zeitraum 1994 - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooken, C.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    The present report contains results on the occurrence of polar and nonpolar substances in the Elbe and selected tributaries which were analysed in the period from 1994 to 1999. It shows that industrial and municipal purification plants still have an insufficient cleaning capacity for certain substances. The process by which ubiquitous pollutants can enter the Elbe via a small, widely ramified fluvial system is exemplified for the family of chloroalkyl phosphates. These mainly occur in flame retardants and plasticisers in polyurethanes. The paper also presents results from a selection of 28 substances listed in Directive 76/464/ECC. They provide a decision aid for the planning of future measuring concepts based on the EU Water Framework Directive. In the ARGE ELBE programme organic pollutants are recorded and published on a routine basis. These are mostly nonpolar substances such as the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls or slow-evaporating insecticidal chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DTT. Recent analysis results show that this group of substances is relevant now as before and that it will remain so for the years to come. Special studies involving aqueous phase measurements were performed on a different group of substances, namely polar substances, which are generally readily soluble. The substances on which this report is chiefly focused originate from different sources: industrial and municipal effluents, diffuse inputs from agriculture and atmospheric depositions. In many cases they are difficultly degradable and could attain significance where river water in the form of river bank filtrate is used for drinking water production. However, due to complex and effective purification technologies they rarely enter drinking water. [German] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt Ergebnisse zum Vorkommen polarer und unpolarer Stoffe in der Elbe und in ausgewaehlten Nebenfluessen, die in dem Zeitraum von 1994 bis 1999 analysiert worden sind. Er zeigt, dass fuer einzelne

  20. ELB-trees an efficient and lock-free B-tree derivative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Karlsson, Sven; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    overhead. All lock-free data structures are based on simple atomic operations that, though supported by modern processors, are expensive in execution time. We present a lock-free data structure, ELB-trees, which under certain assumptions can be used as multimaps as well as priority queues. Specifically...... it cannot store duplicate key-value pairs, and it is not linearizable. Compared to existing data structures, ELB-trees require fewer atomic operations leading to improved performance. We measure the parallel performance of ELB-trees using a set of benchmarks and observe that ELB-trees are up to almost 30......As computer systems scale in the number of processors, scalable data structures with good parallel performance become increasingly important. Lock-free data structures promise such improved parallel performance at the expense of higher algorithmic complexity and higher sequential execution time...

  1. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Ecological relations between fish assemblages and their habitats in the Elbe River (ELFI). Final report; Oekologische Zusammenhaenge zwischen Fischgemeinschafts- und Lebensraumstrukturen der Elbe (ELFI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellen, W.; Kausch, H.; Thiel, R.; Ginter, R. (eds.)

    2002-12-01

    In the framework of the joint project, extensive data were obtained with regard to ecomorphology and hydro-dynamics of fish habitats, species diversity, age structure, abundance, habitat quality, habitat use, larval drift, migrations, growth, health status and population genetics of the fish fauna of the middle Elbe River. The data were stored in data banks and were used as basis to assess the middle Elbe River, to formulate a fish-ecological guiding view, and to develop predictive habitat models for different life stages of indicatory fish species. The data and results of the joint project will be stored in fish data banks of the ARGE Elbe and of the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The information is useful for the development of decision support systems. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojekts wurden umfangreiche Daten zu Oekomorphologie und Hydrodynamik von Fischhabitaten, zu Artendiversitaet, Altersstruktur, Abundanz, Habitatqualitaet und -nutzung, Larvendrift, Wanderungen, Wachstum, Gesundheitsstatus und Populationsgenetik der Fischfauna in der Mittelelbe erhoben und in Datenbanken abgelegt. Darauf aufbauend wurde die Mittelelbe fischoekologisch bewertet, ein fischoekologisches Leitbild formuliert und prognosefaehige Habitatmodelle fuer verschiedene Lebensstadien von Indikatorfischarten entwickelt. Die Daten und Ergebnisse des Verbundprojekts fliessen in die Fischdatenbanken der ARGE Elbe und der Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde ein und stehen fuer die Entwicklung von DSS (Decision Support Systems) zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  3. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - multi-element analysis of water samples from the Elbe and selected tributaries; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Multielementanalysen von Wasserproben der Elbe und ausgewaehlter Nebenfluesse. Laengsprofilbeprobung vom September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F.; Berger, H. [Umweltbehoerde Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Umweltuntersuchungen; Aulinger, A.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    This special report focuses on measurements of elements whose scope goes far beyond the routine monitoring for metals. The present studies are intended to extend the existing knowledge on the pollution situation of the Elbe and certain of its tributaries as well as provide a basis for formulating future guidelines for action. The first step towards this goal is sampling by means of an helicopter. The sampling is followed by a very involved and costly analysis programme, accompanied by extensive quality assurance measures. This is the only way of reliably analysing a large number of elements occurring in extremely low concentrations. Once the data have been recorded the question arises how they are to be evaluated. What schemes are suitable for categorising a large number of elements measured in either the suspended matter or the water compartment? What elements are to be regarded as the result of anthropogenic influences and what are their respective background concentrations in the fluvial system under study? These questions are approached by means of statistical methods which permit identifying elemental patterns and pollution sources as well as optimising the selection of measuring points for future studies. [German] In diesem Sonderbericht steht die Bestimmung von Elementen, die in ihrem Umfang ueber die routinemaessig erfassten Metalle deutlich hinausgeht, im Vordergrund. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen sollen das bereits vorhandene Wissen zur Beschreibung der Immissionssituation der Elbe und von bestimmten Nebenfluessen erweitern, verbunden mit der Moeglichkeit, zukuenftige Handlungsmaximen zu erarbeiten. Zur Erreichung dieses Ziels steht zu Beginn die Probenahme mit einem Helicopter. Im Anschluss an die Probenahme folgt eine sehr aufwendige und teure Analytik, die begleitet wird von umfassenden Massnahmen zur Qualitaetssicherung. Nur so ist es moeglich, eine grosse Vielzahl von Elementen in extrem niedrigen Konzentrationen sicher analysieren zu koennen. Sind

  4. Pollutant monitoring in the Elbe river with the aid of the zebra mussel. A classification system - 1990-1997; Schadstoffueberwachung der Elbe mit der Dreikantmuschel. Ein Klassifizierungssystem - 1990-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, H.J. [Hydrobiologische Untersuchungen und Gutachten - HUuG, Tangstedt (Germany); Gaumert, T. [comps.] [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The pollutant burden of the Elbe river can now be assessed more accurately with the aid of a new classification system based on pollutant accumulation in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), which provided the basis for a 7-stage pollution scale for individual substances. This closes a gap in pollution analysis of the Elbe river and makes statements on pollutant levels more efficient. [Deutsch] Die Schadstoffbelastung der Elbe kann mit Hilfe eines neuen und hier erstmalig vorgestellten Klassifizierungssystems besser als bisher bewertet werden. Die Auswertung angereicherter Schadstoffgehalte im Weichkoerper der in den Elbe-Messstationen gehaelterten Dreikantmuschel Dreissena polymorpha fuehrte zur Entwicklung einer siebenstufigen Belastungs-Skala fuer einzelne Substanzen. Mit diesem Verfahren kann somit ein offener Bereich bei der Bewertung der Schadstoffbelastung der Elbe geschlossen und die Gewaesserueberwachung mit einer hoeheren Aussagekraft betrieben werden. (orig.)

  5. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  6. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  7. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  8. Comparison of Heterotrophic Bacterial Production-Rates in Early Spring in the Turbid Estuaries of the Scheldt and the Elbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1995-01-01

    In spring bacterial production rates were estimated by tritiated thymidine incorporation in the turbid estuaries of the rivers Scheldt and Elbe. Bacterial production rates in the Scheldt were 5 times higher than in the Elbe. In the Scheldt bacterial production rates correlated better with the DOC

  9. Establishment of a laboratory for spectroscopic investigation of radioactive samples at the ELBE-FEL facility. Intentions and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, H.; Friedrich, H.; Heise, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Radiochemistry is setting up a radionuclide laboratory for optical spectroscopy at the free electron laser facility of the ELBE electron accelerator (ELBE-FEL). The quality of the infrared light source opens up new fields of analytical research in radiochemistry. Some aspects of future applications are introduced. (orig.)

  10. Examples of sediment assessment on the Elbe: contamination and ecotoxic effect; Beispiele der Sedimentbewertung an der Elbe: Schadstoffbelastung und oekotoxische Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, E.; Heininger, P.; Pfitzner, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    It is now an undisputed fact that comprehensive sediment assessment is only possible through a combination of chemical studies on contamination, ecotoxicological tests and in situ studies. The effect of chemicals on the aquatic environment can be determined in the sediment itself and in the derived compartments. The batteries of biotests proposed for this purpose and also used for Elbe sediments encompass studies on the whole sediment, in the elutriate and in extracts with methanol. The test battery presented here is more extensive and also includes pore water studies. For the tests with the whole sediment, the following test organisms were used: D. magna (DA), C. riparius (CR), T. tubifex (TT), B. cereus (BC) and C. elegans (NE). The toxic effect of pore waters and elutriates were tested with daphnia, green algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus) and luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Luminescent bacteria alone were used for the ecotoxicological study. For this studies eight fresh sediment samples were selected from one reference site Alte Elbe (AE, km 252) and the two anthropogenic influenced sampling sites Meissen harbour (HM, km 83.2) and Fahlberg-List Magdeburg (FL, km 319.4) on the Elbe and the reference site Freienbrink (FB, km 21.5) on the Spree (Fig. 1). The samples were taken in June and October 1997. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile unbestritten ist die Tatsache, dass nur die Kombination aus chemischen Untersuchungen zur Schadstoffbelastung, oekotoxikologischen Tests und in situ-Untersuchungen eine umfassende Sedimentbewertung moeglich macht. Die Wirkung von Chemikalien auf die aquatische Umwelt laesst sich im Sediment selbst und in daraus abgeleiteten Kompartimenten nachweisen. Fuer den Zweck vorgeschlagene und auch auf Elbe-Sedimente angewandte Batterien von Biotests umfassen Untersuchungen im Gesamtsediment, im Eluat und in Extrakten mit Methanol. Die hier vorgestellte Testbatterie ist umfangreicher und um Porenwasseruntersuchungen erweitert worden. Fuer

  11. EPOS-An intense positron beam project at the ELBE radiation source in Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause-Rehberg, R.; Sachert, S.; Brauer, G.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.

    2006-01-01

    EPOS, the acronym of ELBE Positron Source, describes a running project to build an intense pulsed beam of mono-energetic positrons (0.2-40 keV) for materials research. Positrons will be created via pair production at a tungsten target using the pulsed 40 MeV electron beam of the superconducting linac electron linac with high brilliance and low emittance (ELBE) at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (near Dresden, Germany). The chosen design of the system under construction is described and results of calculations simulating the interaction of the electron beam with the target are presented, and positron beam formation and transportation is also discussed

  12. Methane distribution and methane oxidation in the water column of the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušů, Anna; Osudar, R.; Šimek, Karel; Bussmann, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2017), s. 443-458 ISSN 1015-1621 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : estuary * methane * methane budget * ethane oxidation * River Elbe Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.821, year: 2016

  13. Biogeochemical investigations on processes affecting the transport behaviour of trace elements in the tidal Elbe River; Biogeochemische Prozessuntersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Spurenelementen in der Tide-Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1997-12-31

    This work concentrates on distribution and transport of micropollutants in anthropogenically affected estuary systems. Choosing the tidal Elbe River as an example, the influence of microlagae on two important partial processes of the transport regime, the remobilization (a) from undisturbed sediments and (b) from suspended particulate matter, was simulated and quantified in the laboratory. Benthic and planktonic release of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn into the dissolved phase of the river pelagial were estimated and comparatively evaluated for summer/late summer situation. During that season natural decomposition of suspended particulate matter in the water column thus represents the quantitatively most significant mobilization pathway for particle bound heavy metals in the river section between Hamburg and Glueckstadt. Knowing the composition and heavy metal load of suspended particulate matter, rich in algae, mobilization rates can consequently be calculated for the water column with regard to conditions typical for estuaries. The prognosis of the differing transport behaviour of single heavy metals for greater sections of estuaries is also possible if these rates are implemented into transport-reaction models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit Verteilung und Transport von Spurenschadstoffen in anthropogen belasteten Aestuarsystemen. Am Beispiel der Tide-Elbe wurde der Einfluss von Mikroalgen auf zwei wichtige Teilprozesse des Transportregimes, die Remobilisierung (a) aus ungestoerten Sedimenten und (b) aus suspendierten Schwebstoffen, im Labor simuliert und quantifiziert. Benthische und planktische Freisetzung von Cd, Cu, Pb und Zn in die Loesungsphase des Flusspelagials der Tide-Elbe wurden fuer die Sommer-/Spaetsommer-Situation abgeschaetzt und vergleichend bewertet. Der natuerliche Schwebstoff-Abbau in der Wassersaeule stellt demnach in dieser Jahreszeit im Stromabschnitt zwischen Hamburg und Glueckstadt den quantitativ bedeutsamsten

  14. Biogeochemical investigations on processes affecting the transport behaviour of trace elements in the tidal Elbe River; Biogeochemische Prozessuntersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Spurenelementen in der Tide-Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, K [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    This work concentrates on distribution and transport of micropollutants in anthropogenically affected estuary systems. Choosing the tidal Elbe River as an example, the influence of microlagae on two important partial processes of the transport regime, the remobilization (a) from undisturbed sediments and (b) from suspended particulate matter, was simulated and quantified in the laboratory. Benthic and planktonic release of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn into the dissolved phase of the river pelagial were estimated and comparatively evaluated for summer/late summer situation. During that season natural decomposition of suspended particulate matter in the water column thus represents the quantitatively most significant mobilization pathway for particle bound heavy metals in the river section between Hamburg and Glueckstadt. Knowing the composition and heavy metal load of suspended particulate matter, rich in algae, mobilization rates can consequently be calculated for the water column with regard to conditions typical for estuaries. The prognosis of the differing transport behaviour of single heavy metals for greater sections of estuaries is also possible if these rates are implemented into transport-reaction models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit Verteilung und Transport von Spurenschadstoffen in anthropogen belasteten Aestuarsystemen. Am Beispiel der Tide-Elbe wurde der Einfluss von Mikroalgen auf zwei wichtige Teilprozesse des Transportregimes, die Remobilisierung (a) aus ungestoerten Sedimenten und (b) aus suspendierten Schwebstoffen, im Labor simuliert und quantifiziert. Benthische und planktische Freisetzung von Cd, Cu, Pb und Zn in die Loesungsphase des Flusspelagials der Tide-Elbe wurden fuer die Sommer-/Spaetsommer-Situation abgeschaetzt und vergleichend bewertet. Der natuerliche Schwebstoff-Abbau in der Wassersaeule stellt demnach in dieser Jahreszeit im Stromabschnitt zwischen Hamburg und Glueckstadt den quantitativ bedeutsamsten

  15. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  16. The Radiation Source ELBE and its Research Program in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schwengner, R.

    2005-01-01

    The new radiation source 'Strahlungsquelle ELBE' at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) near Dresden, Germany, is a user facility that utilizes a superconducting linear accelerator to produce various secondary beams for experiments in nuclear science, solid state physics, materials research, environmental chemistry and in the life sciences. The high brilliance electron beam of up to 40 MeV and 1 mA (cw) is mainly used to drive free electron lasers producing infrared light in the 5-150 μm wavelength region. Additionally, polarized MeV-Bremsstrahlung and X-rays from electron channeling are available, facilities for neutron and positron production are under construction. The talk outlines the ongoing research activities at ELBE with special attention to the nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments

  17. Investigation on the formation of monomethylmercury(II) in the Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Wilken, R.D.; Gisder, P.

    1994-01-01

    Very little is known about transformation reactions of pollutants attached to suspended materials in the Elbe. In the present study, the influence of bacteria present in suspended particulate matter and in Elbe sediments, on dynamic transformations of mercury species was investigated. The formation of highly toxic monomethylmercury is more effective in the presence of organotin, - lead and arsenic compounds, via transmethylation reactions, than in the presence of biogenic methyldonors. Under oxic conditions, bacteria isolated from suspended particulate matter decompose methlmercury very rapidly to inorganic Hg(II), which is immobilized by the cells. In sediments, redox potential and pH value are important for the formation of methylmercury. Under anoxic conditions a pH of 6.5 is advantageous for the methylation of mercury(II)ions. (orig.) [de

  18. Fast neutron measurements at the nELBE time-of-flight facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghansa A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compact neutron-time-of-flight facility nELBE at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf has been rebuilt. A new enlarged experimental hall with a flight path of up to 10 m is available for neutron time-of-flight experiments in the fast energy range from about 50 keV to 10 MeV. nELBE is intended to deliver nuclear data of fast neutron nuclear interactions e.g. for the transmutation of nuclear waste and improvement of neutron physical simulations of innovative nuclear systems. The experimental programme consists of transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section measurements, and neutron induced fission cross sections. The inelastic scattering to the first few excited states in 56Fe was investigated by measuring the gamma production cross section with an HPGe detector. The neutron induced fission of 242Pu was studied using fast ionisation chambers with large homogeneous actinide deposits.

  19. The elbe accelerator facility starts operation with the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2010-01-01

    As the first superconducting rf photo-injector (SRF gun) in practice, the FZD 3+1/2 cell SRF gun is successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE. This setting will improve the beam quality for ELBE users. It is the first example for an accelerator facility fully based on superconducting RF technology. For high average power FEL and ERL sources, the combination of SRF linac and SRF gun provides a new chance to produce beams of high average current and low emittance with relative low power consumption. The main parameters achieved from the present SRF gun are the final electron energy of 3 MeV, 16 μA average current, and rms transverse normalized emittances of 3 mm mrad at 77 pC bunch charge. A modified 3+1/2 cell niobium cavity has been fabricated and tested, which will increase the rf gradient in the gun and thus better the beam parameters further. In this paper the status of the integration of the SRF gun with the ELBE linac will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will ...

  20. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  1. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  2. Seasonal variation of sediment toxicity in the Rivers Dommel and Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.; Matthaei, A.; Heise, S.; Ahlf, W.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated sediment in the river basin has become a source of pollution with increasing importance to the aquatic ecosystem downstream. To monitor the temporal changes of the sediment bound contaminants in the River Elbe and the River Dommel monthly toxicity tests were applied to layered sediment and river water samples over the course of 10 months. There is an indication that contaminated sediments upstream adversely affected sediments downstream, but this process did not cause a continuous increase of sediment toxicity. A clear decrease of toxic effects in water and upper layer sediment was observed at the River Elbe station in spring related to high water discharge and algal blooms. The less obvious variation of sediment toxicity in the River Dommel could be explained by stable hydrological conditions. Future monitoring programmes should promote a more frequent and intensive sampling regime during these particular events for ecotoxicological evaluation. - Significant impacts of hydrological and biological factors on the ecotoxicological quality in two European rivers (Elbe and Dommel)

  3. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  4. Validation of the GPU-Accelerated CFD Solver ELBE for Free Surface Flow Problems in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Janßen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is dedicated to demonstrating the high potential and manifold applications of state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools for free-surface flows in civil and environmental engineering. All simulations were performed with the academic research code ELBE (efficient lattice boltzmann environment, http://www.tuhh.de/elbe. The ELBE code follows the supercomputing-on-the-desktop paradigm and is especially designed for local supercomputing, without tedious accesses to supercomputers. ELBE uses graphics processing units (GPU to accelerate the computations and can be used in a single GPU-equipped workstation of, e.g., a design engineer. The code has been successfully validated in very different fields, mostly related to naval architecture and mechanical engineering. In this contribution, we give an overview of past and present applications with practical relevance for civil engineers. The presented applications are grouped into three major categories: (i tsunami simulations, considering wave propagation, wave runup, inundation and debris flows; (ii dam break simulations; and (iii numerical wave tanks for the calculation of hydrodynamic loads on fixed and moving bodies. This broad range of applications in combination with accurate numerical results and very competitive times to solution demonstrates that modern CFD tools in general, and the ELBE code in particular, can be a helpful design tool for civil and environmental engineers.

  5. Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreska J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

  6. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in soils after the flooding of River Elbe and Mulde in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umlauf, G.; Christoph, E.H.; Bidoglio, G. [European Commission, Ispra (IT). Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Joint Research Center (JRC)

    2004-09-15

    On account of the Elbe and Mulde flooding in 2002 the UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig/Halle co-ordinated an ad hoc project entitled 'Pollutant studies following the flooding in August 2002 - determining the potential hazards in the Elbe and the Mulde' (BMBF ad-hoc- Verbundprojekt Elbe Hochwasser 2002). In the frame of this project, the Institute of Environment and Sustainability of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addressed the issue of the contamination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in flooded soils. The objective of this survey was to assess the contamination of urban and agricultural soils in relation to current land use, to estimate the specific impact of the flooding in 2002 and to link the contamination data to possible sources.

  7. Fast-neutron-induced fission of 242Pu at nELBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögler Toni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu was determined in the range of 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV relative to 235U(n,f at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. The number of target nuclei was calculated by means of measuring the spontaneous fission rate of 242Pu. Neutron transport simulations with Geant4 and MCNP6 are used to correct the relative cross section for neutron scattering. The determined results are in good agreement with current experimental and evaluated data sets.

  8. Neutron total cross section measurements of gold and tantalum at the nELBE photoneutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaske, Roland; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd; Bemmerer, Daniel; Birgersson, Evert; Ferrari, Anna; Grosse, Eckart; Kempe, Mathias; Kögler, Toni; Marta, Michele; Massarczyk, Ralph; Matic, Andrija; Schramm, Georg; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 197 Au and nat Ta have been measured at the nELBE photoneutron source in the energy range from 0.1 - 10 MeV with a statistical uncertainty of up to 2 % and a total systematic uncertainty of 1 %. This facility is optimized for the fast neutron energy range and combines an excellent t ime structure of the neutron pulses (electron bunch width 5 ps) with a short flight path of 7 m. Because of the low instantaneous neutron flux transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections are possible, that exhibit very different beam and back ground conditions than found at other neutron sources.

  9. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Židková, Monika; Kramulová, Barbora; Tauchen, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 171, MAR (2017), s. 97-105 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014; European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : chromatography-mass-spectrometry * gas-chromatography * human pharmaceuticals * waste-water * surface-water * risk-assessment * diclofenac * ibuprofen * products * plants * NSAID Surface water * Pharmaceuticals * GCxGC-TOFMS Elbe basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Environmental biotechnology Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  10. Test measurement of a new TESLA cavity beam position monitor at the ELBE linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.; Schreiber, H.J.; Evtushenko, P.; Schurig, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new type of a cavity BPM proposed for beam position determination along the TESLA linac was tested at the accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf / Dresden. Measurements using an improved BPM (large and stable cross-talk isolation, significantly less energy dissipation, a novel LO signal generation) were performed in single- and multi-bunch regimes. Agreement with expectations was found. The low bunch charge available allowed for preliminary measurements on sensitivity and position resolution, which extrapolated to TESLA would ful l the demands for precise bunch-to-bunch position determination. Possible improvements, in particular on the signal processing scheme, are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Scale-dependent variability of as and Heavy metals in a river elbe floodplain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kiersch, Kristian; Baum, Christel; Mueller, Robert; Jandl, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter [Institute for Land Use, University of Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Falkenberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The River Elbe has been one of the worst polluted major rivers of Europe. For designing a successful remediation strategy of the floodplain soils the spatial variation in total concentrations and bioavailability of pollutants must be known, and the remediation efficiency should be monitored. The obtained data present the ''status quo'' which is a baseline for evaluating the medium-term effects of the phytoremediation with fast-growing willows established in the flood channel. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Influence of environmental factors on fish assemblages in streams of the Elbe and Oder basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Kůra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental parameters on changes in the structure of fish assemblages were studied in the Elbe and the Odra basin. Research was done at 819 sites surveyed in the field during the period 1993-2007. The impact of 46 factors derived from the maps through a GIS was tested as well as the impact of 10 factors recognized in the field. To evaluate the influence of these factors the indirect (DCA and direct (CCA multivariate cluster analysis were used. Analyses were performed with data on presence-absence and relative abundance of each species. DCA well reflects changes in assemblages in the longitudinal profile of streams. CCA refers to a significant influence of regional and temporal variability and influence of individual factors. The fish assemblages are best characterized by distance from the source location, stream slope, altitude of locality, representation of arable land in the basin, number of ponds in the sub-basin above the locality, type of waters (salmonid or cyprinid, and water temperature (the only of the parameters of the field. The analyzed factors better reflect the variability in fish assemblages of the Odra than of Elbe river basin. The analysis showed good practical efficiency of processing information from a large sample of data from ichthyological surveys. The tools of GIS and the use of statistical methods make possible to characterize basic ecological requirements of most species and specify conditions determining specific composition of fish assemblages.

  13. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

    2007-02-15

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

  14. Timing measurements at ELBE on multigap resistive plate chamber prototypes for NeuLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Cowan, Tom; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Prokopowicz, Wawrczek; Reifarth, Rene; Schrieder, Gerhard [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Kratz, Jens Volker; Rossi, Dominic [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector for fast neutrons (0.2-1 GeV) at the R3B experiment at FAIR aims for high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). The detector will consist of about 60 sequences of a stacked structure from iron converter material and multigap resistive plate chambers (MRPC's). The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPC's, with excellent timing properties. As part of the ongoing development of the NeuLAND detector, MRPC prototypes designed for this application have been studied at the superconducting electron linac ELBE in Dresden with its picosecond time structure. The ELBE experiments show that the prototypes studied so far have efficiency {>=}90% for minimum ionizing particles in a 2 x 2 gap structure and fulfill the called for time resolution.

  15. Investigation of trace elements in Elbe water by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations of trace elements in Elbe water were carried out as a contribution to environmental research, hydrology, and geochemistry. The method applied - instrumental neutron activation analysis - is described, and problems connected with the course of analysis - sample taking, handling and preparation as well as optimization of in-pile irradiation and measurement by means of γ spectrometry - are discussed and presented one by one. The computer programme set up for automatic evaluation is described in more detail. This programme AKAN has a very general concept which makes it applicable for general use. The reliability of the evaluation procedure - monostandard method - and the reproducibility of the results are discussed. For the studies, samples were taken at different times, every time from 8 positions along a long section of the Elbe. The content of solids was analyzed; in a number of samples, this was done by separating suspended and dissolved materials. Up to 38 elements were analyzed, whose local and time-dependent concentration curves are given. The contents of some elements are compared with the few available data from literature. Correlation calculations indicate a similar behaviour of single element groups and yield information on the natural origin of the trace elements and on anthropogenic influence to be noticed in the trace element contents. (orig.) [de

  16. Mitochondrial DNA provides evidence of a double origin for the stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium in the Elbe basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrusek, A.; Pešek, P.; Leština, Dan; Martin, P.; Fischer, D.; Kozák, P.; Vlach, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, JAN 01 (2017), s. 77-83 ISSN 0075-9511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : stone crayfish * Austropotamobius torrentium * Elbe basin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0075951116300901

  17. Macrozoobenthos response to environmental degradation in a heavily modified stream: case study the Upper Elbe River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Zdeněk; Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Sychra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2010), s. 527-536 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:6th Framework Programme EC(XE) MODELKEY (511237-GOCE) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : macrozoobenthos * pollution * channelization * degradation * the Elbe River Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  18. Modelling nutrient fluxes from source to river load : a macroscopic analysis applied to the Rhine and Elbe basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.

    2000-01-01

    In many European rivers, including the major streams of the Rhine and Elbe basins, the nutrient load (N and P) still exceeds target levels. In this paper, a model is presented that describes the river nutrient load as a function of nutrient sources, runoff and lithology in the upstream basin. The

  19. Bacterial and phytoplankton production in the maximum turbidity zone of three European estuaries: the Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Peene, J.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in spring are presented for three turbid European estuaries, the Elbe (Germany), the Westerschelde (The Netherlands) and the Gironde (France), with emphasis on the effect of turbidity on microbial community densities and activities.

  20. Catchment-coastal zone interaction based upon scenario and model analysis: Elbe and the German Bight case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, J.; Behrendt, H.; Gilbert, A.J.; Janssen, R.; Kannen, A.; Kappenberg, J.W.; Lenhart, H.; Lise, W.; Nunneri, C.; Windhorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic strategy on the interaction of activities in the Elbe river basin and their effects on eutrophication in the coastal waters of the German Bight. This catchment-coastal zone interaction is the main target of the EUROCAT (EUROpean CATchments, catchment changes and their

  1. The Effects of Climate Change on Variability of the Growing Seasons in the Elbe River Lowland, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Türkot, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Soukup, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 546920 (2015), s. 546920 ISSN 1687-9309 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * extremes * climate change * growing seasons * Elbe River Lowland Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2015

  2. Monitoring and Deformation Analysis of Groynes Using Tls at the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, F.; Mechelke, K.; Jansch, H.; Kersten, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe's busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the

  3. High Resolution Measurements of Nitrous Oxide (N2O in the Elbe Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Brase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is one of the most important greenhouse gases and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. Estuaries are sites of intense biological production and N2O emissions. We aimed to identify hot spots of N2O production and potential pathways contributing to N2O concentrations in the surface water of the tidal Elbe estuary. During two research cruises in April and June 2015, surface water N2O concentrations were measured along the salinity gradient of the Elbe estuary by using a laser-based on-line analyzer coupled to an equilibrator. Based on these high-resolution N2O profiles, N2O saturations, and fluxes across the surface water/atmosphere interface were calculated. Additional measurements of DIN concentrations, oxygen concentration, and salinity were performed. Highest N2O concentrations were determined in the Hamburg port region reaching maximum values of 32.3 nM in April 2015 and 52.2 nM in June 2015. These results identify the Hamburg port region as a significant hot spot of N2O production, where linear correlations of AOU-N2Oxs indicate nitrification as an important contributor to N2O production in the freshwater part. However, in the region with lowest oxygen saturation, sediment denitrification obviously affected water column N2O saturation. The average N2O saturation over the entire estuary was 201% (SD: ±94%, with an average estuarine N2O flux density of 48 μmol m−2 d−1 and an overall emission of 0.18 Gg N2O y−1. In comparison to previous studies, our data indicate that N2O production pathways over the whole estuarine freshwater part have changed from predominant denitrification in the 1980s toward significant production from nitrification in the present estuary. Despite a significant reduction in N2O saturation compared to the 1980s, N2O concentrations nowadays remain on a high level, comparable to the mid-90s, although a steady decrease of DIN inputs occurred over the last decades. Hence, the Elbe estuary still

  4. Towers of the new 380 kV high-voltage overhead line across the Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, F; Sperl, H D; Wagemann, F

    1979-11-01

    As part of the European power transmission line between North Sweden and Southern Italy, a 380 kV rotary-current overhead line crosses the Elbe river south of Hamburg. To achieve the overhead clearance of 80 m required for navigation and the maximum line sag of 85 m, two steel trelliswork towers were constructed about 1200 m apart, each of them 227 m high. The 12 phases (cables) of the line are suspended each on three horizontal beams at a horizontal distance of 16 m. Exceptional loads far beyond the standards set in VDE 0210/5.69 have been assumed for the layout. In the case of the wind loads the frequent gales had to be considered; for ice loads, class I of the IEC/TC 11 Draft on Ice loading on Overhead Lines . Amsterdam 1977, was assumed. Some further loads are described as well as the tender procedure, supply and assembly of the towers.

  5. Determination of the origin of suspended matter and sediments in the Elbe estuary using natural tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The clay mineral composition, the concentrations of carbonates, the proportions of carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonates and organic matter, as well as the concentrations of different nonanthropogenic metals were used to determine the origin of different grain size fractions of sediments and suspended matter in the Elbe estuary. Analysis of the smectite/kaolinite proportion revealed that solid material · 2 μm from the North Sea is transported up the river, about 40 km beyond the most upstream position of the salt wedge. In the 2-20 μm fraction, the 16 O/ 18 O ratio in carbonates and the kaolinite/chlorite proportion demonstrate a transport of North Sea material between 40 and 20 km upstream of the marine water limit. The transport behavior of the 20-63 μm grain size fraction could be determined by the hafnium concentration, representative for the heavy mineral zircon. In this case, the transport distance beyond the salt wedge was up to 20 km. No information was available on the origin of the fine organic matter, whereas the coarser fractions were derived primarily from debris of salt marsh vegetation. The results demonstrate that in the Elbe estuary mixing between marine and fluvial solid material occurs upstream of the salt wedge and is significantly responsible for the observed decrease in the concentration of various pollutants in sediments and suspended matter along the estuary. The cause of the upstream particle transport is probably a scour lag mechanism based on asymmetries of the flood- and ebb-tide current distribution, especially their differing maximum velocities

  6. Methylmercury compounds - main areas of contamination on a transsect of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintelmann, H.; Wilken, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The river Elbe and some of its tributaries are worldwide one of the most mercury polluted river systems. They are not only polluted by inorganic mercury compouns, but the contents of the highly toxic methylmercury compounds are also elevated. In order to determine the low levels of methylmercury compounds usually observed in sediments, a new HPLC/AFS-coupling was developed. In an oxidation/reduction interface the mercury species eluting from the HPLC collumn are transformed continuously to elemental mercury, which is then detected on-line by a highly sensitive atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The detection limit for the analysis of organic mercury species in sediments after extraction with hydrochloric acid/toluene, preconcentration and determination by HPLC/AFS is 0.1 μg/kg d. w. Hence, uncontaminated samples with very low methylmercury compounds contents could also be successfully analyzed. Main areas of total mercury contamination in the Elbe system were in the tributary rivers Saale and Mulde, with contents of up to 112 mg/kg d. w. but important emitters were also found in the Czech Republic (CR). This contamination was followed downstream to the Hamburg area and dropped to a background level of 0.06 mg/kg d. w. in the German Bight. The highest content of methylmercury compounds (119 μg/kg d. w.) was measured again in the river Mulde. The levels of methylmercury compounds were generally high at sites where the microbial activity was stimulated by high contents of organic matter, indicating a biotic methylation of mercury. The organic substrates originated either from municipal (sewage plants) or industrial sources (pulp mill effluents). (orig.) [de

  7. Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst

    2002-11-01

    Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.

  8. Spatial variability of metal pollution in groyne fields of the Middle Elbe – Implications for sediment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, M.; Büttner, O.; Morgenstern, P.; Jancke, T.; Westrich, B.

    2012-01-01

    High spatial heterogeneity of physical and chemical sediment properties was observed in both horizontal and vertical directions of deposits in a groyne field of the Middle Elbe. The respective sediment cores were less polluted on the top compared to consolidated deeper layers, indicating a decreasing trend of contamination in the river basin. In contrast to water quality monitoring, the impact of the large Elbe flood in 2002 was still visible in the deeper layers (5–30 cm) of the groyne field sediments six years after the event. Due to the fact that the environmental risk increases with erosion potential of discharge and contamination level of sediments, monitoring for environmental risk must capture not only surface sediments but also deeper layers up to an anticipated erosion depth. - Highlights: ► High spatial variability of physical and chemical sediment properties was observed. ► Depth depending patterns in sediment pollution were found. ► The patterns reveal the main pollution sources. ► Three main structures (top, barrier, consolidated layer) were indicated in the cores. ► Impact of the large Elbe flood (2002) is still visible in deeper sediment layers. - Monitoring of contaminated river sediments must capture layers up to an anticipated erosion depth.

  9. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  10. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  11. Airborne gamma anomalies in the Elbe Valley near Koenigstein, Germany - Origin and variation with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhrmann, G.; Schmeling, B.; Schauer, M.; Gatzweiler, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1982, an airborne gamma spectrometer survey was undertaken by SDAG WISMUT which was directed at the detection of further uranium mineralization in Saxony and Thuringia. Anomalies outlined along the Elbe river near the existing Koenigstein uranium mine were attributed to one or a combination of the following causes: radioactive residues from uranium processing facilities located upstream, temporary accumulation of Rn-decay products attached to dust particles in the atmosphere at the time of the survey, and radioactive waters emerging from uraniferous rocks along tectonic structures. In 1994, WISMUT GmbH re-evaluated the survey to determine the need for implementing cleanup measures. Subsequent to the verification of the original airborne data, ground surveys were undertaken that included gamma spectrometry, percussion probing and river sediment sampling. The new results did not confirm the magnitude of most of the 1982 airborne anomalies. The general decline of the radioactivity pointed out by the 1994 ground measurements is interpreted to be a result of the partial erosion and dilution of radionuclides in fluvial sediments as well as burial by additional river sediments since. Additional anomalous copper and zinc concentrations are attributed to sources other than mining. The ground follow-up delineated a new anomalous zone that is caused by radionuclides discharged with treated process and mine water. It is the only area, which may require further investigations and possible remedial action. (author)

  12. MRPC prototypes for NeuLAND tested using the single electron mode of ELBE/Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Kempe, Mathias; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Ciobanu, Mircea; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Nusair, Omar; Reifarth, Rene; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Maroussov, Vassili; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). Prototypes for the NeuLAND detector have been built at FZD and GSI and then studied using the 32 MeV pulsed electron beam at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE in Dresden, Germany. Owing to the new, single-electron per bunch mode of operation, a rapid validation of the design criteria ({>=}90% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles, {sigma} {<=} 100 ps time resolution) was possible. Tested properties of the prototypes include glass thickness, spacing of the central anode, and a comparison of single-ended and differential readout. Tested frontend electronics schemes include FOPI (single-ended), PADI-based (both single-ended and differential mode tested), and ALICE (differential).

  13. Model based estimation of sediment erosion in groyne fields along the River Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohaska, Sandra; Jancke, Thomas; Westrich, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    River water quality is still a vital environmental issue, even though ongoing emissions of contaminants are being reduced in several European rivers. The mobility of historically contaminated deposits is key issue in sediment management strategy and remediation planning. Resuspension of contaminated sediments impacts the water quality and thus, it is important for river engineering and ecological rehabilitation. The erodibility of the sediments and associated contaminants is difficult to predict due to complex time depended physical, chemical, and biological processes, as well as due to the lack of information. Therefore, in engineering practice the values for erosion parameters are usually assumed to be constant despite their high spatial and temporal variability, which leads to a large uncertainty of the erosion parameters. The goal of presented study is to compare the deterministic approach assuming constant critical erosion shear stress and an innovative approach which takes the critical erosion shear stress as a random variable. Furthermore, quantification of the effective value of the critical erosion shear stress, its applicability in numerical models, and erosion probability will be estimated. The results presented here are based on field measurements and numerical modelling of the River Elbe groyne fields.

  14. Determination of the fast-neutron-induced fission cross-section of 242Pu at nELBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Toni; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu was determined in the energy range of 0.5 MeV to 10MeV at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. Using a parallel-plate fission ionization chamber this quantity was measured relative to 235U(n,f). The number of target nuclei was thereby calculated by means of measuring the spontaneous fission rate of 242Pu. An MCNP 6 neutron transport simulation was used to correct the relative cross section for neutron scattering. The determined results are in good agreement with current experimental and evaluated data sets.

  15. Determination of the fast-neutron-induced fission cross-section of 242Pu at nELBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögler Toni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu was determined in the energy range of 0.5 MeV to 10MeV at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. Using a parallel-plate fission ionization chamber this quantity was measured relative to 235U(n,f. The number of target nuclei was thereby calculated by means of measuring the spontaneous fission rate of 242Pu. An MCNP 6 neutron transport simulation was used to correct the relative cross section for neutron scattering. The determined results are in good agreement with current experimental and evaluated data sets.

  16. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Contamination in Fish from Sites along the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maršálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate total mercury Hg and methylmercury MeHg contamination in muscle tissues of fish collected in 2002 from the Labe (Elbe river at sites upstream of Pardubice and downstream of Pardubice and Hřensko, and in 2004 from the Labe river upstream and downstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice, and from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. Eighty eight fish of the following species were sampled: bream (Abramis brama L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. and barbel (Barbus barbus L.. Total mercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.05 - 1.96 mg kg-1 w.w., 0. 09 - 1.46 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.35 - 0.82 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Methylmercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.04 - 2.11 mg kg-1 w.w., 0.1 - 1.73 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.371 - 0.650 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Significant correlation (p p < 0.05 between THg and MeHg contents were found between individual sites. In 2002, for example, the most contaminated fish were found downstream of Pardubice, followed by fish from upstream of Pardubice and from Hřensko. In 2004, fish from downstream and upstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice were more contaminated than fish from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. The methylmercury-tototal mercury ratio in muscle tissue was close to 1.0.

  17. Optimization aspects of the new nELBE photo-neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nELBE beamline at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD provides intense neutron beams by stopping primary electrons in a liquid lead target, where neutrons are produced by bremsstrahlung photons via (γ,n reactions. With the aim to increase the neutron yield through the enhancement of the electron beam energy (from the current 40 MeV limit up to 50 MeV, as well as to minimize several sources of background that are presently affecting the measurements, a new neutron beam-line and a new, larger neutron experimental room have been designed. The optimization of the neutron/photon ratio, the minimization of the backscattered radiation from the walls and the possibility to have better experimental conditions are the main advantages of the new design. To optimize the beamline, extensive simulations with the particle interaction and transport code FLUKA have been performed. Starting from the primary electron beam, both the photon and neutron radiation fields have been fully characterized. To have a cross-check of the results, the calculated values of the neutron yields at different energies of the primary beam have been compared both with an independent simulation with the MCNP code and with analytical calculations, obtaining a very satisfactory agreement at the level of few percent. The evaluated radiation fields have been used to optimize the direction of the new neutron beamline, in order to minimize the photon flash contribution. A general overview of the new photo-neutron source, together with all the steps of the optimization study, is here presented and discussed.

  18. Fipronil and two of its transformation products in water and European eel from the river Elbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, N; Freese, M; Brinkmann, M; Pohlmann, J-D; Hollert, H; Kammann, U; Haarich, M; Theobald, N; Gerwinski, W; Rotard, W; Hanel, R

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil is an insecticide which, based on its mode of action, is intended to be predominantly toxic towards insects. Fipronil bioaccumulates and some of its transformation products were reported to be similar or even more stable in the environment and to show an enhanced toxicity against non-target organisms compared to the parent compound. The current study investigated the occurrence of Fipronil and two of its transformation products, Fipronil-desulfinyl and Fipronil-sulfone, in water as well as muscle and liver samples of eels from the river Elbe (Germany). In water samples total concentrations of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s ranged between 0.5-1.6ngL(-1) with FIP being the main component in all water samples followed by FIP-s and FIP-d. In contrast, FIP-s was the main component in muscle and liver tissues of eels with concentrations of 4.05±3.73ngg(-1) ww and 19.91±9.96ngg(-1) ww, respectively. Using a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for moderately hydrophobic organic chemicals, the different distributions of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s in water and related tissue samples could be attributed to metabolic processes of eels. The measured concentrations in water of all analytes and their fractional distribution did not reflect the assumed seasonal application of FIP and it seems that the water was constantly contaminated with FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling Climate and Management Change Impacts on Water Quality and In-Stream Processes in the Elbe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-hydrological water quality modeling for integrated water resources management of river basins should include all necessary landscape and in-stream nutrient processes as well as possible changes in boundary conditions and driving forces for nutrient behavior in watersheds. The study aims to assess possible impacts of the changing climate (ENSEMBLES climate scenarios and/or land use conditions on resulting river water quantity and quality in the large-scale Elbe river basin by applying a semi-distributed watershed model of intermediate complexity (SWIM with implemented in-stream nutrient (N+P turnover and algal growth processes. The calibration and validation results revealed the ability of SWIM to satisfactorily simulate nutrient behavior at the watershed scale. Analysis of 19 climate scenarios for the whole Elbe river basin showed a projected increase in temperature (+3 °C and precipitation (+57 mm on average until the end of the century, causing diverse changes in river discharge (+20%, nutrient loads (NO3-N: −5%; NH4-N: −24%; PO4-P: +5%, phytoplankton biomass (−4% and dissolved oxygen concentration (−5% in the watershed. In addition, some changes in land use and nutrient management were tested in order to reduce nutrient emissions to the river network.

  20. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baborowski, Martina [Department of River Ecology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg (Germany); Simeonov, Vasil [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria); Einax, Juergen W. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, Martina; Simeonov, Vasil; Einax, Juergen W.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Impact of a flood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system - the Elbe flood 2002 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetken, Matthias; Stachel, Burkhard; Pfenninger, Markus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The ecotoxicological implications of a flooding disaster were investigated with the exceptional Elbe flood in August 2002 as an example. Sediment samples were taken shortly after the flood at 37 sites. For toxicity assessment the midge Chironomus riparius (Insecta) and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) were exposed to the sediment samples for 28 days. For a subset of 19 sampling sites, the contamination level and the biological response of both species were also recorded before the flood in 2000. The direct comparison of biological responses at identical sites revealed significant differences for samples taken before and immediately after the flood. After flood sediments of the river Elbe caused both higher emergence rates in the midge and higher numbers of embryos in the mudsnail. Contrary to expectations the toxicity of the sediments decreased after the flood, probably because of a dilution of toxic substances along the river Elbe and a reduction in bioavailability of pollutants as a result of increasing TOC values after the flood. - The extraordinary Elbe flood in August 2002 did not result in an overall increase of environmental contamination

  3. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  4. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-González, F; Golnik, C; Berthel, M; Dreyer, A; Enghardt, W; Kormoll, T; Rohling, H; Pausch, G; Fiedler, F; Heidel, K; Schöne, S; Schwengner, R; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu 2 SiO 5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  5. Detrital thermochronology of Rhine, Elbe and Meuse river sediment (Central Europe): implications for provenance, erosion and mineral fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbach, C.; Busschers, F. S.; Winsemann, J.

    2018-03-01

    Here we present detrital apatite fission track (AFT), zircon fission track (ZFT) and a few apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data of Middle Pleistocene to modern Rhine, Meuse and Elbe river sediments in order to resolve processes that control detrital age distributions (provenance, erosion and mineral fertility). We used a modelling approach to compare observed with theoretically predicted age distributions from an interpolated in situ AFT and ZFT age map. In situ cooling ages do show large differences in the Rhine drainage basin, facilitating the differentiation between different source regions. Inconsistencies between observed and theoretical age distributions of the Meuse and Elbe samples can be explained by mixing and reworking of sediments with different provenances (Meuse Middle Pleistocene terrace sediment) and a yet unexplored source region with old AFT ages (Elbe samples). Overall, the results show that detrital thermochronology is capable of identifying the provenance of Middle Pleistocene to modern sediments. The AFT age distributions of Rhine sediments are dominated ( 70%) by AFT ages representing the Alps. A possible explanation is higher erosion rates in the Alps as compared to areas outside the Alps. A Late Pleistocene sample from the Upper Rhine Graben contains apatite grains from the Molasse and Hegau volcanics, which we explain with a shift of the headwaters of the Rhine to the north as a result of intense Middle Pleistocene Riss glaciation. Contrary to the observed dominance of Alpine-derived AFT ages in Rhine sediments, the relative contribution of zircon ages with sources in the Alps is lower and significantly decreases downstream, suggesting a major source of zircons outside the Alps. This can be explained by increased zircon fertility of sediments derived from the Rhenish massif. Therefore, we conclude that erosion and mineral fertility are the main processes controlling detrital AFT and ZFT age distributions of the sampled river sediment. In case of

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-21 to 1985-04-23 (NODC Accession 8500165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 21, 1985 to...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1983-12-03 to 1986-01-29 (NODC Accession 8600103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from December 3, 1983 to...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-02-19 to 1985-08-20 (NODC Accession 8500185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from February 19, 1985 to...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-02 to 1985-03-19 (NODC Accession 8500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 2, 1985 to...

  10. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  11. Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Kristin; Donath, Tobias W.; Zelle, Bianka; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Mosner, Eva; Otte, Annette; Jensen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future. Methods We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Results The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments. Conclusion We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change. PMID:25950730

  12. Fluktuationen der Fischfauna im Elbe-Ästuar als Indikator für ein gestörtes Ökosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Angela

    1981-09-01

    During 1978, 22 fish species (in particular Anguilla anguilla L., Platichthys flesus L., Osmerus eperlanus L., Gasterosteus aculeatus L., Lampetra fluviatilis L., Alosa fallax [Lacepede], Gymnocephalus cernua L., Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus L.), sampled at the intake of the cooling system in the nuclear power plant at Brunsbüttel (Elbe estuary), were analyzed for quantities and size distribution. The data obtained were correlated to abiotic factors, such as water temperature, water outflow from the upper Elbe river, salinity and oxygen content. Spawning times and seasonal migrations of the fish species investigated corresponded to appropriate temperatures of the Elbe water. The diversity of fish species from the cooling water proved to be representative for the ichthyo-fauna of this particular estuarine area. At least 190 tons of fish per year were estimated to be annihilated by the suction of cooling water into the nuclear power plant. In spite of the progressive development of regional industries and the increasing discharges of cooling water, temperature in the estuary has remained largely unaffected up till now. The oxygen content of the heavily polluted lower Elbe river, however, has become mainly dependent on the amount of fresh water flowing from the upper Elbe river. Up to 1978, oxygen levels of 80 90 % were recorded only in the mouth of the Elbe, thus meeting the requirements for the continuous occurrence of fish species typical for this estuarine area. Varying oxygen concentrations downstream of Hamburg and at Brunsbüttel are considered to be responsible for migrations of certain fish species (mainly flounder and smelt) between the Brunsbüttel region and their habitats further upstream which were occupied before the process of industrialisation initiated. This was reflected by the size of the samples taken from various fishes. During an eventual hazard of the industrial filter plants at Brunsbüttel in May 1978 an extreme oxygen depletion

  13. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  14. Development of a concept for sustainable agriculture in the Elbe wetlands of Niedersachsen; Konzeptentwicklung fuer eine nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung in den niedersaechsischen Elbtalauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prueter, J. [Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz (NNA), Schneverdingen (Germany); Horlitz, T.; Sander, A. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Umweltplanung (ARUM), Hannover (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Since late 1997, a cooperative project headed by Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz has been investigating ''Models of conservation and its application in agriculture - goals, instruments and cost of sustainable, environment-friendly agriculture in the Elbe river valley in Niedersachsen''. The project receives funds in the context of the BMBF project ''Elbe river ecology''. Using the specific methods and tools of ecology, landscaping, agriculture and economics, the fundamentals for future interdisciplinary landscape development concepts will be established. The contribution presents the methodology of concept development and some exemplary goals for sustainable agricultural development in the context of the project. [German] Seit Ende 1997 widmet sich im Rahmen der BMBF-Forschungsfoerderung ''Elbe-Oekologie'' ein Verbundforschungsvorhaben unter Federfuehrung der Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz dem Thema ''Leitbilder des Naturschutzes und deren Umsetzung mit der Landwirtschaft - Ziele, Instrumente und Kosten einer umweltschonenden und nachhaltigen Landwirtschaft im niedersaechsischen Elbetal''. Mit den spezifischen Methoden und fachlichen Instrumenten der Oekologie, der Landschaftsplanung sowie der Agrarwissenschaften einschliesslich Oekonomie sollen Grundlagen fuer moegliche ressortuebergreifend getragene Konzepte fuer die zukuenftige Landschaftsentwicklung erarbeitet werden. Im folgenden werden methodische Grundlagen der Konzeptentwicklung und beispielhafte Zielaussagen fuer eine nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung aus dem laufenden Projekt vorgestellt. (orig.)

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of sediment deposition on artificial-lawn traps in a floodplain of the River Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baborowski, M. [Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany)]. E-mail: martina.baborowski@ufz.de; Buettner, O. [Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Krueger, F. [ELANA Boden Wasser Monitoring, Dorfstrasse 55, 39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Lobe, I. [Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Rupp, H. [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Dorfstrasse 55, 39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Tuempling, W. v. [Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Artificial-lawn mats were used as sediment traps in floodplains to measure sediment input and composition during flood events. To estimate the natural variability, 10 traps were installed during two flood waves at three different morphological units in a meander loop of the River Elbe. The geochemical composition of deposited and suspended matter was compared. The sediment input showed weak correlations with concentration and composition of river water. It also correlated poorly with flood duration and level as well as distance of trap position from the main river. This is due to the high variability of the inundation, different morphological conditions and the variability of sources. The composition of the deposits and the suspended matter in the river water was comparable. Hence, for the investigated river reach, the expected pollution of the floodplain sediments can be derived from the pollution of the suspended matter in the river during the flood wave. - The deposition of polluted sediments on floodplains is characterised by a high local variability.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of sediment deposition on artificial-lawn traps in a floodplain of the River Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, M.; Buettner, O.; Morgenstern, P.; Krueger, F.; Lobe, I.; Rupp, H.; Tuempling, W. v.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial-lawn mats were used as sediment traps in floodplains to measure sediment input and composition during flood events. To estimate the natural variability, 10 traps were installed during two flood waves at three different morphological units in a meander loop of the River Elbe. The geochemical composition of deposited and suspended matter was compared. The sediment input showed weak correlations with concentration and composition of river water. It also correlated poorly with flood duration and level as well as distance of trap position from the main river. This is due to the high variability of the inundation, different morphological conditions and the variability of sources. The composition of the deposits and the suspended matter in the river water was comparable. Hence, for the investigated river reach, the expected pollution of the floodplain sediments can be derived from the pollution of the suspended matter in the river during the flood wave. - The deposition of polluted sediments on floodplains is characterised by a high local variability

  17. Fabrication, Tuning, Treatment and Testing of Two 3.5 Cell Photo-Injektor Cavities for the ELBE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Eremeev, G V; Kneisel, P; Stirbet, M; Turlington, L

    2011-01-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) we have fabricated and tested two 1.3 GHz 3.5 cell photo-injector cavities from polycrystalline RRR niobium and large grain RRR niobium, respectively. The cavity with the better performance will replace the presently used injector cavity in the ELBE linac [1]. The cavities have been fabricated and pre-tuned at TJNAF, while the more sophisticated final field tuning; the adjustment of the external couplings and the field profile measurement of transverse electric modes for RF focusing [2] was done at HZDR. The following standard surface treatment and the vertical test were carried out at TJNAF’s production facilities. A major challenge turned out to be the rinsing of the cathode cell, which has small opening (Ø10 mm) to receive the cathode stalk. Another unexpected problem encountered after etching, since large visible defects a...

  18. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  19. Fabrication, Tuning, Treatment and Testing of Two 3.5 Cell Photo-Injector Cavities for the ELBE Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, A.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.; Eremeev, G. V.; Kneisel, P.; Stirbet, M.; Turlington, L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) we have fabricated and tested two 1.3 GHz 3.5 cell photo-injector cavities from polycrystalline RRR niobium and large grain RRR niobium, respectively. The cavity with the better performance will replace the presently used injector cavity in the ELBE linac. The cavities have been fabricated and pre-tuned at TJNAF, while the more sophisticated final field tuning, the adjustment of the external couplings and the field profile measurement of transverse electric modes for RF focusing was done at HZDR. The following standard surface treatment and the vertical test was carried out at TJNAF's production facilities. A major challenge turned out to be the rinsing of the cathode cell, which has small opening (O-slash10mm) to receive the cathode stalk. Another unexpected problem encountered after etching, since large visible defects appeared in the least accessible cathode cell. This contribution reports about our experiences, initial results and the on-going diagnostic work to understand and fix the problems

  20. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2001-07-01

    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  1. Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures -- lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Building houses in inundation areas is always a risk, since absolute flood protection is impossible. Where settlements already exist, flood damage must be kept as small as possible. Suitable means are precautionary measures such as elevated building configuration or flood adapted use. However, data about the effects of such measures are rare, and consequently, the efficiency of different precautionary measures is unclear. To improve the knowledge about efficient precautionary measures, approximately 1200 private households, which were affected by the 2002 flood at the river Elbe and its tributaries, were interviewed about the flood damage of their buildings and contents as well as about their precautionary measures. The affected households had little flood experience, i.e. only 15% had experienced a flood before. 59% of the households stated that they did not know, that they live in a flood prone area. Thus, people were not well prepared, e.g. just 11% had used and furnished their house in a flood adapted way and only 6% had a flood adapted building structure. Building precautionary measures are mainly effective in areas with frequent small floods. But also during the extreme flood event in 2002 building measures reduced the flood loss. From the six different building precautionary measures under study, flood adapted use and adapted interior fitting were the most effective ones. They reduced the damage ratio for buildings by 46% and 53%, respectively. The damage ratio for contents was reduced by 48% due to flood adapted use and by 53% due to flood adapted interior fitting. The 2002 flood motivated a relatively large number of people to implement private precautionary measures, but still much more could be done. Hence, to further reduce flood losses, people's motivation to invest in precaution should be improved. More information campaigns and financial incentives should be issued to encourage precautionary measures.

  2. The influence of the Danube-Odra-Elbe water canal project on the geobiocoenoses of floodplain forests (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This arcticle deals with influence of the proposed Danube-Odra-Elbe (DOL water canal on the floodplain forests in the Czech Republic. The project of the DOL water canal is evaluated with using GIS methods and reference assessment of environmental effects. Biogeographic differentiation of the landscape in a biogeocenological concept have been also utilized in this paper. The presented paper has shown the possibilities of use of the GIS analysis for the assessment of the assumed effect of the DOL project on the hydrological regime of floodplain forests. It has been proven that this method is much more efficient in objectivizing the presupposed influences of the DOL canal on the water regime of floodplain forests than the previous assessments. The method employed in this paper for the purposes of the preliminary percentage quantification of the extent of the hydrological in­fluen­ce on individual types of geobiocoenoses of floodplain forests is used generally for the purposes of the environmental assessment of effects on investment plans concerning the landscape (the so-called EIA. It is clear that the assessment of the influences of the DOL project on floodplain forest geobiocoenoses primarily concerns the response of vegetation to changes in the soil moisture regime, which can be compared to the amount of data material (for a summary see PRAX et al., 2008. Results indicate that the potential construction of the DOL canal would significantly, i.e. with an influence value exceeding 50 %, affect 634 km2 of the area of inundations in lowland floodplains in the Czech Republic. Results are discussed in the frame of knowledge about water regime of floodplain forests ecosystems.

  3. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploration of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) potential of crystalline rocks for district heating (Elbe Zone, Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Krentz, Ottomar

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses aspects of a baseline geothermal exploration of the thermally quiescent Elbe Zone (hosting the cities of Meissen and Dresden) for a potential deployment of geothermal heat in municipal heating systems. Low-permeable to impermeable igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the major rock types at depth, implying that an enhanced geothermal system needs to be developed by creating artificial flow paths for fluids to enhance the heat extraction from the subsurface. The study includes the development of geological models for two areas on the basis of which temperature models are generated at upper crustal scale. The models are parameterized with laboratory-measured rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity k, radiogenic heat production H). The uncertainties of modelled temperature caused by observed variations of k and H and inferred mantle heat flow are assessed. The study delineates highest temperatures within the intermediate (monzonite/syenite unit) and mafic rocks (diorite/monzodiorite unit) forming the deeper portions of the Meissen Massif and, specifically for the Dresden area, also within the low-metamorphic rocks (slates/phyllites/quartzites) of the Elbtalschiefergebirge. Boreholes 3-4 km deep need to be drilled to reach the envisioned economically favourable temperatures of 120 °C. The metamorphic and mafic rocks exhibit low concentrations of U and Th, thus being advantageous for a geothermal use. For the monzonite/syenite unit of high heat production ( 6 µW m-3) in the Meissen Massif, the mobilization of Th and U into the geothermal working fluid is assumed to be minor, although their various radioactive decay products will be omnipresent during geothermal use.

  5. Water pollution screening by large-volume injection of aqueous samples and application to GC/MS analysis of a river Elbe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.; Efer, J.; Engewald, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1997-03-01

    The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 {mu}g/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Schliewen, Ulrich; Kopun, Theodora; Weiss, Steven

    2013-08-26

    Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong

  7. The development of radioactive contamination of the North Sea fish and in the lower course of the rivers Elbe and Weser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Kanisch, G.

    1985-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste water from radwaste treatment plants in England and in France has led to an increase in contamination of North Sea fish. In 1982, following water measurements, fish were caught in many places in the North Sea. The comparison similar measurements carried out in 1965 proves that in 1982 the contamination of North Sea fish with Cs-137 had increased by a factor of about 3. Subsequent developments of contamination of several kind of fish until 1984 are shown and the radiation exposure of the population from eating shrimps, mussels and fish is estimated. The radionuclides Cs-137, Ru-106 and Co-60 can be used to show to what extent the lower course of the rivers Elbe and Weser are affected by North Sea contamination, in particular by discharges from La Hague. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A GIS TOOL TO EVALUATE THE SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF HYDRO-THERMIC FEATURES DURING GROWING SEASON OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN ELBE RIVER LOWLAND (POLABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA POTOP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A GIS tool to evaluate the spatial evolution of hydro-thermic features during growing season of vegetable crops in Elbe River lowland (Polabi. This article presents the results of the first study on combined mezoclimatological, microclimatological and topographical tools for evaluating precision farming in the growth of vegetable crops in the Elbe River lowland (Polabi region from the Czech Republic. We assess the variability of basically climatological characteristics in relation to topographic characteristics at the regional (Polabi and local (agricultural farm scales. At regional scale, interpolation approach is based on local linear regression and universal kriging interpolation. At local scale, two conventional interpolation methods, spline and local ordinary kriging with a Gaussian model variance across the fields, were applied. The local spline interpolators have been used in developing digital elevation models (DEMs and to determine the slope angle inclination of vegetable fields. The DEMs of the vegetable crops fields was developed at a 10 m x 10 m resolution based on elevation data collected in the field by a hand-held RTK- Global Positioning System receiver. This tool allowed the distinction of microclimatic conditions that produce altitude-slope-related patterns of the spatial-temporal distribution of the basic meteorological elements during growing season of vegetable crops. The effect of slope on diurnal extreme temperatures in the vegetable cropped field conditions was more pronounced than that of elevation. Accordingly to developed maps, the warmest and longest duration of sunshine, and the least precipitation totals during growing season occurred in the middle part of Polabi.

  9. [Roman Czaja. Die Anfänge preussischer Hansestädte im Lichte der historischen und archäologischen quellen : Danzig/Gdańsk, Elbing/Elbląg, Thorn/Toruń] / Dennis Hormuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus : Roman Czaja. Die Anfänge preussischer Hansestädte im Lichte der historischen und archäologischen quellen : Danzig/Gdańsk, Elbing/Elbląg, Thorn/Toruń. In: Stadtgründung und Stadterweiterung. Beiträge von Archäologie und Stadtgeschichtsforschung. (=Beiträge zur Geschichte der Städte Mitteleuropas XXII). LInz, 2011. S. 59-74

  10. Compilation, evaluation and assessment of the existing data on the pollution load affecting the water quality of the central stretch of the river Elbe on the basis of uniform common criteria (preliminary study). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhr, H.; Buettner, O.; Dreyer, U.; Krebs, D.; Spott, D.; Suhr, U.; Weber, E.

    1993-01-01

    The data (concentrations, pollution loads) measured for the 566 km flowing stretch of the river Elbe on the territory of the former GDR were compiled and evaluated according to primary statistical aspects. The longitudinal section was prepared for major variables with regard to the flow for Q50% and Q5%. The distribution of concentration in various measuring points was shown by means of box plots. Interdependencies between concentration and flow as well as water temperature were investigated and used for assessing diffuse matter input. In addition to determining the saprobic index, the biological control of water pollution comprised the assessment of the macrozoobenthos in the area of sewage discharge, chlorophyll measurements, and inventory of the fish population, analysis of pollutant accumulation in fish and in zoobenthos as well as virus detection. The water quality of the river Elbe was evaluated in compliance with the binding E.C. guidelines and national regulations/recommendations revealing an extreme pollution level which impairs or excludes various utilizations of the Elbe water. (orig.) [de

  11. HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERKENS M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

  12. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.; Jurk, M.; Weiß, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  13. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora

    2017-12-01

    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Der rudolphinische Garten des Schlosses in Brandeis an der Elbe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva

    -, č. 10 (2010), s. 48-67 ISSN 1213-5372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Renaissance gardens * emperor Rudolf II * game ball house * tulips Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Fish community in the chronically polluted middle Elbe River

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Janáč, Michal; Valová, Zdenka; Streck, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 157-168 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:6th Framework Programme EC(XE) MODELKEY (511237-GOCE) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish * bioindicators * pollution * channelization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2010 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/59/2/9_ms_1491_jurajda.pdf

  16. A Socio-hydrological Flood Model for the Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, M.; Viglione, A.; Kreibich, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.; Bloeschl, G.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Dynamic coupled human-flood models are a promising tool to represent such phenomena and the feedbacks leading to them. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management when they are applied to real world case studies. They can help develop hypotheses about the phenomena that have been observed in the case study of interest, by describing the interactions between the social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, that play a role in the system. We discuss the case of Dresden where the 2002 flood, which was preceded by a period without floods but was less severe, resulted in a higher damage than the 2013 flood, which was preceded by the 2002 flood and a couple of less severe floods. The lower damage in 2013 may be explained by the fact that society has become aware of the flood risk and has adapted to it. Developing and applying a socio-hydrological flood model to the case of Dresden can help discover whether it is possible that the lower damage is caused by an adaptation effect, or if there are other feedbacks that can explain the observed phenomenon.

  17. Instrumentalisation of the electronic learning booklet ELB: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... ]Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Ben M'sik Faculty of Sciences,. Hassan II ... Vocational Training, Higher Education and Scientific Research, Morocco. 3Groupe .... knowledge, profile, specialty or experience.

  18. Modified SRF Photoinjector for the ELBE at HZDR

    CERN Document Server

    Murcek, P; Buettig, H; Michel, P; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Kneisel, P

    2012-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of HZB, DESY, HZDR, and MBI.[1] In order to improve the gradient of the gun cavity and the beam quality, a new modified SRF gun (SRF-gun 2008) has been designed. The main updates of the new cavity design for the new photoinjector were publisched before. (ID THPPO022 on the SRF09 Berlin.) This cavity is being fabricated in Jefferson Lab. In this paper the new ideas of the further parts of the SRF-gun 2008 will be presented. The most important issue is the special design of half-cell and choke filter. The cathode cooler is also slightly changed, which simplifies the installation of the cathode cooler in the cavity. The next update is the separation of input and output of the liquid nitrogen supply, for the purpose of the stability of the nitrogen pressure as well as the better possibility of temperature measurement. Another key point is the implementation of the superco...

  19. ELB-trees - Efficient Lock-free B+trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Karlsson, Sven; Probst, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    As computer systems scale in the number of processors, data structures with good parallel performance become increasingly important. Lock-free data structures promise improved parallel performance at the expense of higher complexity and sequential execution time.We present ELBtrees, a new lock-fr...

  20. ELBE - Validation and improvement of load prognoses - Phase 1; ELBE - Validierung und Verbesserung von Lastprognosen (Projektphase 1) - Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, P.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive interim report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the Bernese University of Applied Sciences concerning various methods for the making of prognoses for grid loading in a liberalised electricity market with increasing supply of power from renewable resources. The liberalised Swiss electricity market is reviewed and production planning instruments are examined, as are the factors that influence such planning. Examples of load profiles are presented and discussed, as are the social, technical and meteorological factors that influence demand. The accuracy of various prognosis methods is reviewed. Simple methods using Excel spread-sheets and MatLab are compared and discussed. Commercially available systems are also briefly examined and work to be done in a second phase of the project is reviewed.

  1. ELBE - Validation and improvement of load prognoses (project phase 1); ELBE - Validierung und Verbesserung von Lastprognosen (Projektphase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, P.; Waelchli, U.; Zuercher, S. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland); Hoeckel, M. [Berner Fachhochschule, Biel (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    In the project 'Prognosekompetenz' we have identified and quantified by means of a comprehensive analysis of grid and climate data the factors which have a significant impact on the grid load. The study focused in the beginning on the regional data from a big electricity utility. In a second step, additional local data were also considered to better identify climatic and economic characteristics. We found a strong correlation between load, on the one hand, and outdoor temperature and economic activity, on the other hand. The influence of further factors is very limited. On this basis we developed two Matlab-based, easy-to-use tools for the prediction of the daily grid load profile in quarter-of-hour steps. One tool uses the method of the transfer function, where specific correlation factors account for the influential factors. The second tool based on the method of the artificial neuronal network, which had been tuned with data from several years to make sure that a high accuracy is obtained. We could show by self developed testing procedures that for both tools the precision in forecasting the daily load profile is very high. (authors)

  2. Res Publica tähistab sünnipäeva konverentsiga / Lauri Tankler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tankler, Lauri

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võta Võim : na russkom jazõke 3. dets. lk. 3. Res Publica saab 2-aastaseks, mille puhul korraldatakse konverents "Riik ja Res Publica". Vt. samas: Selle aasta veebruaris said kuldmärgid

  3. ELBE - Analysis and appraisal of loading and weather data (project phase 2); ELBE - Analyse und Auswertung von Last- und Wetterdaten (Projektphase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, P.; Waelchli, U.; Zuercher, S. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland); Hoeckel, M. [Berner Fachhochschule, Biel (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    In the project 'Prognosekompetenz' we have identified and quantified by means of a comprehensive analysis of grid and climate data the factors which have a significant impact on the grid load. The study focused in the beginning on the regional data from a big electricity utility. In a second step, additional local data were also considered to better identify climatic and economic characteristics. We found a strong correlation between load, on the one hand, and outdoor temperature and economic activity, on the other hand. The influence of further factors is very limited. On this basis we developed two Matlab-based, easy-to-use tools for the prediction of the daily grid load profile in quarter-of-hour steps. One tool uses the method of the transfer function, where specific correlation factors account for the influential factors. The second tool based on the method of the artificial neuronal network, which had been tuned with data from several years to make sure that a high accuracy is obtained. We could show by self developed testing procedures that for both tools the precision in forecasting the daily load profile is very high. (authors)

  4. Photoactivation of the p-nucleus {sup 92}Mo at the bremsstrahlung measurement place of ELBE; Photoaktivierung des p-Kerns {sup 92}Mo am Bremsstrahlungsmessplatz von ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, Martin Andreas

    2010-02-26

    By the high intensity of the bremsstrahlung of up to 20 MeV to 10{sup 9} MeV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the energy range up to 20 MeV in the framework of this thesis for the first time not only the ({gamma},n), but also the ({gamma},p) reactions could be studied on {sup 92}Mo at astrophysically relevant energies.

  5. Transnational System Building Across Geopolitical Shifts. The Danube-Oder-Elbe Canal, 1901-2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Jiří; van der Vleuten, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2016), s. 272-291 ISSN 1965-0175 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : large technical systems * water politics * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  6. Photoactivation of the p-nucleus 92Mo at the bremsstrahlung measurement place of ELBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, Martin Andreas

    2010-01-01

    By the high intensity of the bremsstrahlung of up to 20 MeV to 10 9 MeV -1 cm -2 s -1 in the energy range up to 20 MeV in the framework of this thesis for the first time not only the (γ,n), but also the (γ,p) reactions could be studied on 92 Mo at astrophysically relevant energies.

  7. Larval trematodes in freshwater molluscs from the Elbe to Danube rivers (Southeast Germany): before and today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Haas, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2006), s. 572-582 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  8. The balancing experiment 1982 (BILEX '82) on the Unter Elbe River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Knauth, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal variabilities and spatial heterogeneities which are characteristic for tidal rivers considerably complicate the treatment of the both ecologically and economically important transport of suspended particulate matter and heavy metals. In 1982, a new concept to tackle this problem and the experimental and theoretical tools developed for its realization were, for the first time, tested in a concerted action. The instrumentation and the simulation models (current simulation model MOHNA, transport model FLUSS) applied have, in principle, proved a success. The experience gained during the campaign allows conclusions with regard to possible improvements to further increase the output. Extensive hydrographic, trace analytical and mathematical results are presented. They permit to judge the chance of success of future experiments of this kind and give hints how to proceed with further transport investigations under the complex conditions of a tidal river. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Drought stress impact on vegetable crop yields in the Elbe River lowland between 1961 and 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Türkott, L.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Soukup, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 127-143 ISSN 0211-6820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14043; GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index * drought stress * reference evapotranspiration * crop evapotranspiration * crop coefficient * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. A newly established round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in the upper stretch of the river Elbe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roche, Kevin Francis; Janáč, Michal; Šlapanský, Luděk; Mikl, Libor; Kopeček, Lukáš; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, č. 33 (2015), s. 33 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiidae * species introduction * non-native species * population expansion * ship-mediated transport Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2015

  11. Preemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Mark Soosaare filmile "Anu Raud - elumustrid" Kuldmüüri 3. preemia Itaalias, Eve Kase digitaaltrükile "Üks küla" Deutsche Bank'i auhind, Heie Treierile Ervin Pütsepa kunstiteaduse aastapreemia monograafia "Pärsimägi. Võrumaa-Tartu-Pariis"

  12. Water winning in aquifers in the catchment area of the Elbe river. Task report no. 5: Radon applied for characterisation of geohydraulic processes; Wassergewinnung in Talgrundwasserleitern im Einzugsgebiet der Elbe. Teilbericht zum Thema Nr. 5: Radon zur Charakterisierung geohydraulischer Prozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J.; Nestler, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Dresden (Germany). Lab. fuer Geotechnik und Wasserwesen; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Analytik

    1998-06-09

    The work performed has two objectives. The first is to test a new method for determination of optimal volumes of pumped groundwater samples at official sampling and measuring sites, in order to significantly enhance the level of representativity of groundwater samples. The second is to establish information about the required framework conditions which enable natural radon activity concentrations in river bank filtrates to be used for determination of residence times or infiltration velocities, respectively, of infiltration from surface waters to aquifers. Aspects of required equipment and instrumentation for both objectives are explained in the report. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Arbeit werden zwei Ziele verfolgt. Mit dem neuen Verfahren zur Bestimmung optimaler Abpumpvolumen von Grundwassermessstellen soll die Repraesentativitaet von Grundwasserproben bei der Probennahme deutlich verbessert werden. Das zweite Ziel besteht in der Untersuchung der Voraussetzungen, unter denen die natuerliche Radonaktivitaetskonzentration des Uferfiltrats zur Bestimmung von Aufenthaltszeiten bzw. Infiltrationsgeschwindigkeiten von infiltriertem Oberflaechenwasser in Talgrundwasserleitern genutzt werden kann. Fuer beide Zielstellungen werden Moeglichkeiten fuer eine geraetetechnische Umsetzung aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  13. The establishment of Catchment Management Agencies in South Africa with reference to the Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Elbe: Some practical considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available cause and effect constituted by causal mechanisms such as the drafting and promulgation of legislation. Governance is more complex and involves various feedback loops (e.g. Meissner and Jacobs 2014 ) in any gover- nance endeavour. Governance takes... are also linked to Treasury Regulations to ensure fi nancial viability and good gover- nance (DWA 2013 ). Catchment management agencies also have a mandate to develop a catchment management strategy. This strategy is a plan to “realise the protection...

  14. Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe river estuary, German Bight and tidal flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerffer, R; Fischer, J; Stoessel, M; Brockmann, C [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.); Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-01-01

    Thematic mapper and ship data has been used to study small scale features in coastal waters of the North Sea. Three independent pieces of informations from all 7 TM channels were found with factor analysis: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering and sea surface temperature. Near surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected within a factor of 2. For the required atmospheric correction the signal-to-noise ratio of the channels 5 and 7 has to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels. Thus TM allows to monitor aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloudfree water surfaces. Sea surface temperature is retrievable with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 K as long as radiosonde data are available for the correction of atmospheric effects, while relative temperature variations of 0.5 K are detectable. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analysed with auto- and crosscorrelation: horizontal lengths, where the suspended matter concentration of single pixels are significantly correlated either with each another or with water depth, are < 800 m. (orig.).

  15. Potential geo-ecological impacts of the proposed Danube–Oder–Elbe Canal on alluvial landscapes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machar, I.; Kirchner, Karel; Pechanec, V.; Brus, J.; Kiliánová, H.; Šálek, L.; Buček, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2015), s. 38-46 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Geo-ecological assessment * hydrological impact * DOE Canal * river floodplain * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2015 http://www.geonika.cz/CZ/CZresearch/CZMgrArchive.html

  16. The parasite community of round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae) newly introduced into the upper Elbe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 418, April (2017), č. článku 19. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : enemy release hypothesis * Neogobius melanostomus * North Sea basin * parasite spillback * Pomphorhynchus tereticollis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2016

  17. Large-scale assessment of flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, Jean-Luc; Grossmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    The downstream effects of flood risk mitigation measures and the necessity to develop flood risk management strategies that are effective on a basin scale call for a flood risk assessment methodology that can be applied at the scale of a large river. We present an example of a rapid flood risk

  18. D IE H EID ELB ER G SE KATEG ISM USAS KERKLIK E SIM BO O L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    maal en die tweede oor die Uitverkiesing. W at die Heidelbergse Kategismus aanbetref, dit is eers geleidelik n dertigtal jare na die ontstaan van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as kerklike simboliese geskrif beskou. Dit bevat nie leerstellings wat. 3) In Holland het die Chr. Gereformeerde Kerk meermale 'n handboek ...

  19. 800 ettevõtlusõpilast ootab rahvusvaheline eksam / Elbe Metsatalu ; kommenteerinud Marge Käis, Maris Lutsar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metsatalu, Elbe

    2016-01-01

    Õpilasfirmades ettevõtlusteadmisi ja -kogemusi omandavad õpilased saavad sooritada rahvusvahelise ettevõtluseksami. Edukalt läbinuile väljastab Junior Achievement Europe rahvusvahelise ettevõtlusteadmiste tunnistuse - Entrepreneurial Skill Pass’i

  20. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium...... with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose...

  1. Enno Toomsalu 30 aastat Chicago Eesti Maja president / Endel Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Endel

    2006-01-01

    1976. aastast Eesti Maja juhtinud Enno on kujundanud selle "väikeseks Eestiks", kus on korraldatud palju kultuuriüritusi. 19. märtsi koosolekul andis ta ameti nooremale, samas valiti ta Chicago Eesti Maja auliikmeks. Akadeemiliselt kuulub ta Korp! Frat. Estica´sse, teda on autasustatud korporatsiooni Kuldmärgiga teenete eest eestlusele ja Valgetähe 4. järgu ordeniga

  2. Tree-ring analysis of crown competition and climatic sensitivity in Pinus strobus and P. sylvestris stands in the Elbe River Sandstone Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, Marcela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2001), s. 103-113 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Pinus strobus * Pinus sylvestris Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. Motivace sportovního výkonu mládeže ve sportovní střelbě

    OpenAIRE

    Redlichová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The main aim and meaning of this thesis is to provide the organisation of Dukla Plzeň with realistic inputs for work with motivation and stimulation of sports shooters, based on theory and empirical research. Areas focused on by empirical research are sports performance and sports and performance motivation of shooters in Dukla Plzeň. Methods used for researching are a written questionnaire and personal, oral interviewing. The empirical research identifies motives of shooters for participatio...

  4. Mit dem Puppenwagen in die normative Weiblichkeit. Lili Elbe und die journalistische Inszenierung von Transsexualität in Dänemark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Meyer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Danish painter Einar Wegener underwent several operations in 1930 in order to subsequently live as Lili Elvenes, the case was of great interest for both the public and the media. In the beginning of 1931 the Danish newspapers Politiken and Ekstra Bladet published a series of efficacious interlinked articles that were staged as a self-contained whole. Along with emphasizing the discursive competence of medicine and legislation this staging focused on the perpetuation of a heteronormative order. Employing the variables sex, gender and desire as well as their interconnections highlights the normalizing processes of (re-construction tied to such a perpetuation. At the same time it discloses staging strategies, which enable an analysis of Lili Elvenes’ agency. By pursuing this notion of agency such an analysis demonstrates how the transsexual subject is embedded in dominant discourses.

  5. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  6. Belege für die Anwesenheit von Eliten des 6./5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. am Zusammenfluss von Elbe und Moldau in Mittelböhmen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytráček, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1-2 (2015), s. 271-300 ISSN 0079-4848 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Bohemia * Late Hallstatt * Early La Tène * cemetery * settlement * Etruscan bronze basins * drinking horns * amber routes * wreath * cult Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.103, year: 2015

  7. Observations on the metazoan parasites of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after its reintroduction into the Elbe River basin in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 296-304 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Atlantic salmon * helminths * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  8. Fish occurrence in the fishpass on the lowland section of the River Elbe, Czech Republic, with respect to water temperature, water flow and fish size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Horký, P.; Slavík, O.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 0139-7893. [Česká ichtyologická konference /12./. Vodňany, 19.05.2010-20.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500450513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migration * fish * water flow * water temperature * fishpass Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/60/2/050-2010.pdf

  9. 78 FR 62579 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... units to a NOAA server. The purpose of the proposed changes is to ensure that management of the shrimp... transmission from the ELB units to a NOAA server. The initial installation cost would be approximately $200 per... technical and professional skills needed, the new ELB units do not materially differ from the current ELB...

  10. „Haben wir nur das Wasser, das vom Himmel fällt?“ Kontinuitäten technokratischen Denkens in der sozialistischen Tschechoslowakei am Beispiel des Donau-Oder-Elbe-Kanalprojekts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 115-147 ISSN 0523-8587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : water management * technocracy * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History ( history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  11. Late-Glacial and Holocene Environmental History of an Oxbow Wetland in the Polabí Lowland (River Elbe, Czech Republic); a Context-Dependent Interpretation of a Multi-Proxy Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petr, Libor; Sádlo, Jiří; Žáčková, P.; Lisá, Lenka; Novák, J.; Rohovec, Jan; Pokorný, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 137-162 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00050801; GA AV ČR IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : floodplain deposits * macrofossils * micromorphology * Oxbow wetland * pollen analysis * Random events * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  12. Aus der Estnischen evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche : Verabschiedung Henning Kramer - 10 Jahre Pastoralseminar in Reval/Tallinn / M. P.-S.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. P.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Põhja-Elbe Evangeelse Luterliku kiriku nõukogu asepresidendi ja ülemnõuniku Henning Krameri ametist lahkumisele oli saabunud ka mitmeid külalisi Baltikumist, kuna paljude aastate vältel oli Henning Kramer olnud Põhja-Elbe piirkonna ja Baltikumi vaheliste suhete eestvedajaks. Oluliseks näiteks Põhja-Elbe ja EELK Usuteaduse Instituudi koostööst on kümme aastat tagasi rajatud pastoraalseminar

  13. Role of the adenovirus early region 1B tumor antigens in transformation and lytic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Leeuw, M.G.W. de; Houweling, A.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the contribution of each of the two adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) major early region lb (Elb) proteins in cell transformation and in lytic infection. An Ad5 El plasmid, in which the reading frame for the 19-kDa Elb protein was abolished by a stop codon close to the initiation codon,

  14. Progress of the intense positron beam project EPOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.; Jungmann, M.; Krille, A.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.

    2008-01-01

    EPOS (the ELBE POsitron Source) is a running project to build an intense, bunched positron beam for materials research. It makes use of the bunched electron beam of the ELBE radiation source (Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (40 MeV, 1 mA). ELBE has unique timing properties, the bunch length is <5 ps and the repetition time is 77 ns. In contrast to other Linacs made for Free Electron Lasers (e.g., TTF at DESY, Hamburg), ELBE can be operated in full cw-mode, i.e., with an uninterrupted sequence of bunches. The article continues an earlier publication. It concentrates on details of the timing system and describes issues of radiation protection

  15. HIV/AIDS: A Nontraditional Security Threat for AFRICOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letcher, Kenneth W

    2008-01-01

    .... Africa Command must navigate. The study will draw on research of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its effect on the effectiveness of the militaries of southern Africa, leaning heavily on the research of Stefan Elbe and a small cadre...

  16. K osídlení labské nivy v eneolitu a starší době bronzové: sídlištní areál s půdorysy kůlových domů u Kozel, okr. Mělník

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápotocký, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 651-694 ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Central Bohemia * Elbe river * flood plain * Eneolithic * Early Bronze Age * settlement areas * houses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Aquatic landscapes - 9. Magdeburg seminar on surface water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The conference was attended by scientists and practical experts in ecology and water management. Results of BMBF research projects on ecology and pollutant freight of the Elbe and other big European rivers were presented. IKSE experts and Elbe water management experts presented their findings. Trends are presented since 1990. Subjects: Catchment area management; Monitoring concepts and modelling; Land use and water quality; High-water protection; Pollution and biodiversity in polder areas; Immigration of exotic species; Pollution from industry, mining and landfills [de

  18. Sustainable water management and regional development. Analysis and assessment of scenarios on conflicts of water use in the Upper Spree catchment area, a region impacted by brown coal mining; Nachhaltige Wasserbewirtschaftung und regionale Entwicklung. Analyse und Bewertung von Szenarien zum Wassernutzungskonflikt im bergbaubeeinflussten Einzugsgebiet der Oberen Spree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Oekonomie, Soziologie und Recht; Kaltofen, M. (eds.) [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Wasserwirtschaftliche Planung und Systemforschung mbH (WASY), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of the interdisciplinary research syndicate was to develop integral strategies for overcoming the water availability problems and conflicts of water use following in the wake of global change as well as the environmental and socio-economic problems resulting from this in the Elbe catchment area. To negotiate this task the Integrative Methodological Approach of GLOWA-Elbe (IMA) was developed and applied. The entire river system of the Elbe served as study region. The study also included an intensive substudy focussing on water quality problems of the Unstrut river system as well as an analysis of the momentous surface water availability conflicts in the Spree catchment area which was performed for the Upper Spree and Spree Forest subregions (cf. Dietrich et al. 2004) and Berlin (cf. Finke et al. 2003). The project on the Upper Spree subregion, performed as part of GLOWA Elbe, was dedicated to an analysis and assessment of the Upper Spree subregion where, as a result of the decade-long history of brown coal mining in that area, one of Germany's greatest surface water availability and quality conflicts has evolved. It was in the context of this subregion project that IMA was developed and tested. The present outcome report presents the more important water management and socio-economic results of this subregion project, though various results from other part-projects of GLOWA Elbe have also been incorporated. Reports dealing with individual aspects of the GLOWA Elbe project in greater detail have been published elsewhere. Interested readers are referred to the GLOWA Elbe website at http://www.glowa-elbe.de and to the PIK report. The latter report contains, in various places, references to further literature on the Upper Spree subregion project. [German] Hauptziel des interdisziplinaeren Forschungskonsortiums war die Entwicklung integrierter Strategien zur Bewaeltigung von durch den globalen Wandel bedingten Wasserverfuegbarkeitsproblemen

  19. Development and Validation of the Elder Learning Barriers Scale Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; He, Tao; Van Regenmortel, Sofie; Li, Shihua; Lombaerts, Koen

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Elder Learning Barriers (ELB) scale, which seeks to identify the obstacles that affect the level of educational participation of older adults. The process of item pool design and scale development is presented, as well as the testing and scale refinement procedure. The data were collected from a sample of 579 older Chinese adults (aged over 55) in the Xi'an region of China. After randomly splitting the sample for cross-validation purposes, the construct validity of the ELB scale was confirmed containing five dimensions: dispositional, informational, physical, situational, and institutional barriers. Furthermore, developmental differences in factor structure have been examined among older age groups. The results indicated that the scale demonstrated good reliability and validity. We conclude in general that the ELB scale appears to be a valuable instrument for examining the learning barriers that older Chinese citizens experience for participating in organized educational activities.

  20. Mineralogical investigations into ash deposits of selected brown coals; Mineralogische Untersuchungen an Ascheansaetzen ausgewaehlter Braunkohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, J.; Ullrich, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden, Inst. fuer Geotechnik (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Within the framework of the research project financed by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen (AIF) ''Experimental investigations into the formation of ash deposits from stack gases during the combustion of pulverised lignite'' and supervised by the chair of power station technology (Institute of Energy Technology) of the Dresden Technical University, the mineral composition of ash deposits of six different coals were investigated: two coal blends (different countries worldwide), two lignites from east from the River Elbe (types WM and JAe), one from west of the River Elbe and one Rhenish lignite. (orig.)

  1. NG Kunstikonteiner alustab kirjandusega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kunstnik Sandra Jõgeva korraldab Tallinnas kultuuritehases Polymer alternatiivgaleriis Non Grata Kunstikonteiner kirjanduslike kohtumiste seeria "Üks hullem kui teine". Kirjandusüritused ei ole mõeldud ainult oma ala insider'itele. 17. juulil esinevad Armin Kõomägi teemal "Kirjandus ja äri", Andrus Elbing "Vangla sinus eneses" jt. Vt. ka Looming, 2008, nr. 8, lk. 1271

  2. UNESCO tegutseb siiski / Riin Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Riin, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    UNESCO maailmapärandi komitee istungist. Maailmapärandi nimekirja saamisest, pärandi kaitsest, kohustusest teavitada ise UNESCOt võimalikest maailmapärandit mõjutavatest plaanidest, kaitsekorralduskavast, rahvusvahelisest pärandipoliitikast. Dresdeni Elbe oru maailmapärandi nimekirjast väljaarvamisest. Probleemidest Tallinnaga. Pärandi kaitsest Venemaal

  3. No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano; Jensen, Peter K A

    2007-01-01

    the Elb estuary (northern Germany) or specifically towards the north (Himmerland in northern Jutland). In the alpine parts of Veneto, northeast of the historical battlefield, local traditions dating back to late medieval time, identify a local population as Cimbri living in Terra dei Cimbri...

  4. Longitudinal patterns in fish and macrozoobenthos assemblages reflect degradation of water quality and physical habitat in the Bílina river basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Adámek, Zdeněk; Janáč, Michal; Valová, Zdenka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 123-136 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish community * macroinvertebrates * pollution * channelization * Elbe basin Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2010 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/17674.pdf

  5. Anhaldt-Dessau vürstiriik - ideaalne kultuuripark / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Franz von Anhaldt-Dessau (1740-1817) 18. sajandil loodud Wörlitzi pargist, mis oli mandri-Euroopas esimene inglise stiilis park. Muinsuskaitse all olev kultuuripark on osa UNESCO Kesk-Elbe-Steckby-Lödderitzer Forsti biosfäärikaitsealast

  6. A Microbial Survey of the Gastrointestinal Flora of Pigs in Dschang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 243 pigs examined for microbial infection harboured one ... animals cau be infected by these organisms if faeces are dumped or washed into ..... to E. co/z'. Hurnans can also come down with diseases like candidiasis and ... I. 13s' ed. English Language Book. Society (ELBS). Longman Group Ltd. Churchill, Livingstone,.

  7. Biogeochemistry of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE): some conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short overview of the activities and main results of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE) project. Three estuaries (Elbe, Schelde and Gironde) have been sampled intensively during a joint 1-week campaign in both 1993 and 1994. We introduce the publicly available

  8. 77 FR 59889 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... With such a large number of vessels of differing sizes, gears used, and fishing capabilities compounded by seasonal variability in abundance and price and the broad geographic distribution of the fleet, ELBs provide a more precise means of estimating the amount of fishing effort than current methods...

  9. 78 FR 78776 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... vessels. Therefore, NMFS establishes a cost-sharing program to fund the ELB program. NMFS will pay for the... summarized below. Comment 1: The cost sharing program will impose a financial burden on fishermen who already have high expenses because of increased operating costs and a depressed economy. Response: The Council...

  10. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  11. FZR annual report 2003: Research for men and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: A multi-purpose experimental facility for the model development of two-phase flows, the first nuclear-physics experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator, the molecular mechanisms of vision and general principles of the cellular signal processing, colloids in environment, protein oxidation and sickness, nondestructive study on glass pretiosa using proton beams. (HSI)

  12. FZR annual report 2003: Research for men and environment; FZR-Jahresbericht 2003: Forschung fuer Mensch und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The following topics are dealt with: A multi-purpose experimental facility for the model development of two-phase flows, the first nuclear-physics experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator, the molecular mechanisms of vision and general principles of the cellular signal processing, colloids in environment, protein oxidation and sickness, nondestructive study on glass pretiosa using proton beams. (HSI)

  13. obire, 0., nwaubeta, 0., adue, sbn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanni (Editors). Global Impact of Applied. Microbiology (GIAM VI). Academic Press. London. Manson-Bahr,' P. C. and F. I. C. Apted. 1982. Manson 's Tropical Diseases. 18th Edition. English Language Book Society (ELBS),. London. Marshall, T. R. and J. S. Devinny. 1988. The. Microbial Ecosystem in Petroleum Wasteland.

  14. Probleme und Forschungsbedarf im Elbegebiet: Ergebnise einer Stakeholder-Befragung

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesse, C.; Krysanova, V.; Blažková, P.; Martinková, M.; Košková, Romana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2007), s. 82-88 ISSN 1439-1783 Grant - others:EU(CZ) FP6 IP NeWater 511179-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Elbe river basin * water-resources * urgent research need Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  15. Eesti õpilasfirmad kohtusid Norra kroonprintsiga / Madis Vodja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vodja, Madis

    2001-01-01

    Kevadisel koolivaheajal Norras Stavangeris toimunud rahvusvahelisel õpilasfirmade laadal osales umbes sada õpilasfirmat 19 Euroopa riigist. Eestit esindasid Rapla Vesiroosi Gümnaasiumi Well Done (õp Margot Sarve), Paide Ühisgümnaasiumi Rudolf (õp Elbe Metsatalu) ja Tallinna 21. Kooli Valinor (konsultant Õigusinstituudi üliõpilane Rain Liivoja).

  16. Stateful load balancing for parallel stream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan

    2018-01-01

    -objective optimization problem, namely Minimum-Cost-Load-Balance (MCLB). We address MCLB with two approximate algorithms by a certain relaxation of the objectives: (1) a greedy algorithm ELB performs load balancing eagerly but relaxes the objective of load imbalance to a range; and (2) a periodic algorithm CLB aims...

  17. European Pond Turtles from Obříství (Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René; Čuláková, Katarína; Pecinovská, Monika; Široký, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 732-739 ISSN 1047-482X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeozoology * Bohemia * Elbe (Labe) * Emys orbicularis * Hallstatt * Late Bronze Age * radiocarbon dating * reptiles Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016

  18. TropJrnal Vol 30 No 2 PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    coupled with low socio-economic status of women ... 12 providers . These findings are similar to the those found at The University College. 8. Hospital ... th. In: Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. 7. Edition.ELBS/ Arnold. 2000;303-317. 3. Ezimokhai ...

  19. Keltské mince z předhradí hradiště Kolo u Týnce nad Labem (okr. Kolín)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Militký, Jiří; Beneš, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2016), s. 234-266 ISSN 0546-9414 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Bohemia * Celts * Labe (Elbe) River * coins * imports * castellum * local center Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  20. Environmental factors affecting methane distribution and bacterial methane oxidation in the German Bight (North Sea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osudar, R.; Matoušů, Anna; Alawi, M.; Wagner, D.; Bussmann, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, July (2015), s. 10-21 ISSN 0272-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : methanotrophy * estuary * Elbe River Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2015

  1. T R Seshadri's Contributions to the Chemistry of Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sri Sathya Sai Institute of. Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. Keywords. Flavonoids, lichen metabolite, methylation, Elbs-Seshadri oxi- dation, structure elucidation, natural products synthesis.

  2. The Hunger Stones: a new source for more objective identification of historical droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Libor

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.

  3. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, JUN 30 2015 (2015), 033 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Danube River basin * Elbe River basin * Oder River basin * fish * host specificity * parasite fauna * species diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  4. 1388-IJBCS-Article-Melia Mamatchi+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Ecologie du Développement Durable,. INERIS, Paris. Alméida J-A, Diniz Y-S, Marques S-F-G,. Faine L-A, Ribas B-O, Burneiko R-C,. Novelli E-L-B. 2002. The use of the oxydative stress response as biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  5. 50th report of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This annual report comprises seven sections on specific problems, e.g. sulfonic acid analysis, organic pollutant levels in the Main and Nidda rivers, and the behaviour of selected pesticides during their passage through river bank soil, as well as a section on problems of other rivers, e.g. the Elbe. (orig./EF) [de

  6. Electromagnetic dipole strength distribution in $^{124,128,132,134}$Xe below the neutron separation energy

    CERN Document Server

    Massarczyk, R; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Bemmerer, D; Beyer, R; Butterling, M; Hannaske, R; Junghans, A; Koegler, T; Rusev, G; Schilling, K D; Schramm, G; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    Dipole strength functions in the chain of xenon isotopes are analyzed on the basis of photon-scatterde experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE facility in Dresden, Germany, and at the HI S facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. The evolution of dipole strength with neutron excess and nuclear deformation is studied.

  7. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic dynamics of the Bohemian Massif inferred from the paleostress history of the Lusatian Fault Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Málek, Jiří; Adamovič, Jiří; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, July 1 (2015), s. 26-49 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : paleostress * fault kinematics * Lusatian Fault Belt * Elbe fault system * Bohemian Massif * Alpine foreland Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2015

  8. Clonal xenobiotic resistance during pollution-induced toxic injury and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in liver of female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehler, Angela; Alpermann, Tilmann; Lauritzen, Bjarne; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile and adult female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) were caught either in the estuary of the most polluted European river, the Elbe, or as controls in a reference site to study pollution-induced xenobiotic resistance in their livers in relation to pathological alterations. In juvenile fish,

  9. Rannalapsest tänavakaagiks, tänavakaagist luuletajaks / Jaak Urmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urmet, Jaak, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Elbing, Andrus. Siin beebilõust, tere! Häired pimelinna tänavalt : luuletusi 2004-2006 = Ciao, it's babyface. Trouble from the streets of a blind city : poems 2004-2006 / inglise keelde tlk. Jayde Will. Tallinn : Epifanio, 2006

  10. Technology challenges for SRF guns as ERL sources in view of Rossendorf work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Dietmar; Buettig, Hartmut; Evtushenko, Pavel; Lehnert, Ulf; Michel, Peter; Moeller, Karsten; Murcek, Petr; Schneider, Christof; Schurig, Rico; Staufenbiel, Friedrich; Teichert, Jochen; Xiang, Rong; Stephan, Juergen; Lehmann, Wolf-Dietrich; Kamps, Thorsten; Lipka, Dirk; Volkov, Vladimir; Will, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    After successful tests of a SRF gun with a superconducting half-cell cavity a new SRF photoinjector for cw operation at the ELBE linac is under development. The paper discuss the design of the injector, the technological challenges of different components, the status of manufacturing and the expected parameters

  11. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  12. Reconstructing the evolution of Lake Bonney, Antarctica using dissolved noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, Rohit B.; Clara Castro, M.; Hall, Chris M.; Kenig, Fabien; Doran, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimated water ages using dissolved crustal 4 He and 40 Ar excesses in Lake Bonney (LB). • 4 He and 40 Ar excesses identify addition of subglacial discharge from Taylor Glacier. • Numerous factors capable of affecting water residence times are evaluated. • Maximum 4 He, 40 Ar ages in West LB of 250 kyrs; maximum 4 He age in East LB 27 kyrs. • Established chronology appears to correspond to regional and global climatic events. - Abstract: Lake Bonney (LB), located in Taylor valley, Antarctica, is a perennially ice-covered lake with two lobes, West Lake Bonney (WLB) and East Lake Bonney (ELB), which are separated by a narrow ridge. Numerous studies have attempted to reconstruct the evolution of LB because of its sensitivity to climatic variations and the lack of reliable millennial-scale continental records of climate in this region of Antarctica. However, these studies are limited by the availability of accurate lacustrine chronologies. Here, we attempt to better constrain the chronology of LB and thus, the evolution of past regional climate by estimating water residence times based on He, Ne and Ar concentrations and isotopic ratios in both WLB and ELB. 3 He and 4 He excesses up to two and three orders of magnitude and 35–150 times the atmospheric values are observed for WLB and ELB samples, respectively. In comparison, while measured 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios are atmospheric (∼295.5) in ELB, WLB samples display 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios of up to ∼315 reflecting addition of radiogenic 40 Ar. Both 4 He and 40 Ar excesses clearly identify the addition of subglacial discharge (SGD) from underneath Taylor Glacier into WLB at depths of 25 m and 35 m. He isotopic ratios suggest that He excesses are predominantly crustal (>93%) in origin with small mantle contributions (<7%). These crustal 4 He and 40 Ar excesses are used together with basement rock production rates of these isotopes to derive first-order approximations of water residence times for both

  13. Deposition, persistence and turnover of pollutants: first results from the EU project AquaTerra for selected river basins and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, J.A.C.; Steidle, D.; Kuntz, D.

    2007-01-01

    in laboratory studies with soils and aquifer material from selected sites. For sediment transport of contaminants, new flood sampling techniques revealed highest deposition rates of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) in river sediments at hotspot areas on the Mulde River in the Bitterfeld region (Elbe Basin...... that range from biogeochemistry, environmental engineering, computer modelling and chemistry to socio-economic sciences. Field study areas are the river basins of the Ebro, the Meuse, the Elbe and the Danube as well as the 3-km(2) French catchment of the Brevilles Spring. Within the first 2 years...... of the project more than 1700 samples of atmospherically deposited particles, sediments, and water have been collected in the above-mentioned systems. Results show clear spatial patterns of deposition of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the highest rates in the Meuse Basin. For local inputs...

  14. What is the pollution status of North Sea sediments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Heip, C.; Cofino, W.

    1993-01-01

    A March 1990 international sea-going workshop in Bremerhaven, Germany provided the opportunity to conduct detailed sediment toxicity testing in concert with studies of fish histopathology, bioaccumulation, benthic community structure, and sediment chemical contamination in the North Sea. Two gradients of sediment chemical contamination were tested, one from an abandoned oil platform and the other from the mouth of the Elbe River northward to the Dogger Bank. Using a preponderance of evidence approach, it was determined that sediments nearest the Elbe are moderately polluted (pollution is defined as contamination, toxicity, and community alteration) and that sediments offshore and at the Dogger Bank are unpolluted. Sediments nearest the oil platform showed evidence for a low level of pollution, but there was no evidence of pollution 125 m from the platform. The results suggest the testable hypothesis that North Sea sediments away from point sources of pollution such as coastal areas and drilling platforms are presently not polluted. 46 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  16. Leben mit Estland : Paul-Gerhard von Hoerschelmann zum 80. Geburtstag / Heinrich Wittram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wittram, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Olles Põhja-Elbe Jutlustajate Seminari direktor alustas Paul-Gerhard von Hoerschelmann koostööd Eesti Evangeelse Luterliku Kirikuga 1988. aastal. Nõmmel sündinud pastori pojana olid tal selle koostöö arendamiseks igati head eeldused. 1997. aastal sai Paul-Gerhard Hoerschelmannist EELK Usuteaduse Instituudi rektor. Aastatel 1996-1998 teenis ta väikesearvulist saksakeelset kogudust Tallinnas. Aastast 2006 EELK' aupraost

  17. Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krysanova, V.; Dickens, C.; Timmerman, J.; Varela-Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, K.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, F.; Buiteveld, H.; Moreno, E.; de Pedraza Carrera, J.; Slámová, Romana; Martínková, M.; Blanco, I.; Esteve, P.; Pringle, K.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 14 (2010), s. 4121-4160 ISSN 0920-4741 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 511179 - NEWATER Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : adaptation to climate change * water management * questionnaire * barrier * driver * climate change * river basin * Amudarya * Elbe * Guadiana * Nile equatorial lakes region * Orange * Rhine Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2010

  18. Fear for children's health made into a media spectacular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.

    1992-01-01

    An open letter from Prof. Dr. Horst Jung to the people of the Tespe an der Elbe District where, according to German media reports there is an accumulation of cancer cases in children and young people in the area around nuclear power stations has been discovered. The author refuses to admit that the cause of this lies in the nuclear power stations and calls for better information to be provided for the general public

  19. Vilen Künnapu templitest ja tornidest / Rauno Thomas Moss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moss, Rauno Thomas, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    2007. a. Tallinnas kirjastuselt Epifanio ilmunud Vilen Künnapu raamatust "Templid ja tornid". Kujundaja Irina Tammis. Raamatu esitlus 28. II Tartu Ülikooli Kunstimuuseumis oli ühtlasi V. Künnapu TÜ vabade kunstide professorina peetud loengusarja lõpetus ja kokkuvõte. Sõna võtsid Valter Lang, Inge Kukk, Jaan Elken, Toivo Tammik, oma luuletuse luges Andrus Elbing, muusika valis August Künnapu

  20. Selective degradation of ibuprofen and clofibric acid in two model river biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Lawrence, J R; Neu, T R

    2001-09-01

    A field survey indicated that the Elbe and Saale Rivers were contaminated with both clofibric acid and ibuprofen. In Elbe River water we could detect the metabolite hydroxy-ibuprofen. Analyses of the city of Saskatoon sewage effluent discharged to the South Saskatchewan river detected clofibric acid but neither ibuprofen nor any metabolite. Laboratory studies indicated that the pharmaceutical ibuprofen was readily degraded in a river biofilm reactor. Two metabolites were detected and identified as hydroxy- and carboxy-ibuprofen. Both metabolites were observed to degrade in the biofilm reactors. However, in human metabolism the metabolite carboxy-ibuprofen appears and degrades second whereas the opposite occurs in biofilm systems. In biofilms the pharmacologically inactive stereoisomere of ibuprofen is degraded predominantly. In contrast, clofibric acid was not biologically degraded during the experimental period of 21 days. Similar results were obtained using biofilms developed using waters from either the South Saskatchewan or Elbe River. In a sterile reactor no losses of ibuprofen were observed. These results suggested that abiotic losses and adsorption played only a minimal role in the fate of the pharmaceuticals in the river biofilm reactors.

  1. Organica micropollutants in the aquatic environment: identification of cationic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levsen, K.

    1992-08-01

    The data (concentrations, pollution loads) measured for the 560 km flowing stretch of the river Elbe on the territory of the former GDR were compiled and evaluated according to primary statistical aspects. The longitudinal section was prepared for major variables with regard to the flow for Q50% and Q5%. The distribution of concentration in various measuring points was shown by means of box plots. Interdependencies between concentration and flow as well as water temperature were investigated and used for assessing diffuse matter input. In addition to determining the saprobic index, the biological control of water pollution comprised the assessment of the macrozoobenthos in the area of sewage discharge, chlorophyll measurements, an inventory of the fish population, analysis of pollutant accumulation in fish and in zoobenthos as well as virus detection. The water quality of the river Elbe was evaluated in compliance with the binding E.C. guidelines and national regulations/recommendations revealing an extreme pollution level which impairs or excludes various utilizations of the Elbe water. (orig.). 73 refs., 11 tabs., 48 figs [de

  2. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  3. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  4. Measurement of the inelastic neutron scattering cross section of 56Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available At the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE has become operational. Fast neutrons in the energy range from 200 keV to 10 MeV are produced by the pulsed electron beam from ELBE impinging on a liquid lead circuit as a radiator. The short beam pulses of 10 ps provide the basis for an excellent time resolution for neutron time-of-flight experiments, giving an energy resolution of about <1% at 1 MeV with a short flight path of 5 m. By means of a “double-time-of-flight” setup the (n,nâγ cross section to the first excited state of 56Fe has been measured over the whole energy range without knowledge about cross sections of higher-lying levels. Plastic scintillators were used to detect the inelastically scattered neutron and BaF2 detectors to detect the correlated γ-ray.

  5. Enxerto bovino liofilizado: comportamento histológico após seguimento de 49 meses em seres humanos Bovine lyophilized graft (BLG: histological analysis on behavior in humans after 49 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento histológico do ELB, produzido conforme protocolo desenvolvido pelo autor principal, em seres humanos no decorrer de 49 meses através da aferição da proporção enxerto/osso neoformado em relação ao total de área mineralizada. MÉTODOS: Série de casos com 12 pacientes, oito femininos (66% e quatro masculinos (34%, totalizando 13 biópsias, nos quais utilizou-se ELB e que posteriormente houve necessidade de reintervenção cirúrgica, no período de 2000 a 2011. As lâminas produzidas, coradas com hematoxilina-eosina (HE, foram analisadas por patologista e digitalizadas para a avaliação proposta. RESULTADOS: A média etária foi de 57 anos e o tempo médio de seguimento de 49 meses (6-115. A proporção média de ELB foi de 42% (13-85 e de osso neoformado de 58% (15-87 em relação ao total de área mineralizada. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstra que o ELB utilizado apresenta característica osteocondutora e biocompatibilidade. O ELB apresentado é opção terapêutica a ser utilizada em cirurgias ortopédicas que necessitem preenchimento de deficiências ósseas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the histological behavior of bovine lyophilized grafts (BLG produced according to a protocol developed by the first author, in humans over a 49-month period by measuring the graft/bone neoformation ratio in relation to the total mineralized area. METHODS: This was a case series involving 12 patients: eight females (66% and four males (34%, totaling 13 biopsies. BLG was used, and surgical reintervention was subsequently required during the period 2000 to 2011. The slides produced were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE, were analyzed by a pathologist and were digitized for the proposed evaluation. RESULTS: The mean age was 57 years and the mean follow-up was 49 months (range: 6-115. The average proportion of BLG was 42% range: 13-85 and neoformed bone, 58% (range: 15-87 in relation to the total area mineralized

  6. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  7. Which orthodontic appliance is best for oral hygiene? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhibber, Aditya; Agarwal, Sachin; Yadav, Sumit; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Upadhyay, Madhur

    2018-02-01

    Clear aligners and to a lesser extent self-ligated brackets are considered to facilitate better oral hygiene than traditional fixed orthodontic appliances. This 3-arm parallel-group prospective randomized clinical trial compared the long-term and short-term effects of clear aligners, self-ligated brackets, and conventional (elastomeric-ligated) brackets on patients' oral hygiene during active orthodontic treatment. Seventy-one participants (41 boys, 30 girls; mean age, 15.6 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated through a computer-generated randomization schedule to one of the groups based on the choice of intervention: Clear Aligners (CLA) (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif) (n = 27), preadjusted edgewise fixed appliance with self-ligated brackets (SLB) (Carriere, Carlsbad, Calif (n = 22), or preadjusted edgewise fixed appliance with elastomeric ligated brackets (ELB) (Ortho Organizers Inc., Carlsbad, CA) (n = 22). For each participant, the primary outcome, plaque index (PI), and secondary outcomes, gingival Index (GI) and periodontal bleeding index (PBI), were measured at baseline (T0), after 9 months of treatment (T1), and after 18 months of treatment (T2). Blinding of the clinicians and the patients to the intervention was impossible. It was only done for outcome assessment and for the statistician. Ten participants did not receive the allocated intervention for various reasons. The means and standard deviations of PI at T0 (CLA, 0.50 ± 0.51; SLB, 0.65 ± 0.49; ELB, 0.70 ± 0.73), T1 (CLA, 0.83 ± 0.48; SLB, 1.38 ± 0.72; ELB, 1.32 ± 0.67), and T2 (CLA, 0.92 ± 0.58; SLB, 1.07 ± 0.59; ELB, 1.32 ± 0.67) were similar. The odds ratio (OR) for plaque index (0 or ≥1) comparing SLB or CLA to ELB was not significant. OR for SLB vs ELB = 1.54 at T0 (95% CI, 0.39-6.27), 0.88 at T1 (95% CI, 0.03-24.69), and 0.83 at T2 (95% CI, 0.02-27.70); OR for CLA vs ELB = 1.07 at T0 (95% CI, 0.30-3.88), 0.24 at T1 (95% CI

  8. High-performance pickups for beam diagnostics. Design, analysis, characterization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces the design, analysis, characterization and implementation of high-performance pickups for two beam diagnostic instruments, a Bunch Arrival-time Monitor (BAM) and an Energy Beam Position Monitor (EBPM) at the European XFEL. As a part of the BAM the cone-shaped pickups are proposed along with the corresponding RF-frontend. The designed pickups deliver a beam induced signal with a slope steepness of around 400 mV/ps and a bandwidth of 40 GHz. These signal characteristics are well inside the design requirements, i.e., a slope steepness of 300 mV/ps and more than ten times better compared to the signal from the state-of-the-art pickups. The pickups are installed and commissioned at three accelerator facilities, FLASH at DESY, the quasi-CW SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. The obtained measurement results from the installed pickups are in good agreement with the simulations. A comparison between the signal measurements with the cone-shaped pickup and the state-of-the-art is performed at ELBE showing an improvement by a factor of ten. The potential of the pickups for sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements for bunch charges of 20 pC is demonstrated at ELBE and at SwissFEL injector test facility. The introduced coneshaped pickups are the first commercially available pickups with a bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. For the EBPM, a modular pickup structure with two types of planar pickups, microstrip transmission line and grounded coplanar waveguide with perpendicular connectors is investigated. The transition region between the connector and the line is optimized for two substrate materials, alumina and glass with a reflection coefficient better than -20 dB up to 6 GHz.

  9. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  10. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  11. Construction and use of an intense positron source at new linac facilities in Germany. Conceptual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.

    2000-07-01

    In this conceptual report the idea to establish an European positron source for applied research (''EPOS'') based on new LINAC facilities in Germany (ELBE/Rossendorf or TTF-DESY/Hamburg) is considered. The report contains not only the outline of obvious applications in atomic physics, materials science and surface physics, but also several new methodical developments which are only possible with an intense positron beam. This opportunity will also allow the use and further development of imaging techniques being of special interest for industrial applications. (orig.)

  12. Constraints on Weathering from Riverine Magnesium Isotope Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechert, Uwe; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Meixner, Anette

    and industrialized regions, the d26Mg values mirror the lithologies of the catchment areas: the Danubian catchment is dominated by carbonatic lithologies and in the Danube dissolved magnesium exhibits the most negative d26Mg values between -1.85 and -1.70 ‰. The mainly siliceous catchment of the river Elbe causes....... Simple mass balance calculations on the basis of the magnesium isotopes obtained for the investigated rivers imply 26 to 59 % magnesium derived from carbonatic lithologies and 41 to 74 % magnesium from siliceous lithologies. This is in contrast to estimates using conventional methods for the tribute...

  13. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  14. First results with the novel petawatt laser acceleration facility in Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Irman, A; Siebold, M; Zeil, K; Albach, D; Bernert, C; Bock, S; Brack, F; Branco, J; Couperus, JP; Cowan, TE; Debus, A; Eisenmann, C; Garten, M; Gebhardt, R; Grams, S; Helbig, U; Huebl, A; Kluge, T

    2017-01-01

    We report on first commissioning results of the DRACO Petawatt ultra-short pulse laser system implemented at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. Key parameters of the laser system essential for efficient and reproducible performance of plasma accelerators are presented and discussed with the demonstration of 40 MeV proton acceleration under TNSA conditions as well as peaked electron spectra with unprecedented bunch charge in the 0.5 nC range. (paper)

  15. Low-water considerations for NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Frank, T.; Wahl, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of reactor safety considerations flood protection and the evaluation of low-water events are safety relevant issues. Therefore low-water statistics were performed for the coastal region Cuxhaven and the Elbe river estuary. The consideration of the longitudinal profile of water levels during low-tide in connection with surface water effects, morphodynamic changes of the river and anthropogenic modifications is of importance for conclusions concerning the NPP sites in some distance of the reference tide gauge. The authors performed a statistical low-tide analysis for the NPP sites Brunsbuettel and Brokdorf.

  16. 30 Jahre Biosphärenreservat Mittelelbe : Bericht über die Festveranstaltung am 19. Oktober 2009 im Bauhaus Dessau

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Als vor 30 Jahren, am 24. November 1979, eine Kommission der UNESCO in der DDR weilte, ereignete sich eine deutsche Premiere, eher unbemerkt von der breiten Öffentlichkeit: An der Mittleren Elbe und im Thüringer Wald erkannte das Gremium zwei naturräumlich äußerst wertvolle Schutzgebiete als erste deutsche UNESCO-Biosphärenreservate an. Die Erfolgsgeschichte dieser Schutzkategorie in Deutschland begründete sich mit diesem Tag. Das Biosphärenreservat Mittelelbe feierte sein 30-jähriges Jubiläu...

  17. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  18. Advances in 14 MeV neutron activation analysis by means of a new intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.; Fanger, H.-U.; Michaelis, W.; Anders, B.

    1982-01-01

    A new intense 14 MeV neutron generator with cylindrical acceleration structure has been put in operation at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. The sealed neutron tube is combined with a fast pneumatic rabbit system with particular capabilities for neutron activation analysis involving short-lived reaction products. The sample transfer time is less than 140 ms. The maximum neutron flux available for activation is 5.2x10 10 n/cm 2 s. Theoretical sensitivity predictions made in a previous study have been verified for some important trace elements. As a first application, samples of freeze-dried suspended matter and fishes of the Elbe river were analyzed. (author)

  19. About the sorption of C-14 labelled γ-hexachlorcyclohexane (lindane) in the ng/l-range at geogene adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, H.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental behaviour of chlorinated hydrocarbons more precisely, laboratory adsorption experiments under defined conditions taking lindane as a model were carried out. Adsorbents used were Elbe River suspended matter, quartz, kaolinite, illite, bentonite, Na-humate and peat. Organogenic substrates showed the highest adsorption rates. Adsorption was affected by several parameters such as salinity and temperature. High remobility of lindane was found in desorption experiments. These results can be transferred to natural aquatic systems since the concentration ranges used herein are equivalent to those found in the environment. (orig.) [de

  20. Determination of low-level tritium concentrations in surface water and precipitation in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, Diana; Hanslik, Eduard; Sedlarova, Barbora; Juranova, Eva; Charles University, Prague

    2017-01-01

    Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer. Since stopping of atmospheric nuclear tests, tritium in precipitation has been decreasing towards natural levels below 1 Bq l -1 and precise analyses of low level tritium activities are necessary. This paper focuses on tritium development at sites not influenced by any technogenic release of tritium in Elbe River basin (Bohemia) in the Czech Republic using liquid scintillation measurement with electrolytic enrichment. (author)

  1. Inelastic scattering of fast neutrons on Fe-56; Inelastische Streuung schneller Neutronen an {sup 56}Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Roland

    2014-11-24

    The relevant reaction cross sections for the nuclear transmutation will be measured at the neutron flight time facility nELBE in Dresden-Rossendorf. Transmutation by fast neutron irradiation is supposed to reduce the radiotoxicity of high-level radioactive wastes. The thesis is aimed to measure the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections of Fe-56 using a new double flight-time method. With combined plastic and BaF2 scintillation detectors for the first time the emitted neutrons and photons are observed in coincidence.

  2. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench” – ......, Capitalism and Schizofrenia. Transl. Massumi Continuum, New York, London Whitehead, A.N. (1978) Process and Reality, corrected edition, Eds. Griffin, David Ray & Sherburne, Donald. W. The Free Press, New York...

  3. Response of multi-strip multi-gap resistive plate chamber using pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta Pramanik, U.; Chakraborty, S.; Rahaman, A.; Ray, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Kempe, M.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D.; Leifels, Y.; Simon, H.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype of Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MMRPC) with active area 40 cm x 20 cm has been developed at SINP, Kolkata. Electron response of the developed detector was studied using the electron linac ELBE at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The development of this detector started with the aim of developing a neutron detector but this ultrafast timing detector can be used efficiently for the purpose of medical imaging, security purpose and detection of minimum ionising particle. In this article detailed analysis of electron response to our developed MMRPC will be presented

  4. Study of optical emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is an excellent tool for quantitative multielement trace analysis. This paper describes the performance of a computer-controlled sequential measurement system. Chemical and ionization interferences are shown to be negligible due to the characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma, spectral interferences are eliminated by using a high-resolution monochromator and computer data handling. Good accuracy is achieved for most of the interesting elements, as is shown from both an interlaboratory test and from comparison of the results of water samples from the rivers Elbe and Weser with those achieved with neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (orig.) [de

  5. Koenigstein mine. Background information, data and facts on the flooding of the former Koenigstein mine of the Wismut GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Koenigstein mine is in the south east of the German state of Sachsen in the 'Saechsische Schweiz' district. The mine comprised an area of 6 km 2 between the towns of Koenigstein/H''utten, Bielatal, Langenhennersdorf and Struppen/Siedlung. The small town of Leupoldishain was completely undermined. The mining site is in a natural reserve, borders on a national park, and the shortes distance from the Elbe river is 600 m. Mining and sanitation work had to take account of the local and regional hydrogeological conditions, especially the 3rd aquifer which supplies freshwater for the region [de

  6. Dissolved Vanillin as Tracer for Estuarine Lignin Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelkraut, F.

    1996-12-01

    Lignin is produced only by vascular plants and therefore can be used as a tracer for terrestrial organic carbon input to the estuarine and marine environments. Lignin measurements have been done by analyses of the oxidation products such as vanillin or 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. In the Elbe Estuary, free dissolved vanillin was analysed in order to test whether such measurements yield information on terrestrial carbon inputs into the Estuary and on the vanillin derived from lignin oxidation. In the period 1990-1992, concentrations of dissolved vanillin in the Elbe ranged from 0 to 60 μ g l -1(mean: 8 μg l -1). Higher values were found in areas of increased microbial activity such as the turbidity zone and the river mouth where the water chemistry is influenced by large tidal flats. No correlation was found between dissolved vanillin and suspended matter concentrations, although lignin is normally associated with suspended particulate matter, nor was a covariance seen between dissolved vanillin and the terrestrial carbon inputs into the Estuary. Apparently, biological conversion of lignin was faster than the transport processes, and local sources were more dominant for the vanillin concentration than riverine sources. The dissolved vanillin turnover was fast and, consequently, a significant amount of lignin may be converted within an estuary. In sediments from the Estuary, the concentrations of dissolved vanillin were similar to those found in the water phase and showed no clear vertical profile. The sediment is unlikely to be the source for vanillin.

  7. Comparing flood loss models of different complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Any deliberation on flood risk requires the consideration of potential flood losses. In particular, reliable flood loss models are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures, to assess vulnerability, for comparative risk analysis and financial appraisal during and after floods. In recent years, considerable improvements have been made both concerning the data basis and the methodological approaches used for the development of flood loss models. Despite of that, flood loss models remain an important source of uncertainty. Likewise the temporal and spatial transferability of flood loss models is still limited. This contribution investigates the predictive capability of different flood loss models in a split sample cross regional validation approach. For this purpose, flood loss models of different complexity, i.e. based on different numbers of explaining variables, are learned from a set of damage records that was obtained from a survey after the Elbe flood in 2002. The validation of model predictions is carried out for different flood events in the Elbe and Danube river basins in 2002, 2005 and 2006 for which damage records are available from surveys after the flood events. The models investigated are a stage-damage model, the rule based model FLEMOps+r as well as novel model approaches which are derived using data mining techniques of regression trees and Bayesian networks. The Bayesian network approach to flood loss modelling provides attractive additional information concerning the probability distribution of both model predictions and explaining variables.

  8. CHANDA and ERINDA: Joint European programs for research on safety of nuclear facilities and waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Roland; Hannaske, Roland; Koegler, Toni [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Grosse, Eckart [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Junghans, Arnd R. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In spite of the planned termination of the German nuclear power program neutron beam facilities in Germany can contribute considerably to research studies on the reduction of hazards due to nuclear waste. Transnational research programs support EU groups who want to carry out projects at the new tof set-up nELBE at HZDR, the calibrated n-flux at PTB and the FRANZ accelerator under construction at Frankfurt. Vice versa various facilities in the EU offer beams for transmutation and safety related studies with neutrons to German scientists under support by ERINDA (2011-2013) and CHANDA (2014-2017; solving challenges in nuclear data for the safety of European nuclear facilities). For work in that field scientific visits are also fostered to improve the exchange of experience between the partners (13 and in future about 35 from 18 countries). Plans for new projects as well as results obtained so far are discussed, and special emphasis is given to the present research performed at nELBE on neutron scattering and absorption.

  9. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of laser-light diffraction method with other methods of analyzing the particle size distribution in suspensions of latex, pollen, and quartz, and in suspended particulate matter in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyn, R.D.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives an idea of different methods being used for the particle size analysis, including a laser light diffraction method and an image analysis method. These comparing measurements have been carried out with suspensions consisting of fresh water and standard particles, ranging between 1 and 100 μm, as well as with suspended particulate matter of the Elbe river. As to standard particles, statistical errors are subject to the width of the size distribution. When using the light diffraction method, the errors vary between 0,7 and 16%, however, when applying the image analysis method, they range between 0,5 and 26%. As a result of the measurements of the suspended particulate matter of the Elbe river, a statistical error of 21% has occured with regard to the image analysis method, whilst the light diffraction method has shown an error of about 4 - 11%. Possible reasons for systematical and random errors have been discussed as to both of these methods. (orig.) [de

  11. World-wide distribution of the Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Balounová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851 is an invasive freshwater colonial animal belonging to the phylum Bryozoa. It is native to the area east of the Mississippi River, from Ontario to Florida. Currently it occurs throughout North America and the first record for it outside that continent was for Bille near Hamburg in 1883. Later, it was found in the Elbe (Havel by Spandau, in Tegeler See, a pond in Wroclaw and in Silesia and Brandenburg. In addition, floatoblasts of P. magnifica were found in the upper Elbe in Germany in the 1950s. Then, P. magnifica spread to the area of Spandau in Berlin and the Oder, and Wroclaw. It is also recorded in Romania and Turkey. In France, it was recorded occurring in the area called Franche-Comte in 1994. Its occurrence in the Netherlands was first reported in 2003 and then each following year. The newest discoveries are for the Rhine basin in the area between Luxembourg and Germany. Recently, it was also recorded in the Czech Republic and Austria. Besides Europe and North America, it is also recorded in Japan and Korea. The statoblasts of P. magnifica are spread by flowing water, zoochory and probably also by anthropochory.

  12. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  13. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  14. Handling movement epenthesis and hand segmentation ambiguities in continuous sign language recognition using nested dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiduo; Sarkar, Sudeep; Loeding, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    We consider two crucial problems in continuous sign language recognition from unaided video sequences. At the sentence level, we consider the movement epenthesis (me) problem and at the feature level, we consider the problem of hand segmentation and grouping. We construct a framework that can handle both of these problems based on an enhanced, nested version of the dynamic programming approach. To address movement epenthesis, a dynamic programming (DP) process employs a virtual me option that does not need explicit models. We call this the enhanced level building (eLB) algorithm. This formulation also allows the incorporation of grammar models. Nested within this eLB is another DP that handles the problem of selecting among multiple hand candidates. We demonstrate our ideas on four American Sign Language data sets with simple background, with the signer wearing short sleeves, with complex background, and across signers. We compared the performance with Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Latent Dynamic-CRF-based approaches. The experiments show more than 40 percent improvement over CRF or LDCRF approaches in terms of the frame labeling rate. We show the flexibility of our approach when handling a changing context. We also find a 70 percent improvement in sign recognition rate over the unenhanced DP matching algorithm that does not accommodate the me effect.

  15. Bagsideidræt ramt af skandale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbæk, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Ekspert rystet over sikkerheden - idrætsgren udelukket - redaktør sporløst forsvundet Fyens Bagside Idræt (FBI) er rystet af sin første skandale. Det drejer sig om sikkerheden i den af forbundet indtil i går anerkendte disciplin trampolinbold, hvor flere børn på samme tid hopper i trampolin, mens...... de forsøger at undgå at ramme bolde på samme trampolin. - Det er direkte uansvarligt og jeg er rystet, siger lektor Lars Elbæk fra Institut for Idræt og Biomekanik på Syddansk Universitet. - I overtræder simpelthen samtlige sikkerhedsregler for, hvordan man skal undgå skader på en trampolin...... skader, der opstår i havetrampoliner, sker på baggrund af uhensigtsmæssig brug, siger Lars Elbæk, som har opstillet 12 sikkerhedsanbefalinger, der blandt andet kan ses på www.trampolin.dk . En af disse foranstaltninger er, at kun én person ad gangen hopper i trampolinen: - 75 procent af alle...

  16. How much suspended particulate matter enters long-term in-channel storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Kleisinger, Carmen; Kehl, Nora; Schubert, Birgit; Hillebrand, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    The route of suspended particulate matter (SPM) downstream rivers strongly depends on discharge conditions and involves transport times and periods with resting times in deposits e.g. at areas with low-flow conditions near the channel bed. It is, however, difficult to estimate the contribution of SPM on the bed load. In this study, particle-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were released by an incident in the Elbe river (Central Europe) in spring 2015, could be used as unique tracer for transport pathways of SPM along the whole river stretch (over 700 km length), including low mountain ranges, lowlands, and the estuary. In 2015 the Elbe River was characterized by low-discharge conditions. Thus, the export of SPM on flood plains was strongly limited. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from ten monitoring stations (settling tanks) are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal (hereafter PCB6 ratio). We demonstrate that both the load of PCB as well as its chemical fingerprint allows the estimation of transport durations for the transport processes involved. Only a little part of the suspension has been transported via wash load. The PCB6 ratio is used to estimate mean transport velocities of the wash load fraction. A direct transport of wash load via the mean flow velocity of the water was not observed. Shortly after the incident, the PCB6 ratio was monitored 257 km downstream of the incident site in April 2015, in May first occurrence was monitored 514 km downstream of

  17. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwemmer, Philipp, E-mail: schwemmer@ftz-west.uni-kiel.de [Research and Technology Centre (Forschungs- und Technologiezentrum), University of Kiel, Hafentörn 1, 25761 Büsum (Germany); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be [Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Das, Krishna, E-mail: krishna.das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology-MARE Research Center, University of Liege, Allée de la Chimie 17, B6C, Institut de Chimie, 4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology-MARE Research Center, University of Liege, Allée de la Chimie 17, B6C, Institut de Chimie, 4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Adler, Sven, E-mail: sven.adler@slu.se [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå (Sweden); Garthe, Stefan, E-mail: garthe@ftz-west.uni-kiel.de [Research and Technology Centre (Forschungs- und Technologiezentrum), University of Kiel, Hafentörn 1, 25761 Büsum (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  18. Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pump-probe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point. The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation. The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement. The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources. The results

  19. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  20. Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    As part of integrated biological-effect monitoring, the parasite fauna of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) was investigated at five locations in the German Bight, with a view to using parasite species as bio-indicators. Over a period of 6 years, parasites from 30 different taxa were identified, but only 7 taxa of the parasite community occurred regularly at all locations and in sufficient abundance that they could be considered as potential indicator species. These species were the ciliophoran Trichodina spp., the copepods Acanthochondria cornuta, Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, the helminths Zoogonoides viviparus and Cucullanus heterochrous and metacercaria of an unidentified digenean species. Infection characteristics of these parasites are presented, with a comparison of the results from individual sampling periods and those of the long-term data set. Natural influences on the infection levels, such as temporal variations, habitat conditions and host-related factors, were evaluated. All of these parasite species showed significant differences in their infection levels between the Elbe estuary, as the most polluted site, and the less polluted coastal and marine locations: Helgoland, Outer Eider estuary and Spiekeroog, especially in the long-term data set. Gradual differences between the Elbe, the Outer Eider and Helgoland, which were not detected in individual sampling periods, also became evident in the pooled-data set. These were found in the prevalence of Trichodina spp., A. cornuta, Z. viviparus and C. heterochrous. Although salinity is considered as the most important natural factor, influencing the distribution pattern of the majority of the potential indicator species, infection levels of most of these species differed between locations with similar salinity conditions. Infection levels corresponded to a contamination gradient (Elbe > Inner Eider, Outer Eider > Helgoland) established across the locations. Seasonal variation in

  1. Ecological problems in Central Europe and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to the very restrictive information policy of the socialist governments, little is known of the ecological situation in these countries. Attention has been drawn to their ecological problems by a number of accidents (Chernobyl, forest decline along the western frontier of East Germany and Czechoslovakia, pollution of the Elbe river, smog situations in West Germany). Of the Western nations, West Germany is the most concerned as it borders on East Germany and Czechoslovakia. The book intends to help close the information gap concerning ecological problems and environmental policy in the socialist countries. It comprises three sections: Part 1 presents central characteristics of environmental policy in the socialist states, with a view to their specific ideological and administrative aspects. Part 2 compares selected fields of environmental policy in the different socialist countries. Part 3 presents case studies of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Long-term reactions of plants and macroinvertebrates to extreme floods in floodplain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Christiane; Dziock, Frank; Foeckler, Francis; Follner, Klaus; Gerisch, Michael; Glaeser, Judith; Rink, Anke; Schanowski, Arno; Scholz, Mathias; Deichner, Oskar; Henle, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Extreme summertime flood events are expected to become more frequent in European rivers due to climate change. In temperate areas, where winter floods are common, extreme floods occurring in summer, a period of high physiological activity, may seriously impact floodplain ecosystems. Here we report on the effects of the 2002 extreme summer flood on flora and fauna of the riverine grasslands of the Middle Elbe (Germany), comparing pre- and post-flooding data collected by identical methods. Plants, mollusks, and carabid beetles differed considerably in their response in terms of abundance and diversity. Plants and mollusks, displaying morphological and behavioral adaptations to flooding, showed higher survival rates than the carabid beetles, the adaptation strategies of which were mainly linked to life history. Our results illustrate the complexity of responses of floodplain organisms to extreme flood events. They demonstrate that the efficiency of resistance and resilience strategies is widely dependent on the mode of adaptation.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiyong, Xie [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststrasse 1, D-21335 Lueneburg (Germany)], E-mail: zhiyong.xie@gkss.de; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Floeser, Goetz; Caba, Armando [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ruck, Wolfgang [Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststrasse 1, D-21335 Lueneburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The potential of triclosan (TCS) acting as an endocrine disruptor has led to growing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment. In this study, seawater samples were collected from the German Bight during sampling campaigns conducted with the German research ships Gauss and Ludwig Prandtl. TCS was determined both in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate matters with concentrations ranging 0.8-6870 pg L{sup -1} and <1-95 pg L{sup -1}, respectively. High concentrations of TCS were present in the estuaries of the Elbe and the Weser, indicating significant input of TCS by the river discharge. The correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) between the dissolved concentration and salinity was 0.79 for the data obtained from the Gauss cruise, showing an obvious declining trend from the coast to the open sea. - Investigation with coastal survey reveals distribution of triclosan in marine waters.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Floeser, Goetz; Caba, Armando; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The potential of triclosan (TCS) acting as an endocrine disruptor has led to growing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment. In this study, seawater samples were collected from the German Bight during sampling campaigns conducted with the German research ships Gauss and Ludwig Prandtl. TCS was determined both in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate matters with concentrations ranging 0.8-6870 pg L -1 and -1 , respectively. High concentrations of TCS were present in the estuaries of the Elbe and the Weser, indicating significant input of TCS by the river discharge. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) between the dissolved concentration and salinity was 0.79 for the data obtained from the Gauss cruise, showing an obvious declining trend from the coast to the open sea. - Investigation with coastal survey reveals distribution of triclosan in marine waters

  5. Positron annihilation spectroscopy using high-energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterling, Maik; Jungmann, Marco; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Krille, Arnold; Anwand, Wolfgang; Brauer, Gerhard; Cowan, Thomas E.; Hartmann, Andreas; Kosev, Krasimir; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting electron accelerator ELBE (Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany) serves as a high-intensity bremsstrahlung photon-source delivering a pulsed beam (26 MHz) with very short bunches (<5 ps). The photons are being converted into positrons by means of pair production inside the target material thus forming an intense positron source. The accelerator machine pulse is used as time reference allowing positron lifetime spectroscopy. We performed positron annihilation spectroscopy by pair production in different sample materials and used coincidence techniques to reduce the background due to scattered photons significantly in order resulting in spectra of extraordinary high quality. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. A stonefly species extinct in Europe (Taeniopteryx araneoides Klapalek, 1902, Taeniopterygidae, Plecoptera) is thriving in the Irtysh River in West Siberia and North Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Akimbekova, Nazymgul; Dubatolov, Vladimir V; Sivec, Ignac

    2017-03-27

    Taeniopteryx araneoides Klápalek, 1902, a stonefly species with brachypterous males, known historically from the Danube, Elbe, and Dniester rivers, but considered to be extinct at least in Europe for more than a century. This species has also been doubtfully reported from Krasnoyarsk, Central Siberia. However, we report this species to be still thriving in the Irtysh River at the cities of Omsk (West Siberia, Russia) and Pavlodar (North Kazakhstan). The occurrence of this species reported least fifty years ago from the Yenisey River at Krasnoyarsk, Russia is considered possible. Unlike the widespread Palaearctic T. nebulosa (Linnaeus, 1758) that occurs in a broad range of stream types, T. araneoides is a potomon species, apparently confined to large rivers. In this habitat, it appears vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts and may be unable to compete with T. nebulosa. The construction of dams and reservoirs has apparently extirpated T. araneoides from most of its former geographical range.

  7. Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils of progressing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Graf, M.; Zehetner, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Initial soil development in river floodplains influences soil properties and processes. In this study, suites of young floodplain soils sampled at three European rivers (Danube/Austria, Ebro/Spain and Elbe/Germany) were used to link soil development to the soils' retention capacity for cadmium. Geochemichal fractionation of original and metal-spiked soils was conducted. Cadmium remained in weakly bound fractions in both original and spiked soils, representing an entirely different behaviour than observed for copper in an earlier study. The tendency of incorporation into more stable forms over time was only slightly expressed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of different sorption surfaces in soil, with no single soil constituent determining cadmium retention behaviour. Nevertheless, in the calcareous soils of the Danube floodplain, we found increased cadmium retention and decreased portions of desorbable cadmium with progressing soil development. - Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils reveals high mobility but increased retention capacity with increasing soil age and development

  8. Combined study of the gamma-ray strength function of 114Cd with (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgya T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration on strength function measurements and level density determinations is ongoing between the Budapest Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis and the ELBE Nuclear Physics groups within the framework of EU FP6 EFNUDAT project. The idea is to prove that good theoretical fits to the measured gamma-ray spectra collected in the (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions can be carried out using common photon strength and level density functions over a wide spectral energy range from 1 to 10 MeV for the same residual nucleus. Here, preliminary results on the isotope pair of 113,114Cd are presented for which the neutron capture state in 114Cd has 1+ or 0+ spin and parity.

  9. Sensitivity and uncertainty in flood inundation modelling – concept of an analysis framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weichel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the extreme flood event of the Elbe in 2002 the definition of flood risk areas by law and their simulation became more important in Germany. This paper describes a concept of an analysis framework to improve the localisation and duration of validity of flood inundation maps. The two-dimensional finite difference model TrimR2D is used and linked to a Monte-Carlo routine for parameter sampling as well as to selected performance measures. The purpose is the investigation of the impact of different spatial resolutions and the influence of changing land uses in the simulation of flood inundation areas. The technical assembling of the framework is realised and beside the model calibration, first tests with different parameter ranges were done. Preliminary results show good correlations with observed data, but the investigation of shifting land uses reflects only poor changes in the flood extension.

  10. A proposal to assess the settlement and subsidence behaviour of noncohesive soils after wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellweg, V.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the causes established for the Elbe-Seitenkanal dyke breach in 1976 - which was due a.o. to the settlement of the uniform fine sand placed-serial ground subsidence investigations according to a test method developed by the author were carried through in high-grade steel cylinders of 35 cm diameter and 70 cm height with three very different noncohesive soils to assess the subsidence behaviour after wetting. Besides a critical evaluation of the so far known methods for assessing ground subsidence and direct comparisons with other authors' results and usual laboratory test results, the processes inside the soil samples placed were carefully observed and analysed with the aid of the large experimental devices used. (orig./MSK) [de

  11. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. (orig.)

  12. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  13. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. Profiles are presented for the total heavy metal content determined from particulate matter and sediment. They include V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd. 16 references 10 figures, 1 table

  14. Storm surges-An option for Hamburg, Germany, to mitigate expected future aggravation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Hans von; Goennert, Gabriele; Meine, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Rising sea level together with regionally increased storm activity, caused by elevated and increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in many parts of the world increase the risk of storm surges significantly. Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere may mitigate the increasing risks somewhat, but the major task for regional and local stakeholders will be to prepare for appropriate adaptation. In most cases, possible strategies include intensification of coastal defense measures, in particular strengthening dykes, and adaptation to intermittent flooding. In case of Hamburg and the tidal Elbe river a third option seems to be available, which aims at mitigating storm surge risks by applying estuary engineering constructions. This option is sketched in this paper. The option has the potential to significantly reduce the expected future increases of local surge heights

  15. Energy-dispersive study of the interaction of fast neutrons with matter. Common final report of the DFG projects GR 1674/2 and FR 575/5 together with the institute for nuclear and particle physics, technical university Dresden; Energiedispersive Untersuchung der Wechselwirkung schneller Neutronen mit Materie. Gemeinsamer Abschlussbericht der DFG Projekte GR 1674/2 und FR 575/5, zusammen mit dem Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstadt, E.; Beckert, C. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Beyer, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik] [and others

    2005-04-01

    In this final report on the research project ''Energy-dispersive study of the interaction of fast neutrons with matter, especially materials for fusion and materials from fission reactors the status reached after three years promotion is described. The aim of this project is the construction and first usage of a very complex time-of-flight system for the study of the interaction of fast neutrons with construction materials for fusion and fission reactors as well as with long-lived radioisotopes. Furthermore astrophysically relevant experiments on problems of the element synthesis shall be performed. The whole project is devided into two sections: 1. Development, construction and test of a pulsed photoneutron source at the ELBE accelerator of the FZ Rossendorf, 2. Application of the photoneutron sources for measurements of cross sections induced by fast, energy-selected neutrons.

  16. Heat plumes in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1977-01-01

    With the aid of a time-dependent, two-dimensional remote-field model - remote-field meaning that region of the water where the effect of the discharge of cooling water on the flow velocity is negligible - three parameters of importance for the water quality in waters are determined. Distributions are calculated for temperature, biochemical need of oxygen and oxygen content. The influence of water depth is accounted for by integration over the vertical axis. Allowance is made for turbulence by taking the time means of the respective variables. The influence of a time-dependent heat flow through the free surface is taken into account as well as a variation in time of the flow velocity, occuring, e.g., in tidal rivers (Elbe). (orig.) [de

  17. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  18. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Yaremenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately.

  19. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  20. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  1. Ecological study of the migration of eel by synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, I.; Iwata, R.; Tsukamoto, K.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence imaging is suitable for determining the distribution of trace elements in fish otoliths. The Sr/Ca ratio in an otolith is an indicator of salinity changes and can be used to clarify the migration history of the eel, a catadromous fish. The otoliths of eel collected from the Tone and Elbe rivers exhibited a typical catadromous pattern, i.e. birth and breeding occurred in the ocean, but the remainder of their lives was spent in fresh water. In contrast, eels from the East China Sea and North Sea exhibited an unusual sea-locking phenomenon, as they appear to have remained in marine habitats throughout their lives. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.P.; Rindelhardt, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Safety Research (ISR) is one of the six Research Institutes of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR e.V.) which is a member institution of the Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Leibniz Association). Together with the Institute of Radiochemistry, ISR constitutes the research programme ''Safety and Environment'' which is one from three scientific programmes of FZR. In the framework of this research programme, the institute is responsible for the two subprogrammes ''Plant and Reactor Safety'' and ''Thermal Fluid Dynamics'', respectively. We also provide minor contributions to the sub-programme ''Radio-Ecology''. Moreover, with the development of a pulsed photo-neutron source at the radiation source ELBE (Electron linear accelerator for beams of high brilliance and low emittance), we are involved in a networking project carried out by the FZR Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics, the Physics Department of TU Dresden, and ISR. (orig.)

  3. Sensitivity of Hurst parameter estimation to periodic signals in time series and filtering approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D.; Koch, M.

    2005-09-01

    The influence of the periodic signals in time series on the Hurst parameter estimate is investigated with temporal, spectral and time-scale methods. The Hurst parameter estimates of the simulated periodic time series with a white noise background show a high sensitivity on the signal to noise ratio and for some methods, also on the data length used. The analysis is then carried on to the investigation of extreme monthly river flows of the Elbe River (Dresden) and of the Rhine River (Kaub). Effects of removing the periodic components employing different filtering approaches are discussed and it is shown that such procedures are a prerequisite for an unbiased estimation of H. In summary, our results imply that the first step in a time series long-correlation study should be the separation of the deterministic components from the stochastic ones. Otherwise wrong conclusions concerning possible memory effects may be drawn.

  4. Species analysis of organomercury compounds to determine their biopathways at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintelmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental behavior of organomercury compounds with special regard to methyl-mercury(II) was investigated. Organomercury species were extraced with a solution of dithizone in chloroform whereas methylmercury(II) is also extractable using HCl/Toluol. A newly developed HPLC/AFS-system was used as the analytical method. The methylmercury(II) content in river Elbe sediments is controlled by the content of sulfidic sulfur. The crucial point for the formation of methylmercury(II) is the microbial activity in the sediments. Besides methylmercury(II) ethylmercury(II) was found in river Koesseine sediments (Marktredwitz). Microbial biofilms are capable of accumulating methylmercury(II) to a factor of 10 5 when compared to the culture solution. (orig.). 62 figs., 47 tabs [de

  5. Review of the analysis methods of surface crack for straight pipe and elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Jang, Y. S.; Jin, T. E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out optimum EPFM analysis methods of straight pipe and elbow by comparison of load-carrying capacities. To do this, analytical and finite element analyses were performed and then these results compared with the ones in the literatures and experimental data to verify the validity of the analysis results. Comparison results showed that NSC method for straight pipe and SC.ELB2 method for elbow were appropriate ones among analytical methods except FEM to predict load-carrying capacities. However, the trend of prediction results scattered according to the analysis conditions such as geometry and material as well as analytical methods, it is necessary for cautious application of the analytical methods

  6. Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W.D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity

  7. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  8. Dipole strength distribution below the giant dipole resonance in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusev, G.Y.

    2006-07-01

    Investigations of the dipole-strength distributions in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo were carried out by means of the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence. The low-lying excitations in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at an electron energy of 6 MeV at the ELBE accelerator and at electron energies from 3.2 to 3.8 MeV at the Dynamitron accelerator. Five levels were observed in {sup 92}Mo. Five levels in {sup 98}Mo and 14 in {sup 100}Mo were identified for the first time in the energy range from 2 to 4 MeV. Dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-separation energies in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been investigated at the ELBE accelerator. Because of the possible observation of transitions in the neighboring nuclei produced via ({gamma},n) reaction, additional measurements at electron energies of 8.4 and 7.8 MeV, below the neutron-separation energy, were performed on {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo, respectively. The number of transitions assigned to {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo is 340, 485 and 499, respectively, the main part of them being dipole transitions. Statistical properties of the observed transitions are obtained. The continuum contains the ground-state transitions as well as the branching transitions to the low-lying levels and the subsequent deexcitations of these levels. (orig.)

  9. Radioecological studies of agricultural floodplain of the Mulde River on the consequences of the former uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bister, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    At the time of Warsaw Pact, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) was one of the largest producer of uranium in the world and the most important supplier of uranium for the USSR. The former Saxon uranium mining areas are drained by the Zwickauer Mulde River. The Mulde River is a left side tributary or the Elbe River and mainly situated in Saxony. The frontal flows, Freiberger Mulde River and Zwickauer Mulde River, merge close to the small village of Sermuth to form the Vereinigte Mulde River, which flows into the Elbe River near Dessau. This research project was established to quantify the long-term effect of the former uranium mining activities on the floodplain ecosystem of the Mulde River. The radiological impact from the agricultural use of the alluvial soils was investigated. More than 280 samples from different environmental compartments (river water, surface sediment from the river, alluvial soils and agricultural crops) were sampled and analysed by radiometric methods. All of the compartments still show an impact from the former uranium mining. However, comparisons with earlier measurements reveal a considerable decrease of the radionuclide contamination. Thus, it is not possible to relate the activities in the soil samples to the activities of the water and sediment samples measured in parallel. Radionuclides originating from the alluvial soils enter the human food chain as a result of the agricultural use of the floodplains. Yet, the radiological effect is small. The uranium contamination of the river water results in activity values lying beyond the threshold of the current German Drinking Water Ordinance. Dose calculations based on the ''Berechnungsgrundlage Bergbau'' [BGB10] do not exceed the guidance level of 1 mSv additional potential radiation exposure per year for the current agricultural use, even assuming most disadvantageous conditions.

  10. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  11. Radioecological studies of agricultural floodplain of the Mulde River on the consequences of the former uranium mining; Radiooekologische Untersuchungen landwirtschaftlich genutzter Auen der Mulde zu den Folgen des ehemaligen Uranbergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bister, Stefan

    2012-12-18

    At the time of Warsaw Pact, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) was one of the largest producer of uranium in the world and the most important supplier of uranium for the USSR. The former Saxon uranium mining areas are drained by the Zwickauer Mulde River. The Mulde River is a left side tributary or the Elbe River and mainly situated in Saxony. The frontal flows, Freiberger Mulde River and Zwickauer Mulde River, merge close to the small village of Sermuth to form the Vereinigte Mulde River, which flows into the Elbe River near Dessau. This research project was established to quantify the long-term effect of the former uranium mining activities on the floodplain ecosystem of the Mulde River. The radiological impact from the agricultural use of the alluvial soils was investigated. More than 280 samples from different environmental compartments (river water, surface sediment from the river, alluvial soils and agricultural crops) were sampled and analysed by radiometric methods. All of the compartments still show an impact from the former uranium mining. However, comparisons with earlier measurements reveal a considerable decrease of the radionuclide contamination. Thus, it is not possible to relate the activities in the soil samples to the activities of the water and sediment samples measured in parallel. Radionuclides originating from the alluvial soils enter the human food chain as a result of the agricultural use of the floodplains. Yet, the radiological effect is small. The uranium contamination of the river water results in activity values lying beyond the threshold of the current German Drinking Water Ordinance. Dose calculations based on the ''Berechnungsgrundlage Bergbau'' [BGB10] do not exceed the guidance level of 1 mSv additional potential radiation exposure per year for the current agricultural use, even assuming most disadvantageous conditions.

  12. Protein encapsulation via porous CaCO3 microparticles templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodkin, Dmitry V; Larionova, Natalia I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-01-01

    Porous microparticles of calcium carbonate with an average diameter of 4.75 microm were prepared and used for protein encapsulation in polymer-filled microcapsules by means of electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL). Loading of macromolecules in porous CaCO3 particles is affected by their molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the particles and also by the affinity to the carbonate surface. Adsorption of various proteins and dextran was examined as a function of pH and was found to be dependent both on the charge of the microparticles and macromolecules. The electrostatic effect was shown to govern this interaction. This paper discusses the factors which can influence the adsorption capacity of proteins. A new way of protein encapsulation in polyelectrolyte microcapsules is proposed exploiting the porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microparticles from CaCO3. It consists of protein adsorption in the pores of the microparticles followed by ELbL of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and further core dissolution. This resulted in formation of polyelectrolyte-filled capsules with protein incorporated in interpenetrating polyelectrolyte network. The properties of CaCO3 microparticles and capsules prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microelectrophoresis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lactalbumin was encapsulated by means of the proposed technique yielding a content of 0.6 pg protein per microcapsule. Horseradish peroxidase saves 37% of activity after encapsulation. However, the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by encapsulation. The results demonstrate that porous CaCO3 microparticles can be applied as microtemplates for encapsulation of proteins into polyelectrolyte capsules at neutral pH as an optimal medium for a variety of bioactive material, which can also be encapsulated by the proposed method. Microcapsules filled with encapsulated material may find applications in the field of

  13. A long-term, continuous simulation approach for large-scale flood risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Daniela; Schröter, Kai; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Kreibich, Heidi; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Flood Model (RFM) is a process based model cascade developed for flood risk assessments of large-scale basins. RFM consists of four model parts: the rainfall-runoff model SWIM, a 1D channel routing model, a 2D hinterland inundation model and the flood loss estimation model for residential buildings FLEMOps+r. The model cascade was recently undertaken a proof-of-concept study at the Elbe catchment (Germany) to demonstrate that flood risk assessments, based on a continuous simulation approach, including rainfall-runoff, hydrodynamic and damage estimation models, are feasible for large catchments. The results of this study indicated that uncertainties are significant, especially for hydrodynamic simulations. This was basically a consequence of low data quality and disregarding dike breaches. Therefore, RFM was applied with a refined hydraulic model setup for the Elbe tributary Mulde. The study area Mulde catchment comprises about 6,000 km2 and 380 river-km. The inclusion of more reliable information on overbank cross-sections and dikes considerably improved the results. For the application of RFM for flood risk assessments, long-term climate input data is needed to drive the model chain. This model input was provided by a multi-site, multi-variate weather generator that produces sets of synthetic meteorological data reproducing the current climate statistics. The data set comprises 100 realizations of 100 years of meteorological data. With the proposed continuous simulation approach of RFM, we simulated a virtual period of 10,000 years covering the entire flood risk chain including hydrological, 1D/2D hydrodynamic and flood damage estimation models. This provided a record of around 2.000 inundation events affecting the study area with spatially detailed information on inundation depths and damage to residential buildings on a resolution of 100 m. This serves as basis for a spatially consistent, flood risk assessment for the Mulde catchment presented in

  14. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  15. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  16. Development of a monthly to seasonal forecast framework tailored to inland waterway transport in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, navigation-related forecasts in central Europe cover short- to medium-range lead times linked to the travel times of vessels to pass the main waterway bottlenecks leaving the loading ports. Without doubt, this aspect is still essential for navigational users, but in light of the growing political intention to use the free capacity of the inland waterway transport in Europe, additional lead time supporting strategic decisions is more and more in demand. However, no such predictions offering extended lead times of several weeks up to several months currently exist for considerable parts of the European waterway network. This paper describes the set-up of a monthly to seasonal forecasting system for the German stretches of the international waterways of the Rhine, Danube and Elbe rivers. Two competitive forecast approaches have been implemented: the dynamical set-up forces a hydrological model with post-processed outputs from ECMWF general circulation model System 4, whereas the statistical approach is based on the empirical relationship (teleconnection) of global oceanic, climate and regional hydro-meteorological data with river flows. The performance of both forecast methods is evaluated in relation to the climatological forecast (ensemble of historical streamflow) and the well-known ensemble streamflow prediction approach (ESP, ensemble based on historical meteorology) using common performance indicators (correlation coefficient; mean absolute error, skill score; mean squared error, skill score; and continuous ranked probability, skill score) and an impact-based evaluation quantifying the potential economic gain. The following four key findings result from this study: (1) as former studies for other regions of central Europe indicate, the accuracy and/or skill of the meteorological forcing used has a larger effect than the quality of initial hydrological conditions for relevant stations along the German waterways. (2) Despite the predictive

  17. Flashback analysis in tangential swirl burners; Analisis de reflujo de flama en combustores tangenciales de flujo giratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ A.C., Centro de Tecnologia Avanzada, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: agustin.valera@ciateq.mx; Syred, N. Abdulsada, M. [United Kingdom Cardiff University (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: syredn@cf.ac.uk; abdulsadam@cf.ac.uk

    2011-10-15

    Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blow off limits coupled with low NO{sub x} emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front. [Spanish] La combustion ligera premezclada se utiliza ampliamente en los procesos de combustion debido a los beneficios que brinda en terminos de buena estabilidad de flama y limites de extincion, aunado a la baja emision de NO{sub x}. Sin embargo, el uso de nuevos combustibles y de flujos complejos han incrementado la preocupacion por el reflujo de flama, especialmente para el uso de gas sintetico (syngas) y mezclas altamente hidrogenadas. Por ello, en este articulo se describe un metodo practico y numerico para el estudio del fenomeno a modo de reducir los efectos del reflujo de flama en un combustor piloto de tipo tangencial de flujo giratorio de 100 kW. Se usa gas natural para establecer la linea base de resultados y los efectos del cambio de diferentes parametros. El fenomeno de reflujo de flama se estudia por medio de fotografia de rapida adquisicion. El uso de un inyector central de combustible

  18. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 μm. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 μm thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 μm thick

  19. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus, E-mail: markus.brinkmann@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstr. 122, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zennegg, Markus [Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, 1 Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Particle-bound DLCs were readily bioavailable during re-suspension of sediments. • DLC uptake and effects in fish were proportional to the concentration in sediments. • Responses of biomarkers reflected the contamination levels of different sediments. • Cyp1a mRNA expression and EROD activity in livers of fish responded immediately. • Histopathological lesions were strong indicators of potential long-term effects. - Abstract: Sediments can act as long-term sinks for environmental pollutants. Within the past decades, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in the scientific community. To investigate the time- and concentration-dependent uptake of DLCs and PAHs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their associated toxicological effects, we conducted exposure experiments using suspensions of three field-collected sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe, which were chosen to represent different contamination levels. Five serial dilutions of contaminated sediments were tested; these originated from the Prossen and Zollelbe sampling sites (both in the river Elbe, Germany) and from Ehrenbreitstein (Rhine, Germany), with lower levels of contamination. Fish were exposed to suspensions of these dilutions under semi-static conditions for 90 days. Analysis of muscle tissue by high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and of bile liquid by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that particle-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were readily bioavailable from re-suspended sediments. Uptake of these contaminants and the associated toxicological effects in fish were largely proportional to their sediment concentrations. The changes in the investigated biomarkers closely reflected the different sediment contamination levels: cytochrome P450 1A m

  20. Ecotoxicological sediment survey of large German rivers; Oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung der grossen Fluesse Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst., Abt. Oekologie und Evolution

    2003-05-01

    In this project, a nation-wide, ecotoxicologically-based sediment survey was carried out. For this purpose, a total of about 200 sediment samples from 12 selected large German rivers (Danube, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Odra, Rhine, Ruhr, Saar and Weser) were analysed with regard to abiotic parameters (heavy metals, PAH, organic carbon content, particle size) and also by means of two biological test systems with benthic invertebrates (nematode test with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and chironomid test with the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius). Subsequently, this comprehensive data set was analysed statistically. By means of an iterative method, a five-stage, statistically-derived assessment concept which is founded on the results of the biological tests, was developed following the EU water framework directive. In general, the classification with the nematode test turned out to be the more sensitive method. A principal component analysis and correlations showed that the parameters of both biotests provide different information which suggests a combined use of both tests. Correlations also indicate a connection of biotest results and abiotic parameters (organic carbon content, particle size and heavy metal contamination). (orig.) [German] Im Projekt wurde eine bundesweite oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung grosser Fliessgewaesser durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurden insgesamt etwa 200 Sedimentproben aus 12 ausgewaehlten grossen Fluessen Deutschlands (Donau, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Oder, Rhein, Ruhr, Saar und Weser) auf ihre abiotischen Parameter (Schwermetalle, PAK, organischer Kohlenstoffgehalt, Korngroesse) hin analysiert sowie mit zwei biologischen Testverfahren mit benthischen Invertebraten (Nematodentest mit dem Fadenwurm Caenorhabditis elegans und Chironomidentest mit der Zuckmuecke Chironomus riparius) untersucht. Dieses umfangreiche Datenmaterial wurde anschliessend statistisch ausgewertet und mit Hilfe eines iterativen

  1. The flash flood event in the catchment of the river Weisseritz (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony) from 12.-14. August 2002 - meteorological and hydrological reasons, damage assesment and disaster managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, V.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    Between 12. and 14. August 2002 the region of eastern Erzgebirge (Saxony/Eastern Germany) was affected by the heaviest rainfall event recorded since beginning of the measuring period in 1883. The synoptic reason of this event was the advective precipitation due to the strong and very slowly shifting Vb-low "Ilse" combined with a noticeable topographic intensification by north-westerly winds. All stations in the catchment area of the river Weisseritz recorded new all-time records. E.g., at the meteorological station Zinnwald-Georgenfeld situated at the crest of eastern Erzgebirge a daily sum of 312 mm was measured for the 13. August. This value is close to the maximum physically possible rainfall. The intensive rainfall in the catchments of Rote Weisseritz and Wilde Weisseritz led to unexperienced heavy flash floods with large material transport and flow damages. The buffer effect of the existing dam systems was comparatively small because the reserved retaining capacity for flood protection was only about 20 percent of the total capacity. The reservoirs filled quickly due to the very high maximum inflow. So a long-time overflow of the dam system occurred with a maximum of about 300 cubic meters per second at the combined river Weisseritz through the cities of Freital and Dresden (This situation led, e.g., to the flooding of Central Railway Station in Dresden). This water flow is comparable with a medium flow rate of the river Elbe in Dresden, and it is about 300 times higher than the normal drain of the river Weisseritz in Freital! The material damages in the Weisseritz region account for several hundred millions EURO, and several causalties occurred. The damages of the University buildings in Tharandt (including one building of the Department of Meteorology) account for 15 millions EURO alone. The disaster management during the flood was not optimal. For many people, e.g. in Tharandt, there was neither an officially warning nor an organised rescue of movable goods

  2. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven; Kammann, Ulrike; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Zennegg, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Particle-bound DLCs were readily bioavailable during re-suspension of sediments. • DLC uptake and effects in fish were proportional to the concentration in sediments. • Responses of biomarkers reflected the contamination levels of different sediments. • Cyp1a mRNA expression and EROD activity in livers of fish responded immediately. • Histopathological lesions were strong indicators of potential long-term effects. - Abstract: Sediments can act as long-term sinks for environmental pollutants. Within the past decades, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in the scientific community. To investigate the time- and concentration-dependent uptake of DLCs and PAHs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their associated toxicological effects, we conducted exposure experiments using suspensions of three field-collected sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe, which were chosen to represent different contamination levels. Five serial dilutions of contaminated sediments were tested; these originated from the Prossen and Zollelbe sampling sites (both in the river Elbe, Germany) and from Ehrenbreitstein (Rhine, Germany), with lower levels of contamination. Fish were exposed to suspensions of these dilutions under semi-static conditions for 90 days. Analysis of muscle tissue by high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and of bile liquid by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that particle-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were readily bioavailable from re-suspended sediments. Uptake of these contaminants and the associated toxicological effects in fish were largely proportional to their sediment concentrations. The changes in the investigated biomarkers closely reflected the different sediment contamination levels: cytochrome P450 1A m

  3. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-11-15

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 {mu}m. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 {mu}m thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 {mu}m thick

  4. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  5. Possibilities for using a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method in order to determine the bonding form of mecury in soils and sediments; Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens zur Bestimmung der Bindungsform des Quecksilbers in Boeden und Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biester, H.

    1994-12-31

    The bonding behaviour of mercury in solids was investigated by means of a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method. Starting from the special property of elemental mercury to evaporate already at room temperature, a method was developed which permits to characterize different mercury bonding forms on the basis of Hg evaporation behaviour from solids at continuously increased temperature. The method starts from the assumption that it is possible to thermally reduce compounded mercury and release it in elemental form. The focus of the work was on the study of Hg bonding behaviour in soils and sediments. The soil samples used were from the areas of two mercury deposits, different kyanizing sites, some former mirror factories, and a chlor-alkali electrolysis workshop. The investigated sediments are a collection of mercury-polluted samples from the rivers Elbe, Rhine, Murg, the Rio Sao Joao de Meriti (Brazil) and some brooks and rivers of the Saar-Nahe depression. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Bindungsverhalten von Quecksilber in Feststoffen mittels eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens untersucht. Ausgehend von der besonderen Eigenschaften des elementaren Quecksilbers, bereits bei Zimmertemperatur zu verdampfen, wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, das eine Charakterisierung verschiedener Quecksilberbindungsformen aufgrund des Abdampfverhaltens des Hg aus dem Feststoff unter kontinuierlicher Temperaturerhoehung zulaesst. Dem Verfahren liegt dabei die Annahme zugrunde, dass sich das Quecksilber in seinen Verbindungen thermisch reduzieren und in elementarer Form freisetzen laesst. Durch den kontinuierlichen Aufheizprozess erfolgt die Freisetzung des Quecksilbers in Abhaengigkeit von der Bindungsstaerke in unterschiedlichen Temperaturbereichen. Die Darstellung der Ergebnisse erfolgte in Form von Abdampfkurven, die die Extinktion in Abhaengigkeit von der Temperatur darstellen. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung des

  6. JAN DUIKER: A RIVER SIDE HOTEL IN DOLNÍ ZÁLEZLY NAD LABEM, CZECH REPUBLIC 1929-1930 / Jan Duiker: un hotel junto al río en Dolní Zálezly nad Labem,República Checa 1929-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Molema

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY After the early death of Jan Duiker, his compatriot Han van Loghem wrote: “By no means everything in Duiker is sound in the sense of the mathematical technique, and often not from the viewpoint of centuries long utility. But precisely this makes that his work contains the freshness of the continuously renewing nature.” (De Hollandsche revue, jrg 41, 1936, no 8, p. 366. Van Loghem’s book Bouwen Bauen Building Batîr (1932 has been the only publication in Duiker’s life time in which some space was dedicated to his highly interesting entry for a competition for a riverside hotel in Salesel an der Elbe, now (Dolní Zálezly nad Labem in the Czech Republic. In this article the writer has tried to understand the project with his knowledge of Jan Duiker’s work in general, from what Van Loghem published, and some additional drawings discovered and published in later years. Duiker’s archive contains nothing. A detective story. RESUMEN Después de la temprana muerte de Jan Duiker, su compatriota Han van Loghem escribió: “De ninguna manera en Duiker todo es inalterable en el sentido técnico de las matemáticas, y sobre todo desde el punto de vista de la utilidad a lo largo de los siglos. Pero precisamente esto hace que su trabajo contenga la frescura de la naturaleza que continuamente se renueva” (De Hollandsche revue, jrg 41, 1936, no 8, p. 366. El libro de Van Loghem Bouwen Bauen Building Batîr (1932 ha sido la única publicación sobre Duiker en vida en el cual, algunas partes, estaban dedicadas a su interesantísimo proyecto para el concurso para un hotel junto al río en Salesel an der Elbe, ahora (Dolní Zálezly nad Labem en la República Checa. En este artículo, he intentado entender el proyecto con el conocimiento que tengo, en general, del trabajo de Jan Duiker, con lo publicado por Van Loghem y algunos dibujos adicionales descubiertos y publicados años más tarde. En el archivo de Duiker no hay nada. Ha sido una

  7. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  8. Effects of polders on the course of floods in the watershed of the Tichá Orlice river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pavlík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polders show an important water-management function in the flood-control protection of watersheds. The course of actual floods in recent decades and effects of the water works on flood flows have proved the suitability of the construction within integrated flood-control measures in particular watersheds of the Czech Republic. To determine the transformation effect of flood-control measures in watersheds mathematical modelling is an important method, which is used not only in the preparation and design of retention areas but also in dealing with the flood protection of towns and villages. Easy verification of other measures in watersheds is also useful. Their implementation can be thus prepared for the future or it is possible to back off the intentions. In our case, a fact is advantageous that the model is ope­ra­ted in the workplace of the Elbe Basin water-management dispatching centre, which is compatible with assessed polders in the partial Elbe watershed, namely in the Tichá Orlice watershed and its partial Třebovka watershed. The polders assessed are situated on the Třebovka stream, which is the lar­gest tributary of the Tichá Orlice river. These dry reservoirs and the increased protective function of the Hvězda pond affect runoff from about 80 km2. Within research activities, possibilities were studied to obtain necessary retention areas in existing small water reservoirs. It became evident that the only rea­lis­tic solution was to increase protective functions of the pond Hvězda. Its present total retention space of 1.4 million m3 can be increased only by 0.35 million m3, however, in combination with the sophisticated lay-out of a new emergency spillway and outlet the whole retention space can be used much more effectively. To obtain other retention areas localities were found out in the whole upper watershed of the Třebovka stream, which fulfilled requirements for placing the adequate capacity of polders. Subsequent

  9. Occurrence of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and its ultimate transformation product Guanylurea in several compartments of the aquatic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    In 2030, the World Health Organization estimates that more than 350 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes. Consequently, Metformin - the biguanide drug of choice orally administered for diabetes type II - is anticipated to see a spike in production. Unlike many pharmaceutical drugs, Metformin (Met) is not metabolized by humans but passes through the body unchanged. Entering aquatic compartments, such as in sewage, it can be bacterially transformed to the ultimate transformation product Guanylurea (Gua). Sampling over one week (n=5) from a Southern German sewage treatment plant revealed very high average (AV) concentrations in influent (AVMet=111,800ng/L, AVGua=1300ng/L) and effluent samples (AVMet=4800ng/L, AVGua=44,000ng/L). To provide a more complete picture of the distribution and potential persistence of these compounds in the German water cycle, a new, efficient and highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method with direct injection was used for the measurement of Metformin and Guanylurea in drinking, surface, sewage and seawater. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 2-10ng/L allowed the detection of Metformin and Guanylurea in different locations such as: Lake Constance (n=11: AVMet=102ng/L, AVGua=16ng/L), river Elbe (n=12: AVMet=472ng/L, AVGua=9ng/L), river Weser (n=6: AVMet=349ng/L, AVGua=137ng/L) and for the first time in marine North Sea water (n=14: AVMet=13ng/L, AVGua=11ng/L). Based on daily water discharges, Metformin loads of 15.2kg/d (Elbe) and 6.4kg/d (Weser) into the North Sea were calculated. Lake Constance is used to abstract potable water which is further purified to be used as drinking water. A first screening of two tap water samples contained 2ng/L and 61ng/L of Metformin, respectively. The results of this study suggest that Metformin and Guanylurea could be distributed over a large fraction of the world's potable water sources and oceans. With no natural degradation processes, these compounds can be easily

  10. Radiobiological influence of megavoltage electron pulses of ultra-high pulse dose rate on normal tissue cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Karsch, Leonhard; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Oppelt, Melanie; Pawelke, Jörg; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke

    2016-08-01

    Regarding the long-term goal to develop and establish laser-based particle accelerators for a future radiotherapeutic treatment of cancer, the radiobiological consequences of the characteristic short intense particle pulses with ultra-high peak dose rate, but low repetition rate of laser-driven beams have to be investigated. This work presents in vitro experiments performed at the radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance). This accelerator delivered 20-MeV electron pulses with ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy/min either at the low pulse frequency analogue to previous cell experiments with laser-driven electrons or at high frequency for minimizing the prolonged dose delivery and to perform comparison irradiation with a quasi-continuous electron beam analogue to a clinically used linear accelerator. The influence of the different electron beam pulse structures on the radiobiological response of the normal tissue cell line 184A1 and two primary fibroblasts was investigated regarding clonogenic survival and the number of DNA double-strand breaks that remain 24 h after irradiation. Thereby, no considerable differences in radiation response were revealed both for biological endpoints and for all probed cell cultures. These results provide evidence that the radiobiological effectiveness of the pulsed electron beams is not affected by the ultra-high pulse dose rates alone.

  11. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  12. Radiobiological influence of megavoltage electron pulses of ultra-high pulse dose rate on normal tissue cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Karsch, Leonhard; Schuerer, Michael; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Beyreuther, Elke; Oppelt, Melanie; Pawelke, Joerg; Richter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the long-term goal to develop and establish laser-based particle accelerators for a future radiotherapeutic treatment of cancer, the radiobiological consequences of the characteristic short intense particle pulses with ultra-high peak dose rate, but low repetition rate of laser-driven beams have to be investigated. This work presents in vitro experiments performed at the radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance). This accelerator delivered 20-MeV electron pulses with ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10"1"0 Gy/min either at the low pulse frequency analogue to previous cell experiments with laser-driven electrons or at high frequency for minimizing the prolonged dose delivery and to perform comparison irradiation with a quasi-continuous electron beam analogue to a clinically used linear accelerator. The influence of the different electron beam pulse structures on the radiobiological response of the normal tissue cell line 184A1 and two primary fibroblasts was investigated regarding clonogenic survival and the number of DNA double-strand breaks that remain 24 h after irradiation. Thereby, no considerable differences in radiation response were revealed both for biological endpoints and for all probed cell cultures. These results provide evidence that the radiobiological effectiveness of the pulsed electron beams is not affected by the ultra-high pulse dose rates alone. (orig.)

  13. Determination of the neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, Toni Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of actinides like the Pu-isotopes are of relevance for the development of nuclear transmutation technologies. For 242 Pu, current uncertainties are of around 21%. Sensitivity studies show that the total uncertainty has to be reduced to below 5% to allow for reliable neutron physics simulations. This challenging task was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility of the new German National Center for High Power Radiation Sources at HZDR, Dresden. Within the TRAKULA project, thin, large and homogeneous deposits of 235 U and 242 Pu have been produced successfully. Using two consecutively placed fission chambers allowed the determination of the neutron induced fission cross section of 242 Pu relative to 235 U. The areal density of the Plutonium targets was calculated using the measured spontaneous fission rate. Experimental results of the fast neutron induced fission of 242 Pu acquired at nELBE will be presented and compared to recent experiments and evaluated data. Corrections addressing the neutron scattering are discussed by using results of different neutron transport simulations (Geant 4, MCNP 6 and FLUKA).

  14. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model for six European catchments using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, M. C.; Mendiguren González, G.; Kumar, R.; Rakovec, O.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    While observed streamflow has been the single reference for most conventional hydrologic model calibration exercises, the availability of spatially distributed remote sensing observations provide new possibilities for multi-variable calibration assessing both spatial and temporal variability of different hydrologic processes. In this study, we first identify the key transfer parameters of the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM) controlling both the discharge and the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) across six central European catchments (Elbe, Main, Meuse, Moselle, Neckar and Vienne). These catchments are selected based on their limited topographical and climatic variability which enables to evaluate the effect of spatial parameterization on the simulated evapotranspiration patterns. We develop a European scale remote sensing based actual evapotranspiration dataset at a 1 km grid scale driven primarily by land surface temperature observations from MODIS using the TSEB approach. Using the observed AET maps we analyze the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mHM model. This model allows calibrating one-basin-at-a-time or all-basins-together using its unique structure and multi-parameter regionalization approach. Results will indicate any tradeoffs between spatial pattern and discharge simulation during model calibration and through validation against independent internal discharge locations. Moreover, added value on internal water balances will be analyzed.

  15. The γ-ray angular distribution in fast neutron inelastic scattering from iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Roland; Dietz, Mirco; Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralph; Müller, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Takács, Marcell P.; Wagner, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    The angular distribution of γ-rays emitted after inelastic scattering of fast neutrons from iron was determined at the n ELBE neutron time-of-flight facility. An iron sample of natural isotopic composition was irradiated by a continuous photo-neutron spectrum in the energy range from about 0.1 up to 10 MeV. The de-excitation γ-rays of the four lowest excited states of 56Fe and the first excited state of 54Fe were detected using a setup of five high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors and five LaBr3 scintillation detectors positioned around the sample at 30°, 55°, 90°, 125° and 150° with respect to the incoming neutron beam. The resulting angular distributions were fitted by Legendre polynomials up to 4th order and the angular distribution coefficients a2 and a4 were extracted. The angular distribution coefficients of three transitions in 56Fe are reported here for the first time. The results are applied to a previous measurement of the inelastic scattering cross section determined using a single HPGe detector positioned at 125°. Using the updated γ-ray angular distribution, the previous cross section results are in good agreement with reference data.

  16. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research. Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, F.P.; Rindelhardt, U. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The Institute of Safety Research (ISR) is one of the six Research Institutes of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR e.V.) which is a member institution of the Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Leibniz Association). Together with the Institute of Radiochemistry, ISR constitutes the research programme ''Safety and Environment'' which is one from three scientific programmes of FZR. In the framework of this research programme, the institute is responsible for the two subprogrammes ''Plant and Reactor Safety'' and ''Thermal Fluid Dynamics'', respectively. We also provide minor contributions to the sub-programme ''Radio-Ecology''. Moreover, with the development of a pulsed photo-neutron source at the radiation source ELBE (Electron linear accelerator for beams of high brilliance and low emittance), we are involved in a networking project carried out by the FZR Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics, the Physics Department of TU Dresden, and ISR. (orig.)

  17. Learning from and for rare floods in Dresden – how public officials interpret damage simulation results at the building type level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public officials in Dresden are concerned about learning from and for rare flood events like the Elbe river flood in August 2002. This is interesting because research on individual as well as organizational learning from rare events indicates that this kind of learning faces significant difficulties (e.g., overestimation of rare events for decision-making based on “emotionalized event experience”. Up to now, only little is known what and how public officials in Dresden specifically learn from and for rare floods. Therefore, the paper follows an exploratory purpose in line with principles of qualitative social research. Firstly, the paper explores dealing with rare floods with reference to a conceptual framework that highlights relations between regulative, normative, and cognitive institutions on the one hand and learning of public officials on the other. Secondly, it adopts a single case study design in Dresden with embedded sub-cases that are defined with reference to organizations of FRM. The case study shows, among others, that regulations like the Floods Directive are important for justifying FRM with regard to rare flood events which is less obvious than it sounds. However, public officials display different interpretations of the term “rare flood event”, for instance, in the context of analysing the consequences of floods on the building stock. Furthermore, the case study findings indicate that public officials may follow alternative approaches to sustain commitment in the context of rare flood events (systematic versus pragmatic approach.

  18. Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10 11 Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410 9 Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510 9 Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

  19. Environmental problems in Germany after the integration. Umweltprobleme im zusammengewachsenen Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1990-11-01

    The festival lecture by Professor Toepfer, Federal Environment Minister, at the DELIWA main congress in September 1990 addresses all environmental problems. He particularly advocates continuity in environmental policy, expresses his intention to put an end to the mistaken practice of dividing work into production, sale and waste disposal and establish a cooperation with the rural economy for the protection of the groundwater, deals with the Law on Plant Protectants, the Law on Charges for the Emission of Liquid Waste into Surface Waters, the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe from Pollution and calls for the establishment of a drinking water cadastre with the support of the associations. We now need better views over the environment in the GDR for what went wrong during the fourty years of 'real socialism' cannot be swept away in fourthy weeks in a social, ecologically oriented market economy. We must proceed according to priorities and they are determined by the burden on human health. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Gamma-induced Positron Spectroscopy (GiPS) at a superconducting electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterling, Maik; Anwand, Wolfgang; Cowan, Thomas E.; Hartmann, Andreas; Jungmann, Marco; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Krille, Arnold; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A new and unique setup for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy has been established and optimized at the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). The intense, pulsed (26 MHz) photon source (bremsstrahlung with energies up to 16 MeV) is used to generate positrons by means of pair production throughout the entire sample volume. Due to the very short gamma bunches (< 5 ps temporal length), the facility for Gamma-induced Positron Spectroscopy (GiPS) is suitable for positron lifetime spectroscopy using the accelerator's radiofrequency as time reference. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening Spectroscopy are employed by a coincident measurement (Age-Momentum Correlation) of the time-of-arrival and energy of the annihilation photons which in turn significantly reduces the background of scattered photons resulting in spectra with high signal to background ratios. Simulations of the setup using the GEANT4 framework have been performed to yield optimum positron generation rates for various sample materials and improved background conditions.

  1. Analysis of thermal impact in tidal rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.; Tanzer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a far field mathematical model for numerical simulation of transient one or two-dimensional thermal distributions in regions with severe reversing flow conditions. The Eulerian formulation employs the integral form of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy. The two-dimensional (2 D) solution area is spanned by discrete elements of variable size and shape. The three-dimensional geometry of the flow region is accounted for by spatially intergrating over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete element. The derivation of the two-dimensional depth-averaged temperatur equations includes the constributions of the vertical variations of velocity and temperature. Surface heat transfer as well as turbulent effects are taken into account. Important mathematical and computational features of the model are summarized. There is a discussion of the four main algorithms, necessary to treat flow regions with complex shoreline geometries, viz. (i) specification of the boundary (ii) determination of all discrete element midpoints lying within the (possibly multiconnected) solution area (iii) construction of discrete elements of irregular geometry exactly matching the (curved) boundary, (iv) treatment of boundary condiditons and numerical solution of the resulting mathematical system of weakly coupled, ordinary differential equations derived from the conservation principles. Preliminary results of a computer simulation are compared with the available data for a section of the Lower Elbe river. The calculation of the two-dimensional temperature distribution includes existing power plants and industrial sites. (orig.) [de

  2. Influence of humic substances and wood decay products on the valency state of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of dissolved natural substances on the oxidation state of iron and uranium. The ongoing remediation of uranium mining areas in Saxony and Thuringia involves flooding of extended pits, submerging and subjecting to microbial decay considerable amounts of pit timber in the process. This gives rise to the problem whether the reductive environment which develops as a result of wood decay in the pit water is capable of reducing the uranium (VI) and iron (III) contained in the flood water. Measurements of the valency state of uranium and iron following their interaction with natural decay products were performed by means of electrochemical, photometric and laser spectroscopic methods. This was followed by sorption experiments with a view to collecting phenomenological data on the binding behaviour of uranium species with respect to the rock bed of the Western Erz Hills and the sediments of the Elbe valley under different redox potential conditions. The study was concluded with redox potential calculations aimed at describing the state of pit waters as well as characterising analogous natural waters. The study was performed using humic acids for alkaline brown coal extract, high moor humic substances originating from natural microbial wood decay for wood decay products, and products from hydrothermal wood decomposition as well as lignin for a methanolic wood extract [de

  3. Studies on the Cs 137-transfer in the foodchain soil - plant - milk under the ecological conditions in a given environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 were determined by low-levels measurements of soil, plants and milk in the surroundings of the site of the planned nuclear reprocessing plant near Gorleben. The evaluated transfer factors for the transition soil - plant range between 0.018 and 0.115 (pCi/kg plant wet weight: pCi/kg soil dry weight). Higher values were generally found for sandy soils than for the loamy soils of the lowland near the river Elbe. Because of a possible direct contamination of the plants by fall out or wash out the determined values can be considered as the higher limits of the transfer factors. The determined Cs 137-transfer factors of the transition plant - milk range between 0.0023 and 0.057 (pCi/l: pCi/daily intake). The highest transfer factors are determined for farms the pastures of which have sandy soils. More than 2/3 of all transfer factors determined for the transition plant - milk are lower than the value 0.012 (pCi/l: pCi/daily intake) published by the Strahlenschutzkommission in 1977. As for two farms the mean values of the factors during the outdoor season are higher than this value, it probably has to be raised in the evaluation of the radiation exposure for this part of the surroundings of the nuclear plant. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  4. Nuclear Deformation and Neutron Excess as Competing Effects for Dipole Strength in the Pygmy Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Frauendorf, S.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Bhatia, C.; Birgersson, E.; Butterling, M.; Elekes, Z.; Ferrari, A.; Gooden, M. E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Kempe, M.; Kelley, J. H.; Kögler, T.; Matic, A.; Menzel, M. L.; Müller, S.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Röder, M.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schmidt, K.; Schramm, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wagner, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electromagnetic dipole strength below the neutron-separation energy has been studied for the xenon isotopes with mass numbers A =124, 128, 132, and 134 in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using the γELBE bremsstrahlung facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the HIγS facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Durham. The systematic study gained new information about the influence of the neutron excess as well as of nuclear deformation on the strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The results are compared with those obtained for the chain of molybdenum isotopes and with predictions of a random-phase approximation in a deformed basis. It turned out that the effect of nuclear deformation plays a minor role compared with the one caused by neutron excess. A global parametrization of the strength in terms of neutron and proton numbers allowed us to derive a formula capable of predicting the summed E1 strengths in the pygmy region for a wide mass range of nuclides.

  5. Traits of estuarine marsh plants affect wave dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Ostermann, Tilla; Heuner, Maike; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2017-04-01

    Estuarine vegetation can attenuate hydrodynamic forces such as waves or flow velocities and therefore has an important role in natural tidal bank protection. This function depends on the degree of hydrodynamic forces, bank morphology and on plant traits of the dominant species. The traits vary between the species but also between different marsh sites. Biomass, stem density and biomechanical properties are crucial factors that influence the rate of wave dissipation. These properties illustrate the trade-offs a species is facing in such a dynamic habitat and highlight the ability of dominant species such as Bolboschoenus maritimus and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani to protect the tidal bank. Along the Elbe estuary, traits of dominant marsh plant species were measured on different sites. The sites vary e.g. in their elevation, salt levels and inundation periods. To analyse the role that plant traits can play in wave dissipation, the structure of the vegetation as well as the composition was recorded. Biomechanical tests helped to understand the species traits regarding stem flexibility and to determine the effects of plant traits on wave dynamics and vice versa. On the conference, we will present how plant traits affect the wave dissipation on tidal marshes and why they vary.

  6. Regional and long-term patterns of lead concentrations in fluvial, marine and terrestrial systems and humans in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    Lead contamination of abiotic and biotic systems has been studied closely since the early 1970s, when lead was firstly perceived as an environmental problem. Lead emission reduction policies were implemented throughout Europe during that time. Nonetheless, analyses of lead loads in aquatic systems, such as the river Elbe, showed no decline over time in either suspended matter or surface sediments. Regional differences in lead concentrations of fluvial systems were found, due to tidal influence, runoff and local emissions. Lead contamination of sediments from the North Sea was highest in estuaries. Concentrations in sediment cores were quite stable down to the depth of background values, due to bioturbation, flow, waves and meandering channels. Terrestrial soils in Europe were highly polluted in industrial and ore mining areas and large cities. No decline in lead concentrations was evident in foraminifers, bladder wrack or fish. It was found that contamination in sediments, mammals and fish was higher in coastal zones than in the open sea. In contrast to in aquatic organisms, positive impacts of lead reduction regulations were detected in terrestrial plants, which adsorbed or took up lead mainly through atmospheric lead deposition. European lead concentrations in plants decreased coincidently with lead emissions. That trend could also be identified in the blood lead levels of the human population in Europe: since 1979 they have declined in every group of the population. Mainly influenced by age, sex and the living environment, overall, the lead loads of humans had never been high enough to cause health danger. (orig.)

  7. Determination of the electromagnetic dipole strength distribution in medium-heavy atomic nuclei by means of nuclear resonance fluorescence; Bestimmung der elektromagnetischen Dipolstaerkeverteilung in mittelschweren Atomkernen mittels Kernresonanzfluoreszenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarczyk, Ralph Jens

    2011-01-17

    During the last hundred years several models were developed to describe the configuration of nuclei. These models have to make predictions, which should be comparable with experiments. As a standard type of experiment the nuclear resonance fluorescence was established. A nucleus is excited by irradiation with photons. By emitting one or more photons the nucleus decays back to the ground state. With this method it is possible to measure energy levels and to determine the strength of their excitation. A continuum of unresolved peaks gives additional strength. The existing setup at the linear electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf uses bremsstrahlung, produced as a secondary beam in a thin Niobium foil. During the years 2008/09 experiments on the nuclei of {sup 86}Kr and {sup 136}Ba took place there. In this work they will be analyzed. Photon flux and efficiency determination have been done as well as simulations on detector response and non-nuclear scattered background events. For this purpose the GEANT4 package was used. Finally the resulting cross sections were corrected for branching and feeding.

  8. Organic Pollutant Contamination of the River Tichá Orlice as Assessed by Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Havelková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used biochemical markers to assess contamination at two contaminated sites (Králíky and Lichkov and one control site (Červená Voda on the River Tichá Orlice, a left-side tributary of the River Elbe. The brown trout (Salmo trutta fario was selected as an indicator species. Enzymes of the first stage of xenobiotic conversion, namely cytochrome P450 (CYP 450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD in the liver were selected as biochemical markers. Blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations were used to evaluate xenoestrogenic effects of contamination. Results were compared with the most important inductors of these markers, i.e. with organic pollutants (PCB, HCH, HCB, OCS and DDT and their metabolites in fish muscle and with PAH concentrations in bottom sediments. The highest contamination with organic pollutants was at Králíky, and this was reflected in increased cytochrome P450, EROD activity and vitellogenin concentrations. Significant differences were demonstrated in EROD activity and vitellogenin concentrations between Králíky and Červená Voda (P s = -0.964 between EROD activity and vitellogenin concentrations was demonstrated. This relationship was discussed from the point of view of a possible induction or inhibition of the assessed biomarkers at persistently highly contaminated sites.

  9. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Laborda Pemán

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only by farmers, but also in the cities – by craftsmen – to deal with the economic and social problems during the late medieval and early modern times. In the East the development of such institutions for collective action started – we believe – much later, due to a number of factors. Whereas in the West population growth and urbanization occurred together with a speedy commercialization of the economy, putting pressure on natural resources and hence leading to an increasing demand by peasants to formalize the collective use of their land, the peasants east of the Elbe River lacked the agency to demand such change in the governance regime of their land. They were limited in their behaviour by the strictures of the second serfdom, which was accompanied by lesser urbanization and commercialization. In this article, we offer some explanatory frameworks to understand and study this long-term development – or lack thereof – of institutions for collective action across the European continent.

  10. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, F.; Kramer, S.; Koch, T.; Pfützner, B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high-resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with an intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high-resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  11. Matilda, Edgith and Adelaide: conflicts between generations and the doweries of the queens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Isabella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the size and geographical distribution of properties that made up the dowers of the first three Ottonian queens makes possible to see the great importance of these assets, both for their large extension, both for the relevant strategic role dues to their location. Already Henry I, the first king of the dynasty, endowed his wife Matilda with numerous curtes that belonged to the area of oldest and strong presence of the Ottonian family, namely the eastern Saxony and Thuringia. Precisely, the control of these important goods was the cause of the fight between Matilda and her son Otto I when, in 938, the mother supported the claims to the throne of her younger son Henry during a revolt against Otto. The dower of Edgith, the first wife of Otto, was made from the large curtis of Magdeburg, which became a place of great symbolic and political importance thanks to the burial of the royal couple and for its elevation to Archdiocese which was entrusted with the supervision of slavic territories east of the Elbe. The set of the assets granted in Germany by Otto to Adelaide, his second wife, it's difficult to reconstruct in detail, but it was definitely of great extent in continuity with the dower of Matilda, although compared to this the curtes were spread across a wider area encompassing both the eastern Saxony and Thuringia, both Alsace and Franconia.

  12. Determination of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C. [Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Permoserstr, Leipzig (Germany). Centre for Environmental Research; Dehnert, J.; Nestler, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresrden, Dresden (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the {sup 222}Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and {alpha}/{beta} separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is <{+-}10%. Infiltration processes are studied with {sup 222}Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs {sup 222}Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique`s possibilities and limitations are discussed 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Fokko Hattermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study is to quantify the impacts of climate change on hydrology in the large river basins in Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Danube, Weser and Ems and thereby giving the range of impact uncertainty created by the most recent regional climate projections. The study shows mainly results for the A1B SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario scenario by comparing the reference period 1981–2010 and the scenario periods 2031–2060 and 2061–2090 and using climate projections of a combination of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs and 12 Regional Climate Models (RCMs as climate driver. The outcome is compared against impacts driven by a more recent RCP (Representative Emission Pathways scenario by using data of a statistical RCM. The results indicate that more robust conclusions can be drawn for some river basins, especially the Rhine and Danube basins, while diversity of results leads to higher uncertainty in the other river basins. The results also show that hydrology is very sensitive to changes in climate and effects of a general increase in precipitation can even be over-compensated by an increase in evapotranspiration. The decrease of runoff in late summer shown in most results can be an indicator for more pronounced droughts under scenario conditions.

  14. Nuclear spinner for SATCOM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.J.; Raab, B.

    1976-01-01

    In order to avoid the power limitations of the solar-powered spinner satellites, operators of commercial communications spacecraft have turned to three-axis-stabilized designs. Nuclear-powered spacecraft can avoid this limitation, while retaining the desirable weight, stability, and cost advantages of the spinner approach. A nuclear spinner satellite launched on a Delta-3914 can provide enough weight and volume capacity for both C- and Ku-band operation, with a total capacity exceeding 40,000 one-way circuits, almost twice the capacity of present-day solar-three-axis designs. It is shown that, based on the criterion of cost-per-satellite-circuit in orbit, a nuclear spinner Satcom is superior to any present day solar-powered satellite in the Delta-launched class. However, in order to retain this superiority in the face of anticipated advances in solar power technology, a nuclear power system of at least 4 watts (e)/lb specific power is required

  15. Dipole strength in 80Se below the neutron-separation energy for the nuclear transmutation of 79Se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makinaga Ayano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength function (γSF in 80Se is an important parameter to estimate the neutron-capture cross section of 79Se which is one of the long-lived fission products (LLFPs. Until now, the γSF method was applied for 80Se only above the neutron-separation energy (Sn and the evaluated 79Se(n,γ cross section has an instability caused by the GSF below Sn. We studied the dipole-strength distribution of 80Se in a photon-scattering experiment using bremsstrahlung produced by an electron beam of an energy of 11.5 MeV at the linear accelerator ELBE at HZDR. The present photoabsorption cross section of 80Se was combined with results of (γ,n experiments and are compared with predictions usinmg the TALYS code. We also estimated the 79Se(n,γ cross sections and compare them with TALYS predictionms and earlier work by other groups.

  16. Determination of the neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 242}Pu; Bestimmung des neutroneninduzierten Spaltquerschnitts von {sup 242}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, Toni Joerg

    2016-04-26

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of actinides like the Pu-isotopes are of relevance for the development of nuclear transmutation technologies. For {sup 242}Pu, current uncertainties are of around 21%. Sensitivity studies show that the total uncertainty has to be reduced to below 5% to allow for reliable neutron physics simulations. This challenging task was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility of the new German National Center for High Power Radiation Sources at HZDR, Dresden. Within the TRAKULA project, thin, large and homogeneous deposits of {sup 235}U and {sup 242}Pu have been produced successfully. Using two consecutively placed fission chambers allowed the determination of the neutron induced fission cross section of {sup 242}Pu relative to {sup 235}U. The areal density of the Plutonium targets was calculated using the measured spontaneous fission rate. Experimental results of the fast neutron induced fission of {sup 242}Pu acquired at nELBE will be presented and compared to recent experiments and evaluated data. Corrections addressing the neutron scattering are discussed by using results of different neutron transport simulations (Geant 4, MCNP 6 and FLUKA).

  17. Dipole strength in 80Se below the neutron-separation energy for the nuclear transmutation of 79Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinaga, Ayano; Massarczyk, Ralph; Beard, Mary; Schwengner, Ronald; Otsu, Hideaki; Müller, Stefan; Röder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray strength function (γSF) in 80Se is an important parameter to estimate the neutron-capture cross section of 79Se which is one of the long-lived fission products (LLFPs). Until now, the γSF method was applied for 80Se only above the neutron-separation energy (Sn) and the evaluated 79Se(n,γ) cross section has an instability caused by the GSF below Sn. We studied the dipole-strength distribution of 80Se in a photon-scattering experiment using bremsstrahlung produced by an electron beam of an energy of 11.5 MeV at the linear accelerator ELBE at HZDR. The present photoabsorption cross section of 80Se was combined with results of (γ,n) experiments and are compared with predictions usinmg the TALYS code. We also estimated the 79Se(n,γ) cross sections and compare them with TALYS predictionms and earlier work by other groups.

  18. Towards Online Visualization and Interactive Monitoring of Real-Time CFD Simulations on Commodity Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Koliha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time rendering in the realm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD in particular and scientific high performance computing (HPC in general is a comparably young field of research, as the complexity of most problems with practical relevance is too high for a real-time numerical simulation. However, recent advances in HPC and the development of very efficient numerical techniques allow running first optimized numerical simulations in or near real-time, which in return requires integrated and optimized visualization techniques that do not affect performance. In this contribution, we present concepts, implementation details and several application examples of a minimally-invasive, efficient visualization tool for the interactive monitoring of 2D and 3D turbulent flow simulations on commodity hardware. The numerical simulations are conducted with ELBE, an efficient lattice Boltzmann environment based on NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture, which provides optimized numerical kernels for 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics with fluid-structure interactions and turbulence.

  19. Optimal heavy tail estimation – Part 1: Order selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mudelsee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The tail probability, P, of the distribution of a variable is important for risk analysis of extremes. Many variables in complex geophysical systems show heavy tails, where P decreases with the value, x, of a variable as a power law with a characteristic exponent, α. Accurate estimation of α on the basis of data is currently hindered by the problem of the selection of the order, that is, the number of largest x values to utilize for the estimation. This paper presents a new, widely applicable, data-adaptive order selector, which is based on computer simulations and brute force search. It is the first in a set of papers on optimal heavy tail estimation. The new selector outperforms competitors in a Monte Carlo experiment, where simulated data are generated from stable distributions and AR(1 serial dependence. We calculate error bars for the estimated α by means of simulations. We illustrate the method on an artificial time series. We apply it to an observed, hydrological time series from the River Elbe and find an estimated characteristic exponent of 1.48 ± 0.13. This result indicates finite mean but infinite variance of the statistical distribution of river runoff.

  20. Investigations of biofilms in the sewerage system of a highly contaminated industrial and mining area for the localization of heavy metal sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichos, C.; Singliar, U.

    1993-02-01

    The high heavy metal loading of the river Freiberger Mulde is largely caused by contaminations arising from the drainage area of the town of Freiberg. The diffuse input from the dewatering surface likely makes an important contribution to this pollution. The elimination of the reasons for the pollutant input into the sewerage and, thus, for the extremely high contamination of the sewage sludges requires a localization of sources and transport ways. For this purpose the method of investigation of biofilms on the sewer surface can be applied as a reliable method. For the industrial and mining area of Freiberg besides the different branches of industry especially the secondary emissions from deposits of old mining and metallurgical plants as well as from the extremely loaded surface of soil play an important role. The investigation of sewerage biofilms in the area considered have shown that the input of nickel and tin into the sewer is mainly caused by industry. Sources of zinc and copper above all are domestic wastewaters, whereas lead is originated from the surface run-off. Especially high pollutions of arsen and cadmium were found obviously arising from mining and production scraps. The results obtained should be the basis of activities for definite interruption of the pollutant input into the sewer system. They are a contribution to the restoration of the hydrographical network of Mulde/Elbe. (orig.) [de

  1. Reworked Middle Jurassic sandstones as a marker for Upper Cretaceous basin inversion in Central Europe—a case study for the U-Pb detrital zircon record of the Upper Cretaceous Schmilka section and their implication for the sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Voigt, Thomas; Bittner, Lucas; Gärtner, Andreas; Zieger, Johannes; Linnemann, Ulf

    2018-04-01

    The Saxonian-Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Elbsandsteingebirge, E Germany and Czech Republic, Elbtal Group) comprises Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from Upper Cenomanian to Santonian age. These sandstones were deposited in a narrow strait of the sea linking the northern Boreal shelf to the southern Tethyan areas. They were situated between the West Sudetic Island in the north and the Mid-European Island in the south. As known by former studies (e.g. Tröger, Geologie 6/7:717-730, 1964; Tröger, Geologie von Sachsen, Schweizerbart, 311-358, 2008; Voigt and Tröger, Proceedings of the 4th International Cretaceous Symposium, 275-290, 1996; Voigt, Dissertation, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 1-130, 1995; Voigt, Zeitschrift der geologischen Wissenschaften 37(1-2): 15-39, 2009; Wilmsen et al., Freiberger Forschungshefte C540: 27-45, 2011) the main sedimentary input came from the north (Lausitz Block, southern West-Sudetic Island). A section of Turonian to Coniacian sandstones was sampled in the Elbsandsteingebirge near Schmilka (Elbtal Group, Saxony, Germany). The samples were analysed for their U-Pb age record of detrital zircon using LA-ICP-MS techniques. The results show main age clusters typical for the Bohemian Massif (local material) and are interpreted to reflect the erosion of uniform quartz-dominated sediments and basement rocks. Surprisingly, these rocks lack an expected Upper Proterozoic to Lower Palaeozoic age peak, which would be typical for the basement of the adjacent Lausitz Block (c. 540-c. 560 Ma). Therefore, the Lausitz Block basement must have been covered by younger sediments that acted as source rocks during deposition of the Elbtal Group. The sandstones of the Elbe valley (Elbtal Group, Schmilka section) represent the re-deposited sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block in inverse order. This cover comprised Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits, which are eroded already today and cannot be investigated. Within the samples of the

  2. Insurability and mitigation of flood losses in private households in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieken, Annegret H; Petrow, Theresia; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2006-04-01

    In Germany, flood insurance is provided by private insurers as a supplement to building or contents insurance. This article presents the results of a survey of insurance companies with regard to eligibility conditions for flood insurance changes after August 2002, when a severe flood caused 1.8 billion euro of insured losses in the Elbe and the Danube catchment areas, and the general role of insurance in flood risk management in Germany. Besides insurance coverage, governmental funding and public donations played an important role in loss compensation after the August 2002 flood. Therefore, this article also analyzes flood loss compensation, risk awareness, and mitigation in insured and uninsured private households. Insured households received loss compensation earlier. They also showed slightly better risk awareness and mitigation strategies. Appropriate incentives should be combined with flood insurance in order to strengthen future private flood loss mitigation. However, there is some evidence that the surveyed insurance companies do little to encourage precautionary measures. To overcome this problem, flood hazards and mitigation strategies should be better communicated to both insurance companies and property owners.

  3. Review: Dominik Schrage (Ed. (2005. Die Flut. Diskursanalysen zum Dresdner Hochwasser im August 2002 [The Flood. Discourse Analyses on the Dresden Flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mattissek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume edited by Dominik SCHRAGE documents the results of a research seminar held by the editor at the Department of Sociology, Technical University of Dresden, in the spring term of 2004 and fall term of 2004/05. The contributions are based mainly on discourse analysis of print media coverage of the Elbe flood in the summer of 2002. Topics include a reflection on the possibilities of implementing FOUCAULTian discourse theory within empirical research projects, as well as formal characteristics of the flood discourse, the mutual interference between the reports on the election campaigns for the Bundestag and on the flood, and finally the image of nature emerging within the flood discourse. The volume shows the potential of FOUCAULT's discourse analysis for current social events and outlines possible methodological implementations. Moreover, it is a recommended reading for those who are interested in changes in discursive structures within exceptional social circumstances in general and in the social framing of natural disaster in particular. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070252

  4. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  5. Spectrometric analyses in comparison to the physiological condition of heavy metal stressed floodplain vegetation in a standardised experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Christian; Jung, András; Merbach, Ines; Wennrich, Rainer; Gläßer, Cornelia

    2010-06-01

    Floodplain ecosystems are affected by flood dynamics, nutrient supply as well as anthropogenic activities. Heavy metal pollution poses a serious environmental challenge. Pollution transfer from the soil to vegetation is still present at the central location of Elbe River, Germany. The goal of this study was to assess and separate the current heavy metal contamination of the floodplain ecosystem, using spectrometric field and laboratory measurements. A standardized pot experiment with floodplain vegetation in differently contaminated soils provided the basis for the measurements. The dominant plant types of the floodplains are: Urtica dioica, Phalaris arundinacea and Alopecurus pratensis, these were also chemically analysed. Various vegetation indices and methods were used to estimate the red edge position, to normalise the spectral curve of the vegetation and to investigate the potential of different methods for separating plant stress in floodplain vegetation. The main task was to compare spectral bands during phenological phases to find a method to detect heavy metal stress in plants. A multi-level algorithm for the curve parameterisation was developed. Chemo-analytical and ecophysiological parameters of plants were considered in the results and correlated with spectral data. The results of this study show the influence of heavy metals on the spectral characteristics of the focal plants. The developed method (depth CR1730) showed significant relationship between the plants and the contamination.

  6. Radioecology of the ocean and the inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1974-01-01

    Three very different ecosystems can be studied in aquatic radioecology: the open sea, the shelf regions of the coast, and the inland waters (to be subdivided into stagnant and running waters). The total amount of radioactive pollutants in the oceans in the year 1970 was estimated to be 2-6 x 10 8 Ci of fission and activation products and 10 9 Ci of tritium. The greater part is located in the surface layer which has a thickness of 800 m. The radiation protection problem of deep-sea dumping of radioactive waste is discussed by the example of the ENEA's experimental dumping between 1967 and 1971. The shelf regions of the coast are an intensively populated ecological system which is characterized by a wide variety in all links of the food chains and by the raising of fry. In 1972, about 35 Ci Sr-90 and Cs-137 have been discharged into the Deutsche Bucht by the rivers Ems, Weser, and Elbe. The manifold utilization of this region poses some special problems of radiation protection which are discussed in detail by the example of a few measured values. With increasing frequency, nuclear power stations are constructed near the big rivers. The extremely complicated interaction processes between the biotic and abiotic components in the tidal regions bring about some special problems which are illustrated by a few examples. The concept of 'acceptable activity admission' is discussed, and methods for its determination are described. (orig./AK) [de

  7. Prototyping and tests for an MRPC-based time-of-flight detector for 1 GeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D., E-mail: d.bemmerer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Cowan, T.; Elekes, Z. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Elvers, M. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Gonzalez Diaz, D. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al Balqa' Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100ps,{sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1cm). This task can be performed either with a scintillator or based on the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology. Here, prototyping and test for an MRPC-based solution are discussed. In order to reach 90% detection efficiency, the final detector must consist of 50 consecutive MRPC stacks. Each stack contains a 4 mm thick anode made of iron converter material, with an additional 4 mm of converter material between two stacks. The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPCs. As part of the ongoing development effort, a number of prototypes for this detector have been developed and built. They have been tested in experiments with a single-electron beam with picosecond resolution at the superconducting linac ELBE (Dresden, Germany). The results of the tests are presented here, and an outlook is given.

  8. Silicon photomultiplier readout of a monolithic 270 x 5 x 5 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator bar for time of flight applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Marko; Bemmerer, Daniel; Heidel, Klaus; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Weinberger, David [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The detection of 200-1000 MeV neutrons requires large amounts of detector material because of the long nuclear interaction length of these particles. In the example of the NeuLAND neutron time-of-flight detector at FAIR, this is accomplished by using 3000 scintillator bars of 270 x 5 x 5 cm{sup 3} size made of the fast plastic polyvinyltoluene. In the present work, we investigated whether silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors can replace fast timing photomultiplier tubes. The response of the system consisting of scintillator, SiPM, and preamplifier was studied using 30 MeV single electrons provided by the ELBE superconducting electron linac. The results were interpreted by a simple Monte Carlo simulation, and the time resolution was found to obey an inverse-square-root scaling law with the number of fired pixels. In the electron beam tests, a time resolution of σ{sub t}=136 ps was reached with a pure SiPM readout, well within the design parameters for NeuLAND.

  9. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geomorphologic specificities of selected sites for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvoda, J.; Demek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of geomorphology to the complex evaluation of properties of sites for the construction and operation of nuclear facilities is demonstrated. The unique manifestation of the present geodynamics at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant locality and the spatial correlations of annals of the specific morphotectonic development of georeliefs of that nuclear power plant with the location of the epicentral earthquake zones are shown. The results of the geomorphological survey in the surroundings of the Temelin nuclear power plant construction site are described and a drawing is reproduced showing how the georelief of this locality divides into areas with different categories of occurrence of morpho-structural formations. For the Tetov locality, where the construction of a nuclear power plant is planned, the changes in the course of the Labe (Elbe) river which occurred in the Pleistocene are of importance in the assessment of the intensity of geodynamic processes. The geomorphological and geotectonic complexity of the planned Blahutovice nuclear power plant construction site is demonstrated. A drawing shows the morphotectonic situation in the surroundings of that construction site. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  11. Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelková, Marcela; Randák, Tomáš; Blahová, Jana; Slatinská, Iveta; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2008-01-01

    The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment. PMID:21218108

  12. Gamma-induced Positron Spectroscopy (GiPS) at a superconducting electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterling, Maik, E-mail: maik.butterling@googlemail.com [Martin-Luther University, Dept. of Physics, 06099 Halle (Germany); Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Anwand, Wolfgang; Cowan, Thomas E.; Hartmann, Andreas [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Jungmann, Marco; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Martin-Luther University, Dept. of Physics, 06099 Halle (Germany); Krille, Arnold; Wagner, Andreas [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    A new and unique setup for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy has been established and optimized at the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). The intense, pulsed (26 MHz) photon source (bremsstrahlung with energies up to 16 MeV) is used to generate positrons by means of pair production throughout the entire sample volume. Due to the very short gamma bunches (< 5 ps temporal length), the facility for Gamma-induced Positron Spectroscopy (GiPS) is suitable for positron lifetime spectroscopy using the accelerator's radiofrequency as time reference. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening Spectroscopy are employed by a coincident measurement (Age-Momentum Correlation) of the time-of-arrival and energy of the annihilation photons which in turn significantly reduces the background of scattered photons resulting in spectra with high signal to background ratios. Simulations of the setup using the GEANT4 framework have been performed to yield optimum positron generation rates for various sample materials and improved background conditions.

  13. Determination of 222Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the 222 Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and α/β separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is 222 Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs 222 Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique's possibilities and limitations are discussed

  14. Microstructural strength of tidal soils – a rheometric approach to develop pedotransfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppe Nina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil stability, especially in visually comparable soils can occur due to microstructural processes and interactions. By investigating these microstructural processes with rheological investigations, it is possible to achieve a better understanding of soil behaviour from the mesoscale (soil aggregates to macroscale (bulk soil. In this paper, a rheological investigation of the factors influencing microstructural stability of riparian soils was conducted. Homogenized samples of Marshland soils from the riparian zone of the Elbe River (North Germany were analyzed with amplitude sweeps (AS under controlled shear deformation in a modular compact rheometer MCR 300 (Anton Paar, Germany at different matric potentials. A range physicochemical parameters were determined (texture, pH, organic matter, CaCO3 etc. and these factors were used to parameterize pedotransfer functions. The results indicate a clear dependence of microstructural elasticity on texture and water content. Although the influence of individual physicochemical factors varies depending on texture, the relevant features were identified taking combined effects into account. Thus, stabilizing factors are: organic matter, calcium ions, CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas sodium ions and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF have been developed.

  15. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  16. The Dresden 100 T/10 ms project a high magnetic field facility at an IR-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, M; Eschrig, H; Fischer, F; Fulde, P; Groessinger, R; Grunberger, W; Handstein, A; Hinz, D; Kratz, R; Krug, H; Loewenhaupt, M; Müller, K H; Pobell, F; Schultz, L; Siegel, H; Steglich, F; Vergés, P

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. We have proposed to build a 100 T/10 ms, 70 T/100 ms, 60 T/1 s pulsed field user facility with a 50 MJ capacitor bank at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf near Dresden. This would provide the appealing possibility to have access to Zeeman energies in the energy range of the infrared free-electron-lasers (5 mu m to 150 mu m; 2 ps; cw; >10 W) now under construction at the radiation source ELBE (superconducting electron linear accelerator; 40 MeV; 1 m A; 2 ps; cw) in Rossendorf. The work is accompanied by computer simulations of the planned coil systems, of the power supply, and by the development of high-strength conductors aiming at a tensile strength of about 1.5 GPa at sigma approximately= sigma /sub Cu//2 (microcomposite CuAg alloys and Cu-steel macro compounds). With a view of gaining experience in the construction and operation of pulsed magnets, a pilot pulsed field laboratory was established at the Institute of Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW Dresden). The laborat...

  17. Emerging Biodegradation of the Previously Persistent Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame in Biological Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Stefanie; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nivala, Jaime; van Afferden, Manfred; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2018-03-06

    The persistence of acesulfame (ACE) in wastewater treatment (and subsequently the aquatic environment) has led to its use as a marker substance for wastewater input into surface water and groundwater. However, ACE degradation of >85% during summer and autumn was observed in nine German wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Annual removal performance was more stable in larger plants, enhanced by low biological oxygen demand and impeded by water temperatures below 10 °C. Literature data suggest that the potential to degrade ACE emerged in WWTPs around the year 2010. This development is ongoing, as illustrated by ACE content in the German rivers Elbe and Mulde: Between 2013 and 2016 the ACE mass load decreased by 70-80%. In enrichment cultures with ACE as sole carbon source the carbonaceous fraction of ACE was removed completely, indicating catabolic biotransformation and the inorganic compound sulfamic acid formed in quantitative amounts. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggests that several species are involved in ACE degradation, with proteobacterial species affiliated to Phyllobacteriaceae, Methylophilaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Pseudomonas becoming specifically enriched. ACE appears to be the first micropollutant for which the evolution of a catabolic pathway in WWTPs has been witnessed. It can yet only be speculated whether the emergence of ACE removal in WWTPs in different regions of the world is due to independent evolution or to global spreading of genes or adapted microorganisms.

  18. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  19. Investigations of environmental concentrations of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and organic tin compounds in representative samples: methodological developments and actual as well as retrospective monitoring. Final report; Verfolgung von Umweltbelastungen durch Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A und organische Zinnverbindungen repraesentativen Umweltproben: Methodische Entwicklungen und aktuelles sowie retrospektives Monitoring. Bd. 1: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Bd. 2: Alkylphenole, Bisphenol A. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H.; Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Bruckert, H.J.; Wenzel, A.

    1999-11-01

    In the context of this research project analytic methods for the quantitative determination of alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4NP; 4-tert.-octylphenol, 4tOP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (4-nonlyphenol monoethoxylate, 4NP1EO; 4-tert.-octylphenol monoethoxylate, 4tOP1EO), bisphenol A (BPhA) as well as tin-organic compounds (tributyl tin, TBT; dibutyl tin, DBT, monobutyl tin, MBT; triphenyl tin, TPhT) in different biological matrices were adapted and optimised. The methods were documented in form of standard operating procedures (SOP). Following these methods samples from the German federal environmental specimen bank were investigated. Brown algae, (bay) mussels, eel pouts, sea gull eggs from the marine ecological systems of the North Sea and Baltic Sea and zebra mussels and bream muscles from fresh water ecological systems (Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Thine, Saar, Bornhoeveder lake district) of different years were analysed. Alkylphenols: The contents of 4NP and 4NP1EO mostly were in both, the marine and the fresh water, ecological systems above the contents of 4tOP and 4tOP1EO. In the marine samples the mussels were higher loaded than the other matrices. The contents in the samples from fresh water ecological systems were clearly higher than those of the samples from the marine ecological systems. The highest concentration for 4NP1EO with 324 {mu}g/kg fresh weight was measured in bream muscles from the Saar near Guedingen. Bisphenol A: the content of BPhA in the examined samples generally was low. The analyses resulted in concentrations of 1-2.5 {mu}g/ BPhA/kg in zebra mussel; only in zebra mussels from the river Saar near Rehlingen a higher value of approx. 5 {mu}g/kg was detected. The BPhA concentration in bream muscles was always below the limit of determination (LOD). The lowest content of BPhA in marine samples was found for mussels (concentration

  20. Organic tin compounds, alkylphenols and bisphenol A in marine and limnetic specimen from the German federal environmental specimen bank. Methodological developments as well as actual and retrospective monitoring; Organische Zinnverbindungen, Alkylphenole und Bisphenol A in marinen und limnischen Biota der Umweltprobenbank. Methodische Entwicklungen sowie aktuelles und retrospektives Monitoring. Teilberichte 1 - 3: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Alkylphenole und Alkylphenolethoxylate. Biosphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany); Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Wenzel, A.; Bruckert, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of this research project analytic methods for the quantitative determination of tinorganic compounds (tributyl tin, TBT; dibutyl tin, DBT, monobutyl tin, MBT; triphenyl tin, TPhT), alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4NP; 4-tert.-octylphenol, 4tOP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (4-nonylphenol monoethoxylate, 4NP1EO; 4-tert.-octylphenol monoethoxylate, 4tOP1EO) as well as bisphenol A (BPhA) in different biological matrices were adapted and optimised. The methods were documented in form of standard operating procedures (SOP). Following these methods samples from the German federal environmental specimen bank were investigated. Brown algae, (bay) mussels, eel pouts, sea gull eggs from the marine ecological systems of the North Sea and Baltic Sea and zebra mussels and bream muscles from fresh water ecological systems (Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Rhine, Saar, Bornhoeveder lake district) of different years were analysed. Tin-organic compounds: TBT and TPhT were detected as major contaminants (max. 385 and 86 {mu}g Sn/kg of matrix, respectively). The maximum values for DBT and MBT were 14 and 9 {mu}g Sn/kg, respectively. The highest values detected for DPhT were 13 {mu}g Sn/kg. The most highly loaded samples were bream muscles and zebra mussels from the river Elbe. Alkylphenols: The contents of 4NP and 4NP1EO mostly were in both, the marine and the fresh water, ecological systems above the contents of 4tOP and 4tOP1EO. In the marine samples the mussels were higher loaded than the other matrices. The contents in the samples from fresh water ecological systems were clearly higher than those of the samples from the marine ecological systems. The highest concentration for 4NP1EO with 324 {mu}g/kg fresh weight was measured in bream muscles from the Saar near Guedingen. Bisphenol A: The content of BPhA in the examined samples generally was low. The analyses resulted in concentrations of 1-2.5 {mu}g BPhA/kg in zebra mussel; only in zebra mussels from the river Saar near Rehlingen

  1. Morphodynamics of Wadden Sea Areas – Field Measurements and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Albers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea areas of the German North Sea coast are affected by intense morphodynamics. Especially in the mouths of the estuaries sedimentation and erosion occur on different temporal and spatial scales and therefore challenge the decision-makers. To satisfy the requirements, which modern maritime traffic demands, a sustainable concept for sediment management has to be developed to grant an economic and ecologic balanced system. To evaluate different actions and their effects, e.g. by means of numerical models, an improved knowledge of morphodynamic processes on tidal flats is required. The Institute of River and Coastal Engineering at the Hamburg University of Technology runs detailed measurements to collect hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data of tidal flats in the estuary Elbe, that is the approach to the port of Hamburg. Water levels, flow and wave parameters and concentrations of suspended sediments are recorded in high resolution. Furthermore, the bathymetry is determined in frequent intervals with a multi-beam echo sounder.

  2. Diel dualism in the energy consumption of the European catfish Silurus glanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, O; Horký, P

    2012-12-01

    Twenty individuals of the largest European freshwater predator, the European catfish Silurus glanis, were tagged with electromyogram (EMG) physiological telemetry sensors. The fish were observed during diel cycles during the spring and summer in the Elbe and Berounka Rivers, Czech Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diel dualism in the activity of S. glanis occurs naturally or is induced by the laboratory environment and by the conditions occurring in aquaculture. The results obtained from the riverine environment tended to show dualism in the use of the light and dark phases of the day because 35% of the individuals varied from a site-specific common diel activity pattern. The EMG values increased in accordance with the mass (M) of the fish. To eliminate the influence of M on individual energy consumption, the EMG records were analysed in terms of the EMG:M ratios. High individual variability was found in these ratios. The diel activity pattern of the individuals with relatively high energy consumption differed from the common diel activity pattern. In contrast, the fish that adopted the common diel activity pattern displayed relatively low energy consumption. The results of this study indicated that dualism and energy consumption are related. The EMG values also varied with the values of the environmental variables. Increasing temperature was associated with high EMG values, whereas the EMG values decreased with increasing flow. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Study of gamma cascades and strength functions in the neutron capture reaction 77Se(n,γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important nuclear processes is the nuclear capture reaction. The cosmic nucleosynthesis (s-process) of heavy elements produces nuclei with mass numbers greater than 56 (Iron), which cannot be produced by nuclear fusion. A nucleus gets exited to the binding energy via capture of a neutron and afterwards deexcites to the groundstate by the emission of photons (gamma rays). The characteristics of the γ rays allow conclusions about the structure of the nucleus. In this work the photons, sent out by the excited 78 Se * , were analyzed. The experiment took place at the research reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. After a efficiency calibration and the addback procedure the multi detector setup allowed coincidence and directional correlation measurements. With the help of these measurements a level scheme was developed and the directional correlation measurements were used to assign spins to different levels. Furthermore the experimental acquired data were compared to results of a simulation (γDEX) and a photon scattering experiment carried out at the ELBE electron accelerator.

  4. Polar pollutants in municipal wastewater and the water cycle: occurrence and removal of benzotriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Miehe, Ulf; Duennbier, Uwe; Jekel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    1H-benzo-1,2,3-triazole (BTri) and its methylated analogues (tolyltriazole, TTri) are corrosion inhibitors used in many industrial applications, but also in households in dishwashing agents and in deicing fluids at airports and elsewhere. BTri and one of the TTri-isomers (4-TTri) are typical examples of polar and poorly degradable trace pollutants. Benzotriazole elimination in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Berlin ranged from 20 to 70% for 5-TTRi over 30 to 55% for BTri to insignificant for 4-TTri. WWTP effluent concentrations were in the range of 7-18 microg/L of BTri, 1-5 microg/L of 4-TTri and 0.8-1.2 microg/L of 5-TTri. BTri and 4-TTri proved to be omnipresent in surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Elbe with concentrations increasing from water for drinking water production from surface waters. Even after residence times of several months BTri and 4-TTri were determined in concentrations of a few hundred ng/L in bank filtration water. Isotherm data from batch experiments indicate that activated carbon filtration should be suitable to avoid intrusion of TTri into drinking water in partially closed water cycles. For BTri, however, sorption to activated carbon appears to be too weak and ozonation may be mandatory to remove it from raw waters. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  6. Plant distribution and stand characteristics in brackish marshes: Unravelling the roles of abiotic factors and interspecific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Jana; Heuner, Maike; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing pressure on estuarine marshes from sea level rise and river training, there is a growing need to understand how species-environment relationships influence the zonation and growth of tidal marsh vegetation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and stand characteristics of the two key brackish marsh species Bolboschoenus maritimus and Phragmites australis in the Elbe estuary together with several abiotic habitat factors. We then tested the effect of these habitat factors on plant growth and zonation with generalised linear models (GLMs). Our study provides detailed information on the importance of single habitat factors and their interactions for controlling the distribution patterns and stand characteristics of two key marsh species. Our results suggest that flow velocity is the main factor influencing species distribution and stand characteristics and together with soil-water salinity even affects the inundation tolerance of the two specie investigated here. Additionally, inundation height and duration as well as interspecific competition helped explain the distribution patterns and stand characteristics. By identifying the drivers of marsh zonation and stand characteristics and quantifying their effects, this study provides useful information for evaluating a future contribution of tidal marsh vegetation to ecosystem-based shore protection.

  7. Improvement in properties of welded joints of titanium alloy VT22 by thermocyclic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyasotskaya, V.S.; Kulikov, F.R.; Kirillov, Yu.G.; Ravdonikas, N.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of the thermocyclic treatment (TCT) effect on the structure and properties of butt welded joints of tubes (with external diameter 180 mm and wall thickness 20-25 mm) of the VT22 alloy are presented. Welded joints have been obtained by means of multipassing automatic argon-arc (ARAW) and electron-beam (ELB) welding. It is shown that TCT of welded joints of the VT22 alloy results in formation in all zones of substructure with disperse precipitations of α-phase which is analogous to the structure of near welded seam zone metal immediately after welding. As a result of TCT and subsequent TT of welded joints poligonization and recrystallization processes of α- and #betta#-phases, changes in parameters of structural components and thin phase structure take place. TCT with strengthening TT or annealing leads to strength increase, while TCT with annealing besides that improves placticity and impact strength of the VT22 alloy welded joints

  8. Pygmy dipole strength in {sup 86}Kr and systematics of N=50 isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengner, R.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A.R.; Marta, M.; Schilling, K.D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Germany); Massarczyk, R.; Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Rusev, G.; Kelley, J.H.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Tonchev, A.; Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Durham NC (United States); Tsoneva, N.; Lenske, H. [Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present results of the first photon-scattering study of {sup 86}Kr. Experiments were carried out with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator of HZDR and with monoenergetic, polarized γ rays at the HIγS facility of TUNL. A high-pressure gas target was used. We identified about 40 states with J{sup π} = 1{sup -} up to the neutron-separation energy for the first time. For the determination of the absorption cross section, strength in the quasicontinuum was taken into account and a correction of the cross section for inelastic transitions was performed on the basis of simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades. The resulting absorption cross section shows enhanced strength considered as a pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) and is compared with predictions of the quasiparticle-phonon model. The behavior of PDR strength within the series of N=50 isotones is discussed. Enhanced photon strength may influence neutron-capture reaction rates relevant for transmutation studies.

  9. Nuclear deformation and neutron excess as competing effects for dipole strength in the pygmy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R; Schwengner, R; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Beyer, R; Bhatia, C; Birgersson, E; Butterling, M; Elekes, Z; Ferrari, A; Gooden, M E; Hannaske, R; Junghans, A R; Kempe, M; Kelley, J H; Kögler, T; Matic, A; Menzel, M L; Müller, S; Reinhardt, T P; Röder, M; Rusev, G; Schilling, K D; Schmidt, K; Schramm, G; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2014-02-21

    The electromagnetic dipole strength below the neutron-separation energy has been studied for the xenon isotopes with mass numbers A=124, 128, 132, and 134 in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using the γELBE bremsstrahlung facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the HIγS facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Durham. The systematic study gained new information about the influence of the neutron excess as well as of nuclear deformation on the strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The results are compared with those obtained for the chain of molybdenum isotopes and with predictions of a random-phase approximation in a deformed basis. It turned out that the effect of nuclear deformation plays a minor role compared with the one caused by neutron excess. A global parametrization of the strength in terms of neutron and proton numbers allowed us to derive a formula capable of predicting the summed E1 strengths in the pygmy region for a wide mass range of nuclides.

  10. Total neutron cross section for 181Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling K.-D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104  n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron cross – section for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].

  11. Status of Equipment Development for a High-Level Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Filbert, W.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, a potential site for a deep geological repository mainly for heat generating high-level waste was selected back on February 22, 1977: a salt dome located near the village of Gorleben, at the shores of the Elbe River in Northern Germany. Concurrent with site exploration from the surface, and later exploration mine construction, a large-scale R and D effort was conducted to have the science and technology needed to license and later operate a repository available when needed. An important part of these efforts was the development and 1:1 scale demonstration of all technologies required to run a repository, which had not been state-of-the-art. Underground exploration of the Gorleben site has come to a moratorium due to political decisions taken by the former Federal Government formed by a coalition between the Social Democrats and the Green Party back in 2000. However, research and development in regard to emplacement techniques and equipment has continued. This paper reflects the consistent, long-term technological effort that has led to having available all advanced technologies required to run a repository for spent fuel and HLW. The paper details previous achievements and points at present optimization work. (authors)

  12. Deutsch-slawischer Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt im Gebiet zwischen Saale und Neiße – vorgestellt an ausgewählten Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Bily

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saale und Elbe bilden im Wesentlichen die westliche Begrenzung des ehemals kompakten altsorbischen Sprachgebietes. Im Norden schließt das Altsorbische an das Altpolabische, im Osten und Südosten an das Polnische und Tschechische an. Eigennamen bilden eine wichtige Quelle sowohl für die Aufhellung der Geschichte der Besiedlung wie auch ethnischer, sprachlicher und sozialer Verhältnisse, denn historische Siedlungsprozesse fanden ihren Niederschlag u.a. in historischen Belegen von Namen. Diese Belege wie auch die Ableitungsbasen und Benennungsmotive ebenso wie die phonologischen und morphologischen Merkmale der Namen des altsorbischen Kontaktgebietes enthalten eine Vielzahl von Zeugnissen deutsch-slawischer Kontinuität. Auf der Grundlage umfangreicher Studien zu Ortsnamen stellt der Beitrag ausgewählte Beispiele vor. Im ehemals altsorbischen Kontaktgebiet können Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen und ihre historische Überlieferung Hinweise auf Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt geben. Dies belegen eine ganze Reihe von Merkmalen, so z.B.: 1. Unterscheidende Bestimmungswörter 2. Parallele Namengebung mit zeitweiliger Mehrnamigkeit 3. Umbenennung 4. Übersetzung 5. Benennungsparallelismus im deutsch-slawischen Kontaktgebiet 6. Scheinbare sekundäre semantische Verankerung (SSSV 7. Namenpaare 8. Unterscheidende Zusätze 9. Mischnamen (Hybride

  13. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-01-01

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  14. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-09-10

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  15. Intermittent viraemia and immune reconstitution in patients with more than 10–15 years of antiretroviral therapy: baseline values still matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdbeer, Gesa; Sabranski, Michael; Sonntag, Ina; Stoehr, Albrecht; Horst, Heinz-A; Plettenberg, Andreas; Schewe, Knud; Unger, Stefan; Stellbrink, Hans-J; Fenske, Stefan; Hoffmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Data on patients with long-term exposure to ART is scarce because controlled studies usually do not follow up patients for more than five to seven years. We were interested whether baseline parameters such as CD4 T-cell nadir or pre-treatment viraemia do have an impact on ART success after more than a decade of treatment. Methods ELBE is a cross-sectional study on adult HIV+ patients presenting consecutively with viral suppression (<50 HIV RNA copies/mL) and with ART exposure of at least five years. In this sub-analysis, all patients with more than 10 years of ART exposure were evaluated for immune reconstitution and for intermittent transient viraemia (50–1000 copies/mL, defined as “blips”) during the last five years. Results From a total of 894 patients included in the three participating ELBE centres, 524 patients had an ART exposure of at least 10 years and had been treated continuously during the last 5 years. Of these, 33.4% had at least one “blip” while 63.5% did not show any transient viraemia of more than 50 copies/mL. Patients with at least one blip had a higher pre-treatment viraemia compared to patients without blips (5.30 versus 5.06 log copies/mL, p=0.0003). In patients with a pre-treatment viraemia of more than 100,000, 50,000–100,000 and less than 50,000 copies/mL, the proportions of patients with blips during the last five years were 39.5%, 30.5% and 21.8% (p=0.007), respectively. The history of an AIDS-defining illness or the CD4 T-cell nadir was not associated with a higher frequency of blips. However, CD4 T-cell nadir was a strong predictor for current CD4 T-cell counts. In patient groups with a CD4 T-cell nadir of 0–99, 100–199, 200–349, 350+ cells/µL, the median current CD4 T cells were 571, 667, 710 and 890 cells/µL, respectively. These differences remained significant when the analysis was restricted to patients with more than 15 years of ART exposure (n=268). Conclusions In this large group of positively

  16. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  17. Terrestrial dissolved organic matter distribution in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C; Lapworth, Dan J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Kroeger, Silke; Evans, Chris D; Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard J

    2018-07-15

    The flow of terrestrial carbon to rivers and inland waters is a major term in the global carbon cycle. The organic fraction of this flux may be buried, remineralized or ultimately stored in the deep ocean. The latter can only occur if terrestrial organic carbon can pass through the coastal and estuarine filter, a process of unknown efficiency. Here, data are presented on the spatial distribution of terrestrial fluorescent and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (FDOM and CDOM, respectively) throughout the North Sea, which receives organic matter from multiple distinct sources. We use FDOM and CDOM as proxies for terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) to test the hypothesis that tDOM is quantitatively transferred through the North Sea to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) revealed a single terrestrial humic-like class of compounds whose distribution was restricted to the coastal margins and, via an inverse salinity relationship, to major riverine inputs. Two distinct sources of fluorescent humic-like material were observed associated with the combined outflows of the Rhine, Weser and Elbe rivers in the south-eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea outflow to the eastern central North Sea. The flux of tDOM from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean appears insignificant, although tDOM export may occur through Norwegian coastal waters unsampled in our study. Our analysis suggests that the bulk of tDOM exported from the Northwest European and Scandinavian landmasses is buried or remineralized internally, with potential losses to the atmosphere. This interpretation implies that the residence time in estuarine and coastal systems exerts an important control over the fate of tDOM and needs to be considered when evaluating the role of terrestrial carbon losses in the global carbon cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Two different preparation techniques for trace element determination of single Daphnia specimen using total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelfl, S.; Mages, M.

    2000-01-01

    Bio accumulation gives first information about the bio-availability of elements in waters and becomes more and more important for the characterization of the water quality. The use of common analytical techniques like ICP-MS and AAS requires large quantities of biologic sample material. Single preparation for example of Daphnia, a common species for bio-test experiments, are hardly possible with these procedures. Therefore alternatively quantitative TXRF element determination of individually prepared Daphnia was developed. Two preparation techniques for single freshwater crustacean specimen from a eutrophic branch of the river Elbe in the 'Rothehorn Park', Magdeburg (Daphnia: dry weight: 10 - 50 μg individuum -1 ) had been tested: (1) Wet preparation: the single Daphnia specimen had been washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and put onto quartz sample carriers. After air drying, the body length were determined in order to calculate the dry weight according to previously established body lengths-dry weight relationships. (2) Dry preparation: after collection specimen were washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The individual lyophilisated dried Daphnia were weighted using an ultrafine micro-balance and put onto quartz sample carriers. After preparation, addition of some μl Gallium standard solution and air drying the individual Daphnia were digested at the quartz sample carriers with 10 μl HNO 3 on a hot plate and dried once more. Finally the element concentrations were determined using a EXTRA IIA total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. As a result of these investigations we can conclude that both, the 'dry' and 'wet' preparation method can be used for the element determination in small single crustaceans using TXRF spectrometry. It seems that the 'dry' method yields more precise results, but the wet method is easier to handle in field when samples cannot be fixed with liquid nitrogen. (author)

  19. Combined analysis of field and model data: A case study of the phosphate dynamics in the German Bight in summer 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Th.; Raabe, Th.; Doerffer, R.; Beddig, S.; Brockmann, U.; Dick, S.; Engel, M.; Hesse, K.-J.; König, P.; Mayer, B.; Moll, A.; Murphy, D.; Puls, W.; Rick, H.-J.; Schmidt-Nia, R.; Schönfeld, W.; Sündermann, J.

    1999-09-01

    The intention of this paper is to analyse a specific phenomenon observed during the KUSTOS campaigns in order to demonstrate the general capability of the KUSTOS and TRANSWATT approach, i.e. the combination of field and modelling activities in an interdisciplinary framework. The selected phenomenon is the increase in phosphate concentrations off the peninsula of Eiderstedt on the North Frisian coast sampled during four subsequent station grids of the KUSTOS summer campaign in 1994. First of all, a characterisation of the observed summer situation is given. The phosphate increase is described in detail in relation to the dynamics of other nutrients. In a second step, a first-order estimate of the dispersion of phosphate is discussed. The estimate is based on the box model approach and will focus on the effects of the river Elbe and Wadden Sea inputs on phosphate dynamics. Thirdly, a fully three-dimensional model system is presented, which was implemented in order to analyse the phosphate development. The model system is discussed briefly, with emphasis on phosphorus-related processes. The reliability of one of the model components, i.e. the hydrodynamical model, is demonstrated by means of a comparison of model results with observed current data. Thereafter, results of the German Bight seston model are employed to interpret the observed phosphate increase. From this combined analysis, it was possible to conclude that the phosphate increase during the first three surveys was due to internal transformation processes within the phosphorus cycle. On the other hand, the higher phosphate concentrations measured in the last station grid survey were caused by a horizontal transport of phosphate being remobilised in the Wadden Sea.

  20. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The GKSS (Society for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Shipbuilding and Nautics) gives in this annual report a comprehensive survey of the research and development efforts carried out and a survey on the organisation and its sociological position. More detailed and generally explicable presentations of selected spheres of research deal this year with solid combustible neutron poisons, water desalination systems, pollution at the Elbe-mouth, trace analysis with x-ray fluor essence, heat conduction in water and under-water systems. The research and development programme is, in comparison with previous years better understandable. The range of tasks, 'utilization of nuclear energy', especially covers projects on the field of reactor safety research which were comprised in one project and fully integrated in the reactor safety programme of the Fed. Ministry for Research and Technology. Furthermore, nuclear energy ship development and works concerning working material technology are being carried out, to a smaller extent. The project of a nuclear container ship which run over a period of 5 years, was finished in 1977. Profitability calculations show that nuclear trade ships can be used in a profitable way, when the oil price has increased three-fold. This might be the case in about 15-20 years. Further plans of the GKSS on the field of nuclear energy ship development take into account this result. The range of tasks 'utilization of the sea and the shores' was comprised in a frame programme and divided in the research, fields of environment technique, water desalination, resources, and sea technique. These works are, beside reactor safety research, the main range of works of the GKSS. (orig./HK) [de

  1. The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

  2. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  3. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  4. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  5. Environmental engineering. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstner, U.

    1992-01-01

    This introductory textbook has been written in response to the demand for information on environmentally sound techniques and methods. On the basis of the knowledge taught in traditional engineering sciences, and referring to it, the author explains the specific problems encountered in the various environmental sectors, and reviews and discusses the technical solutions available or possible. In this process, there is, of course, opportunity or reason enough to refer to ecologic, economic, ethical or legal aspects, too. The book takes pollutants in a very general sense, their origin (sources), dispersion or transport, and their effects on the environment, as a red thread leading to the relevant technical equipment or engineering methods for problem solution in the various environmental sectors. An extensive and detailed bibliography points to literature for further reading. This third edition under review focusses on environmental problems in the eastern states of the Federal Republic: an account of the situation there refers to 'water' (catchment area of the Elbe river), 'soil' (long-standing pollution due to the mining industry in Thueringen and Sachsen), and 'air' (dispersion of pollutants, radon in uranium mines). The chapter 'Pollutants' now contains references to the handling of noxious chemical in accordance with the Ordinance on transport and handling of dangerous goods, explains the (mis)-development in the chlorine industry, shows the different dispersion processes of organic chemicals, etc. The chapters 'waste' and 'recycling' now part more emphasis on showing the significance of short- or medium-termed measures for prevention or rentilization of waste. (orig.) With 116 figs [de

  6. Photo-neutron reaction cross-section for 93Nb in the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12–16 and 45–70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G.N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Tatari, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.C.; John, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A.; Shin, S.G.; Key, Y.; Wagner, A.; Lee, M.W.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93 Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93 Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93 Nb(γ, 3n) and 93 Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels

  7. Osmotic and ionic regulation in shore crabs Carcinus maenas inhabiting a tidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A.; Siebers, D.; Becker, W.

    1988-03-01

    Shore crabs Carcinus maenas were exposed to salinities fluctuating according to the natural tidal rhythm. To this end they were maintained in net cages positioned in the estuarine waters of the river Elbe. The cages were lifted every hour, and between 8 12 specimens were analyzed for hemolymph concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and osmolality. The results obtained were compared with the respective data measured in external brackish water. In addition, the specific activity of Na-K-ATPase in a posterior gill was determined. Hemolymph Na and Mg as well as branchial Na-K-ATPase were also determined in crabs collected in the North Sea and the Baltic. The results show that in C. maenas living in salinities fluctuating with the tides by approx. 15‰ S, Na, K and Ca were hyperregulated, and Mg was effectively hyporegulated. The concentrations of all hemolymph ions and the activity of the Na-K-ATPase were kept constant over the whole tidal cycle. In Baltic crabs, Na was effectively hyperregulated and gill Na-K-ATPase was significantly elevated by a factor of ca 2 when compared with North Sea crabs. It is suggested that long-term hyperregulation of Na in constant salinities results from an increased number of Na-K-ATPase molecules which may change by synthesis or degradation following salinity stress. Constant hemolymph levels of hyperregulated Na in crabs inhabiting fluctuating brackish water are accomplished by activation of existing Na-K-ATPase by low Na and inhibition by higher ambient concentrations.

  8. Isotopic tracing of the impact of mobility on infectious disease: The origin of people with treponematosis buried in hull, England, in the late medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Millard, A R; Nowell, G M; Gröcke, D R; Macpherson, C G; Pearson, D G; Evans, D H

    2013-02-01

    Treponematosis has been one of the most studied and debated infectious diseases in paleopathology, particularly from the standpoint of its origin, evolution, and transmission. This study links evidence for treponematosis in skeletons from the 14th-16th century AD cemetery of the Augustinian friary of Hull Magistrates Court, England, with data from stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis that the people with treponemal disease buried at this site were not locally born and raised. The objective is to explore the potential of using stable isotope data to track the place of origin and extent of mobility of individuals with an infectious disease. Dental enamel samples of 12 skeletons were selected for strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr ratio) and oxygen (δ(18) O) stable isotope analysis based on the presence (six - diseased) or absence (six - controls) of bone changes associated with treponemal disease. The oxygen isotope ratios of all but three individuals (1047, 1121, 823) overlapped at two standard deviations with the inferred local precipitation range, and only one individual (1216) had a strontium isotope ratio outside the regional range. Two of the four had probable/possible treponemal bone changes. Those with treponemal bone changes were not demonstrably more likely to be migrants than those without such lesions. However, because of extensive documentary evidence for trade with the Baltic Sea area, and for merchants from towns such as Stralsund, Danzig and Elbing being in Hull, it is very plausible that the four migrants came from the Baltic area or even southern Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

  10. Timing of Pulsed Prompt Gamma Rays for Background Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Pausch, G.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2013-06-01

    In the context of particle therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several planes of position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density profile, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At Helmholtz- Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and OncoRay, a camera prototype has been developed consisting of two scatter planes (CdZnTe cross strip detectors) and an absorber plane (Lu 2 SiO 5 block detector). The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT platform. The prototype was tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which was set up to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons. Their spectrum has similarities with the one expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical case, and these are also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured signals was used for background discrimination, achieving a time resolution of 3 ns (2 ns) FWHM for the CZT (LSO) detector. A time-walk correction was applied for the LSO detector and improved its resolution to 1 ns. In conclusion, the detectors are suitable for time-resolved background discrimination in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the test of the imaging algorithms and the quantitative comparison with simulations. Further experiments will be performed at proton accelerators. (authors)

  11. Testing, comparison, further development and assessment of genotoxicity tests for surface water. Findings of a BMBF study; Erprobung, Vergleich, Weiterentwicklung und Beurteilung von Gentoxizitaetstests fuer Oberflaechenwasser. Ergebnisse eines BMBF-Verbundvorhabens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grummt, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Bad Elster (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    A research project was designed to develop a test strategy for the detection and evaluation of genotoxic effects in surface water aquatic organisms. Indicator tests were evaluated with respect to their predictive power, sensitivity and practicability in order to determine whether they are suitable for inclusion in a battery of tests. The bioassays utilized in this study include the umu-test, alkaline filter elution (mussels, green algae), the DNA unwinding test (fish larvae, cray fish, mussels, fish cell lines), the comet assay (protozoans, green algae, mussels, primary fish hepatocytes, fish and mammalian cell lines) and the UDS-test (primary fish hepatocytes). The Ames Salmonella assay, a direct genotoxicity assay and a well-known base test in chemicals assessment, was included in the study programme for comparison. All test results were verified with statistical methods. During the first phase of the project five known genotoxic substances (2-acetylamidofluorene, benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosodimethylamine, nitrofurantoin, 4-nitroquinoin-N-oxide) were tested to establish and optimize the assays. In a second phase of the project the validated methods were applied to non-concentrated samples of surface water taken on a monthly basis from the river Rhine, the Wahnbach dam, the rivers Elbe and Mulde over a period of 12 months. The data obtained showed the comet assay, the umu-test and the Ames-test to be particularly sensitive and to detect genotoxic effects in complex mixtures in a low dose range. They seem to be suitable for routine testing and should therefore be used in the first stage of a graduated testing battery for detection of genotoxicity in surface water in combination with effect-oriented chemical analysis. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of mercury contamination in the Bílina River (Czech Republic using indicator fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kružíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine mercury content in the muscle of indicator fish and to assess mercury pollution along the Bílina River, which is one of the most important tributaries of the Elbe River. A total of eight sites were chosen on the Bílina River for sampling. Indicator fish chub (Leuciscus cephalus L, roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L. in the total numbers of 24, 26 and 27, respectively, were sampled at four locations, since at the remaining sites fish were absent. Mercury concentrations in the muscle of sampled indicator fish were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry on an AMA 254 analyser. The highest mercury content (0.12 ± 0.027 mg·kg-1 was found in the muscle of roach at the Ústí nad Labem site and the lowest mercury content (0.04 ± 0.008 mg·kg-1 in the muscle of brown trout from the Březenec (the first upstream site site. A significant difference (P -1 and brown trout (0.04 mg·kg-1 at the Březenec site. The priority of this study was to assess the mercury contamination of the Bílina River because this river flows through a heavy industrial activity in the region (especially production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, sorbents, plasticizers and textile auxiliaries. Despite the fact that the Bílina is an extensively polluted river, the obtained mercury results were very low and did not exceed the limit of 0.5 mg·kg-1 set by Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006.

  13. How Can We Make Progress with Decision Support Systems in Landscape and River Basin Management? Lessons Learned from a Comparative Analysis of Four Different Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Lautenbach, Sven; van Delden, Hedwig; Newham, Lachlan T. H.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    This article analyses the benefits and shortcomings of the recently developed decision support systems (DSS) FLUMAGIS, Elbe-DSS, CatchMODS, and MedAction. The analysis elaborates on the following aspects: (i) application area/decision problem, (ii) stakeholder interaction/users involved, (iii) structure of DSS/model structure, (iv) usage of the DSS, and finally (v) most important shortcomings. On the basis of this analysis, we formulate four criteria that we consider essential for the successful use of DSS in landscape and river basin management. The criteria relate to (i) system quality, (ii) user support and user training, (iii) perceived usefulness and (iv) user satisfaction. We can show that the availability of tools and technologies for DSS in landscape and river basin management is good to excellent. However, our investigations indicate that several problems have to be tackled. First of all, data availability and homogenisation, uncertainty analysis and uncertainty propagation and problems with model integration require further attention. Furthermore, the appropriate and methodological stakeholder interaction and the definition of `what end-users really need and want' have been documented as general shortcomings of all four examples of DSS. Thus, we propose an iterative development process that enables social learning of the different groups involved in the development process, because it is easier to design a DSS for a group of stakeholders who actively participate in an iterative process. We also identify two important lines of further development in DSS: the use of interactive visualization tools and the methodology of optimization to inform scenario elaboration and evaluate trade-offs among environmental measures and management alternatives.

  14. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in

  15. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review – including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances – were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all – or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for

  16. Environmental engineering. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstner, U.

    1991-01-01

    This introductory textbook has been written in response to the demand for information on environmentally sound techniques and methods. On the basis of the knowledge taught in traditional engineering sciences, and referring to it, the author explains the specific problems encountered in the various environmental sectors, and reviews and discusses the technical solutions available or possible. In this process, there is, of course, opportunity or reason enough to refer to ecologic, economic, ethical or legal aspects, too. The book takes pollutants in a very general sense, their origin (sources), dispersion or transport, and their effects on the environment, as a red thread leading to the relevant technical equipment or engineering methods for problem solution in the various environmental sectors. An extensive and detailed bibliography points to literature for further reading. This second edition under review focusses on environmental problems in the eastern states of the Federal Republic: an account of the situation there refers to 'water' (catchment area of the Elbe river), 'soil' (long-standing pollution due to the mining industry in Thueringen and Sachsen), and 'air' (dispersion of pollutants, radon in uranium mines). The chapter 'Pollutants' now contains references to the handling of noxious chemical in accordance with the Ordinance on transport and handling of dangerous goods, explains the (mis)-development in the chlorine industry, shows the different dispersion processes of organic chemicals, etc. The chapters 'waste' and 'recycling' now part more emphasis on showing the significance of short- or medium-termed measures for prevention or rentilization of waste. (orig./HSCH) With 116 figs [de

  17. Stade nuclear power station (KKS): four giants on tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverungen, M.; Viermann, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Stade nuclear power station was the first nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany to deliver heat in addition to electricity. Since 1984, district heat was distributed to a saltworks nearby. The power plant, which is situated on the banks of the river Elbe, was commissioned in 1972 after approximately 4 years of construction. Together with the Wuergassen plant, it was among the first commercial nuclear power plants in this country. E.ON Kernkraft holds a 2/3 interest, Vattenfall Europe a 1/3 interest in the nuclear power plant. The Stade nuclear power station was decommissioned on November 14, 2003 for economic reasons which, in part, were also politically motivated. In September 2005, the permit for demolition of the nuclear part was granted. The release from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act is expected for 2014. In the course of demolition, the 4 steam generators of the Stade nuclear power station were removed. These components, which have an aggregate weight of approx. 660 tons, are to be safely re-used in Sweden. In September 2007, the steam generators were loaded on board the Swedish special vessel, MS Sigyn, by means of a floating crane. After shipment to Sweden, heavy-duty trucks carried the components to the processing hall of Studsvik AB for further treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the contaminated inner surfaces of the tube bundles of the steam generators have been decontaminated successfully, among other items. This has increased the volume of material available for recycling and thus decreased the volume of residues. (orig.)

  18. Large-scale derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Viet; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Guse, Björn; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for spatially consistent flood risk assessments at the regional scale (several 100.000 km2), in particular in the insurance industry and for national risk reduction strategies. However, most large-scale flood risk assessments are composed of smaller-scale assessments and show spatial inconsistencies. To overcome this deficit, a large-scale flood model composed of a weather generator and catchments models was developed reflecting the spatially inherent heterogeneity. The weather generator is a multisite and multivariate stochastic model capable of generating synthetic meteorological fields (precipitation, temperature, etc.) at daily resolution for the regional scale. These fields respect the observed autocorrelation, spatial correlation and co-variance between the variables. They are used as input into catchment models. A long-term simulation of this combined system enables to derive very long discharge series at many catchment locations serving as a basic for spatially consistent flood risk estimates at the regional scale. This combined model was set up and validated for major river catchments in Germany. The weather generator was trained by 53-year observation data at 528 stations covering not only the complete Germany but also parts of France, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Australia with the aggregated spatial scale of 443,931 km2. 10.000 years of daily meteorological fields for the study area were generated. Likewise, rainfall-runoff simulations with SWIM were performed for the entire Elbe, Rhine, Weser, Donau and Ems catchments. The validation results illustrate a good performance of the combined system, as the simulated flood magnitudes and frequencies agree well with the observed flood data. Based on continuous simulation this model chain is then used to estimate flood quantiles for the whole Germany including upstream headwater catchments in neighbouring countries. This continuous large scale approach overcomes the several

  19. Mercury-cycling in surface waters and in the atmosphere - species analysis for the investigation of transformation and transport properties of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Hintelmann, H.; Wilken, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The river Elbe has been one of the most contaminated rivers with regard to mercury for many years. In 1991 a length-profile has been measured for mercury and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ) from Obristvi, Czech Republic, to the German bight. Total mercury has been measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The organo mercury compounds have been separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected on-line to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS) by a continuous flow-system. Total mercury up to 120 mg Hg + /kg and CH 3 Hg + concentrations up to 130 μg CH 3 Hg + /kg could be detected in special sites. The formation of CH 3 Hg + in sediments can be caused besides the methylation of mercury, by sulphate reducing or methanogenic bacteria and transmethylation reactions with organometals. Atmospheric mercury concentrations have been measured at three different European sites. Samples have been collected on gold-coated glass balls or on quartz wool, respectively. After thermal desorption mercury has been determined using the two step amalgamation technique with AFS detection. Compared to natural background concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM), slightly increased levels could be detected at a rural site in Germany. This increase can probably be explained by long-range transport processes. Within the vicinity of a inactivated mercury production plant high concentrations of up to 13.5 ng/m 3 particle associated mercury (Hg part ) have been detected. Consequently, dry deposition of mercury in the particulate form can intensify the total deposition flux close to Hg-emitting sources. (orig.)

  20. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-07-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ({sup 226}Ra,{sup 222}Rn,{sup 210}Po,{sup 218}Po,{sup 214}Po) {alpha}-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a {sup 238}U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  1. Flood damage estimation of companies: A comparison of Stage-Damage-Functions and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The development of appropriate flood damage models plays an important role not only for the damage assessment after an event but also to develop adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. So called Stage-Damage-Functions (SDFs) are often applied as a standard approach to estimate flood damage. These functions assign a certain damage to the water depth depending on the use or other characteristics of the exposed objects. Recent studies apply machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) to model flood damage. These algorithms usually consider more influencing variables and promise to depict a more detailed insight into the damage processes. In addition they provide an inherent validation scheme. Our study focuses on direct, tangible damage of single companies. The objective is to model and validate the flood damage suffered by single companies with SDFs and RFs. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The model outputs are validated via a comparison with the actual flood damage acquired by the surveys and subsequently compared with each other. This study investigates the gain in model performance with the use of additional data and the advantages and disadvantages of the RFs compared to SDFs. RFs show an increase in model performance with an increasing amount of data records over a comparatively large range, while the model performance of the SDFs is already saturated for a small set of records. In addition, the RFs are able to identify damage influencing variables, which improves the understanding of damage processes. Hence, RFs can slightly improve flood damage predictions and provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms compared to SDFs.

  2. A data mining approach to derive flood-related economic vulnerability of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of vulnerability gained more and more attention in flood risk research during the recent years. However, there is still not much knowledge available about flood vulnerability of companies and its influencing factors. This study follows the natural sciences concept which defines vulnerability as the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from flooding of a given magnitude. Machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) are promising approaches, since they consider many influencing variables and as such allow for a detailed assessment of flood vulnerability. Only these variables which are meaningful for the differentiation of a certain target variable are used by the derived models. This allows for an identification of relevant damage influencing variables and hence for a more detailed picture of flood vulnerability of companies. This study aims to identify relevant damage influencing variables by means of the variable importance provided by Random Forests. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The analysis is done for the entire data set as well as for four groups of different company sectors and the corresponding data subsets. Relevant damage influencing variables separated by sector and assets are identified as, for example, the degree of contamination or precautionary measures undertaken before the flood event. The results provide insight into the damage processes and improve data-acquisition in future surveys by, for instance, asking specific questions for company sectors and assets.

  3. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  4. Uncertainty analyses of the calibrated parameter values of a water quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, M.; Suhr, U.; Lindenschmidt, K.-E.

    2003-04-01

    For river basin management water quality models are increasingly used for the analysis and evaluation of different management measures. However substantial uncertainties exist in parameter values depending on the available calibration data. In this paper an uncertainty analysis for a water quality model is presented, which considers the impact of available model calibration data and the variance of input variables. The investigation was conducted based on four extensive flowtime related longitudinal surveys in the River Elbe in the years 1996 to 1999 with varying discharges and seasonal conditions. For the model calculations the deterministic model QSIM of the BfG (Germany) was used. QSIM is a one dimensional water quality model and uses standard algorithms for hydrodynamics and phytoplankton dynamics in running waters, e.g. Michaelis Menten/Monod kinetics, which are used in a wide range of models. The multi-objective calibration of the model was carried out with the nonlinear parameter estimator PEST. The results show that for individual flow time related measuring surveys very good agreements between model calculation and measured values can be obtained. If these parameters are applied to deviating boundary conditions, substantial errors in model calculation can occur. These uncertainties can be decreased with an increased calibration database. More reliable model parameters can be identified, which supply reasonable results for broader boundary conditions. The extension of the application of the parameter set on a wider range of water quality conditions leads to a slight reduction of the model precision for the specific water quality situation. Moreover the investigations show that highly variable water quality variables like the algal biomass always allow a smaller forecast accuracy than variables with lower coefficients of variation like e.g. nitrate.

  5. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ( 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po, 218 Po, 214 Po) α-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a 238 U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  6. Floods in 2002 and 2013: comparing flood warnings and emergency measures from the perspective of affected parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Pech, Ina; Schröter, Kai; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret

    2016-04-01

    Early warning is essential for protecting people and mitigating damage in case of flood events. However, early warning is only helpful if the flood-endangered parties are reached by the warning and if they know how to react effectively. Finding suitable methods for communicating helpful warnings to the "last mile" remains a challenge, but not much information is available. Surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany, asking affected private households and companies about warnings they received and emergency measures they undertook. Results show, that in 2002 early warning did not work well: in too many areas warnings came too late or were too imprecise and many people (27%) and companies (45%) did not receive a flood warning. Afterwards, the warning systems were significantly improved, so that in 2013 only a small share of the affected people (7%) and companies (7 %) was not reached by any warning. Additionally, private households and companies were hardly aware of the flood risk in the Elbe catchment before 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. For instance, in 2002 only 14% of private households clearly knew how to protect themselves and their assets when the warning reached them, in 2013 this fraction was 46 %. Although the share of companies which had an emergency plan in place had increased from 10 % in 2002 to 26 % in 2013, and the share of those conducting regular emergency exercises had increased from 4 % to 13 %, there is still plenty of room for improvement. Therefore, integrated early warning systems from monitoring through to the reaction of the affected parties as well as effective risk and emergency communication need continuous further improvement to protect people and mitigate residual risks in case of floods.

  7. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: → Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. → Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. → The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. → In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. → This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  8. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproductive strategy of alluvial ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetles are controlled by environmental factors. I expected that the occurrence of species and the occurrence of specific traits are closely related to hydrological and disturbance parameters. Furthermore I expected most of the trait-variation to be explained by a combination of environmental variables, rather than by their isolated effects. Ground beetles were sampled in the year 2005 in floodplain grassland along the Elbe River in Germany. I used redundancy analysis to quantify the effects of hydrological, sediment, and disturbance related parameters on both species occurrence and species traits. I applied variation partitioning to analyse which environmental compartments explain most of the trait variation. Species occurrence and trait variation were both mainly controlled by hydrological and flood disturbance parameters. I could clearly identify reproductive traits and body size as key traits for floodplain ground beetles to cope with the environmental variability. Furthermore, combinations of hydrological, habitat disturbance, habitat type, and species diversity parameters, rather than their isolated effects, explained large parts of ground beetle trait variation. Thus, a main conclusion of this study is that ground beetle occurrence is mainly determined by complex, multi-scale interactions between environmental variability and their life-history traits.

  9. Concentration of heavy metals in brook trout in comparison to aquatic plants and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Rady, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the heavy metal content of river water, fishes (Salmo trutta fario), three aquatic plants (Cladophora glomerata, Potamogeton pectinatus, Zannichellia palustris), one river-bank plant (Phalaris arundinacea), and sediments (clay fraction) taken from the River Leine, up and downstream of Goettingen, were determined. Galvanic-bath sewage containing heavy metals caused an increase (11-60%) in the concentration of nine elements in the water. The average level of heavy metals in the river water corresponded to that of the Ems, Elbe and Weser, but was lower than that of the Neckar, Rhine and Danube. It was also below the European Community Guidelines (1975) on the quality of water used for the artificial recharging of ground water. River water upstream of the city has been used for this recharging for many years. There is a good correlation between the metal content in the investigated samples and in the water. In the muscles, only Cd, Co and Mn, in the liver Cd, Co, Cr. Hg, Mn and Zn, and in the total fish Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn had increased significantly. In contrast to all other elements, Cr shows the highest concentration in the muscles. A previous accumulation of Cr in the liver is not a prerequisite for the accumulation in the muscles. Mercury shows the highest accumulation in the muscles, apparently because of the high retention rate of this element. Muscles also are a good monitor for this element. The impact of heavy metals on the Leine water was reflected in aquatic plants, which showed an increase in concentration up to 95-fold (according to metal or plant) - but not in river-bank plants. C. glomerata has the remarkable capability of accumulating all ten elements. Since P. arundinacea cannot reflect the different load of heavy metals it is therefore less suitable as a biological monitor for these metals.

  10. SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysanova, V; Wechsung, F; Arnold, J; Srinivasan, R; Williams, J

    2000-12-01

    The model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was developed in order to provide a comprehensive GIS-based tool for hydrological and water quality modelling in mesoscale and large river basins (from 100 to 10,000 km{sup 2}), which can be parameterised using regionally available information. The model was developed for the use mainly in Europe and temperate zone, though its application in other regions is possible as well. SWIM is based on two previously developed tools - SWAT and MATSALU (see more explanations in section 1.1). The model integrates hydrology, vegetation, erosion, and nutrient dynamics at the watershed scale. SWIM has a three-level disaggregation scheme 'basin - sub-basins - hydrotopes' and is coupled to the Geographic Information System GRASS (GRASS, 1993). A robust approach is suggested for the nitrogen and phosphorus modelling in mesoscale watersheds. SWIM runs under the UNIX environment. Model test and validation were performed sequentially for hydrology, crop growth, nitrogen and erosion in a number of mesoscale watersheds in the German part of the Elbe drainage basin. A comprehensive scheme of spatial disaggregation into sub-basins and hydrotopes combined with reasonable restriction on a sub-basin area allows performing the assessment of water resources and water quality with SWIM in mesoscale river basins. The modest data requirements represent an important advantage of the model. Direct connection to land use and climate data provides a possibility to use the model for analysis of climate change and land use change impacts on hydrology, agricultural production, and water quality. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution subgrid models: background, grid generation, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehili, Aissa; Lang, Günther; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    The basic idea of subgrid models is the use of available high-resolution bathymetric data at subgrid level in computations that are performed on relatively coarse grids allowing large time steps. For that purpose, an algorithm that correctly represents the precise mass balance in regions where wetting and drying occur was derived by Casulli (Int J Numer Method Fluids 60:391-408, 2009) and Casulli and Stelling (Int J Numer Method Fluids 67:441-449, 2010). Computational grid cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet, or dry, and no drying threshold is needed. Based on the subgrid technique, practical applications involving various scenarios were implemented including an operational forecast model for water level, salinity, and temperature of the Elbe Estuary in Germany. The grid generation procedure allows a detailed boundary fitting at subgrid level. The computational grid is made of flow-aligned quadrilaterals including few triangles where necessary. User-defined grid subdivision at subgrid level allows a correct representation of the volume up to measurement accuracy. Bottom friction requires a particular treatment. Based on the conveyance approach, an appropriate empirical correction was worked out. The aforementioned features make the subgrid technique very efficient, robust, and accurate. Comparison of predicted water levels with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model shows very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out in less than 10 min on a standard PC-like hardware. The subgrid technique is therefore a promising framework to perform accurate temporal and spatial large-scale simulations of coastal and estuarine flow and transport processes at low computational cost.

  12. Core supervision methods and future improvements of the core master/presto system at KKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, S.; Wenisch, J.; Teeffelen, W.V.

    2000-01-01

    Kernkraftwerk Brunsbuettel (KKB) is a KWU 806 MW e BWR located at the lower river Elbe, in Germany. The reactor has been in operation since 1976 and is now operating in its 14. cycle. The core supervision at KKB is performed with the ABB CORE MASTER system. This system mainly contains the 3-D simulator PRESTO supplied by Studsvik Scandpower A/S. The core supervision is performed by periodic PRESTO 3-D evaluations of the reactor operation state. The power distribution calculated by PRESTO is adapted with the ABB UPDAT program using the on-line LPRM readings. The thermal margins are based on this adapted power distribution. Related to core supervision, the function of the PRESTO/UPDAT codes is presented. The UPDAT method is working well and is capable of reproducing the true core power distribution. The quality of the 3-D calculation is, however, an important ingredient of the quality of the adapted power distribution. The adaptation method as such is also important for this quality. The data quality of this system during steady state and off-rate states (reactor manoeuvres) are discussed by presenting comparisons between PRESTO and UPDAT thermal margin utilisation from Cycle 13. Recently analysed asymmetries in the UPDAT evaluated MCPR values are also presented and discussed. Improvements in the core supervision such as the introduction of advanced modern nodal methods (PRESTO-2) are presented and an alternative core supervision philosophy is discussed. An ongoing project with the goal to update the data and result presentation interface (GUI) is also presented. (authors)

  13. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  14. 212ʻ Fahrenheiti : eesti luule 2006 / Piret Bristol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bristol, Piret, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Järgmistest 2006. a. ilmunud luulekogudest: Ryytle, Indrek. Inglid rokijaamas. Puhja : I. Rüütle ; Runnel, Hando. Viru veri ei värise. Tartu : Ilmamaa ; Vabat, Martin. Mina olengi kirjandusklassik. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanduse Selts ; Korts, Eliina. Lööklaused murravad metsi. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanduse Selts ; Koff, Indrek. Vana laul. Luige : Verb ; Teede, Andra. Takso Tallinna taevas. Luige : Verb ; Vusser, Kaspar. Vusserduste võnked. Tallinn : P. Kukk ; Elbing, Andrus. Siin Beebilõust, tere! : häired pimelinna tänavalt = Ciao, it's Babyface : trouble from the streets of a blind city. Tallinn : Epifanio ; Hint, Miina. Vabaduse vang, ehk, Põrandaalune kirjandus. Tallinn : MR ; Jüriado, Tiiu. Luule on ime. Habaja : Kentaur ; Ligi, Katre. Naabrivalve. Tartu : Ilmamaa ; Krull, Hasso. Talv. Tallinn : Tuum ; Mets, Mae. Pühapäeval on reede. Tartu : Ilmamaa ; Ploom, Ülar. Porr ja sorry. Tallinn : Tuum ; Hirv, Indrek, Surmapõletaja. Tallinn : Tuum ; Piir, Milvi Martina. Kõrkjavaas. Tartu : Fantaasia ; Soomets, Triin. Väljas. Tallinn : Tuum ; Mathura. Kohalolu. Rapla : Allikäärne ; Afanasjev, Vahur. Katedraal Emajões. Tartu ; Brüssel : ID Salong//Sild, Ivar. Spermaga ja puha. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused ; Meiel, Kaupo. Polügrafisti käsiraamat. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused ; Kivisildnik, Sven. Vägistatud jäämägi. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused ; Arder, Ott. Luule sünnib kus sünnib kui sünnib / koost. Leelo Tungal. Tallinn : Tänapäev ; Kompus, Marko. Vallaliste jõgede tõkkejooksja. Tartu : M. Kompus

  15. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana, E-mail: dana.zimmer@uni-rostock.de [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Borca, Camelia [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laue, Michael [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Rostock, Medical Faculty, Strempelstr. 14, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Hause, Gerd [Microscopy Unit, Biocenter of the University of Halle, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstrasse 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Leinweber, Peter [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: {yields} Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. {yields} Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. {yields} The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. {yields} In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. {yields} This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  16. Aspectos econômicos do uso de fontes orgânicas de nutrientes associadas a sistemas de preparo do solo Economical aspects of organic nutrient sources associated with soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Pandolfo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise econômica é fundamental para a tomada de decisão no uso de fontes orgânicas de nutrientes. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar aspectos econômicos do uso de fontes orgânicas de nutrientes para auxiliar a tomada de decisão sobre o seu uso em diferentes condições de manejo do solo. Foi utilizado um experimento conduzido durante nove anos na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Campos Novos/SC. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de cinco sistemas de preparo (plantio direto, preparo reduzido, preparo convencional, preparo convencional com resíduos queimados e preparo convencional com resíduos retirados, combinados com quatro fontes de nutrientes (TES - testemunha, sem aplicação de nutrientes, AM - adubação mineral de acordo com a recomendação para cada cultura, EA - 5mg ha-1 de matéria úmida de cama de aves, ELB - 60m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido de bovinos e; ELS - 40m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido de suínos. Os atributos econômicos utilizados foram os custos variáveis (CV, a receita bruta (RB e o custo da correção da fertilidade com calcário, P e K (CC, após nove anos de aplicação das fontes de nutrientes. A interpretação para cada combinação de fonte de nutriente e sistema de preparo do solo foi feita por meio de figuras triangulares e a área das mesmas com intervalo de confiança a 90% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que o desempenho econômico das fontes orgânicas de nutrientes foi dependente do sistema de preparo do solo, sendo que as fontes apresentaram melhor desempenho no sistema plantio direto. O esterco de aves e o esterco líquido de suínos foram as fontes que apresentaram melhor desempenho econômico. O esterco líquido de suínos e o esterco líquido de bovinos, mesmo apresentando áreas diferentes, foram as fontes que apresentaram menor variabilidade nos atributos econômicos avaliados, não havendo um atributo que se destaque dos demais. O custo da correção da fertilidade do solo com calc

  17. Variability of floods, droughts and windstorms over the past 500 years in Central Europe based on documentary and instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdil, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological and meteorological extremes (HMEs) in Central Europe during the past 500 years can be reconstructed based on instrumental and documentary data. Documentary data about weather and related phenomena represent the basic source of information for historical climatology and hydrology, dealing with reconstruction of past climate and HMEs, their perception and impacts on human society. The paper presents the basic distribution of documentary data on (i) direct descriptions of HMEs and their proxies on the one hand and on (ii) individual and institutional data sources on the other. Several groups of documentary evidence such as narrative written records (annals, chronicles, memoirs), visual daily weather records, official and personal correspondence, special prints, financial and economic records (with particular attention to taxation data), newspapers, pictorial documentation, chronograms, epigraphic data, early instrumental observations, early scientific papers and communications are demonstrated with respect to extraction of information about HMEs, which concerns usually of their occurrence, severity, seasonality, meteorological causes, perception and human impacts. The paper further presents the analysis of 500-year variability of floods, droughts and windstorms on the base of series, created by combination of documentary and instrumental data. Results, advantages and drawbacks of such approach are documented on the examples from the Czech Lands. The analysis of floods concentrates on the River Vltava (Prague) and the River Elbe (Děčín) which show the highest frequency of floods occurring in the 19th century (mainly of winter synoptic type) and in the second half of the 16th century (summer synoptic type). Reported are also the most disastrous floods (August 1501, March and August 1598, February 1655, June 1675, February 1784, March 1845, February 1862, September 1890, August 2002) and the European context of floods in the severe winter 1783/84. Drought

  18. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  19. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    -Norwegian orogeny. The major part of the NGB is characterized by high-density lithosphere, which includes a high-velocity lower crust (relict of Baltica passive margin) overthrusted by the Avalonian terrane. The short wavelength pattern of the final residuals shows several north-west trending gravity highs between the Tornquist Zone and the Elbe Fault System. The NDB is separated by a gravity low at the Ringkøbing-Fyn high from a chain of positive anomalies in the NGB and the PT. In the NGB these anomalies correspond to the Prignitz (Rheinsberg anomaly), the Glueckstadt and Horn Graben, and they continue further west into the Central Graben, to join with the gravity high of the Central North Sea.

  20. Annual report 2011. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Fassbender, J.; Heera, V.; Helm, M.

    2012-01-01

    /THz free-electron laser at the 40 MeV superconducting electron accelerator ELBE for condensed matter research. This facility is also open to external users and funded by the European Union.

  1. Setup and taking into operation of a photoneutron source; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Photoneutronenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschner, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics at the Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD) has build a neutron physics laboratory at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) to investigate nuclear processes in materials. The experiments are focused on materials relevant to nuclear fusion. The laboratory is equipped with three intensive neutron sources. The first is a 14 MeV monochromatic neutron source based on the DT reaction (owned by TUD); the other two are continuous and pulsed white photoneutron sources based on (γ,xn) reactions. One pulsed photoneutron source is realized by FZD in cooperation with the TUD. The continuous photoneutron source utilises a tungsten radiator (Tungsten Photoneutron Source) to produce neutrons with a wide energy spectra. The TPNS uses the ELBE-accelerator as a source of electrons for neutron production. This process involves an intermediate step, where slowed down electrons produce bremsstrahlung (γ-rays) absorbed by tungsten nuclei. Consecutively, the excited nuclei emit neutrons. The neutron flux of the photoneutron source is five orders of magnitude higher than the flux of the DT neutron sources with appropriate moderation. The neutron spectrum of TPNS can be modified by moderators, in such a way that the spectrum is comparable to that in the first wall of a Tokamak-Reactor. That allows investigations with the typical neutron spectrum of the fusion reactor. The technical solution, initial operation and the first experiment are described in this work. The neutron source is, in particular, dedicated to quantitative investigations in fusion neutronics. A fusion reactor produces radioactive isotopes as a nuclear waste. The main activity is accumulated in the structural materials. Carefully selected structural materials can significantly minimize the activity and thereby the amount of nuclear waste. The purpose of this project is to find constructional materials with half-lives shorter than several years, which can be recycled

  2. Monitoring shipping emissions in the German Bight using MAX-DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Shipping is generally the most energy efficient transportation mode, but, at the same time, it accounts for four fifths of the worldwide total merchandise trade volume. As a result, shipping contributes a significant part to the emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of shipping emissions occurs within 400 km of land, impacting on air pollution in coastal areas and harbor towns. The North Sea has one of the highest ship densities in the world and the vast majority of ships heading for the port of Hamburg sail through the German Bight and into the river Elbe. A three-year time series of ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 on the island Neuwerk in the German Bight has been analyzed for contributions from shipping emissions. Measurements of individual ship plumes as well as of background pollution are possible from this location, which is 6-7 kilometers away from the main shipping lane towards the harbor of Hamburg. More than 2000 individual ship plumes have been identified in the data and analyzed for the emission ratio of SO2 to NO2, yielding an average ratio of 0.3 for the years 2013/2014. Contributions of ships and land-based sources to air pollution levels in the German Bight have been estimated, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40%. Since January 2015, much lower fuel sulfur content limits of 0.1% (before: 1.0%) apply in the North and Baltic Sea Emission Control Area (ECA). Comparing MAX-DOAS measurements from 2015/2016 (new regulation) to 2013/2014 (old regulation), a large reduction in SO2/NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and a significant reduction (by a factor of eight) in ambient coastal SO2 levels have been observed. In addition to that, selected shipping emission measurements from other measurement sites and campaigns are presented. This study is part of the project MeSMarT (Measurements of Shipping emissions in the Marine Troposphere

  3. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  4. Hydrological modelling in sandstone rocks watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponížilová, Iva; Unucka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The contribution is focused on the modelling of surface and subsurface runoff in the Ploučnice basin. The used rainfall-runoff model is HEC-HMS comprising of the method of SCS CN curves and a recession method. The geological subsurface consisting of sandstone is characterised by reduced surface runoff and, on the contrary, it contributes to subsurface runoff. The aim of this paper is comparison of the rate of influence of sandstone on reducing surface runoff. The recession method for subsurface runoff was used to determine the subsurface runoff. The HEC-HMS model allows semi- and fully distributed approaches to schematisation of the watershed and rainfall situations. To determine the volume of runoff the method of SCS CN curves is used, which results depend on hydrological conditions of the soils. The rainfall-runoff model assuming selection of so-called methods of event of the SCS-CN type is used to determine the hydrograph and peak flow rate based on simulation of surface runoff in precipitation exceeding the infiltration capacity of the soil. The recession method is used to solve the baseflow (subsurface) runoff. The method is based on the separation of hydrograph to direct runoff and subsurface or baseflow runoff. The study area for the simulation of runoff using the method of SCS CN curves to determine the hydrological transformation is the Ploučnice basin. The Ploučnice is a hydrologically significant river in the northern part of the Czech Republic, it is a right tributary of the Elbe river with a total basin area of 1.194 km2. The average value of CN curves for the Ploučnice basin is 72. The geological structure of the Ploučnice basin is predominantly formed by Mesozoic sandstone. Despite significant initial loss of rainfall the basin response to the causal rainfall was demonstrated by a rapid rise of the surface runoff from the watershed and reached culmination flow. Basically, only surface runoff occures in the catchment during the initial phase of

  5. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudyakov, Timur

    2009-01-01

    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B t . It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  6. The Role of Federal Government for Climate Adaptation in the Urban Context: Results of a workshop (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, J.; Chhetri, N.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme weather events in urban areas such as torrential rainfall in Chicago and London, floods in Boston and Elbe and heat waves in Europe have shed stark light on cities’ vulnerability to the effects of climate change. At the same time, cities themselves are significant net contributors to GHG’s attributable to climatic changes through the built environment (e.g. housing, roads, and parking lots), transport, consumption and recreation. In the arid region of southwestern United States, issues associated with the adequacy of water resources, urban heat island, and air quality best exemplify these contributions. This duality - cities as impacted by, and contributors to extreme climatic patterns induced by climate change, and the specific climate information needed for decision-making by city planners - provided the impetus for a two-day workshop in January 2009. Organized by Arizona State University, the workshop included city managers, planners, private sector stakeholders, water managers, researchers, and Federal program managers. The aim was to identify information needs, and data and research gaps, as well as to design strategies to address climate uncertainty. Two key approaches discussed were: a) building multiple, flexible scenarios and modeling efforts that enable decision-makers to plan for a number of possible futures, and b) matching Federal climate assets to local, regional and sectoral needs through continuous collaboration that supports decision-making within the social, economic, and political context of the place. Federal leadership in facilitating, coordinating and informing efforts that nurture the creative intellectual capacity of cities to produce integrated solutions to mitigate the effects of and adapt to climate change will go a long way in addressing urban climate adaptation in the United States. Participants outlined a number of concerns and suggestions for Federal government leaders and services associated with a national climate

  7. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  8. Annual report 2011. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Fassbender, J.; Heera, V.; Helm, M. (eds.)

    2012-08-22

    -2013). Another part of the Institute's activities is dedicated to exploit the infrared/THz free-electron laser at the 40 MeV superconducting electron accelerator ELBE for condensed matter research. This facility is also open to external users and funded by the European Union.

  9. The impact of different flooding periods on the dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V in a contaminated floodplain soil - results of a lysimeter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph; Shaheen, Sabry; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements and arsenic (As) were transported with water during inundation in floodplain ecosystems, where they settled down and accumulated predominantly in depressions and low-lying terraces. Highly variable hydrological conditions in floodplains can affect the dynamics of pollutants. The impact of different flooding/drying periods on the temporal dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V as a function of soil EH/pH changes and dynamics of DOC, Fe, Mn and SO42- was studied in a contaminated floodplain soil collected at the Elbe River (Germany). A specific groundwater lysimeter technique with two separate small lysimeter vessels served as replicates was used for this study. The groundwater level inside the lysimeters was controlled to simulate long term and short term flooding/drying. The long term (LT) flooding scenario consists of 94 days of flooding followed by similar drying term. The short term (ST) flooding/drying scenario comprises 21 days and was six times repeated. The entire experimental period (LT_ST) was about 450 days. Flooding of the soil caused a significant decrease of EH and pH. Concentrations of soluble As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo and DOC were higher under reducing conditions than under oxidizing conditions in LT. However, As and Cr tended to be mobilized under oxidizing conditions during ST, which might be due to slow kinetics of the redox reaction of As and Cr. Dynamics of Mo were more affected by changes of EH/pH as compared to As, Cr and V and governed mainly by Fe-Mn chemistry. Concentrations of V in ST were higher than in LT and were controlled particularly by pH and chemistry of Fe. The interactions between the elements and carriers studied were stronger during long flood-dry-cycles than during short cycles, which confirmed our hypothesis. We conclude that the dynamics of As, Cr, Mo and V are determined by the length of time soils are exposed to flooding, because drivers of element mobility need a certain time to provoke

  10. Indicadores de atenção básica em quatro municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2005: resultados de inquérito domiciliar de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwarcwald Célia Landmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O inquérito domiciliar de base populacional, realizado em quatro dos 22 municípios com mais de cem mil habitantes do Estado do Rio de Janeiro que implementaram o Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família (Proesf, visa à institucionalização da avaliação e monitoramento da atenção básica. Este estudo desenvolveu-se no contexto dos Estudos de Linha de Base (ELB do Proesf. O instrumento utilizado é uma adaptação do questionário aplicado anteriormente em âmbito nacional para avaliação de desempenho de saúde, sob a ótica dos usuários. As alterações voltaram-se para a avaliação da atenção básica, com foco no Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF. Construíram-se indicadores de cobertura, qualidade de atendimento pré-natal, assistência ao parto, saúde infantil, prevenção de câncer de colo uterino e mama, assistência a idosos e saúde bucal. Destacaram-se os resultados observados na prevenção de câncer de colo de útero, pelas elevadas coberturas de exame ginecológico no período de três anos, ficando evidente a fragilidade do sistema de saúde em relação ao tempo de entrega do resultado do exame. Reforça-se a importância de avaliar a qualidade da atenção básica recebida sob a ótica do usuário, para o estabelecimento de metas e definição de prioridades.

  11. Modeling effects of secondary tidal basins on estuarine morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnafie, Abdel; Van Oyen, Tomas; De Maerschalck, Bart

    2017-04-01

    Many estuaries are situated in very densely populated areas with high economic activities that often conflict with their ecological values. For centuries, geometry and bathymetry of estuaries have been drastically modified trough engineering works such as embanking, sand extraction, channel deepening, land reclamations, etc. It is generally recognized that these works may increase the tidal range (e.g., Scheldt, Ems, Elbe) and turbidity (e.g., Loire, Ems) in estuaries [cf. Kerner, 2007; Wang et al., 2009; Winterwerp and Wang, 2013; Van Maren et al., 2015b,a]. In recent years, construction of secondary basins (also called retention basins) has gained increasing popularity among coastal managers to reduce tidal range and turbidity [Donner et al., 2012]. Previous studies have shown that location, geometry and number of secondary basins have a significant impact on tidal characteristics and sediment transport [Alebregtse and de Swart, 2014; Roos and Schuttelaars, 2015]. However, knowledge on how these secondary basins affect the morphodynamic development of estuaries on long time scales (order decades to centuries) is still lacking. The specific objectives of this study are twofold. First, to investigate effects of secondary basins on the long-term morphodynamic evolution of estuaries. In particular, effects of the presence of such a basin on the morphodynamic evolution of the main channel in the estuary and the physics underlying channel migration will be examined. For this, the Western Scheldt estuary (situated in the Netherlands) is used as a case study, which used to consist of multiple secondary tidal basins that were located at different positions in the estuary, and which have been gradually closed off between 1800 and 1968. Second, to systematically quantify sensitivity of model results to location, geometry, and to number of secondary basins. To this end, the state-of-the- art numerical model Delft3D is used, which has been successfully applied to

  12. Operational monitoring of turbidity in rivers: how satellites can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Dorothee; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Kranz, Susanne; Baschek, Björn

    2016-10-01

    The applications of remote sensing in hydrology are diverse and offer significant benefits for water monitoring. Up to now, operational river monitoring and sediment management in Germany mainly rely on in-situ measurements and on results obtained from numerical modelling. Remote sensing by satellites has a great potential to supplement existing data with two-dimensional information on near-surface turbidity distributions at greater spatial scales than in-situ measurements can offer. Within the project WasMon-CT (WaterMonitoring-Chlorophyll/Turbidity), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) aims at the implementation of an operational monitoring of turbidity distributions based on satellite images (esp. Sentinel-2, Landsat7 and 8). Initially, selected federal inland and estuarine waterways will be addressed: Rhine, Elbe, Ems, Weser. WasMon-CT is funded within the German Copernicus activities. Within the project, a database of atmospherically corrected, geo-referenced turbidity data will be assembled. The collected corresponding meta-data will include aspects of satellite data as well as hydrological data, e.g. cloud cover and river run-off. Based on this catalogue of spatially linked meta-data, the satellite data will be selected by e.g. cloud cover or run-off. The permanently updated database will include past as well as recent satellite images. It is designed with a long-term perspective to optimize the existing in-situ measurement network, which will serve partly for calibration and partly as validation data set. The aim is to extend, but not to substitute, the existing frequent point measurements with spatially extensive, satellite-derived data from the near surface part of the water column. Here, turbidity is used as proxy for corresponding suspended sediment concentrations. For this, the relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations will be investigated. Products as e.g. longitudinal profiles or virtual measurement stations will be

  13. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudyakov, Timur

    2009-07-22

    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B{sub t}. It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  14. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry. Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, G [ed.

    2005-07-01

    material to separate heavy metals from very low contaminated waters or to produce well-structured metal templates in future. Studies about the interaction of actinides with different bacterial strains improved our understanding about the different binding in biological systems. Our investigations about interaction, sorption, and diffusion of actinides in clay in presence of fulvic and humic acids are included in national projects and in international collaborations. Furthermore we can report that our new radiochemical experimental station on the free electron IR-Laser of the Rossendorf accelerator ELBE is now in operation. After first tests we will start our research work in 2005. (orig.)

  15. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, G.

    2005-01-01

    material to separate heavy metals from very low contaminated waters or to produce well-structured metal templates in future. Studies about the interaction of actinides with different bacterial strains improved our understanding about the different binding in biological systems. Our investigations about interaction, sorption, and diffusion of actinides in clay in presence of fulvic and humic acids are included in national projects and in international collaborations. Furthermore we can report that our new radiochemical experimental station on the free electron IR-Laser of the Rossendorf accelerator ELBE is now in operation. After first tests we will start our research work in 2005. (orig.)

  16. A multimodel approach to interannual and seasonal prediction of Danube discharge anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Patrut, Simona; Dima, Mihai

    2010-05-01

    -Vazquez, R.M. Trigo, and Y. Castro-Diez, Quantifying the predictability of winter river flow in Iberia. Part II: seasonal predictability. J. Climate, 2503-2518, 2008. Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, and N. Rimbu, Prediction of spring Elbe river discharge based on stable teleconnections with global temperature and precipitation. J. Climate. 6215-6226, 2008.

  17. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  18. A new risk assessment approach for the prioritization of 500 classical and emerging organic microcontaminants as potential river basin specific pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Dulio, Valeria; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; De Deckere, Eric; Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Ginebreda, Antoni; De Cooman, Ward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2011-05-01

    Given the huge number of chemicals released into the environment and existing time and budget constraints, there is a need to prioritize chemicals for risk assessment and monitoring in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD). This study is the first to assess the risk of 500 organic substances based on observations in the four European river basins of the Elbe, Scheldt, Danube and Llobregat. A decision tree is introduced that first classifies chemicals into six categories depending on the information available, which allows water managers to focus on the next steps (e.g. derivation of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), improvement of analytical methods, etc.). The priority within each category is then evaluated based on two indicators, the Frequency of Exceedance and the Extent of Exceedance of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). These two indictors are based on maximum environmental concentrations (MEC), rather than the commonly used statistically based averages (Predicted Effect Concentration, PEC), and compared to the lowest acute-based (PNEC(acute)) or chronic-based thresholds (PNEC(chronic)). For 56% of the compounds, PNECs were available from existing risk assessments, and the majority of these PNECs were derived from chronic toxicity data or simulated ecosystem studies (mesocosm) with rather low assessment factors. The limitations of this concept for risk assessment purposes are discussed. For the remainder, provisional PNECs (P-PNECs) were established from read-across models for acute toxicity to the standard test organisms Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas and Selenastrum capricornutum. On the one hand, the prioritization revealed that about three-quarter of the 44 substances with MEC/PNEC ratios above ten were pesticides. On the other hand, based on the monitoring data used in this study, no risk with regard to the water phase could be found for eight of the 41 priority substances, indicating a first success of

  19. Source oriented modeling of the nitrat pollution of surface waters - application of the immission method for the reporting according to the EC nitrat guideline; Verursacherbezogene Modellierung der Nitratbelastung der Oberflaechengewaesser - Anwendung des Immissionsverfahrens zur Berichterstattung zur EU-Nitratrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, H.; Opitz, D. [Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Bach, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Boden- und Gewaesserschutz e.V. (Germany); Pagenkopf, W.G. [Geodaten Integration und Analyse, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-09-20

    application of fertilizer seems to be very low. The comparison of long term changes of nitrogen surplus and nitrate concentration within the river basins allows a raw estimation of the residence times of nitrogen from the topsoil to the river. These times were estimated in a range between about 5 years (Rhine) and more than 20 years (Elbe). (orig.) [German] Die Ueberwachung der Oberflaechengewaesser an den 152 Messstellen der Bundeslaender (LAWA-Messstellennetz) ergab im Berichtszeitraum keine Ueberschreitung des Qualitaetsziels fuer Nitrat von 50 mg/l. Aber bei nur 14% der Messstellen wird eine gute Wasserqualitaet bezueglich Nitrat erreicht. Sieht man von abflussbedingten Schwankungen ab, sind eindeutige Trends der Nitratbelastung aus der Landwirtschaft seit der Mitte der 80er Jahre nicht erkennbar. Vertiefende Analysen wurden fuer die 15 EU-Messstellen Deutschlands durchgefuehrt. Fuer den Trend der mittleren Winterkonzentrationen zeigt sich an jeweils der Haelfte dieser Messstellen Stabilitaet bzw. eine schwache Reduktion. Ein aehnliches Ergebnis ergaben die Winterkonzentrationen bei geringen Abfluessen. Die Separation von diffusen und punktuellen Stickstoffquellen auf Basis des Immissionsverfahrens ergab im Berichtszeitraum 1996-1999 bei beiden Anteilen eine leichte Verminderung gegenueber dem vorangegangenen Vierjahres-Zeitraum. Gegenueber der Mitte der 80er Jahre haben die Punktquellen dagegen z.T. erheblich abgenommen und machen heute nur noch 9-24% in den verschiedenen Flussgebieten aus. Das Immissionverfahren zeigt die gleichen Ergebnisse wie die Emissionsschaetzungen. Mitte der 90er Jahre stammten danach ungefaehr 67% der Stickstoffbelastungen der Oberflaechengewaesser aus landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen. Der Weg ueber das Grundwasser war mit 48% der bedeutendste. Die Gesamtemissionen haben vor allem durch Verringerung der Punktquellen um etwa 24% abgenommen. Zur Darstellung der Urachen in der Landwirtschaft wurden die Stickstoffueberschuesse (Flaechenbilanz

  20. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.

    2017-08-01

    2.5 × 106 km2 and drained the present day Vistula, Elbe, Rhine and Thames rivers through the Seine Estuary. During the Bølling/Allerød oscillation after c. 14.6 ka BP, two major proglacial lakes formed in the Baltic and White seas, buffering meltwater pulses from eastern Fennoscandia through to the Younger Dryas when these massive proglacial freshwater lakes flooded into the North Atlantic Ocean. Deglaciation temporarily abated during the Younger Dryas stadial at 12.9 ka BP, when remnant ice across Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Fennoscandia and Scotland experienced a short-lived but dynamic re-advance. The final stage of deglaciation converged on present day ice cover around the Scandes mountains and the Barents Sea by 8.7 ka BP, although the phase-lagged isostatic recovery still continues today.

  1. Capturing changes in flood risk with Bayesian approaches for flood damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kristin; Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Thieken, Annegret; Müller, Meike; Sieg, Tobias; Laudan, Jonas; Kienzler, Sarah; Weise, Laura; Merz, Bruno; Scherbaum, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is a function of hazard as well as of exposure and vulnerability. All three components are under change over space and time and have to be considered for reliable damage estimations and risk analyses, since this is the basis for an efficient, adaptable risk management. Hitherto, models for estimating flood damage are comparatively simple and cannot sufficiently account for changing conditions. The Bayesian network approach allows for a multivariate modeling of complex systems without relying on expert knowledge about physical constraints. In a Bayesian network each model component is considered to be a random variable. The way of interactions between those variables can be learned from observations or be defined by expert knowledge. Even a combination of both is possible. Moreover, the probabilistic framework captures uncertainties related to the prediction and provides a probability distribution for the damage instead of a point estimate. The graphical representation of Bayesian networks helps to study the change of probabilities for changing circumstances and may thus simplify the communication between scientists and public authorities. In the framework of the DFG-Research Training Group "NatRiskChange" we aim to develop Bayesian networks for flood damage and vulnerability assessments of residential buildings and companies under changing conditions. A Bayesian network learned from data, collected over the last 15 years in flooded regions in the Elbe and Danube catchments (Germany), reveals the impact of many variables like building characteristics, precaution and warning situation on flood damage to residential buildings. While the handling of incomplete and hybrid (discrete mixed with continuous) data are the most challenging issues in the study on residential buildings, a similar study, that focuses on the vulnerability of small to medium sized companies, bears new challenges. Relying on a much smaller data set for the determination of the model

  2. How to find the sedimentary archive of fluvial pollution in a bedrock-confined river reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elznicova, Jitka; Matys Grygar, Tomas; Kiss, Timea; Lelkova, Tereza; Balogh, Marton; Sikora, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Ohre River springs in the Eastern Germany and it is a tributary of the Labe (Elbe) River in Northwest Bohemia. The river received pollution from several sources during the last five centuries. Most of the pollution sources located along the upper and middle reaches, where the depositional and erosional pattern of the river is highly variable. The upper part of the catchment consists of mainly felsic rocks and the river has a broad floodplain. The middle reach and its right-bank tributaries are deeply incised into the Doupovske Hory Mts., which consists of mafic volcanic rocks; whereas the left-bank tributaries are incised into intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Krusne Hory Mts. (Ore mountains) with several local ore mines (Ag, Pb and U) in particular in around Olovi and Jachymov. Due to the geologic and geomorphologic complexity, deposition of historical sediments in the middle reach has been spatially limited and uneven, and anomalous background concentrations of risk elements are expected. As a consequence, in the middle reach of the Ohre River it is difficult to find a useful sedimentary archive of historical pollution, though it is desired for two main reasons: (1) to decipher the undocumented and poorly described pollution history from the Krusne Hory Mts. and (2) to better understand the retention of pollutants in the transport zones of a confined river system. Based on historical maps we identified a side-bar (35x320 m) in the middle reach of the river near Straz on Ohre and aimed to describe its formation, its recent erosion/deposition history and to evaluate its sedimentary archive value. In the first half of the 19th century it was an island separated from the valley edge by a side channel. Since then there has been no apparent lateral accretion of the bar (its shape has not been changed), but the upstream part of the side channel aggraded by a sediment plug. We evaluated the current bar topography and geomorphology by a detailed field survey

  3. Monthly to seasonal low flow prediction: statistical versus dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Klein, Bastian; Meissner, Dennis; Rademacher, Silke

    2016-04-01

    the Alfred Wegener Institute a purely statistical scheme to generate streamflow forecasts for several months ahead. Instead of directly using teleconnection indices (e.g. NAO, AO) the idea is to identify regions with stable teleconnections between different global climate information (e.g. sea surface temperature, geopotential height etc.) and streamflow at different gauges relevant for inland waterway transport. So-called stability (correlation) maps are generated showing regions where streamflow and climate variable from previous months are significantly correlated in a 21 (31) years moving window. Finally, the optimal forecast model is established based on a multiple regression analysis of the stable predictors. We will present current results of the aforementioned approaches with focus on the River Rhine (being one of the world's most frequented waterways and the backbone of the European inland waterway network) and the Elbe River. Overall, our analysis reveals the existence of a valuable predictability of the low flows at monthly and seasonal time scales, a result that may be useful to water resources management. Given that all predictors used in the models are available at the end of each month, the forecast scheme can be used operationally to predict extreme events and to provide early warnings for upcoming low flows.

  4. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    consequence assessment for the solution to the problem statement. For the four breach methodologies, a sensitivity analysis of four breach parameters, breach side slope (SS), breach width (Wb), breach invert elevation (Elb), and time of failure (tf), is conducted. Up to, 68 simulations are computed to produce breach hydrographs in HEC-RAS for input into Flood2D-GPU. The Flood2D-GPU simulation results were then post-processed in HEC-FIA to evaluate: Total Population at Risk (PAR), 14-yr and Under PAR (PAR14-), 65-yr and Over PAR (PAR65+), Loss of Life (LOL) and Direct Economic Impact (DEI). The MLM approach resulted in wide variability in simulated minimum and maximum values of PAR, PAR 65+ and LOL estimates. For PAR14- and DEI, Froehlich (1995) resulted in lower values while MLM resulted in higher estimates. This preliminary study demonstrated the relative performance of four commonly used dam breach methodologies and their impacts on consequence estimation.

  5. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  6. Petrologic Applications of Tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, D.; Morgan, G. B., VI; Wolf, M. B.; Guttery, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Compositions of tourmaline reflect its chemical environment of formation. Schorl-dravite is an accessory in metapelites and persists up to the onset of anatexis. Amphibolites and marbles contain uvite, and magnesiofoitite-povandraite is distinctive of base-metal porphyries. In granitic pegmatites, schorl-dravite at the contacts evolves toward foitite and olenite (aluminous) components as Fe is depleted from the melt. Fractionation may bring residual melts to saturation in elbaite, an Li-rich component of tourmaline. Common tourmaline (schorl-dravite-olenite-foitite solid solution) possesses a wide P-T field of stability. Synthesis experiments put the upper thermal limit of common tourmaline at ~ 750°-850°C from 50 MPa to 10 GPa, and dravite has been synthesized as low as 350°C. The boron content of granitic melt or aqueous fluid in equilibrium with common tourmaline alone and with equivalent silicate mineral assemblages varies sharply with temperature according to a relationship of CB2O3melt,vapor ~ 0.0032e0.0087T(C). Common tourmaline is stable over an aSiO2 at and below saturation in Qtz; besides FeMg, its stability hinges principally on the solubility product [aAl2O3]3*[aB2O3]1.5 in vapor or melt. Surprisingly, increasing activities of H2O or fluoride components (both are present in tourmaline) destabilize common tourmaline in granitic melt, as both components form complexes with Al that reduce aAl2O3 in the melt. As a result, common tourmaline may survive anatexis when the aH2O attending melting is low. In contrast to common tourmaline, most attempts to synthesize elbaite have failed. Aluminous tourmaline containing 37 mol% Elb component has been synthesized recently, which is significant for understanding occurrences in pegmatites as well as for the potential appearance of synthetic elbaite on the gem market. Experimental calibration of δ11B between aqueous fluid and dravite at 50-500 MPa and 350°-750°C varies by only 6.1 % over this range of conditions

  7. Artificial Post mining lakes - a challenge for the integration in natural hydrography and river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhammel, Petra; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In terms of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), post mining lakes are artificial water bodies (AWB). The sustainable integration of post mining lakes in the groundwater and surface water landscape and their consideration in river basin management plans have to be linked with various (geo)hydrological, hydro(geo)chemical, technological and socioeconomic issues. The Lower Lusatian lignite mining district in eastern Germany is part of the major river basins of river Elbe and river Oder. Regionally, the mining area is situated in the sub-basins of river Spree and Schwarze Elster. After the cessation of mining activities and thereby of the artificially created groundwater drawdown in numerous mining pits, a large number of post mining lakes are evolving as consequence of natural groundwater table recovery. The lakes' designated uses vary from water reservoirs to landscape, recreation or fish farming lakes. Groundwater raise is not only substantial for the lake filling, but also for the area rehabilitation and a largely self regulated water balance in post mining landscapes. Since the groundwater flow through soil and dump sites being affected by the former mining activities, groundwater experiences various changes in its hydrochemical properties as e.g. mineralization and acidification. Consequently, downstream located groundwater fed running and standing water bodies will be affected too. Respective the European Water Framework Directive, artificial post mining lakes are not allowed to cause significant adverse impacts on the good ecological status/potential of downstream groundwater and surface water bodies. The high sulphate concentrations of groundwater fed mining lakes which reach partly more than 1,000 mg/l are e.g. damaging concrete constructures in downstream water bodies thereby representing threats for hydraulic facilities and drinking water supply. Due to small amounts of nutrients, the lakes are characterised by oligo¬trophic to slightly

  8. Fission track dating: methodology and thermo-chronological applications in alpine and continental margin contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabil, N.

    1995-06-01

    the thermal history of the massifs considered since the last cooling below 120 C of the samples analysed. In the works done before 1994, we have shown that, on the one hand, the transform margin of Cote d'Ivoire-Ghana had known a heating period between 250 C and 60 C post-dating by far its scanning by an oceanic ridge and on the other hand, in the Elbe Island, we have brought the first 'fission track' data in the cooling history of the Monte Capanne granodiorite. In the beginning of the 90's, the fission track method still lacked good reference samples for volcanic glass dating. At the suggestion of the Geochronology Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences we have studied macusanites, obsidians of the SE Peru. The results of this work suggest that these glasses are not convenient as potential age standards, even if they keep some value as a material for laboratory intercalibration purposes. (author)

  9. Supporting inland waterway transport on German waterways by operational forecasting services - water-levels, discharges, river ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica; Hemri, Stephan; Rademacher, Silke

    2017-04-01

    uncertainty properly. Additionally for the key locations at the international waterways Rhine, Elbe and Danube three competing forecast approaches are currently tested in a pre-operational set-up in order to generate monthly to seasonal (up to 3 months) forecasts: (1) the well-known Ensemble Streamflow Prediction approach (ensemble based on historical meteorology), (2) coupling hydrological models with post-processed outputs from ECMWF's general circulation model (System 4), and (3) a purely statistical approach based on the stable relationship (teleconnection) of global or regional oceanic, climate and hydrological data with river flows. The current results, still pre-operational, reveal the existence of a valuable predictability of water levels and streamflow also at monthly up to seasonal time-scales along the larger rivers used as waterways in Germany. Last but not least insight into the technical set-up of the aforementioned forecasting systems operated at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, which are based on a Delft-FEWS application, will be given focussing on the step-wise extension of the former system by integrating new components in order to meet the growing needs of the customers and to improve and extend the forecast portfolio for waterway users.

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation; Umweltradioaktivitaet in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bericht der Leitstellen des Bundes und des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Stand 2014. Daten und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    measured by the BfS in Freiburg remained at about 1.5 Bq/m{sup 3}. The measured activity concentrations of {sup 133}Xe ranged from one to 100 mBq/m{sup 3}, except for the time after the Fukushima disaster. Almost all measured values of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in drinking water and groundwater are below the detection limit The BfS, in cooperation with the PTB, carried out interlaboratory comparisons to determine natural radionuclides in drinking water in 2012 and 2014. In the North Sea sampling was performed every August. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration ranged from 1.3 Bq/m{sup 3} in the Elbe estuary up to 3.0 Bq/m{sup 3} in the outer German Bight. Compared to this, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in the Baltic Sea is higher, ranging from 20 Bq/m{sup 3} in the western part, to 34 Bq/m{sup 3} in the eastern part of the region under study, as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Consequently, the measured {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in fish are also higher in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea, reaching up to 11 Bq/kg during the reporting period. Increased activity concentrations are still being measured in fish from inland waters, especially from lakes. In Southern Germany, these have declined from more than 200 Bq/kg moist mass in 1986 down to 2.3 Bq/kg up to now. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, more than 10 PBq of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs (1 PBq = 1015Bq) entered the Pacific Ocean every. While soil contamination with {sup 137}Cs is due to the Chernobyl accident, most of the {sup 90}Sr deposits go back to the time of the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. In feedstuffs, mean values ranging from < 0.1 Bq/kg up to 0.8 Bq/kg were measured for {sup 137}Cs and from 0.1 Bq/kg up to 2.3 Bq/kg for {sup 90}Sr. Contamination of milk constantly remains at a low level. Dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs and 90Sr was 73 Bq and 29 Bq, respectively, on average in 2013. An interlaboratory comparison involving 72 institutions from Germany and

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    /m"3. The measured activity concentrations of "1"3"3Xe ranged from one to 100 mBq/m"3, except for the time after the Fukushima disaster. Almost all measured values of "1"3"7Cs concentrations in drinking water and groundwater are below the detection limit The BfS, in cooperation with the PTB, carried out interlaboratory comparisons to determine natural radionuclides in drinking water in 2012 and 2014. In the North Sea sampling was performed every August. The "1"3"7Cs activity concentration ranged from 1.3 Bq/m"3 in the Elbe estuary up to 3.0 Bq/m"3 in the outer German Bight. Compared to this, the "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in the Baltic Sea is higher, ranging from 20 Bq/m"3 in the western part, to 34 Bq/m"3 in the eastern part of the region under study, as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Consequently, the measured "1"3"7Cs activity concentrations in fish are also higher in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea, reaching up to 11 Bq/kg during the reporting period. Increased activity concentrations are still being measured in fish from inland waters, especially from lakes. In Southern Germany, these have declined from more than 200 Bq/kg moist mass in 1986 down to 2.3 Bq/kg up to now. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, more than 10 PBq of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs (1 PBq = 1015Bq) entered the Pacific Ocean every. While soil contamination with "1"3"7Cs is due to the Chernobyl accident, most of the "9"0Sr deposits go back to the time of the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. In feedstuffs, mean values ranging from < 0.1 Bq/kg up to 0.8 Bq/kg were measured for "1"3"7Cs and from 0.1 Bq/kg up to 2.3 Bq/kg for "9"0Sr. Contamination of milk constantly remains at a low level. Dietary intake of "1"3"7Cs and 90Sr was 73 Bq and 29 Bq, respectively, on average in 2013. An interlaboratory comparison involving 72 institutions from Germany and neighbouring countries was carried out to determine the levels of "4"0K, "8"9Sr, "9"0Sr, "1"3"1I, Ba-133, "1"3"4Cs, and

  12. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic

  13. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  14. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    . - Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010d. Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) carcass destructors, bone collectors, crackers and gnawers of the Late Pleistocene in Central Europe - the Ice Age spotted hyenas and their feeding strategies on their largest prey - the mammoth. Abstract Vth International Conference on Mammoths and their relatives, Le Puy-en-Velay, France. Diedrich, C. 2010e. Späteiszeiliche Fleckenhyänen-Fressstrategien und Steppenlöwen an ihrer größte Beute - dem Waldelefanten Palaeoloxodon antiquus Falconer & Cautley 1845 in Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010f. Die späteiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänen und deren Exkremente aus Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010g. Rare Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from northern Czech Republic open air loess sites along the Elbe River. Cranium, (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010h. Europe's first Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) skeleton from a small cannibalistic hyena population found in the main dome of the Koněprusy Caves - a hyena cave prey depot site in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (in review). Diedrich, C. 2010i. Periodical use of the Balve Cave (NW Germany) as a Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) den - hyena occupations and bone accumulations versa human Middle Palaeolithic activity. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010j. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene Rösenbeck Cave den in NW Germany and contribution to the sexual dimorphism and palaeobiogeography of the last hyenas of Europe. Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. 2010k. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) remains from an open air loess bone accumulation site in Freyburg a. U. (Central Germany). Jahresschrift für mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte (accepted). Diedrich, C