WorldWideScience

Sample records for tld postal service

  1. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  2. IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service and high precision measurements for radiotherapy level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Bera, P.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency, together with the World Health Organization, has performed postal TLD audits to verify calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries. The TLD programme also monitors activities of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The programme has checked approximately 4000 clinical beams in over 1100 hospitals, and in many instances significant errors have been detected in the beam calibration. Subsequent follow-up actions help to resolve the discrepancies, thus preventing further mistreatment of patients. The audits for SSDLs check the implementation of the dosimetry protocol in order to assure proper dissemination of dosimetry standards to the end-users. The TLD audit results for SSDLs show good consistency in the basic dosimetry worldwide. New TLD procedures and equipment have recently been introduced by the IAEA that include a modified TLD calibration methodology and computerised tools for automation of dose calculation from TLD readings. (author)

  3. TLD postal dose quality audit service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and experience of the Cuban's Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for the implementation of postal dose quality audits service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions, using TLDs. Under coordinated research project (Contract 10794) were bought (TLD -100) Tl rods type JR 1152F made in China, with dimensions of 6 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout (100 rods approximately), four serial times in the same geometrical conditions, to read them out and to attribute to each of them a sensitivity factor. This sensitivity factor is equal to average for the 4 cycle of irradiation and readout of the quote between the TL readout from dosimeter i and the mean of all values for each cycle. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. The results obtained in the external verification of the accuracy of the dose determination by the TLD system were performed in cooperation with IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory at Seibersdorf in different years are shown, the results obtained of the quality audits carried out to the different services of radiotherapy of the country are analysed also. The quality audits are an useful tool for the improvement of the accuracy in the dosimetry of clinical beams of radiotherapy with Co-60, contributing this way to the improvement of the life quality to cancer patients of the Cuban system of health. (author)

  4. Malaysia Participation in the IAEA/ WHO TLD Postal Dose Quality Audit Service: Data Analysis From 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Abdullah; Taiman Kadni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the dosimetry methodology used and the results of 22 Malaysian radiotherapy centres participated in the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Postal Dose Quality Audit Service organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with World Health Organisation (WHO) from 2011 to 2015. In this audit, a set of three capsules of TLD (encapsulated with Lithium Flouride powder) including a control TLD were sent to the participating centres for irradiation with 2 Gy of absorbed dose to water under reference condition. In this period, a total of 70 photon beams consists of 43 beams and 27 beams produced by 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively have been audited. The results demonstrated that all participating centres comply with the acceptance limits of ±5 % as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 24, except eight photon beams from six centres. However, these centres presented better compliance results after followed up with a second round of TLD irradiation. (author)

  5. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba; Servicio Postal TLD para auditorias de calidad de haces de Co-60 en condiciones de referencia en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, C. Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  6. Postal TLD audit in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapucianova, M.; Ekendah, D. l.; Bulanek, B.

    2014-01-01

    The postal TLD audit in radiotherapy is an independent check of dose applied by radiotherapy centers. Our poster provides basic information on the methodology of dose determination within the TLD audit. An overview of different versions of the TLD audit that are focused on specific techniques in radiotherapy is given. We also present results of so called basic version of the TLD audit that is performed regularly for purposes of the State Office for Nuclear Safety. Moreover, results of intercomparison measurements organized by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), in which our laboratory takes part every year, are shown.The methodology of dose determination is based on TL measurement of LiF:Mg,Ti powder. The TL dosemeter (TLD) has form of a plastic capsule containing approximately 160 mg of this material. Before the TL reading, the powder of each particular irradiated dosemeter is divided into 9 identical samples by means of an accurate dispenser. The dosemeter response is given as average of TL responses of the 9 samples. The dose absorbed in water is computed from the TLD response by application of calibration factor and correction coefficients for elimination of energy dependence, supra-linearity and fading of the TL material. The evaluation of the TLD audit is based on comparison of the dose measured by the TLD and the dose stated by a radiotherapy center. Relative deviation between these doses is calculated. Several versions of the TLD audit are available. (authors)

  7. The IAEA/WHO TLD postal programme for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), together with the World Health Organization (WHO), has performed postal TLD audits to verify the calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries. A number of changes have recently been implemented to improve the efficiency of the IAEA/WHO TLD programme. The IAEA has increased the number of participants and reduced significantly the total turn-around time to provide results to the hospitals within the shortest possible time following the TLD irradiations. The IAEA has established a regular follow-up programme for hospitals with results outside acceptance limits of ±5%. The IAEA has, over 30 years, verified the calibration of more than 3300 clinical photon beams at approximately 1000 radiotherapy hospitals. Only 65% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results within the acceptance limits, while more than 80% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. The experience of the IAEA in TLD audits has been transferred to the national level. The IAEA offers a standardized TLD methodology, provides Guidelines and gives technical back-up to the national TLD networks. The unsatisfactory status of the dosimetry for radiotherapy, as noted in the past, is gradually improving however, the dosimetry practices in many hospitals in developing countries need to be revised in order to reach adequate conformity to hospitals that perform modern radiotherapy in Europe, USA and Australia. (author)

  8. IAEA/ WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison results in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Bhuiyan, N.U.; Rahman, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: For the accurate delivery of prescribed dose to the patients, high precision and accuracy in radiation dosimetry is required. The hospital/medical physicist is responsible for the accurate delivery of whole planned radiation doses to the patients prescribed by the radio therapist. The proper delivery of radiation doses depends upon the accurate output measurements of doses from the therapy machines. In Bangladesh, only six 60 Co units and five deep therapy machines are in use. Some more are expected to be installed soon. Still in 2001, none of the Government radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh was properly equipped with medical physicists as well as radiotherapy dosimetry equipment. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is responsible for radiation safety in Bangladesh and BAEC has assigned Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Bangladesh for providing dosimetry calibration to all radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh. The output measurements of therapy machines are performed once in a year by SSDL and the results are compared by participating in the annual TLD postal dose intercomparison program organized by IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The absorbed dose to water is determined using IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS 277 and 381) and water phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , The measurements of SSDL are traceable to NPL of UK. The accuracy achieved in SSDL, Bangladesh has been found better than ± 3.5%, which is within the prescribed limit of dosimetry standard of IAEA. The methodology of output dose measurements in different radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh is described along with the IAEA/WHO intercomparison results

  9. Postal TLD audits in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic: current status, experience and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Kapucianova, Michaela; Dufek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with practice and performance of postal TLD audits in radiotherapy with emphasis on the possibilities of application of the advanced versions that were developed following up technological progress in radiotherapy. The new methodologies of the TLD audit are focused specifically on up-to-date linear accelerators, equipped with multileaf collimators, and modern treatment planning systems. The dose is checked by the TLD not only for reference conditions but also in conditions of radiation fields influenced by presence of inhomogeneities in the irradiated volume. As regards small radiation fields, the check also includes dose profile verification using gafchromic films. The methodologies were tested within pilot studies performed in collaboration with some Czech radiotherapy centers. The results and experience gave evidence of the usefulness and appropriateness of the new TLD audit methodologies. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of uncertainties in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izewska, J. [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: j.izewska@iaea.org; Hultqvist, M. [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Bera, P. [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) operate the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are used as transfer devices in this programme. In the present work the uncertainties in the dose determination from TLD measurements have been evaluated. The analysis of uncertainties comprises uncertainties in the calibration coefficient of the TLD system and uncertainties in factors correcting for dose response non-linearity, fading of TL signal, energy response and influence of TLD holder. The individual uncertainties have been combined to estimate the total uncertainty in the dose evaluated from TLD measurements. The combined relative standard uncertainty in the dose determined from TLD measurements has been estimated to be 1.2% for irradiations with Co-60 {gamma}-rays and 1.6% for irradiations with high-energy X-rays. Results from irradiations by the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM), Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) and Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) compare favourably with the estimated uncertainties, whereas TLD results of radiotherapy centres show higher standard deviations than those derived theoretically.

  11. 76 FR 47275 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    .... Id. The RAO initiative applies to postal retail facilities across the country, without limit to geography or population, and is driven by Headquarters. The Commission finds that because the Postal Service... be applied in the RAO initiative. Id. at 19-23. \\3\\ See 39 CFR Part 241. The Request and all...

  12. 39 CFR 211.2 - Regulations of the Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations of the Postal Service. 211.2 Section 211.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION OF REGULATIONS § 211.2 Regulations of the Postal Service. (a) The regulations of the Postal Service consist of...

  13. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  14. 76 FR 55619 - Performance Measurement for Special Postal Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., Corporate & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service to Shoshana M. Grove, Secretary, Postal... & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service. III. Background of Postal Service Proposals A...), Public Law 109-435, 120 Stat. 3198 (2006). The proposed rules described herein would establish reporting...

  15. Evaluation of the uncertainties in the TLD radiosurgery postal dose system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L. T.; Leite, S. P.; de Almeida, C. E. V.; Magalhães, L. A. G.

    2018-03-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a single-fraction radiation therapy procedure for treating intracranial lesions using a stereotactic apparatus and multiple narrow beams delivered through noncoplanar isocentric arcs. To guarantee a high quality standard, a comprehensive Quality Assurance programme is extremely important to ensure that the measured dose is consistent with the tolerance considered to improve treatment quality. The Radiological Science Laboratory operates a postal audit programme in SRT and SRS. The purpose of the programme is to verify the target localization accuracy in known geometry and the dosimetric conditions of the TPS. The programme works in such a way those thermoluminescence dosimeters, consisting of LiF chips, are sent to the centre where they are to be irradiated to a certain dose. The TLD are then returned, where they are evaluated and the absorbed dose is obtained from TLDs readings. The aim of the present work is estimate the uncertainties in the process of dose determination, using experimental data.

  16. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... available data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics provides the Postal Service with inflation-based price... includes a brief introductory section, three enumerated parts, and three attachments. The Postal Service also submitted separate workpapers supporting the planned changes. The introductory section includes...

  17. 76 FR 52718 - Complaint About Postal Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Pleadings III. Statutory Alternatives for Commission Action IV. Analysis and Written Determination V....C. 403(c). Id. at 12. II. Postal Service Pleadings On June 7, 2011, the Postal Service filed a...)(1)(B). \\8\\ The statute does not specify the precise nature of the proceedings. IV. Analysis and...

  18. 76 FR 25381 - Postal Service Market Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2009-4; Order No. 720] Postal Service Market Test... test, pending Commission action on anticipated request for permanent status. This document grants a one... temporarily extend its Collaborative Logistics market test under 39 U.S.C. 3641(d).\\1\\ The Commission...

  19. 39 CFR 221.7 - Postal Service emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal Service emblem. 221.7 Section 221.7 Postal... Service emblem. The Postal Service emblem, which is identical with the seal, is registered as a trademark and service mark by the U.S. Patent Office. Except for the emblem on official stationery, the emblem...

  20. COORDINATES OF POSTAL SERVICES MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research regarding the actual status of Romanian postal services market both from legislative and economic point of view in the context of EU integration. The main objectives of this research were to identify the position of Romanian postal services among the EU member countries and to analyse the competitive environment on the local market in order to find future development strategies for the local companies. The outcomes of our research show a wrong position of Romanian postal sector both regarding the number of permanent offices and financial results of local competitors. The lateness of structural reforms could be a barrier for the future market liberalisation with serious consequences from the social point of view. In this context, a high implication of authorities is expected in order to ensure the adoption of EU regulation with a minimum of negative effects both for population and service providers.

  1. 78 FR 12801 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to Competitive Product List... Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to the....30 et seq., the Postal Service filed a request and associated supporting information to add Parcel...

  2. 39 CFR 1.1 - Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. 1.1 Section 1.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL POLICY (ARTICLE I) § 1.1 Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service is...

  3. Periodicity of TLD badge personnel monitoring service in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kher, R.K.; Joshi, V.D.; Kaushik, Aruna; Sharma, Amiy; Chatterjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    The periodicity of an individual monitoring service is an important aspect. Presently minimum period for TLD badge service is maintained as 'calendar month' and choice of quarterly service is also offered. The periodicity of the TLD service for a given category/application type of institution, is to be fixed taking into account level of average occupational doses in all or typical institutions of given category and other information indicating the status of safety and possible fluctuations of exposure levels and potential for overexposure cases. This paper presents the status on the periodicity of TLD Badge Service as is evolved and adopted for the four broad categories i.e. DAE (Nuclear Fuel Cycle) Institutions, Industrial, Medical, Research institutions. It is concluded that quarterly service is a convenient option for institution categories where type of work/workload, and work practices are such that occupational exposures could be normally kept below about one mSv or so in the monitoring period, average annual dose less than 1 mSv and persons receiving annual dose >10 mSv is less than 1% of total in the category. Also, the judicious use of the flexibility in the periodicity of TLD Badge service would help (i) to keep the monitoring related workload to the optimum for the monitoring units and (ii) to keep the expenses incurred by the institution towards monitoring to the minimum without sacrificing radiation safety (iii) to focus the extra monitoring efforts on the applications/situations requiring improvement in radiation safety. (author)

  4. Dental radiography ten years ago and now: overview of results of postal TLD audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtelenska, M.; Novak, L.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2002, regular postal audit in dental radiography organized by NRPI Prague belongs to basic radiography QA/QC tools in the Czech Republic. The measured parameters are incident air kerma, field size, and exposure reproducibility. The overall quality of the dental radiograph is also assessed. Ten-year summary of the audit results is presented here. (authors)

  5. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

  6. The IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits for radiotherapy: a perspective of dosimetry practices at hospitals in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, Joanna; Andreo, Pedro; Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Shortt, Ken R.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The IAEA/WHO TLD postal programme for external audits of the calibration of high-energy photon beams used in radiotherapy has been in operation since 1969. This work presents a survey of the 1317 TLD audits carried out during 1998-2001. The TLD results are discussed from the perspective of the dosimetry practices in hospitals in developing countries, based on the information provided by the participants in their TLD data sheets. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the TLD data sheets is systematically performed at the IAEA. It helps to trace the source of any discrepancy between the TLD measured dose and the user stated dose, and also provides information on equipment, dosimetry procedures and the use of codes of practice in the countries participating in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits. Result: The TLD results are within the 5% acceptance limit for 84% of the participants. The results for accelerator beams are typically better than for Co-60 units. Approximately 75% of participants reported dosimetry data, including details on their procedure for dose determination from ionisation chamber measurements. For the remaining 25% of hospitals, who did not submit these data, the results are poorer than the global TLD results. Most hospitals have Farmer type ionisation chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma by a standards laboratory. Less than 10% of the hospitals use new codes of practice based on standards of absorbed dose to water. Conclusion: Despite the differences in dosimetry equipment, traceability to different standards laboratories and uncertainties arising from the use of various dosimetry codes of practice, the determination of absorbed dose to water for photon beams typically agrees within 2% among hospitals. Correct implementation of any of the dosimetry protocols should ensure that significant errors in dosimetry are avoided

  7. Evaluation of the uncertainties in the TLD radiosurgery postal dose system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho; Leite, Sandro Passos; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de; Magalhães, Luís Alexandre Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Radiosurgery is a single-fraction radiation therapy procedure for treating intracranial lesions using a stereotactic apparatus and multiple narrow beams delivered through noncoplanar isocentric arcs. The Radiological Science Laboratory (LCR/UERJ) operates a postal audit programme in SRT and SRS. The purpose of the programme is to verify the target localization accuracy and the dosimetric conditions of the TPS. The programme works in such a way those TLDs are sent to the centre where they are to be irradiated to a certain dose. The aim of the present work is estimate the uncertainties in the process of dose determination, using experimental data. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the uncertainties in the TLD radiosurgery postal dose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho; Leite, Sandro Passos; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de; Magalhães, Luís Alexandre Gonçalves, E-mail: tc_luciana@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiosurgery is a single-fraction radiation therapy procedure for treating intracranial lesions using a stereotactic apparatus and multiple narrow beams delivered through noncoplanar isocentric arcs. The Radiological Science Laboratory (LCR/UERJ) operates a postal audit programme in SRT and SRS. The purpose of the programme is to verify the target localization accuracy and the dosimetric conditions of the TPS. The programme works in such a way those TLDs are sent to the centre where they are to be irradiated to a certain dose. The aim of the present work is estimate the uncertainties in the process of dose determination, using experimental data. (author)

  9. Application of Pareto's Method in Analysing Postal Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Kovač-Striko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of control in postal traffic is to insure high-quality se1vices for customers. The paper presents the analysisof quality control in collecting postal items, based on the dataobtained during the control performed by the internal ControlService in the postal centre for international traffic Zagreb. Thepaper also offers some measures for the improvement of thequality of services.

  10. Centralized TLD service and record keeping in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, D.; Ashmore, J.P.; Bradley, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    A centralized automated TLD service operated by the Department of National Health and Welfare went into operation in May 1977 to monitor radiation workers throughout Canada. Twenty-thousand employees from a wide range of disciplines are enrolled and the number will be increased to fifty thousand by September l978. A prototype of the system, operational from September 1976 to May 1977 for three-thousand people, has already been described. A description of technical and operational highlights is presented as well as a description of problems experienced during the first full year of operation. Details of costs, conversion logistics, operational performance and technical problems are included. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of changing from film dosimetry to TLD in a nationwide context is detailed. The dose meter read-out unit is interfaced, through video terminals, with a time-sharing computer system programmed to provide direct access to the Canadian National Dose Registry. Details of this linkage are described, as are the computer programmes for routine processing of raw batch data. The centralized TLD service interactively linked with the National Dose Registry provides a comprehensive occupational monitoring programme invaluable for regulatory control. (author)

  11. 76 FR 22157 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... identifies Greg Dawson, Manager of Pricing Strategy, as the official responsible for responding to any... program is an example of the increased pricing flexibility under the Postal Accountability and Enhancement...

  12. The calculation of costs of postal network and universal postal service based on standard and average cost principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mladenka Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of universal postal service involves high costs for operator, especially in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to propose and test tool for managing the cost of providing universal postal service and maintaining the postal network in order to facilitate understanding of the problem in the sector. The proposed approach use standard prices and standard quantities (the redefined number of postal units, the number of employees, etc. as well as average costs for calculation of the costs of the universal postal service and postal network. The methodology provides the efficiency analysis, benchmarking and identification of causes of poor performance of management and resource allocation. It can be used for postal operators that do not have modern accounting systems.

  13. Performance analysis of the TNO TLD individual monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Julius, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the performance and to establish the lowest detectable occupational dose (LDOD) of the TNO TL dosemeter, in use for large scale routine individual monitoring since 1983. The TNO individual monitoring service uses three TLD reader systems and over 45000 TL dosemeters, designed to measure H s (0.07) and H p (10). Each reader system is normalised daily and each individual dosemeter is calibrated every ten readout cycles. The performance of the service is monitored by a double blind experimental set-up. A series of 10 routine dosemeters is issued every fortnight, mailed, exposed by staff not involved in the monitoring service, sent back and evaluated. The conclusion of this study is that the lowest detectable occupational dose is less than 0.04 mSv and that the integrated dose at the level of the annual dose limit is measured within 2%. (author)

  14. Comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in postal and banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction towards postal and banking services in Serbia. In addition, this paper should provide guidance on how managements of the Post Office and the Bank should behave on the market. The survey was conducted throughout the whole Serbian territory. The subject of the research is to measure the perception of postal and banking services, in order to assess the quality of services and the impact of expectations on the level of perceived quality. Testing and final conclusions about the level of quality of postal and banking services was carried out on the basis of the existing literature and modified SERVQUAL model.

  15. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant... Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39 U.S... the Postal Regulatory Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal...

  16. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.2...

  17. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 540.22 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...) In the event of loss or damage, any claim relative to this matter is made to the U.S. Postal Service... example, hobbycraft articles mailed out of the institution). Official mail is not insured. If such an item...

  18. An Assessment of Customer Behaviours Regarding the Romanian Postal Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Constantin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the time the long distance communication has been one of the most important needs of the humanity. In the absence of telecommunication the postal services have been the main way of sending messages between people and other entities. Taking into account the importance of this market we assessed the nowadays coordinates of the Romanian postal market by conducting a research meant to identify the trends of postal services, the stage of competition and the customers’ behaviours regarding these services. The results show that the market is in developing process, with an increasing number of competitors but with a low number of significant competitors able to provide services on a large scale. In this context, the National Company Posta Romana remains the main market player but its positions are strongly threatened by private competitors especially on those market segments with high profitability. In order to defend its positions the national company has to put in practice proper marketing strategies focused mainly on the development of partnerships both with the senders and recipients of different postal deliveries, especially those ones with a higher attractiveness for the competitors.

  19. Implementation of Itella mail Logistics System in Ghana Postal Services

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is one of the major drivers of innovation, economic growth and social change. The emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has led to a paradigm shift in the Postal Services industry, where innovation has become a competitive tool in the logistics chain process. Unlike the traditional way of receiving, sorting and delivering letters by human, the modern real-time based practical approach brings the public faster and more reliable services. To resp...

  20. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... pricing design changes in First-Class Mail. One involves the introduction of two separate pricing... the value of the services the accounting fee supports and the goal of recovering institutional costs... INFORMATION: I. Introduction II. Class-Specific Summary III. Preferred Mail IV. Mail Classification Schedule...

  1. 77 FR 12336 - Postal Service Pricing Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the recipients of the mailpieces to a mobile-optimized Web site that facilitates the purchase of a product or service, or to a personalized mobile Web site that is tailored to the recipient. Id. at 1, 4... letters, flats, and cards (presort and automation), which include a qualifying mobile barcode or similar...

  2. Efficient postal service and respectful with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Lopez, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    The postal service is suffering an adaptation to the new markets opened by the users. The traditional post, letters and postcards, is being used less and is substituted by mail and packaging. To adequate to this new market it's important for the postal sector companies. In Spain, the operator of the Universal Postal Service has taken example from other companies of the sector, national and international, implanting electrical bicycle mail and packaging service in the centre of big cities. This is due to the fact that there are more the cities that are forbidding vehicle access to it's historical centres and the volume of packaging to deliver is greater. But, is it viable to deliver using hybrid and electrical vehicles in cities? This study intends to improve the distribution in cities with the implantation of these vehicles. It takes into account the characteristics of populations between 50.000 and 100.000 inhabitants, in which it will be analysed the advantages and inconvenience, doing special emphasis in the economic cost, conducting studies of the costs of implantation and amortization time. (Author)

  3. Morocco : French postal administration after 1912 and Morocco's postal services during the First World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.

  4. The quality of dental radiography in the Czech Republic - Results of a TLD and film postal audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, the postal audit in dental radiography has been supplementing standard quality control (QC) tools for dental intraoral X-ray machines. An aim of the audit is to check basic X-ray machine parameters (field size, exposure reproducibility), and a quality of the whole process of diagnostic imaging (entrance surface air-kerma measurement, a check of film processing and an image quality evaluation). The standard QC tests, performed by private companies, check mainly the X-ray unit. Conversely, the audit gives better information about the patient examination practices. During the period of January 2002 to May 2004 ∼4000 audits were performed. The results confirmed that main problems in dental radiography are due to incorrect film processing, non-optimised setting of the exposure parameters and use of obsolete X-ray machines. Only ∼30% of performed audits were satisfactory with respect to all checked parameters. (authors)

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  6. Managment of electronic services of the Serbian postal system by benchmarking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupljanin Đorđije D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analys of the state of electronic services within the postal system in Serbia in order to improve the management of this services. As an indicator of the state of development we can use benchmarking index of development of postal e-services. Benchmarking index is created by PCA (Principal Component Analysis method in statistical software Minitab which has been designed for PCA. The development of electronic economy has influence on postal system to improve postal electronic services. In conclusion we can say those who make the decisions and management experts have to define appropriate strategy of e-services.

  7. 78 FR 22490 - Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review of its Price Cap Rules. The... implemented without a price cap calculation. Docket No. R2011-5, Order Approving Market Dominant Price...

  8. 78 FR 12108 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    .... Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On February 13, 2013, the Postal... unredacted amendment under seal. It asserts that the ``supporting financial documentation and financial...

  9. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual experimental...

  10. 77 FR 20656 - Postal Service Classification and Price Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... and Price Adjustments AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... implement Picture Permit Imprint Indicia as price categories for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail letters and cards pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3622 and 39 CFR 3010.\\1\\ The classification and price adjustment will...

  11. NRPB TLD and dose record keeping service - further progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the National Radiological Protection Board's service are described. An increasing number of UK employers are transferring from film monitors, and record keeping is now provided for both large and small groups of workers. Data entry directly from punched cards prepared by the larger employers has reduced initial costs and therefore carries a reduced registration fee for these users. Computerized dose record keeping allows automatic retrieval of cumulative dose information from any NRPB record of previous employment, thus safeguarding itinerant workers. Warning Dose Reports are issued automatically when cumulative dose totals reach or exceed 60% of a limit, or when a dose rate greater than 0.1 rem per 4 weeks is recorded. Flexibility in wearing period results in dosemeter economy and reduces laboratory work load. High recorded doses can be checked by UV stimulation of both disks to confirm the accuracy of the previous measurement. Employers are provided with a comprehensive and accurate monitoring package, fulfilling HSE requirements and exempting employers from their former responsibility to keep their own comprehensive records. (UK)

  12. Exploring the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in postal financial service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Msosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Service quality and customer satisfaction are related and are important factors for the success of service providers be it in the public or the private sector. This study aims to examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the Malawian public postal service, specifically its banking division. A cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study was undertaken and data was collected from 400 customers using the SERVPERF model. A non-probability sampling approach was adopted and respondents were selected using convenience sampling. Reliability of the study was tested using Cronbach alpha. Correlation tests were conducted using Spearman’s rho. The results show that all the five service quality dimensions, viz. tangibles, reliability, empathy, assurance and responsiveness, are significantly and positively correlated. There was also a significant correlation between the service quality dimensions and overall service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty

  13. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation or communication services. 201.8 Section 201.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.8 Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services. (a) For purposes of 17 U.S.C. 709, when the...

  14. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... the approval of the Director of the Federal Register.” In conformity with that provision, and with 39...

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF POSTAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirbu Janetta

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation of organizational development at the County Postal Office in Cluj was made by applying a questionnaire on organizational development that consists of 60 descriptive statements, answered by four of the organization\\'s management and 56 employees with executive positions. Following the results obtained from the questionnaires there has been showed that the organization is in phase two of development that is leadership development. The applied management style starts to be on odds with reality and triggers the crisis of autonomy, which requires delegation of authority and responsibilities to as many employees as possible, involvement and encouragement of initiatives of the staff. After analyzing the questionnaire responses, it was revealed that the organization is in the second phase of development, respectively development through leadership, requiring an authorized leader to streamline the activity and to create major necessary budgeting systems of reward and communication.

  16. ANALYSIS AND PERSPECTIVES OF PRIVATE POSTAL AND COURIER SERVICES IN ROMANIA DURING 2009-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Dorin GEORGESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Services occupy an important role in a country’s economic development. At present, services sector is under a continuous change and diversification, for this reason theoretical and practical approaches are both difficult and controversial. Services have complex forms of manifestation, being involved in all compartments of economic and social life; have a heterogeneous character (Criveanu, 2009, p.13. The evaluation and measurement of postal services sector through some indicators, such as: the population occupied in this sector and its change in time; internal and international traffic of mail; degree of employees’ burden. The development of postal and courier sector during the period preceding 2009 was influenced by external factors such as the growth of the GDP, the development of niche segments, the ascending trend being a normal consequence of the evolution of the entire national economy. Although the field of postal services has felt the evolution of national economy and the effects of the economic crisis, the strategies adopted by private companies in this sector have demonstrated the necessity of knowing the market, its evolutions and perspectives. The present paper aims at analyzing the evolution of postal and courier services in Romania during 2009-2012, a period marked by the profound economic crisis which affected Romania and the European Union, as well as the perspectives regarding the number of employees in this sector within private companies in Romania during 2013-2015 using statistical methods to forecast the employed population in private companies in this sector.

  17. Status of services, overexposure and QAC in TLD PMS to defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, A.S.; Gupta, D.K.; Samaria, H.C.; Chouhan, R.L.; Mishra, M.; Goyal, J.K.; Gautam, M.; Kalla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Individual monitoring has always played an important role in radiological protection. There is continuous development in the field of dosimetry systems and many changes have taken place in last many years. The use of radiation for peaceful purposes is increasing with advancement of technological growth in the country. Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have emerged as one of the best alternatives for personal monitoring. Defence sector has nearly 2100 persons, who are working in various Military Hospitals, Military Colleges, DRDO Labs, Defence Ordinance factories and many others CPMFs like CISF, BSF, who are likely to receive radiation doses. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur is providing the TLD personal monitoring service since Jan 1999 as per the guideline by B.A.R.C. to all the institutions mentioned above. This paper brings out salient features of this service in terms of facility available, procedures fulfilling the requirement of accreditation, over exposure reported, quality measures adopted and quality assurance results conducted by BARC, utility and suggestions for such type of services. (author)

  18. Application of EPC Standards and Mobile Networks Services to Enhance the Quality of Postal Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaculik Juraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with new technologies and methods to optimize the transport and delivery of postal mails. Introduction of this article defines the technologies and procedures that postal operators have started to use. The main part of the article describes specific implemented solutions of several postal operators and their benefits. The last part shows using of EPC standards in a processes chain. The conclusion of the article is devoted to the evaluation of these technologies and their potential in the area of postal sector.

  19. Validating dose rate calibration of radiotherapy photon beams through IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangda, A.Q.; Hussein, S.

    2012-01-01

    In external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), the quality assurance (QA) of the radiation beam is crucial to the accurate delivery of the prescribed dose to the patient. One of the dosimetric parameters that require monitoring is the beam output, specified as the dose rate on the central axis under reference conditions. The aim of this project was to validate dose rate calibration of megavoltage photon beams using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/World Health Organisation (WHO) postal audit dosimetry service. Three photon beams were audited: a 6 MV beam from the low-energy linac and 6 and 18 MV beams from a dual high-energy linac. The agreement between our stated doses and the IAEA results was within 1% for the two 6 MV beams and within 2% for the 18 MV beam. The IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service provides an independent verification of dose rate calibration protocol by an international facility. (author)

  20. Validating dose rate calibration of radiotherapy photon beams through IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangda, Abdul Qadir; Hussein, Sherali

    2012-05-01

    In external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), the quality assurance (QA) of the radiation beam is crucial to the accurate delivery of the prescribed dose to the patient. One of the dosimetric parameters that require monitoring is the beam output, specified as the dose rate on the central axis under reference conditions. The aim of this project was to validate dose rate calibration of megavoltage photon beams using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/World Health Organisation (WHO) postal audit dosimetry service. Three photon beams were audited: a 6 MV beam from the low-energy linac and 6 and 18 MV beams from a dual high-energy linac. The agreement between our stated doses and the IAEA results was within 1% for the two 6 MV beams and within 2% for the 18 MV beam. The IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service provides an independent verification of dose rate calibration protocol by an international facility.

  1. U.S. Postal Service: Deteriorating Financial Outlook Increases Need for Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The combined effect of these events and the current economic slowdown have served to further exacerbate USPS's financial difficulties by decreasing postal revenues, while postal costs continued...

  2. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in writing local buying authority throughout the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601.104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE...

  3. Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring: 10 Years of Performance Monitoring of the TLD Based TNO Individual Monitoring Service (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van

    1998-01-01

    The QA subscription forms the nucleus of the Quality Assurance (QA) programme of the TLD-based Individual Monitoring Service of TNO-CSD. This QA subscription is the subscription of a dummy customer to the service. As this customer is treated exactly like a normal customer, all aspects of the service are monitored by the QA subscription. An overview is given of 10 years of monitoring the performance of the service. Various improvements over the past decade have resulted in a standard deviation in a low dose measurement of 0.01 mSv and a relative standard deviation at higher doses of 5%. These figures represent the performance under routine circumstances and thus include variations due to variations in the natural background from place to place and, for example, due to transport. (author)

  4. Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring: 10 Years of Performance Monitoring of the TLD Based TNO Individual Monitoring Service (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van

    1998-07-01

    The QA subscription forms the nucleus of the Quality Assurance (QA) programme of the TLD-based Individual Monitoring Service of TNO-CSD. This QA subscription is the subscription of a dummy customer to the service. As this customer is treated exactly like a normal customer, all aspects of the service are monitored by the QA subscription. An overview is given of 10 years of monitoring the performance of the service. Various improvements over the past decade have resulted in a standard deviation in a low dose measurement of 0.01 mSv and a relative standard deviation at higher doses of 5%. These figures represent the performance under routine circumstances and thus include variations due to variations in the natural background from place to place and, for example, due to transport. (author)

  5. 78 FR 76333 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-4; Order No. 1901] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service... not materially affect the cost coverage'' of the product. Id. The Postal Service seeks to incorporate...

  6. Monopolization versus sustainable growth – the case of postal services market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bernat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economies of the European Union are evolving towards the competitive development along with sustainable development. For many years, these have been the key elements of the unions strategic goals. This indicates, actions in order to achieve them on particular markets, especially on monopolized markets. These includes the postal services market. This raises the question, whether the monopolization of the area-at least a certain segment, has an impact on the biggest player on the market when taking or not taking action regarding the sustainable growth? Three hypotheses and their verification give the answer to this question. The hipotheses are as follow: the Poczta Polska SA is operator which ratify the Universal Postal Convention, therefore, pro-environmental and pro-social goals should be part of their actions; Operators involved in environmental and social activities take official strategy CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility and officially announce it publicly, for instance, on their own websites; actions speak for themselves - the entity involved in the particular area will be actively participate in it, so that its operation will be known to the public. As a research method, have been used case study and analysis of the literature. The paper highlights both academic as well as managerial implications.

  7. Determination of the dose in eyes lens by TLD, in PET/CT by technicians in PET/CT service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Emiliano A.

    2013-01-01

    This work was supported, on the one hand, in a part of the project ORAMED which consisted of a design of a TLD dosimeter for measurements of Hp (3) in areas close to the lens, for interventional radiology physicians. On the other hand, Berhens work proposes using calibrated TLDs Hp (0.07) and Hp (10) to estimate Hp (3) crystal. This resulted in dosimeters calibrated using Hp (10) slab, and mount them on glasses, to estimate the dose to the lens of the technical staff of the Service PET / CT. The value obtained 29mSv/year of Lens Dose Equivalent exceeds the recommended limit. We also demonstrate that, under the current working conditions, the values of Hp (3) reported from whole body dosimeter does not represent faithfully the lens dose

  8. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 2 Units: Postal Services, Our Homes, Clothing, Community Helpers, and Custodians In Our Lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Five curriculum units for the second grade level focus on: (1) clothing producers and suppliers, and the clothing industry; (2) postal service workers and the postal system; (3) janitorial workers; (4) workers who build, furnish, and maintain homes and the housing industry; and (5) various community workers. Behavioral unit objectives emphasize…

  9. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  10. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  11. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2009-49; Order No. 371] Postal Product Price Changes...-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides an...: On December 21, 2009, the Postal Service filed a notice that prices for the Global Plus 2 contract at...

  12. 78 FR 76863 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2014-12; Order No. 1905] New Postal Product AGENCY... Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 (MC2010-34) product on the competitive product list. Notice at 3. \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Filing Functionally Equivalent...

  13. 75 FR 43581 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing... the competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed related contracts. This notice... Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product, Global Plus 1A, to the competitive...

  14. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United.... 39 June 16, 1991 56 FR 56015 40 September 15, 1991 56 FR 56013 41 December 15, 1991 57 FR 21611 42... July 1, 1997 62 FR 30457 53 January 1, 1998 62 FR 63851 54 January 10, 1999 64 FR 39 55 January 10...

  15. Impact of ANSI 2009 criteria for performance testing in TLD personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MeenaI, P.; Rakesh, R.B.; Srivastava, Kshama; KoIambe, D.H.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    External Quality Assurance in TLD Personnel Monitoring Service was initiated in 1985, for periodic performance evaluation of various TLD Laboratories through postal exercise. Presently, all the 16 laboratories involved in Personnel Monitoring Service are covered under QA exercise. Since beginning, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) criteria have been adopted for performance testing in QA exercise. Presently, ANSI 2001 performance criteria along with ISO trumpet curve analysis method are being used for performance evaluation. In 2009, ANSI modified the performance evaluation criteria and this study evaluates its impact and feasibility of implementation of ANSI 2009 criteria in the quality assurance program for personnel monitoring. The performance of some laboratories evaluated using both ANSI 2001 and ANSI 2009 criteria have been discussed. The study shows that the ANSI 2009 criteria is more stringent and encourages even distribution of bias and standard deviation. This can be implemented with suitable modifications for performance evaluation

  16. The universal service in the future of network-type industries: telecommunications, electricity, postal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Celine Clelia

    2003-01-01

    The notion of universal service emerged in the European regulation of the telecommunications sector, and can be applied to all network-type industries. Public monopolies have been put into question again. The introduction of deregulation and competitiveness were expected to improve the service provided to the end consumer, but this deregulation has been also put into question again for matters of universality and equity. Then the issue of financing of these services emerges. The aim of this research thesis is therefore to identify which funding modes can be optimal, and to identify a general methodology for all network-type industries. In the first part of this research thesis, the author studies the cost of universal service obligations. She explains the general methodology of calculation of this cost, and reports this calculation while taking indirect benefits of the operator into account. In a second part, she studies the modalities of financing thus calculated cost by describing the different possible modalities, their benefits and drawbacks, and by presenting a comparison between these methodologies according to three criteria: those set by the European Commission, welfare, and applicability. For these different topics, the author takes all experiments and recent developments into account. These experiments and developments are noticed in different countries: USA, Australia, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Italy, France

  17. 78 FR 79024 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-50; Order No. 1922] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service... new product name. Id. at 1 n.1. Attachment A--a redacted copy of the amendment to the existing...

  18. 78 FR 43246 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-15; Order No. 1779] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service... competitive products by market dominant products. Id. II. Notice of Filing Interested persons may submit...

  19. 75 FR 53353 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... will permit the Postal Service to create pricing for any combination of products in an equivalent... Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators be added as a new product to the competitive product list. Id. at 8... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. MC2010-34 and CP2010-95; Order No. 517] New Postal...

  20. Determination of the dose in eyes lens by TLD, in PET/CT by technicians in PET/CT service; Determinacion de la dosis en cristalino por medio de TLD, en personal tecnico de servicio PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Emiliano A., E-mail: eam.marino@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (UNC), Rio Negro (Argentina). Instituto Balseiro; Arenas, German M. [Fundacion Escuela de Medicina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    This work was supported, on the one hand, in a part of the project ORAMED which consisted of a design of a TLD dosimeter for measurements of Hp (3) in areas close to the lens, for interventional radiology physicians. On the other hand, Berhens work proposes using calibrated TLDs Hp (0.07) and Hp (10) to estimate Hp (3) crystal. This resulted in dosimeters calibrated using Hp (10) slab, and mount them on glasses, to estimate the dose to the lens of the technical staff of the Service PET / CT. The value obtained 29mSv/year of Lens Dose Equivalent exceeds the recommended limit. We also demonstrate that, under the current working conditions, the values of Hp (3) reported from whole body dosimeter does not represent faithfully the lens dose.

  1. 39 CFR 447.52 - Holding of State or local office by Postal Service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ascertaining: (1) Whether the office is “nonpartisan” within the definition in § 447.62(a). (2) Whether State... encouraged to seek advice from his Associate Ethical Conduct Counselor prior to taking any action to seek... that the employee's postal responsibilities are being conducted in a satisfactory manner and that the...

  2. 78 FR 63519 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Docket No. MC2014-1. \\1\\ Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select and Parcel... recently-filed Postal Service request to add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to the...., the Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Parcel Select...

  3. 75 FR 65675 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... United States Postal Service of Filing Canada Post Group--United States Postal Service Contractual... United States by surface transportation and Xpresspost, a Canadian service for documents, packets, and... tender surface parcels and Xpresspost to the Postal Service at negotiated prices rather than the default...

  4. Quality Assurance for a TLD Based Individual Monitoring Service (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius, H.W.; Van Dijk, J.W.E. [Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    Approved Individual Monitoring Services should, in addition to complying with specific national performance requirements, also have implemented a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programme as an integral part of the operation. Essential elements of a QA/QC programme are discussed. Some practical hints and examples of QA practices are given, focussing on the application of thermoluminescence dosimetry. (author)

  5. 76 FR 11823 - New Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Postal Service filing concerning proposed changes to First-Class Mail Parcel Product offerings. These.... \\1\\ Request of the United States Postal Service Under Section 3642, February 24, 2011 (Request). The Postal Service explains that commercial First-Class Mail Parcels refers to the First-Class Mail...

  6. 77 FR 36585 - Postal Rate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Service notice of rate and changes affecting Inbound Air Parcel Post at Universal Postal Union (UPU) rates... United States Postal Service of Filing Changes in Rates Not of General Applicability and Application for... the Postal Service's explanation of Inbound Air Parcel Post (at UPU Rates) provided in the initial...

  7. 75 FR 4593 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2010-20; Order No. 397] New Postal Product AGENCY... Service request to add GEPS 2 (CP2009-50) to the Competitive Product List. The Postal Service has also... Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). \\4...

  8. 75 FR 44819 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service filing to add Priority Mail Contract 27 to the competitive product list. The... to add Priority Mail Contract 27 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that...

  9. 78 FR 37851 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-68; Order No. 1750] New Postal Product AGENCY... filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services 3 Contract to the competitive product... GEPS 3 product. Notice at 2. \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Filing a Functionally...

  10. 78 FR 76332 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing recent Postal Service filings requesting the addition of Priority Mail Contract 71 to the competitive product... Contract 71 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts [[Page 76333

  11. 77 FR 4376 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 38 to the competitive product list... 38 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ Priority mail contracts enable the Postal Service to provide...

  12. 78 FR 13713 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Express Mail Contract 14 to the competitive product list... 14 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Express Mail Contract 14 is a...

  13. 77 FR 67839 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 48 to the competitive product... Mail Contract 48 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service indicates that the instant...

  14. 77 FR 304 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 37 to the competitive product list... competitive product list.\\1\\ Priority mail [[Page 305

  15. Digital transformation, business models and the postal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kollara, Nandkumar Harshan

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the postal industry offered postal services and in parallel, had a monopoly over the national postal markets. Recently, the postal industry endured a phase where their national postal markets were subjected to liberalisation by the respective nations. This was due to various reasons such as inefficiencies of the postal services, ambiguous monopoly legislations, mounting pressure from competitors, and changing nature of customer demands. The liberalisation of the European Uni...

  16. Liberlizacija poštnih storitev ter njihovo financiranje v prihodnosti = Liberalisation of Postal Services and Their Financing in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Andric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issues in the process of the EU postal services market liberalisation, which is in the final stage of its legal basis drafting process. The acceptance of the legal basis by competent EU institutions will largely define the postal services market liberalisation method, which is to be carried out by all EU Member States in a given period of time. For the final step of the liberalisation the authors (eu expert bodies of the legal basis draft proposal have managed to maintain a relatively high standard of universal postal services (delivery every working day and at least five days a week for EU addresses, and short delivery times and in addition to these also foreseen various financing methods. The latter are based on solutions taken from other sectors where the liberalisation process has been recently concluded and where a sector is also subject to the universal service obligation. Even though those financing models are more or less effective in other sectors, they have been subject to many concerns in a public debate on changes in postal sector. The key concerns relate to the foreseen mechanisms of universal service financing, the regulation of access to the public postal network, and the financing of the public postal network maintenance as well as development. The best way to overcome partially unproductive public debates on the issue is to start making factual and precise estimates of the effect of changes presented in this article by applying simplified financing mechanisms of the universal service. These mechanisms will need the input of specific data which will take into the account all relevant traits of every single EU Member State.

  17. 75 FR 72846 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...\\ Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 2 to the Competitive... recently-filed Postal Service request to add Parcel Return Service Contract 2 to the competitive product... Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Parcel Return Service Contract...

  18. TLD audit in the radiotherapy at the national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Zackova, H.; Novotny, J.; Pridal, I.

    1998-01-01

    Czech legislation requires that all radiotherapy departments undertake quality independent audit annually. An authorized auditing group was created as a body of the National Radiation Protection Institute. It has been decided that TLD postal audit combined with film dosimetry would alternate with in situ audit every two or three years. For this, a local TLD measuring network has been established. The methods applied in the TLD audit were taken from EROPAQ and EURAQA projects in 1996 and modified to comply with Czech local circumstances. First TLD audits were started in February 1997. During the February to September period, 60 beams were checked: 26 Co-60 beams, 10 Cs-137 beams, 15 X-ray beams, and 9 electron beams. Details of the measurements and their results are given. (P.A.)

  19. 75 FR 11452 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is adding special postal services to the product lists. This action is consistent with changes in a postal reform law. Republication of the product lists is also consistent with a statutory provision. The Commission...

  20. 76 FR 80412 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. CP2012-4; Order No. 1057] New Postal Product AGENCY... Agreement within the Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreement with a Foreign Postal Operators 1 product... explaining why, after the change, competitive products in total will be in compliance with 39 U.S.C. 3633(a...

  1. 76 FR 67496 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-1; Order No. 919] New Postal Product AGENCY... to the Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 product. \\1... Operators 1 to the Competitive Product List and Approving Included Agreement, September 29, 2010 (Order No...

  2. 77 FR 1957 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to add Global Plus 2C Contracts to the competitive product..., consisting of two Global Plus 2C agreements, to the competitive products list.\\1\\ The new product covers...

  3. 78 FR 65014 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2014-3 and CP2014-3; Order No. 1860] New Postal Product... competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes... Mail Express & Priority Mail Contract 15 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts...

  4. 77 FR 2098 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Global Plus 1C agreements to the competitive product... of two Global Plus 1C agreements, to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The instant agreements are set...

  5. 78 FR 79023 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing requesting the addition of Priority Mail Contract 73 to the competitive product... supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 73 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal...

  6. 78 FR 76334 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-13; Order No. 1900] New Postal Product AGENCY...'' of the product. Id. The Postal Service seeks to incorporate by reference the Application for Non... and Order Concerning the Addition of Parcel Select Contract 6 to the Competitive Product List, October...

  7. Experiences on the implementation of a postal auditing service to know teletherapy doses using Cobalt 60 attained by the Secondary laboratory for dosimetric calibration from CPHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, R.; Morales, J.A.; Molina, D.; Dominguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes experiences gained by LSCD from CPHR on the implementation and validation of a postal auditing system. The system checks doses absorbed by water for teletherapy equipment using Cobalt 60. The verification was made with Chinese DTL type JR 1152F (microbars) introduced in capsules developed and employed by IAEA in the postal auditing service for doses IAEA/WHO. The analysis includes the creation of groups of detectors based on their individual sensibility. They have a dispersion range that was almost 2%. Here irradiation was applied to a water dummy. Other tests employed were that for thermal treatment and calibration. Besides one auditing the effectiveness of the postal technique in two facilities using Cobalt 60. The methodology implemented helps to determine doses absorbed in reference conditions with a lower global uncertainty (k=2) (3.2%)

  8. 76 FR 54510 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Service request to enter into an additional agreement under the ``International Business Reply Service... into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, August 19, 2011...

  9. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement postal...

  10. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE... Counsel, a Judicial Officer, a Chief Postal Inspector, and such number of officers, described in 39 U.S.C...

  11. TLD audit in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Zackova, H.; Judas, L.

    1998-01-01

    National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague organizes the TLD audit. The aim of the TLD postal audit is to provide control of the clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic for purposes of state supervision in radiotherapy, to investigate and to reduce uncertainties involved in the measurements of absorbed dose and to improve consistency in dose determination in the regional radiotherapy centers. TLD audit covers absorbed dose measurements under reference conditions for 60 Co and 137 Cs beams, high-energy X-ray and electron beams of of linear accelerators and betatrons. The thermo-luminescence dosemeters are sent regularly to all radiotherapy centers. Absorbed dose measures by the TLD is compared to absorbed dose stated by radiotherapy center. Encapsulated LiF:Mg, Ti powder is used for the measurement. Deviation of 3% between stated and TLD measured dose is considered for photons and ±5% for electron beams. First TLD audit was started in 1997. A total of 135 beams was checked. There were found seven major deviations (more than ±6%), which were very carefully investigated. Medical Physicists from these departments reported a set-up mistake. However, at most of those hospitals with major deviations, an in situ audit in details was made soon after TLD audit. There were found discrepancies of clinical dosimetry but also bad technical state of some of the irradiation units. In 1998, second course TLD audit was started. No major deviation was found. Regular TLD audit seems to be a good way to eliminate big mistakes in the basic clinical dosimetry. Repeated audit in the regional radiotherapy centers that had major deviation during the first audit exhibited improvement of their dosimetry. It is intended to broaden the method and to control also beam parameters by means of a multi-purpose phantom. (authors)

  12. 75 FR 7634 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... public that the Postal Service has filed a request to add International Business Reply Service... entered into two additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Contracts.\\1\\ Additionally, the... to Establish Successor Instruments as Baseline International Business Reply Service Competitive...

  13. 75 FR 12805 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Docket No. CP2010-26 for consideration of matters related to the contract identified in the Postal... Service request to include a new contract within the existing Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) product. The Postal Service characterizes the referenced contract as a successor to a current contract...

  14. Development of a TLD mailed system for remote dosimetry audit for 192Ir HDR and PDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roue, Amelie; Venselaar, Jack L.M.; Ferreira, Ivaldo H.; Bridier, Andre; Dam, Jan van

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: In the framework of an ESTRO ESQUIRE project, the BRAPHYQS Physics Network and the EQUAL-ESTRO laboratory have developed a procedure for checking the absorbed dose to water in the vicinity of HDR or PDR sources using a mailed TLD system. The methodology and the materials used in the procedure are based on the existing EQUAL-ESTRO external radiotherapy dose checks. Materials and methods: A phantom for TLD postal dose assurance service, adapted to accept catheters from different HDR afterloaders, has been developed. The phantom consists of three PMMA tubes supporting catheters placed at 120 degrees around a central TLD holder. A study on the use of LiF powder type DTL 937 (Philitech) has been performed in order to establish the TLD calibration in dose-to-water at a given distance from 192 Ir source, as well as to determine all correction factors to convert the TLD reading into absorbed dose to water. The dosimetric audit is based on the comparison between the dose to water measured with the TL dosimeter and the dose calculated by the clinical TPS. Results of the audits are classified in four different levels depending on the ratio of the measured dose to the stated dose. The total uncertainty budget in the measurement of the absorbed dose to water using TLD near an 192 Ir HDR source, including TLD reading, correction factors and TLD calibration coefficient, is determined as 3.27% (1 s). Results: To validate the procedures, the external audit was first tested among the members of the BRAPHYQS Network. Since November 2004, the test has been made available for use by all European brachytherapy centres. To date, 11 centres have participated in the checks and the results obtained are very encouraging. Nevertheless, one error detected has shown the usefulness of this audit. Conclusion: A method of absorbed dose to water determination in the vicinity of an 192 Ir brachytherapy source was developed for the purpose of a mailed TL dosimetry system. The

  15. Development of a TLD mailed system for remote dosimetry audit for (192)Ir HDR and PDR sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Amélie; Venselaar, Jack L M; Ferreira, Ivaldo H; Bridier, André; Van Dam, Jan

    2007-04-01

    In the framework of an ESTRO ESQUIRE project, the BRAPHYQS Physics Network and the EQUAL-ESTRO laboratory have developed a procedure for checking the absorbed dose to water in the vicinity of HDR or PDR sources using a mailed TLD system. The methodology and the materials used in the procedure are based on the existing EQUAL-ESTRO external radiotherapy dose checks. A phantom for TLD postal dose assurance service, adapted to accept catheters from different HDR afterloaders, has been developed. The phantom consists of three PMMA tubes supporting catheters placed at 120 degrees around a central TLD holder. A study on the use of LiF powder type DTL 937 (Philitech) has been performed in order to establish the TLD calibration in dose-to-water at a given distance from (192)Ir source, as well as to determine all correction factors to convert the TLD reading into absorbed dose to water. The dosimetric audit is based on the comparison between the dose to water measured with the TL dosimeter and the dose calculated by the clinical TPS. Results of the audits are classified in four different levels depending on the ratio of the measured dose to the stated dose. The total uncertainty budget in the measurement of the absorbed dose to water using TLD near an (192)Ir HDR source, including TLD reading, correction factors and TLD calibration coefficient, is determined as 3.27% (1s). To validate the procedures, the external audit was first tested among the members of the BRAPHYQS Network. Since November 2004, the test has been made available for use by all European brachytherapy centres. To date, 11 centres have participated in the checks and the results obtained are very encouraging. Nevertheless, one error detected has shown the usefulness of this audit. A method of absorbed dose to water determination in the vicinity of an (192)Ir brachytherapy source was developed for the purpose of a mailed TL dosimetry system. The accuracy of the procedure was determined. This method allows a

  16. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Fiona C; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Design: Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. Setting: General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Main outcome measures: Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial)...

  17. Pilot postal audits in radiotherapy for 60Co in non-reference conditions in Cuba: practical consideration and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    Discusses the practical consideration and preliminary results of the Cuban's SSDL in Pilot Postal Audit in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non-reference conditions under IAEA Coordinated Research Project E2.40.12. A strategy for national TLD audit programmes has been developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It involves progression through three sequential dosimetry audit steps. The first step audits are for the beam output in reference conditions for photon beams. The second step audits are for the dose in reference and non-reference conditions on the beam axis for photon beams. The third step audits involve measurements of the dose in reference, and non-reference conditions off-axis for open and wedged symmetric and symmetric fields for photon beams. Under coordinated research project E2.40.12 were characterized 100 micro rods. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. Based on the IAEA standard TLD holder for photon beams, a TLD holder was developed with horizontal arm to enable measurements 5 cm off the central axis. Successful results in two external trial carried out using the IAEA TLD service in the years 2003 - 2004 were obtained. Five 5 facilities were considered to be included in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (on-axis) in the year 2003, according to recommendation of External Audit Group (EAG). For the year 2004 were considered only 3 facilities in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (off-axis). Extend the postal dose audits to the rest of the institutions around the country. The participation in these audits promotes a major understanding of the physicists

  18. 75 FR 65533 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... consideration of the Request pertaining to the proposed Express Mail Contract 9 product and the related contract...-filed Postal Service filing to add Express Mail Contract 9 to the competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the...

  19. 75 FR 65532 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    .... MC2011-2 and CP2011-3 for consideration of the Request pertaining to the proposed Priority Mail Contract...-filed Postal Service filing to add Priority Mail Contract 28 to the competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the...

  20. 75 FR 65531 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    .... MC2011-3 and CP2011-4 for consideration of the Request pertaining to the proposed Priority Mail Contract...-filed Postal Service filing to add Priority Mail Contract 29 to the competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the...

  1. 77 FR 67840 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent... competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes... to add First-Class Package Service Contract 26 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  2. 77 FR 58185 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-56; Order No. 1464] New Postal Product AGENCY... Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services contract to the competitive product list. This... contracts are small- or medium-size businesses that mail products directly to foreign destinations using...

  3. 77 FR 60727 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 20 is a...

  4. 77 FR 60726 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... 19 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service...

  5. 77 FR 60725 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 16 is a...

  6. 75 FR 7296 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2010-23; Order No. 405] New Postal Product AGENCY... Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 2 contract to the Competitive Product List... established GEPS 1 as a product, also authorized functionally equivalent agreements to be included within the...

  7. 77 FR 60729 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 17 is a...

  8. 77 FR 60728 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 18 is a...

  9. 77 FR 51583 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 15 is a...

  10. 78 FR 59382 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the... recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product list. This document... due: September 27, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically by accessing the ``Filing Online...

  11. 77 FR 27491 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ..., April 30, 2012 (Request). Request. In support of its Request, the Postal Service filed six attachments... exceed 85 percent of the total volume of pieces mailed. Id. Valassis has agreed to initiate mailings... 1,000,000 pieces during the following 12 months or pay the Postal Service a one-time fee of $100,000...

  12. 39 CFR 762.30 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to incompetent payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be forwarded to the Money Order Division, Postal Data Center, P.O. Box 14963, St. Louis, MO 63182... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment...

  13. 39 CFR 762.31 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to deceased payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should be returned to the Money Order Division, Postal Data Center, P.O. Box 14963, St. Louis, MO 63182... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment...

  14. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money... and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement postal money orders. An original Disbursement Postal Money Order may be released to a responsible endorser only...

  15. Reproducibility Test for Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) Using TLD Radpro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khairunisa Zahidi; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2016-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) as one type of dosimeter which are often used to substitute the film badge. Like a film badge, it is worn for a period of time and then must be processed to determine the dose received. This study was to test the reproducibility of TLD using Radpro reader. This study aimed to determine the dose obtained by TLD-100 chips when irradiated with Co-60 gamma source and to test the effectiveness of TLD Radpro reader as a machine to analyse the TLD. Ten chips of TLD -100 were irradiated using Eldorado machine with Co-60 source at a distance of 5 meters from the source with 2 mSv dose exposure. After the irradiation process, TLD-100 chips were read using the TLD Radpro reader. These steps will be repeated for nine times to obtain reproducibility coefficient, r i . The readings of dose obtained from experiment was almost equivalent to the actual dose. Results shows that the average value obtained for reproducibility coefficient, r i is 6.39 % which is less than 10 %. As conclusion, the dose obtained from experiment considered accurate because its value were almost equivalent to the actual dose and TLD Radpro was verified as a good reader to analyse the TLD. (author)

  16. 75 FR 3383 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... is adding Express Mail Contract 7 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the lists of market dominant and competitive products is also.... Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as Express Mail [[Page 3384

  17. 77 FR 58422 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 43 to the competitive product list... request and associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 43 to the competitive product...

  18. 75 FR 45176 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 25 to the competitive product list. The... associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 25 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The...

  19. 78 FR 40203 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product list. This document... Rate Boxes--Non-Published Rates (PMI RRB-NPR) to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It provides a related...

  20. 77 FR 50729 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. MC2012-44; Order No. 1435] New Postal Product AGENCY... Service request for two related changes to the product lists. The changes involve removing one product from the market dominant product list and adding a nearly identical product to the competitive product...

  1. 78 FR 43245 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 61 to the competitive product... the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 61 is a competitive product...

  2. 78 FR 26405 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 58 to the competitive product... 58 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 58 is a competitive...

  3. 78 FR 29784 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-62; Order No. 1716] New Postal Product AGENCY... filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services 3 Contract to the competitive product... GEPS 3 product on grounds of functional equivalence to a previously approved baseline agreement. Id. at...

  4. 78 FR 963 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service states that the addition is necessary due to changes in the non...

  5. 78 FR 13714 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 55 to the competitive product... 55 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 55 is a competitive...

  6. 78 FR 70084 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 65 to the competitive product... information to add Priority Mail Contract 65 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail...

  7. 75 FR 45174 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses... product list within the Mail Classification Schedule (MCS).\\1\\ This product grouping would create a niche...

  8. 78 FR 79022 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent... product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other... Mail Express Contract 16 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority...

  9. 78 FR 65016 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing recent Postal Service filings requesting the addition of Priority Mail Contract 66 to the competitive product... Contract 66 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It is the successor agreement to the contract approved in...

  10. 77 FR 58421 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 42 to the competitive product list... request and associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 42 to the competitive product...

  11. 77 FR 1089 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-9; Order No. 1096] New Postal Product AGENCY... Service request to add a Global Direct Contracts 1 contract to the competitive product list. This notice... believes that the instant Agreement should be included within the Global Direct Contracts 1 product because...

  12. 77 FR 305 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing. DATES: Comments... Services-Non- Published Rates 3 (GEPS-NPR 3) to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal [[Page 306...

  13. 78 FR 39783 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product list. This document... and associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 60 to the competitive product list...

  14. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... could give the Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3015 [Docket No. RM2012-3; Order No. 1108] Competitive... Commission is initiating a review to determine whether competitive products provide the appropriate minimum...

  15. 75 FR 34074 - Postal Pricing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Methods AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... price sensitivity (elasticity) to volumes actually mailed during the rebate program. This method is... indicated by the market elasticity. Mitchell Comments at 4-6. Postal Service method. In its data collection...

  16. 78 FR 77172 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On December 13, 2013, the Postal..., 3. II. Contents of Filing The Postal Service's filing consists of the Notice, financial workpapers...

  17. 75 FR 9523 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... obligations or new requirements on any party to the contract. The docket referenced in the caption should be... adding Global Direct Contracts 1 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal.... Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as Global Direct Contracts 1 to the...

  18. Introducing 2D barcode on TLD cards - a step towards automation in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Annalakshmi, O; Rajagopal, V.; Santhanam, R.; Jose, M.T.

    2018-01-01

    As part of personnel monitoring services, TLD lab, RSD, IGCAR issues and receives large numbers of TLD cards every month, for use by occupational workers belonging to various hot facilities at Kalpakkam. Considering the nature of the work being manual, routine, labour intensive and being prone for human errors, introducing automation would be necessary at the TLD lab as well as at the user facility. This requires identification of the individual components of the TLD and embed them with unique identification for the system to accomplish the task. The paper discusses the automation part related to the TLD cards

  19. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 3002 - Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate A Appendix A to Part 3002 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION Pt. 3002, App. A Appendix A to Part 3002—Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer...

  20. 75 FR 44138 - New Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Service International Business Reply Mail Service Money Orders Post Office Box Service Negotiated Service... International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail Service Money Orders Post Office Box... Entry Contracts with Foreign Postal Administrations 1 (MC2008-6 and CP2009-62) International Business...

  1. 76 FR 77271 - Competitive Product Postal Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-2; Order No. 997] Competitive Product Postal Price... recently-filed Postal Service request for a change in competitive products prices. The changes will take... and justification for the changes, the effective date, and a schedule of the changed rates. The price...

  2. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  3. Determination of the TLD-100 physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucar J, J.; Picon C, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study was realized in the Physics service at the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases in Lima, Peru, it was determined the activation energy, the kinetic order and the frequency factor of the fifth peak of the TLD-100 thermoluminescent spectra using different algorithms. This was carried out in parallel with the implementation and design of a software and an interface associated with the Tl lecturer which allows a semiautomatic control for a thermoluminescent lecturer process. (Author)

  4. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Service will be available with Express Mail, Priority Mail and Parcel Select for commercial and online customers only. The Postal Service includes the following attachments with its Request: Attachment A... Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Competitive Ancillary Services to the...

  5. 76 FR 10410 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to add International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive... International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 to the competitive product list and... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 to the Competitive Products List and Notice of...

  6. 76 FR 11532 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... filing concerning an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3. It..., that it has entered into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive contract...-59, Request of the United States Postal Service to Add International Business Reply Service...

  7. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paid disbursement postal money orders. The Postal Service shall have the right to demand refund from the presenting bank of the amount of a paid Disbursement Postal Money Order if after payment the... another for a deceased payee where the right to the proceeds of such Disbursement Postal Money Orders...

  8. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization, the financial organization may use an endorsement substantially as follows: Credit to the account... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties...

  9. Ten years experience with a large computerized TLD-personnel monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    It is now ten years since our Institute for Radiation Protection has fully replaced its filmdosimetry service by a computerized automated TLD system. Presently more than 13000 radiation workers are monthly monitored by three automated TLD readers linked to the computer center. The paper describes system hardware and software and experience gained in long-term routine operation. In particular the introduction of the new ICRU quantities for personnel dosimetry in the existing TLD system is discussed. (Author)

  10. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  11. Morocco : postes chérifiennes of the Sultan of Morocco, 1892-1911 and Moroccan private and consular postal services, 1892-1901

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.

  12. 75 FR 42171 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... establishes Docket No. CP2010-66 for consideration of matters related to the contract identified in the Postal... Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contract to the existing GEPS 2... announcing that it has entered into an additional Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contract.\\1...

  13. Energy, postal services and telecommunications: which future for the public utilities in france and in Europe?; Energie, poste et telecommunications: quel avenir pour le service public en France et en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, D. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L`Energie et des Matieres Premieres; Cresson, E. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Fournier, J.

    1998-12-31

    This colloquium was initiated by the French State secretary of industry and profited by the participation of the ministry of economy, finance and industry and of the prime minister. The colloquium comprises two plenary sessions: `competition, public utilities and Europe` and `regulation and public policies`, and three sectorial round-tables: `telecommunications`, `energy` and `postal services`. The round-table on energy permitted to precise the behaviour of the main French energy producing and consuming companies with respect to the competition and to the public utilities in the European market. (J.S.)

  14. Determination of the TLD-100 physical parameters; Determinacion de parametros fisicos del TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucar J, J.; Picon C, C. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas. INEN. Av. Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    This study was realized in the Physics service at the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases in Lima, Peru, it was determined the activation energy, the kinetic order and the frequency factor of the fifth peak of the TLD-100 thermoluminescent spectra using different algorithms. This was carried out in parallel with the implementation and design of a software and an interface associated with the Tl lecturer which allows a semiautomatic control for a thermoluminescent lecturer process. (Author)

  15. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Fiona C; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-04-29

    To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial) and service users' experience of out of hours care (timeliness, confidence and trust in the out of hours clinician, and overall experience of the service), rated on a scale of 0-100. Which sociodemographic/provider characteristics were associated with service users' experience, the extent to which any observed differences could be because of clustering of service users of a particular sociodemographic group within poorer scoring providers, and the extent to which observed differences in experience varied across types of provider. The overall response rate was 35%; 971,232/2,750,000 patients returned surveys. Data from 902,170 individual service users were mapped through their registered practice to one of 86 providers of out of hours GP care with known organisation type. Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer reports of overall experience of care, with a mean difference of -3.13 (95% confidence interval -4.96 to -1.30) compared with not for profit providers. Asian service users reported lower scores for all three experience outcomes than white service users (mean difference for overall experience of care -3.62, -4.36 to -2.89), as did service users who were unable to take time away from work compared with service users who did not work (mean difference for overall experience of care -4.73, -5.29 to -4.17). Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer experience of care. Targeted interventions aimed at improving experience for patients from ethnic minorities and

  16. 77 FR 64362 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    .... Promotions As part of this filing, the Postal Service seeks approval of six promotions during calendar year.... Table 6--First-Class Mail Price Changes Percent First-class mail product change Single-Piece Letters and...-piece letter mail (including the Forever stamp), increases by one cent under the Postal Service's plan...

  17. Data processing of personnel exposure in TLD and film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, A.; Liav, N.; Eisen, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The program for the processing and storage of data on the personnel irradiation exposure in Israel is built on the data base of the Weizmann Institute of Science; it is a general program suitable for both TLD and film dosimetry. The TSO system helped bring up-to-date the data of the various collections in an interactive way. The introduction of the TLD dosemeters in the badge service required certain changes in the thinking line - this because the TLD being a personal dosemeter is returned into service after having been deciphered. This demands following up the dosemeter when the worker moves from unit to unit or after he had finished his work. The program takes into account the internal exposures,too and conforms to the new recommendation published in ICRP-26. (B.G.)

  18. The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency megavoltage photon thermoluminescence dosimetry postal audit service 2007–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, C.P.; Butler, D.J.; Webb, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency (ARPANSA) has continuously provided a level 1 mailed thermoluminescence dosimetry audit service for megavoltage photons since 2007. The purpose of the audit is to provide an independent verification of the reference dose output of a radiotherapy linear accelerator in a clinical environment. Photon beam quality measurements can also be made as part of the audit in addition to the output measurements. The results of all audits performed between 2007 and 2010 are presented. The average of all reference beam output measurements calculated as a clinically stated dose divided by an ARPANSA measured dose is 0.9993. The results of all beam quality measurements calculated as a clinically stated quality divided by an ARPANSA measured quality is 1.0087. Since 2011 the provision of all auditing services has been transferred from the Ionizing Radiation Standards section to the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) which is currently housed within ARPANSA.

  19. Personal exposure control using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Takeda, Shinso

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), for personal exposure control, the switching from film badges to TLD badges (and also finger-ring type local dosimeters) was made in fiscal 1974. The facilities involved are a fuel reprocessing plant, a PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel production facility, and a centrifugal uranium enrichment development facility. The types of radiation concerned are various, such as γ(x), β and n. The situation of personal exposure control with TLD and the dose evaluation methods for respective radiations are explained. The number of personnel subject to exposure control, including transient people, is about 2500 - 3000 per three months. The TLD badges used are a special PNC type with TLDs to measure separately γ(x), β and n. With casings made of ABS resin, the external dimensions are 76 mm x 46 mm. (J.P.N.)

  20. 75 FR 12445 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Commission is adding International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the Market Dominant and... identified as International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the Competitive Product [[Page...

  1. 75 FR 65676 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GEPS 3 product. \\1\\ Notice of United States... Schedule language for the GEPS 3 product. The Postal Service identifies customer-specific information and... Service asserts that ``[b]ecause the agreements incorporate the same cost attributes and methodology, the...

  2. 75 FR 57995 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GEPS 3 product. \\1\\ Notice of United States... Schedule language for the GEPS product. The Postal Service identifies customer-specific information and... Service asserts that ``[b]ecause the agreements incorporate the same cost attributes and methodology, the...

  3. 75 FR 54401 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Docket No. CP2010-71 serve as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the... Classification Schedule language for GEPS. The Postal Service identifies customer-specific information and... Service asserts that ``[b]ecause the agreements incorporate the same cost attributes and methodology, the...

  4. 75 FR 80859 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... consideration of the Request pertaining to the proposed Priority Mail Contract 32 product and the related... recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 32 to the competitive product list... Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 32 to...

  5. 75 FR 80857 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... CP2011-46 for consideration of the Request pertaining to the proposed Priority Mail Contract 31 product... recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 31 to the competitive product list... Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 31 to...

  6. 76 FR 29013 - Change in Postal Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filing III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On May 11, 2011, the... Service Contract 2 accompanies the Notice. Additionally, the Postal Service states that the financial... methodology is still pending, the notice also provides a financial analysis based upon the current methodology...

  7. 76 FR 80985 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... calendar year 2011. Id. at 3. Both notices expressed the Postal Service's view that the contingency pricing....gov/prc-pages/filing-online/login.aspx . Commenters who cannot submit their views electronically..., pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5, of contingency prices under an outstanding International Business Reply Service...

  8. Environmental effects on TLD 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, E.; Howard, R.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to a recent paper by Dhar et al (Health Phys.; 25:427 (1973)) in which significant differences in the sensitivity of TLD 100 crystals following the same heat treatments in different environments, were reported. Similar work is here reported on TLD 100 at 400 0 C with half the crystals being heat treated in vacuum, irradiated and readout an then annealed in air, irradiated and readout while the other half of the crystals were air annealed and readout before vacuum annealing and readout. In both cases no significant change was detected in contrast to the results of Dhar et al. (U.K.)

  9. Minimizing TLD-DRD differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; McCoy, R.A.; Connell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    When substantial differences exist in exposures recorded by TLD's and DRD's, it is often necessary to perform an exposure investigation to reconcile the difference. In working with several operating plants, the authors have observed a number of causes for these differences. This paper outlines these observations and discusses procedures that can be used to minimize them

  10. 39 CFR 10.2 - Advisory service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory service. 10.2 Section 10.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.2 Advisory service. (a) The General Counsel is the Ethical...

  11. A new TLD system for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.; Ranky, M.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    A small, portable, vibration and shock resistant thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system was developed to measure the cosmic radiation dose on board of a spacecraft. The TLD system consists of a special bulb dosemeter and a TLD reader. The measuring dose range of the TLD system is from 10 μGy up to 100 mGy. The TLD reader can operate on a battery; its electrical power consumption is about 5 W, its volume is about 1 dm 3 and its mass is about 1 kg. Details are given of the construction and technical parameters of the dosemeter and reader. (author)

  12. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service... INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[reg] hereby gives notice that on December 23, 2010, it filed with the Postal Regulatory [[Page 2931

  13. 39 CFR 232.1 - Conduct on postal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... promotion of social welfare but do not participate or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of any candidate or political party for any public office. (ii) Absolutely no partisan or political literature may... that will protect Postal Service property. (3) Postal Inspectors, Office of Inspector General Criminal...

  14. Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Izewska, J.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  15. Experience of TLD personnel monitoring laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhete, Prashant

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Renentech Laboratories is the first Private Enterprise in India to have been chosen to provide Personnel radiation monitoring services to radiation workers at different parts of the country. Since 1992 the Company has been manufacturing TLD phosphor powder of requisite quality and from 1995 commenced the production of TLD cards for radiation monitoring. After getting the necessary approval from the competent authorities in the country, the company undertook a rigorous quality assurance programme and received the accreditation in 1999 to carry out the personnel monitoring of radiation. Since then the trained staff of the Company is covering 1200 institutions in 16 states where radiation is being used. This translates to processing of 60,000 Till cards annually, the maximum limit permitted by BARC. Processing of exposure data is done strictly according well-laid guidelines. Any cases of overexposure are immediately referred to Calibration and Dose Record Section of BARC to meet the regulatory requirements. Necessary procedural guidelines are followed to handle such cases. In this lecture, learning, operation and implementation experience of a typical Private Company in a task, which, hitherto had been regarded as exclusive responsibility of state owned institution, is enumerated

  16. 76 FR 49798 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Docket No. CP2010-36 serve as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service states that the instant contract... agreement incorporates the same cost attributes and methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP...

  17. 75 FR 72845 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GEPS 3 product. \\1\\ Notice of United States... Classification Schedule language for the GEPS 3 product. The Postal Service identifies customer-specific... methodology, the relevant characteristics of these five GEPS contracts are similar, if not the same, as the...

  18. 75 FR 61785 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... have the contract in Docket No. CP2010-71 serve as the baseline contract for future functional... GEPS 3 contracts fit within the Mail Classification Schedule language for GEPS. The Postal Service... same cost attributes and methodology, the relevant characteristics of these seven GEPS contracts are...

  19. 75 FR 57303 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Docket No. CP2010-71 serve as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the... fit within the Mail Classification Schedule language for GEPS. The Postal Service identifies customer... attributes and methodology, the relevant characteristics of these 11 GEPS contracts are similar, if not the...

  20. 78 FR 37246 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... statement, and supporting financial workpapers. Id. The Postal Service filed redacted versions of the... extension was based on the understanding a successor agreement would be filed. See Docket No. CP2012-30...--a redacted copy of the certified statement required by 39 CFR 3015.5(c)(2); Attachment 3--a redacted...

  1. 78 FR 33451 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    .... Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On May 24... and supporting financial information required by 39 CFR 3015.5(c).\\2\\ For purposes of 39 CFR 3015.5(a...' Decision No. 11-6 authorizes Postal Service management to prepare and present to the Commission product...

  2. 75 FR 5236 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Description] Premium Stamped Stationery [Reserved for Product Description] Premium Stamped Cards [Reserved for... determine whether such an agreement (1) Improves the net financial position of the Postal Service or... Descriptions First-Class Mail [Reserved for Class Description] Single-Piece Letters/Postcards [Reserved for...

  3. 77 FR 24996 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing. DATES: Comments are due... supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 1 to the Competitive Product List.\\1\\ The...

  4. 78 FR 65015 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing recent... product list. This notice informs the public of the filings, invites public comment, and takes other... Service Contract 5 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It is the successor agreement to the contract...

  5. 76 FR 13242 - Change in Postal Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    [email protected] (electronic filing assistance). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On March 1, 2011, the Commission... Postal Service-branded parcel box designed to contain product samples and other advertising material from...

  6. 78 FR 77508 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction Notice of filing. On December 16...' Decision, the new rates and related financial information. Id. at 3. The Postal Service filed redacted...

  7. 75 FR 23824 - New Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... of Classification Change to Add Existing Shipping Charges to the Mail Classification Schedule for... Form 3202-X, October 2009). Id., Attachment A. The Postal Service states further its belief that the... MCS.\\2\\ Attachment B to the Notice shows the proposed changes to the Stamped Envelope MCS language in...

  8. Liberalisation versus national protectionism: the European liberalised postal market: finalisation by whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, L.

    2010-01-01

    The new European Postal Directive of 2008 provides the postal market with new opportunities as it allows for the gradual development of competition of services of general interests in Europe. However, the directive leaves room for uncertainties and the full opening of the postal market is hampered

  9. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: A case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, C., E-mail: caliaga@itene.com [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Zhang, H.; Dobon, A.; Hortal, M. [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Beneventi, D. [Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Science, Grenoble INP Pagora, 461, Rue de la Papeterie, F-38400 Saint-Martin d’Hères Cedex (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Study of the influence of components of printed electronics in paper recycling. • Comparison between paper recycled with and without resistors, batteries and layouts. • Mechanical and optical properties are evaluated in paper handsheets obtained. • Tensile strength of recycled paper is slighted reduced by layouts. • Optical properties of recycled paper slightly varies with layouts and batteries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2–7.5% in brightness, 8.5–10.7% in whiteness, 1.2–2.2% in L{sup ∗} values, 3.3–3.5% in opacity and 16.1–27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges

  10. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: a case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, C; Zhang, H; Dobon, A; Hortal, M; Beneventi, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2-7.5% in brightness, 8.5-10.7% in whiteness, 1.2-2.2% in L(∗) values, 3.3-3.5% in opacity and 16.1-27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges able to cause problems in current paper recycling processes and restrict the use of recycled paper in current applications. Moreover, real impacts on industrial recycling are expected to be even significantly lower since the proportion of paper product with printed circuits in the current paper waste streams are much lower than the ones tested in this work. However, it should be underlined the fact that this situation may change over the next

  11. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: A case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, C.; Zhang, H.; Dobon, A.; Hortal, M.; Beneventi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of the influence of components of printed electronics in paper recycling. • Comparison between paper recycled with and without resistors, batteries and layouts. • Mechanical and optical properties are evaluated in paper handsheets obtained. • Tensile strength of recycled paper is slighted reduced by layouts. • Optical properties of recycled paper slightly varies with layouts and batteries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2–7.5% in brightness, 8.5–10.7% in whiteness, 1.2–2.2% in L ∗ values, 3.3–3.5% in opacity and 16.1–27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges able

  12. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or in any other Postal Service employee. (b) Corporate officers. Corporate officers are authorized to... matters within their areas of responsibility, except as limited by law or by the specific terms of their...

  13. 75 FR 69143 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Pricing Strategy, as the official available to provide prompt responses to requests for clarification from..., at 30. II. Postal Service Filing Reply Rides Free. This pricing initiative is available for mailers...

  14. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... filed with the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal...

  15. Human resource management in the delivery of postal items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Momčilo D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of postal items is the last phase in the postal conveyance process. This phase involved up to 57% in total costs of postal items conveyance. In order to reduce the costs of delivery phase, postal organizations apply different methods and techniques. Legal and technological regulations, various restrictions regarding the selection and deployment of employees influence the choice of appropriate methods. Also, the principle of availability of the universal postal service is an essential factor in defining the optimal model. In this paper, the model for assessing and planning of the number of employees in the delivery service observed postal operator has been proposed, with respect to the principles of productivity and accessibility constraints of the universal postal service. This paper will analyze the impact of daily fluctuations in the number of full-time employees and the possibility of hiring a part-time workers in the days with increased traffic volume in the delivery of items, when usually the items from large customers are delivered.

  16. 75 FR 74755 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that on November 17, 2010, it filed with the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to...

  17. Environmental monitoring with a portable TLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, P P; Feher, I; Deme, S; Szabo, B; Vagvoelgyi, J; German, E [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1984-01-01

    Two types of TLD systems are used for environmental dose monitoring. One is based on an NHZ-203 laboratory TLD reader and CaSO/sub 4/:Dy powder. The other is based on CaSO/sub 4/:Tm bulbs and a small, portable TLD reader built into a cross-country car and operated by means of the car battery. The laboratory TLD system has been used for many years for environmental monitoring and it has been tested and proved satisfactory at international intercomparisons for environmental dosemeters. The new portable TLD system has the advantage of being able to establish the dose in a few minutes at the environmental station. The transport dose is omitted as the TLDs are evaluated at the field site. The evaluation of a bulb needs only a few minutes and the measured dose value can be reported back by radio - an important aspect during an emergency situation.

  18. An automated thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Huyskens, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Health Physics Division of the Eindhoven University of Technology work is going on in developing an automated TLD-system. Process automization, statistical computation, dose calculation as well as dose recording are carried out, using a microcomputer and floppy disk unit. The main features of this TLD-system are its low costs, flexibility, easy to operate, and the feasibility for use in routine dosimetry as well as in complex TLD research. Because of its modular set-up several components of the system are multifunctional in other operations. The system seems suited for medium sized Health Physics groups. (Auth.)

  19. Reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Izewska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  20. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-12-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1991

  1. Automated TLD system for gamma radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, P.C.; Ott, J.D.; Edmonds, C.M.; Hopper, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A gamma radiation monitoring system utilizing a commercially available TLD reader and unique microcomputer control has been built to assess the external radiation exposure to the resident population near a nuclear weapons testing facility. Maximum use of the microcomputer was made to increase the efficiency of data acquisition, transmission, and preparation, and to reduce operational costs. The system was tested for conformance with an applicable national standard for TLD's used in environmental measurements

  2. 75 FR 58449 - Postal Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... feel free to discuss the merits of the current Bulk Metered Mail (BMM) base category as well as a... American Postal Workers Union, AFL-CIO in that docket express a more general desire to re- evaluate and...

  3. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the

  4. Postal dosimetry audit test for small photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, María del Mar; Núñez, Luis; Muñiz, José Luis; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Embid, Miguel; Gómez-Ros, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Small radiation beams ( 3 ) of TLD-100 inserted at 5 and 10 cm of depth in a cylindrical PMMA phantom designed for this purpose. This experimental system is mailed to the audited centres to be irradiated with beams of 1 and 3 cm of side or diameter. The prescribeddose is 1.5 Gy at 10 cm. The properties of this system were studied experimentally and by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, before the external test. Results: Deviations between the prescribed and measured absorbed doses are below 5% for 69% (1 × 1 cm 2 beam) and 64% (3 × 3 cm 2 beam) of the audited centres. When deviations are above 5%, their causes have been investigated and led to corrections. Conclusion: The developed postal audit is suitable to verify the absorbed doses in small photon beams with an accuracy of 2.9% (1s).

  5. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. PI2010-3; Order No. 456] Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It has scheduled a technical conference...

  6. Layers And Processes In The Model Of Technological Postal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňáková Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper include important aspects of layer model of postal technological system such as makes the possibility to define rules for regulating, technical and technological requirements and interfaces to communicate with other postal systems. The current postal reform is mainly attributable to release of network access and ensuring full interoperability between technological systems. Not only to ensure the development and protection of competition but also in respect to the conservation of requirements to provide the universal service, which is the performance of public interest. There is a space here to examine the postal system, not only from a procedural point of view, but to be viewed as an open communication system. It is possible to find there the commonalities with other communication sector branches and to handle the technological postal system in more layers; similarly as the electronic communication systems are handled. Model of layer postal system, based not only on the processes but on layers functionality, will enable to identify communication protocols and interfaces determining interoperability. It also opens the question of appropriate regulation model.

  7. 78 FR 26406 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  8. 78 FR 65392 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal... INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and... States Postal Service To Add Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  9. 78 FR 12369 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  10. Environmental monitoring system with TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguerre, L.; Carelli, J.; Gregori, B.

    2006-01-01

    Presently work the methodology used by the Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) to gauge it system of environmental monitoring in function of the media absorbed dose rate in free air and the environmental dose equivalent, H * (10), according to the recommendation ICRU Report 47 is described. It was studied the response of the environmental dosemeter (DA) in fields of photonic radiation of energies W60, Wl 10, W200 and 137 Cs. The irradiations were carried out following the recommendations of the standard ISO:4037. It was analyzed the response in the DA of the detectors LiF: Mg, Ti and CaF 2 : Dy for the different radiation qualities and the relative response at 137 Cs of both. The methodology used in the evaluation of the dose includes: the correction of the readings of both detectors by fading, gotten experimentally, the witness of transfers, the energy answer and the value of the zero. The dose is calculated applying the average pondered in uncertainty of the dose obtained for each type of detector. Its were analyzed and calculated the uncertainties that affect to the measurement following the recommendation of the Argentine standard IRAM 35050. The detection limit of the absorbed dose rate in free air of this system it is 3.5 n Gy/h for a period of sampling of 3 months. With this detection limit environmental dose equivalent rates of the order of 70 n Sv/h are measured with an expanded uncertainty of the order of 10% with a cover factor k = 2. (Author)

  11. Automated TLD systems: what can we expect from the market today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1990-01-01

    The personnel monitoring service at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, which presently handles some 16,000 dosemeters per month, has been operating for more than ten years with three automated TLD systems, Harshaw model 2271. In order to renew the instrumentation an extensive evaluation and comparison of four commercially available automated systems designed to the present state-of-the-art has been carried out. The test procedures included dosimetric performance, reliability, handling speed and throughput, and additional information such as glow curve evaluation etc. The results should provide useful advice to monitoring services interested in the application of modern automated TLD systems currently on the market. (author)

  12. Quality audit of dosimetry in radiotherapy centers using postal dose TLD intercomparison in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, G.; Kadam, V.D.; Vinatha, S.P.; Soman, A.T.; Vijayam, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The national quality audit of dosimetry in radiation therapy centers using mailed TLDs is being carried out by RSS/ASSD of BARC since 1976, in collaboration with IAEA/WHO for India and neighbouring countries such as Mayanmar, Sri Lanka and Nepal. The importance of the programme comes from the fact that consistent, high accuracy ( 60 Co machines ∼35 linear accelerators are being covered by the programme. This paper brings out the materials and methods used in the intercomparison. The results of intercomparison are analyzed to find the steps to improve the performance in quality audit of those centers whose results are outside the limit of acceptable deviation

  13. Dosimetry Measurements around the Angiography Units Using Thermoluminescence Detectors (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-den, T.; Shahein, A.Y.; Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used not only in the field of personnel monitoring (dosimetry) service for ionizing radiation to medical, and research communities, but also for measurements of X-rays emitted from different angiography's unit. Measurements ionizing radiation around the bed area during cardiac catheterization procedures using X-rays was measured. TLD Badges used to determine the annual effective doses, the safe distance for the staff to minimize radiation exposure and the effectiveness of shield and used leaded apron. The results indicated that annual effective dose for by angiography cardiac Catheterization room may exceed the limits

  14. A RCT evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of academic detailing versus postal prescribing feedback in changing GP antibiotic prescribing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, Corina

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) plus postal prescribing feedback versus postal prescribing feedback alone in reducing: (i) the overall rate of antibiotic; and (ii) proportion of second-line antibiotic prescribing. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of an outreach prescriber adviser service versus a postal prescribing feedback service was evaluated.

  15. Hand book on the use of TLD badge based on CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD discs for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Adtani, M.M.; Varadharajan, G.; Bakshi, A.K.; Srivastava, Kshama; Bihari, R.R.

    2002-10-01

    Individual monitoring is one of the most important aspects of a radiation protection programme. In India, an official and centralized personnel monitoring service to radiation workers started in 1952. With the indigenous development of a TLD badge system in 1975 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, decentralization of monitoring service was initiated. At present, about 40,000 radiation workers are monitored using this system through twelve TLD units located in different parts of the country, including a private accredited laboratory. Regulatory and other inspecting bodies have often asked outstation TLD units to produce a duly approved document on the procedures being practiced for the assessment of personal doses. A need for such a document has also been felt to ensure the uniformity in processing of dosemeters, recording and reporting of doses by different TLD units and to provide guidelines regarding the infrastructure requirement. This document in the form of a handbook has been prepared to cater to the above needs. The handbook is expected to provide necessary guidelines not only to the newcomers/ forthcoming units and the existing laboratories but also to help the regulators, inspectors and assessors. (author)

  16. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. The Act, in paragraph (7) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122...

  17. Unusual ratio of TL readouts of different discs of personnel monitoring TLD badge based on CaSO4: Dy teflon disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Ande, C.D.; Kher, R.K.; Chourasiya, G.; Vashishtha, R.; Gupta, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In India Personnel Monitoring against external radiation hazard of gamma, beta and X-rays is provided using a TLD badge based on CaSO 4 : Dy Teflon TLD disc. Unusual ratios of TL readouts of different discs of TLD badge (Disc Ratios) observed for service TLD badges of radiation workers were investigated and simulated. Simulations were carried out by exposure of TLD badges by speck type radioactive sources placed in contact of badges, exposure of TLD badges placed on concrete floor to a radiography source. Clues for the simulation were obtained from nature of work, radiological conditions during course of individuals' work whose TLD badges showed the unusual disc ratios and geometrical calculations performed. It is concluded that although the actual exposure condition during use is unknown, the unusual disk ratios observed for the service TLD badges can be simulated and utilized to arrive at probable exposure conditions. The study helped in investigations of the abnormal exposures and assigning doses to the concerned radiation workers. (author)

  18. A new fully automated TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Ratna, P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present personnel monitoring in India is being carried out using a number of manual and semiautomatic TLD badge Readers and the BARC TL dosimeter badge designed during 1970. Of late the manual TLD badge readers are almost completely replaced by semiautomatic readers with a number of performance improvements like use of hot gas heating to reduce the readout time considerably. PC based design with storage of glow curve for every dosimeter, on-line dose computation and printout of dose reports, etc. However the semiautomatic system suffers from the lack of a machine readable ID code on the badge and the physical design of the dosimeter card not readily compatible for automation. This paper describes a fully automated TLD badge Reader developed in the RSS Division, using a new TLD badge with machine readable ID code. The new PC based reader has a built-in reader for reading the ID code, in the form of an array of holes, on the dosimeter card. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. (author)

  19. 75 FR 7201 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is adding Priority Mail Contract 24 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with changes in a postal reform law. Republication of the lists of market dominant and competitive products is...

  20. 78 FR 51678 - Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Gift Cards market test on April 28, 2011.\\11\\ The market test enabled customers to purchase a gift card... United States Postal Service for Temporary Extension of Gift Cards Market Test, June 18, 2013; Docket No... authorized the market test to proceed subject to the condition that the sale of gift cards be limited to...

  1. 77 FR 64148 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    .... Priority Mail International. Overall, Priority Mail International (PMI) prices increase by 15.1 percent. The existing price structure of PMI Flat Rate, Retail, Commercial Base, and Commercial Plus price.... Additionally, the Postal Service may offer a promotional discount or rebate on certain PMI items. International...

  2. Conceptual foresight of the volumes of postal money orders in the Republic of Komi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov' Aleksandrovna Kuratova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology elaborated for forecasting the volume of postal services on the basis of statistical methods of regression analysis on the example of the Republic of Komi. The influence of internal and external factors on the market of postal money orders of the Republic is constructed and investigated using the statistical regression model of the market of postal money orders of the Komi Republic in the period of 2005–2010. The conceptual foresight of development of the regional market of postal money orders for 2011–2012 is presented. Regression models were analyzed not only for the dynamic sequence of data, but also for sequences of data on territories, which revealed independent correlated factors which are weakly changing and evolving over time. The presented results have important practical and methodological significance for predicting both the volume of postal money orders as well as other types of services.

  3. 76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change AGENCY: Postal... States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) for Mailing Services. This price change correlates to the Postal Service's January 13, 2011 filing of Docket No. R2011-2, Notice of Price Adjustment...

  4. The Essence of the Concept of «Wages Fund», and Impact of Legislative Changes of the Term of «Minimum Wage» on the Wage System of the Enterprise of Postal Service «Ukrposhta»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buriak Valerii G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the necessity of optimizing the pay scheme under the influence of legislative changes of the concept of «minimum wage». Studying the influence of legislative changes in the definition of the essence of concept of «minimum wage» and the wage system, used at the enterprise of postal service «Ukrposhta», has led to the conclusion that beginning from January 1, 2017 it is of the socially unjust and unfounded nature, because the principle of motivation of employees in respect of wages matching the quantity, quality, and results of labor, has been defied. It has been proposed to restructure the wage system at the enterprise of postal service «Ukrposhta» by optimizing the cross-categorial and cross-qualification relations, as well as the payment scheme.

  5. A method to minimise the fading effects of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-600 and TLD-700) using a pre-heat technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YoungJu; Won, Yuho; Kang, Kidoo

    2015-04-01

    Passive integrating dosemeters [thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)] are the only legally permitted individual dosemeters for occupational external radiation exposure monitoring in Korea. Also its maximum issuing cycle does not exceed 3 months, and the Korean regulations require personal dosemeters for official assessment of external radiation exposure to be issued by an approved or rather an accredited dosimetry service according to ISO/IEC 17025. KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, LTD), a unique operating company of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea, currently has a plan to extend a TLD issuing cycle from 1 to 3 months under the authors' fading error criteria, ±10%. The authors have performed a feasibility study that minimises post-irradiation fading effects within their maximum reading cycle employing pre-heating technique. They repeatedly performed irradiation/reading a bare TLD chip to determine optimum pre-heating conditions by analysing each glow curve. The optimum reading conditions within the maximum reading cycle of 3 months were decided: a pre-heating temperature of 165°C, a pre-heating time of 9 s, a heating rate of 25°C s(-1), a reading temperature of 300°C and an acquisition time of 10 s. The fading result of TLD-600 and TLD-700 carried by newly developed time temperature profile (TTP) showed a much smaller fading effect than that of current TTP. The result showed that the fading error due to a developed TTP resulted in a ∼5% signal loss, whereas a current TTP caused a ∼15% loss. The authors also carried out a legal performance test on newly developed TTP to confirm its possibility as an official dosemeter. The legal performance tests that applied the developed TTP satisfied the criteria for all the test categories. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Neutron area monitor with TLD pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-11-01

    The response of a passive neutron area monitor with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was calculated for one TLD 600 located at the center of a polyethylene cylinder, as moderator. When neutrons collide with the moderator lose their energy reaching the TLD with thermal energies where the ambient dose equivalent is calculated. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1E(-9) to 20 MeV. Response was calculated using two irradiation geometries, one with an upper source and another with a lateral source. For both irradiation schemes the response was calculated with the TLDs in two positions, one parallel to the source and another perpendicular to the source. The advantage of this passive neutron monitor area is that can be used in locations with intense, pulsed and mixed radiation fields. (Author)

  7. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun

    1999-01-01

    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  8. Microcomputer control of automated TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, Bert.

    1979-10-01

    The interfacing electronics, the control algorithms and the developed programs of a 6800 microcomputer controlled automated TLD reader are described. The TL reading system is implemented with a photomultiplier tube and a charge-to-pulse converter. The gain of the TL reading system is controlled through the use of a temperature compensated LED reference light source. Automatic compensation of PM tube dark current is optional. The short term stability of TL readings is better than 3 %. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiation source detection by personal TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Mirkov, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Laboratory for personal dosimetry has about 3000 workers under control. The most of them work in medicine. Some institutions, as big health centers, have different ionizing radiation sources. It is usefull to analyze what has been the source of irradiation, special when appears a dosimeter with high dose. Personal dosimetry equipment is Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600 and dosimeters consist of two chips LiF TLD-100 assembled in bar-coded cards which are wearing in holders with one tissue-equivalent filter (to determine H(10)) and skin-equivalent the other (to determine H(0.07)). The calibration dosimeters have been irradiated in holders by different sources: x-ray (for 80keV and 100keV), 6 0C o, 9 0S r (for different distances from beta source) and foton beem (at radiotherapy accelerator by 6MeV, 10MeV and 18MeV). The dose ratio for two LiF cristals was calculated and represented with graphs. So, it is possible to calculate the ratio H(10)/H(0.07) for a personal TLD and analyze what has been the source of irradiation. Also, there is the calibration for determination the time of irradiation, according to glow curve deconvolution

  10. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  11. TLD territorial network in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroutilikova, D. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    At present, there are 236 measuring points practically homogeneously distributed on the territory of the Czech Republic. 98 measuring points are distributed as local TLD-networks in the surroundings of Czech two nuclear power plants. Both of the TLD-networks are operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague. The dosimeters hitherto used are the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy-teflon detectors placed in TL-badges and shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of lead and tin. Recently, a new modernization of the measuring system, type of dosimeter and methods of evaluation is under way. From 1996 the Czech Radiation Monitoring Network will be used the TLD system HARSHAW 4000, along with the type 8807 ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETER. The dosimeter is composed of four TL-elements - two LiF and two CaF{sub 2}, placed in a plastic badge. In addition, the CaF{sub 2} elements are shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of tantalum and lead. Before the routine use of the new system a testing of the dosimeters was made. The following text summarizes the obtained results (J.K.). 4 tabs.

  12. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  13. 39 CFR 121.4 - Package Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Package Services. 121.4 Section 121.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET...-destination pair. (6) The service standard for Inbound Surface Parcel Post® pieces (subject to Universal...

  14. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  15. RFID based TLD monitoring system - a prospective development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeevanram, S.S.; Pawar, S.T.; Mahule, K.N.; Rath, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Thermo Luminescence Dosimetry (TLD) is an established method of monitoring the radiation dose received by workers in radiation environments. In Radiometallurgy Laboratory, BARC, the TLD movement inside a nuclear facility is completely carried out by a radiation worker. However, there is a chance that the TLDs may get lost in laboratories or some places without the knowledge of the concerned TLD user or health physicist. It may later lead to a false effective dose. Effort is being done to initiate a RFID based TLD monitoring system so that the use of TLD can be acknowledged through a self operating software which can prevent misuse of the detector. A novel method of improving the administrative control through Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based monitoring to avoid such inadvertent misplacement of TLD, is in progress. This paper discusses the method and techniques through which administrative control can be exercised to reduce the number of such in explainable exposures. (author)

  16. Postal audit in dental radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.; Kroutilikova, D.

    2001-01-01

    According to Czech laws dental intraoral X-ray machines are classified as s imple sources of ionizing radiation . Consequently , their use is licensed on condition that an adequate quality assurance program is realized. In general, the programme is based on acceptance tests, status tests and constancy tests. The particular methods are specified in the recommendation [1] published by State Office for Nuclear Safety .Both the acceptance and status tests involve in situ measurements to control parameters of the X-ray machine and the developing process. Only persons who were licensed for such handling can do these measurements. The yearly status tests are very detailed and several years ' experience showed it might be advantageous to have a simpler method additionally available for purposes of the state supervision. Such a method is supposed as a postal audit. It should be simple enough to make the operation of the state supervision more effective but it also should provide sufficient information on radiation protection of the patients. Besides it should enable to prolong the period for the status tests ultimately .As for the postal audit, a small package containing a proper dosimetric set would be sent directly to the dentist who would treat it according to instructions. This paper describes such method that was developed in the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) and results of pilot study that was carried out to test the method. The described method will be a helpful tool for the operation of the state supervision in the dental radiodiagnostics. The method will be implemented into the existing system of controls from 2002. Due to its simplicity and a quite rich content of information allows to check a big amount of the dental workplaces at once. It is supposed that one half of all Czech X-ray units will be checked in this way every year performed on state costs. It means 175 audits per month approximately. In this way, the operation of the quality

  17. A Computerized QC Analysis of TLD Glow Curves for Personal Dosimetry Measurements Using Tag QC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, S.; Datz, H.; Dar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Lab (EDL) at the Radiation Safety Division at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC) is ISO 17025 certified and provides its services to approximately 13,000 users throughout the country from various sectors such as medical, industrial and academic. About 95% of the users are monitored monthly for X-rays, radiation using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) cards that contain three LiF:Mg,Ti elements and the other users, who work also with thermal neutrons, use TLD cards that contain four LiF:Mg,Ti elements. All TLD cards are measured with the Thermo 8800pc reader. Suspicious TLD glow curve (GC) can cause wrong dose estimation so the EDL makes great efforts to ensure that each GC undergoes a careful QC procedure. The current QC procedure is performed manually and through a few steps using different softwares and databases in a long and complicated procedure: EDL staff needs to export all the results/GCs to be checked to an Excel file, followed by finding the suspicious GCs, which is done in a different program (WinREMS), According to the GC shapes (Figure 1 illustrates suitable and suspicious GC shapes) and the ratio between the elements result values, the inspecting technician corrects the data. The motivation for developing the new program is the complicated and time consuming process of our the manual procedure to the large amount of TLDs each month (13,000), similarly to other Dosimetry services that use computerized QC GC analysis. it is important to note that only ~25% of the results are above the EDL recorded level (0.10 mSv) and need to be inspected. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a new program, TagQC, which allows a computerized QC GC analysis that identifies automatically, swiftly, and accurately suspicious TLD GC

  18. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard...

  19. A Method of Postal Audit in Dental Radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Novak, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) develops a new method for independent control of radiodiagnostic dental intraoral units for purposes of state supervision. The method is aimed to check not only basic dosimetric characteristics of the unit, but also conditions of developing process used by dentists. It is considered as a postal audit. The dosimetric part of the method includes irradiation of a radiographic film along with an attached TLD in order to check Ka output, field size and exposition reproducibility. The developing process is checked by means of dental films and a standardised dental phantom. The dentist is asked to develop a dental film irradiated under reference conditions by NRPI, and on the other hand to irradiate his own dental film using the phantom, that will be developed later by NRPI. Comparison of both the dental films provides information about developing process quality. It also indicates a relation between applied Ka and developing process at the place. The method is supposed to simplify the state supervision operation in the field of dental radiodiagnostics. (author)

  20. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters; Proposta de um sistema postal para a calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir, utilizadas em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose, com dosimetros termoluminescentes de LiF: Mn: Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. CNEN Caixa Postal 37750, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  1. 76 FR 22739 - Postal Service Market Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... test offers the potential for it to tap a greater share of advertising media expenditures, while offering participating mailers the possibility of postage refunds if qualifying advertising campaigns... annually on advertising, but do not include mail as a large part of their advertising mix.\\2\\ Id. at 1. The...

  2. Organization of the Army Postal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    units from IHq , DA, to division, separate brigade, APO and comparable levels, inclusive. Indicate comimand, operational control, logistical and...14Tth AG Det R 226th AG Dot s Berlin DPO T Korea UV ThstlAn C-5-2 - td 0 w * *~ * I jV~) I 1 .1 / * - ~ MlOh ~ 0 UJO S 5; .**’ 0* ~ 𔃿* 0...I 9 ’S .0 -. I K ’I I TD 0 C-S-fl I.-. ...................................... mmBuII 0 X_ 0 I.-V TAB C-5-18 M (jp"POyM S’IS o0 0 t44 VA .31 pAl "r

  3. A personnel TLD system with person identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.O.

    1974-01-01

    The TLD system uses Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn, Si sintered tablets which are heated by hot nitrogen. The slide which holds the tablets is coded by a self adhesive polyester-aluminium tape. This tape is BCD coded in an ordinary tape punch. The information on the punched tape includes a ten digit social-security number and a two digit information on location and type of dosimetry. By this system dosimetric data is directly transfered into a central dose register for Sweden. All personnel doses are there stored on social-security numbers. (author)

  4. Conceptual foresight of the volumes of postal money orders in the Republic of Komi

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kuratova

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology elaborated for forecasting the volume of postal services on the basis of statistical methods of regression analysis on the example of the Republic of Komi. The influence of internal and external factors on the market of postal money orders of the Republic is constructed and investigated using the statistical regression model of the market of postal money orders of the Komi Republic in the period of 2005–2010. The conceptual foresight of development of the ...

  5. Information related to postal flows and big data analysis potential. The case of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alvaro, O.; Nuñez Gonzalez, A.

    2016-07-01

    National Post Offices manage huge volumes of letters and parcels. Data associated to these flows are growing fast, with a great variety related to the diversity of postal products. The research described in this paper has classified all information flows of Correos, the Spanish National Post Office. In spite of the complexity of the current postal service portfolio, only four categories of matrices allow the classification of all postal information flows. Thanks to the migration towards new products, analyses with simple techniques will provide more and better information in the future, due to the structured nature of existing databases. (Author)

  6. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632... States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 7 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

  7. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service To Add Parcel Select Contract 6 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  8. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  9. 78 FR 4478 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-42; Order No. 1623] New Postal Product AGENCY... within the Global Plus 2C product on the grounds of functional equivalence to previously approved.... Id. at 1. Background. The Commission added Global Plus 2 to the competitive product list, based on...

  10. 76 FR 4138 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-58; Order No. 652] New Postal Product AGENCY..., which established GREP Contracts 1 as a product, also authorized functionally equivalent agreements to be included within the product, provided that they meet the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633. Id. at 1...

  11. 75 FR 65386 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2011-19; Order No. 562] New Postal Product AGENCY... product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments are due... GEPS 1 as a product, also authorized functionally equivalent agreements to be included within the...

  12. 39 CFR 122.1 - Ancillary special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ancillary special services. 122.1 Section 122.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.1 Ancillary special services. (a) For the market-dominant...

  13. Environmental monitoring with TLD in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Mora, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using thermoluminescent dosimeters (Harshaw TLD-200) the first set of costarican data on absorbed doses in air from natural radiation is obtained. During the period from September 1996 to october 2000 eight different sites throughout the country were chosen to instal the TLD stations. Each station had eight cards (five were changed every three months and three changed annually). The dosimeters were read in the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory using a 4000 Harshaw reader and with the help a mathematical algorithm and the equipment calibration factors the dose rate in air (nGy h -1 ) was calculated. The national average is 108.9 ± 32.4 nGy h -1 , the lowest values (in nGy h -1 ) were obtain at sea level at Quebrada Honda with 53 ± 11 and the highest values (in nGy h -1 ) at Cartago with 160 ± 19. A slight increase with altitude is observed even though the Cartago station was always the highest. The values found agree with reported worldwide values for environmental doses in air. (Author) [es

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1992-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the first quarter of 1992. All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed. Each site is monitored by arranging approximately 40 to 50 TLD stations in two concentric rings extending to about five miles from the facility. All TLD stations are outside the site boundary of the facility

  15. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service... United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 3632(b)(3... Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product List...

  16. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service[supreg] hereby gives notice that, pursuant to 39 U.S...

  17. A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors Gregory Crabb, U.S. Postal Inspection Service Julia H...mail fraud, mail theft, identity theft, child exploitation, and prohibited mailings such as bombs and biological and chemical threats...April 2012. http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=10085 [Allen 2014a] Allen, Julia H., Crabb, Gregory; Curtis, Pamela D

  18. Robust determination of effective atomic numbers for electron interactions with TLD-100 and TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are the most commonly implemented for clinical dosimetry. The small physical magnitude of TLDs makes them attractive for applications such as small field measurement, in vivo dosimetry and measurement of out-of-field doses to critical structures. The most broadly used TLD is TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) and, for applications requiring higher sensitivity to low-doses, TLD-100H (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) is frequently employed. The radiological properties of these TLDs are therefore of significant interest. For the first time, in this study effective atomic numbers for radiative, collisional and total electron interaction processes are calculated for TLD-100 and TLD-100H dosimeters over the energy range 1 keV-100 MeV. This is undertaken using a robust, energy-dependent method of calculation rather than typical power-law approximations. The influence of dopant concentrations and unwanted impurities is also investigated. The two TLDs exhibit similar effective atomic numbers, ranging from approximately 5.77-6.51. Differences arising from the different dopants are most pronounced in low-energy radiative effects. The TLDs have atomic numbers approximately 1.48-2.06 times that of water. The effective atomic number of TLD-100H is consistently higher than that of TLD-100 over a broad energy range, due to the greater influence of the higher-Z dopants on the electron interaction cross sections. Typical variation in dopant concentration does not significantly influence the effective atomic number. The influence on TLD-100H is comparatively more pronounced than that on TLD-100. Contrariwise, unwanted hydroxide impurities influence TLD-100 more than TLD-100H. The effective atomic number is a key parameter that influences the radiological properties and energy response of TLDs. Although many properties of these TLDs have been studied rigorously, as yet there has been no investigation of their effective atomic numbers for electron interactions. The

  19. External assurance program in radiotherapy dose by TLD: implementation of a quality system and extension to complex treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojsiejczuk, N.; Lohr, J.; Molina, L.; Vallejos, M.; Montaño, G.; Stefanic, A.; Zaretzky, A.

    2011-01-01

    Until now, the Regional Reference Center with secondary patterns for dosimetry ('Centro Regional de Referencia con Patrones Secundarios para Dosimetria' (CRRD)) has done dosimetry verifications with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in radiotherapy in square and rectangular fields. The objective of this paper is to inform about the first tests done to span new verification conditions in irradiations with multi-leaf collimator using regular and irregular field shapes. On the other hand, it will briefly describe the progress in the implementation of a quality management system adopted by the CRRD, regarding the TLD verification service. (author)

  20. New advanced TLD system for space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Deme, S.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.

    1983-10-01

    A new version of the TLD reader type PILLE has been developed for space applications. The earlier compact and portable device could also be used for measurements during space flights but its range was limited. A new bulb detector with easier handling has also been developed with an upper limit of linear dose response of 10 Gy. The range of this new and more versatile reader, NA206S, (1μGy-10 Gy) is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the earlier system; it also has increased sensitivity and decreased mass. It can be used not only in space applications but also for environmental monitoring or even in accident dosimetry. The measured dose value is displayed on a four-digit display with automatic range switch. Another new version, the NA206E, has been developed for environmental dosimetry; it can be operated from a battery or from the mains. (author)

  1. Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Varadharajan, Geetha; Punekar, M.P.; Chougaokar, M.P.; Ayappan, P.

    2010-01-01

    In India, the personnel monitoring service of ∼ 70,000 radiation workers is being provided using indigenously developed TLD system comprising three CaSO 4 :Dy embedded Teflon discs. In order to remove TL and reset the distribution of defects/trapping centres, all TLD cards are subjected to an annealing treatment at elevated temperature prior to their next use. As per the standardized protocol annealing is carried out in a hot air circulating oven at 230 deg C for 4 hr, which is sufficient to reset the TL dosemeters for dose levels upto 100 mSv. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards namely A, B, C and D series, exposed to various dose levels

  2. Results and discussion of laboratory experiences with different automated TLD readers for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.; Drexeler, G.

    Although the film seems to continue serving as the main personnel dosemeter in Germany for the time in sight, the evolution of particularly solid state techniques and their properties are thoroughly considered with respect to a possible generalized application in personnel monitoring. For this reason different automated TLD systems that are commercially available have been investigated in the laboratory in order to find out their usefulness for a largescale or also decentralized service. Along with studying the dosimetrical and apparative parameters, the question has been discussed to which monitoring philosophy these TLD systems seem to fit. It is reported both on experimental experiences achieved as well as on the results of basic discussions that in return influence the discussion about the necessary outfit of personnel TL dosemeters

  3. X-rays individual dose assessment using TLD dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in Embalse NPP for measuring individual X-ray dose in dentists and radiologists, who work in areas near the plant. Personnel is provided with TLD personal dosimeters for thoracic use, as well as TLD ring dosimeters. This individual X-ray dosimetry is fundamental in order to know the effective energy coming from the radiation field, since the dosimetry factors depend on it. On the other hand, the response of the TLD crystals also depends of the effective energy; this accentuates the problem when assessing the individual dose. The X-ray dosimeter must simultaneously determine the value of the effective energy and the corresponding dose value. The basic principle for determining effective energy is by using at least two different TLD materials covered by filters of different thickness. The TLD materials used have totally energy responses. Therefore, different readouts from each of the crystals are obtained. The ratio between both readouts provides a factor that depends of the effective energy but that is 'independent' from the exposure values irradiated to the dosimeter. The Personal TLD dosimeter currently in use is Bicron-Harshaw. It comprises a carrier model 8807. This carrier contains a card model 2211 which groups two TLD 200 crystals and two TLD 100 crystals. It has internal filters at each side of the TLD 200 crystals. The periodical calibration of these dosimeters consists in the irradiation of some dosimeters with different X-ray energy beams in the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). This dosimeter was used, by the National Regulatory Authority (ARN) in several comparisons, always getting satisfactory results. (author)

  4. 76 FR 395 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filing III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction... Sample Showcase box, including marketing, assembling, and tendering the box for delivery by the Postal...

  5. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroutilķková, Daniela; Novotný, Josef; Judas, Libor

    2003-02-01

    The Czech thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network was established in 1997. Its aim is to pursue a regular independent quality audit in Czech radiotherapy centres and to support state supervision. The audit is realised via mailed TL dosimetry. The TLD system consists of encapsulated LiF:Mg,Ti powder (type MT-N) read with Harshaw manual reader model 4000. Basic mode of the TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non-reference conditions using a solid multipurpose phantom ('Leuven phantom') for photon beams. The radiotherapy centres are instructed to deliver to the TLD on central beam axis absorbed dose of 2 Gy calculated with their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. The TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of +/-3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced mode of the audit. There are 34 radiotherapy centres in the Czech Republic. They undergo the basic mode of the TLD audit regularly every 2 years. If a centre shows a deviation outside the acceptance level, it is audited more often. Presently, most of the checked beams comply with the acceptance level. The advanced TLD audit has been implemented as a pilot study for the present. The results were mostly within the acceptance limit for the measurements on-axis, whereas for off-axis points they fell beyond the limit more frequently, especially for set-ups with inhomogeneities, oblique incidence and wedges. The results prove the importance of the national TLD quality assurance network. It has contributed to the improvement of clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic. In addition, it helps the regulatory authority to monitor effectively and regularly radiotherapy centres.

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, Daniela; Novotny, Josef; Judas, Libor

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The Czech thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network was established in 1997. Its aim is to pursue a regular independent quality audit in Czech radiotherapy centres and to support state supervision. Materials and methods: The audit is realised via mailed TL dosimetry. The TLD system consists of encapsulated LiF:Mg,Ti powder (type MT-N) read with Harshaw manual reader model 4000. Basic mode of the TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non-reference conditions using a solid multipurpose phantom ('Leuven phantom') for photon beams. The radiotherapy centres are instructed to deliver to the TLD on central beam axis absorbed dose of 2 Gy calculated with their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. The TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of ±3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced mode of the audit. Results: There are 34 radiotherapy centres in the Czech Republic. They undergo the basic mode of the TLD audit regularly every 2 years. If a centre shows a deviation outside the acceptance level, it is audited more often. Presently, most of the checked beams comply with the acceptance level. The advanced TLD audit has been implemented as a pilot study for the present. The results were mostly within the acceptance limit for the measurements on-axis, whereas for off-axis points they fell beyond the limit more frequently, especially for set-ups with inhomogeneities, oblique incidence and wedges. Conclusions: The results prove the importance of the national TLD quality assurance network. It has contributed to the improvement of clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic. In addition, it helps the regulatory authority to monitor effectively and regularly radiotherapy centres

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities; Caracteristicas dosimetricas de un dosimetro TLD de extremidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, CPHR, Apdo.Postal 6195, Habana 6, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm{sup 3} covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  9. Estimation of uncertainty in TLD calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasabelrasoul, H. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this study thermoluminescence dosimeter TLD was use of individual control devices to make sure the quality assurance and quality control in individual monitoring. The uncertainty measured in reader calibration coefficients for tow reader and uncertainty in radiation dose after irradiate in SSDL laboratory. Fifty sample was selected for the study was placed in the oven at a temperature of 400 for an hour to get zero or background and took zero count by or background and took zero count by reader (1) and reader (2) and then irradiate in SSDL by cesium-137 at a dose of 5 mGy and laid back in the oven at degrees 100 and degrees 10 minutes, to 10 chips for calibration and readout count by reader one and reader two. The RCF was found for each reader above 1.47 and 1.11, respectively, and found the uncertainty RCF was found for each reader above 1.47 and 1.11, respectively, and found the uncertainly RCF 0.430629 and 0.431973. Radiation dose was measured for fifty samples irradiate to dose of 5 mGy and read the count by reader 1 and reader 2 the uncertainty was found for each reader 0.490446 and 0.587602.(Author)

  10. Comparison of LiF (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) detectors for extremity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, L. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Laboratorio de Medicina Nuclear, Lda, Atomedical, Rua Helena Felix, 11D, 1600-121 Lisboa (Portugal); Calado, A.; Cardoso, J.V.; Santos, L.M. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Alves, J.G. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: jgalves@itn.pt

    2008-02-15

    In this work the results aimed at assessing the performance of two types of LiF detectors, TLD-100 and TLD-100H, used in the context of extremity dosimetry are presented. Each detector variety was studied for reproducibility, batch homogeneity, residual dose, linearity and energy dependence using, when appropriate, the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y radiation source built-in one of the Harshaw 6600 readers, the ISO narrow X-ray beams of N30, N40, N60, N80, N100 and N120 or the gamma radiations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. Two calibration energies (N120 and {sup 137}Cs) were also used. The reproducibility and linearity results indicate that both LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P performed equally well. However, LiF:Mg,Cu,P presents a higher residual signal. In terms of energy dependence, LiF:Mg,Cu,P shows less variation than LiF:Mg,Ti particularly when N120 is used as calibration radiation. This seems to be a more realistic setup since the energy of the most frequently used radioisotopes in Nuclear Medicine departments with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use gamma radiation energies closer to N120 than to {sup 137}Cs.

  11. A Computerized QC Analysis of TLD Glow Curves for Personal Dosimetry Measurements Using TagQC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, S.; Datz, H.; Dar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Lab (EDL) at the Radiation Safety Division at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC) is ISO 17025 certified and provides its services to approximately 13,000 users throughout the country from various sectors such as medical, industrial and academic. About 95% of the users are monitored monthly for X-rays, and radiation using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) cards that contain three LiF:Mg,Ti elements and the other users, who work also with thermal neutrons, use TLD cards that contain four LiF:Mg,Ti elements. All TLD cards are measured with the Thermo 8800pc reader.Suspicious TLD glow curve (GC) can cause wrong dose estimation so the EDL makes great efforts to ensure that each GC undergoes a careful QC procedure. The current QC procedure is performed manually and through a few steps using different softwares and databases in a long and complicated procedure: EDL staff needs to export all the results/GCs to be checked to an Excel file, followed by finding the suspicious GCs, which is done in a different program (WinREMS), According to the GC shapes (Figure 1 illustrates suitable and suspicious GC shapes) and the ratio between the elements result values, the inspecting technician corrects the data

  12. Coordinated research efforts for establishing an international radiotherapy dose intercomparison service based on the alanine/ESR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nette, H.P.; Onori, S.; Fattibene, P.; Regulla, D.; Wieser, A.

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA has long been active in the field of high-dose standardization. An International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) was established based on alanine/ESR dosimetry. This service operates over the range of 100 Gy to 100 kGy and is directed towards industrial radiation processing in IAEA member states. It complements the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison service for dose assurance in hospital radiotherapy departments. Experience with the alanine high dose service suggests that the alanine dosimeter might provide superior performance to TLD in the therapy dose range. Preliminary test measurements with the participation of GSF/Germany, Istituto Superiore di Sanita/Italy (both providing alanine dosimeters and their evaluation) and IAEA (providing reference irradiations) seems to justify research efforts through an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). This CRP, entitled ''Therapy Level Dosimetry with the Alanine/ESR System'' is presently under set-up. It will include general work common to all assigned/potential contract holders as well as some specific research topics in accordance to individual proposals of each participant. (author)

  13. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  14. TLD array for precise dose measurements in stereotactic radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, A.; Kitz, K.; Griffitt, W.; Hartl, R.F.E.; Zehetmayer, M.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a new TLD array for precise dose measurement and verification of the spatial dose distribution in small radiation targets. It consists of a hemicylindrical, tissue-equivalent rod made of polystyrene with 17 parallel moulds for an exact positioning of each TLD. The spatial resolution of the TLD array was evaluated using the Leskell spherical phantom. Dose planning was performed with KULA 4.4 under stereotactic conditions on axial CT images. In the Leksell gamma unit the TLD array was irradiated with a maximal dose of 10 Gy with an unplugged 14 mm collimator. The doses delivered to the TLDs were rechecked by diode detector and film dosimetry and compared to the computer-generated dose profile. We found excellent agreement of our measured values, even at the critical penumbra decline. For the 14 mm and 18 mm collimator and for the 11 mm collimator combination we compared the measured and calculated data at full width at half maximum. This TLD array may be useful for phantom or tissue model studies on the spatial dose distribution in confined radiation targets as used in stereotactic radiotherapy. (author)

  15. 75 FR 1541 - Purchasing of Property and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the... decision process. The SDR Official will promptly provide a copy of a disagreement to the contracting... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM...

  16. 75 FR 67147 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... requested to have the contract in Docket No. CP2010-36 serve as the baseline contract for future functional... GREP contract fits within the Mail Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal... incorporates the same cost attributes and methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are...

  17. 75 FR 7951 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... is adding Express Mail Contract 8 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the Product Lists is also consistent with a statutory provision... seeks to add a new product identified as Express Mail Contract 8 to the Competitive Product List. For...

  18. 75 FR 78915 - Conduct on Postal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... lottery ticket sales contains an exception for Randolph-Sheppard vendors. This exception is amended to... tickets ``for any lottery authorized by State law and conducted by an agency of a State''. This amendment... lottery or pool, or the selling or purchasing of lottery tickets, is prohibited on postal premises. In...

  19. 75 FR 52786 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: 1. Attachment 1--proposed Mail Classification Schedule (MCS) language for Inbound Market Dominant... fit within the proposed MCS language, are with foreign postal operators, conform to a common..., 2010. The public portions of these filings can be accessed via the Commission's website ( http://www...

  20. 75 FR 45175 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing... that Order No. 86, which established GEPS 1 as a product, also authorized functionally equivalent...

  1. 77 FR 61307 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... dominant product list to the competitive product list as ``Lightweight Parcel Select,'' a subcategory of... Granting Request to Transfer Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to the Competitive Product List, March 2...

  2. 78 FR 79025 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent... product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other... associated supporting information to add Priority Mail Express Contract 17 to the competitive product list.\\1...

  3. A quality control program for the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) in personnel radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The ministry of science and technology (MOST) issued a ministerial ordinance (No 199-15) about the technical criteria on personnel dosimeter processors on 1992. The purpose of this quality control program is to prescribe the procedures approved by the management of KAERI for implementing a quality badge service by means of TLD for personnel working in an area where they may be exposed to ionization radiation. (Author) 10 refs

  4. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - Tables Depicting Service Standard Day Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Depicting Service Standard Day Ranges A Appendix A to Part 121 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—Tables...

  5. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  6. Positional glow curve simulation for thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, C.J.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Multi- and thin element dosimeters, variable heating rate schemes, and glow-curve analysis have been employed to improve environmental and personnel dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Detailed analysis of the effects of errors and optimization of techniques would be highly desirable. However, an understanding of the relationship between TL light production, light attenuation, and precise heating schemes is made difficult because of experimental challenges involved in measuring positional TL light production and temperature variations as a function of time. This work reports the development of a general-purpose computer code, thermoluminescent detector simulator, TLD-SIM, to simulate the heating of any TLD type using a variety of conventional and experimental heating methods including pulsed focused or unfocused lasers with Gaussian or uniform cross sections, planchet, hot gas, hot finger, optical, infrared, or electrical heating. TLD-SIM has been used to study the impact on the TL light production of varying the input parameters which include: detector composition, heat capacity, heat conductivity, physical size, and density; trapped electron density, the frequency factor of oscillation of electrons in the traps, and trap-conduction band potential energy difference; heating scheme source terms and heat transfer boundary conditions; and TL light scatter and attenuation coefficients. Temperature profiles and glow curves as a function of position time, as well as the corresponding temporally and/or spatially integrated glow values, may be plotted while varying any of the input parameters. Examples illustrating TLD system functions, including glow curve variability, will be presented. The flexible capabilities of TLD-SIM promises to enable improved TLD system design

  7. Study of physical factors affecting the TLD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Amira Abd Elrhman Ebrahim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to study the effects of physical factors in TLD reading. The dosimeters have been irradiated with x rays of (0.5 mGy to 5 mGy) using plastic holder with Aluminum filters with dimensions 1.5 x 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm in thickness to obtain the equivalent dose Hp (10) flux of nitrogen gas and annealing after data collection by TLD Reader Analyzer 04 (Version 0.9.400 micro lab (krakow 2012). The count and dose analysis shows that; The count/s given by TLD appears to be higher in case of using filtration which was 7189.9 eps in contrast with reading without filter which was 4055.8 eps. There was proportional linear relationship between the applied dose and the TLD count for both cases with and without filter. And the correlation could be fitted in the form of equations: y=423.9 x + 1023 and y = 432.5 x + 405.3 for filtered and y refers to count/s. Such increment in count is ascribed to increasing applied radiation dose as well it indicates and confirms the linearity of TLD in measuring the radiation dose since R 2 = 0.9. However the count with filter for the applied radiation dose in mGy was greater than that without filter. The that measured with pellets annealing (reading of zero doses). TLD pellets reading without zero dose measurement usually gives greater dose ( 441.8 and 563.6 μGy) relative to the case where the zero doses have been measured which were 289.6 and 429.2 μGy, respectively. While the effect of using filtration is so obvious and leads to increase of zero dose, respectively relative to dose s of un reading of zero dose, and reading of zero dose, but without filter.(Author)

  8. Direct measurement of annual β dose using TLD on porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of direct measurement of annual β dose using ultrathin TLD (CaSO 4 :Tm) on porcelain was studied. Since the TLD was placed into a hole left after sampling for the TL measurement, the method will not cause any new damage to the studied object. The results show that the technique is suitable for measuring annual β dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  9. 78 FR 52694 - Price Cap Rules for Certain Postal Rate Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Service outlined the basic concept that eventually formed the basis of Sec. 3010.23(d).\\20\\ The Postal... Establishing a System of Ratemaking, January 30, 2007 (Order No. 2). \\20\\ Docket No. RM2007-1, Reply Comments.... RM2007-1, Second Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Regulations Establishing a System of Ratemaking...

  10. Quality control in medical radiology using T.L.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolemberg Silva, F.A.; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work tests of quality control in beams of X rays have been carried out, at diagnostic level, of two radiological services equipments of Brazilian hospitals (Aracaju, SE). We obtained the air kerma and kerma rate values, the beams efficiency, the coherence between the luminous fields and the referring fields of irradiation and half-value layer to each equipment and set of parameters. The measures of direct form have been obtained using two ionization chambers, one cylindrical and another one with parallel plates. An optional method for accomplishment some of the tests were carried out with CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon thermoluminescent dosimeters. The values of air kerma were evaluated for three tube voltage, 40, 60 and 81 kV at 1.0 m from the focus of the equipments. For each one of the voltages three distinct current values were chosen besides a fixed value of exposition time. The results showed that the values of air kerma varied between 8.0 μGy and 0.35 μGy. The T.L.D. have revealed useful for the measures if the response to the dose is previously known for each set of beam parameters used for the irradiations. Otherwise, the tests with the dosimeters can serve to evaluate the beams conditions and their reproducibility. The evaluation results of coherence between the luminous fields and the irradiation fields demonstrated that the difference between the radiation and the luminous fields did not exceed 2% of the distance between the focal point and the film. We found satisfactory values for half-value layer. (author)

  11. Differences in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves derived from distict mixed gamma/neutron field irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.

    2013-01-01

    In Neutron Capture Therapy, a thermal neutron beam shall impinge on a specific nuclide, such as 10 B, to promote a nuclear reaction which releases the useful therapeutic energy. A nuclear reactor is usually used as the neutron source, and therefore field contaminants such as gamma and high energy neutrons are also present in the field. However, mixed field dosimetry still stands as a challenge in some cases, due to the difficulty to experimentally discriminate the dose from each field component. For the mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation end Units (ICRU) recommends the use of detector pairs with different responses for each beam component. The TLD 600/700 pair meets this need, because these LiF detectors have different Li isotopes concentration, with distinct thermal neutron responses because 6 Li presents a much higher neutron capture cross section than does 7 Li for low energy neutrons. TLD 600 is 6 Li enriched while TLD 700 is 7 Li enriched. However, depending on the neutron spectrum presented in the mixed field, TLD 700 response to thermal neutrons cannot be disregarded. This work aims to study the difference in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves when these TLDs are submitted to mixed fields of different energy spectra and components balance. The TLDs were irradiated in a pure gamma source, and in mixed fields from an AmBe sealed source and from the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. These TLDs were read and had their two main dosimetric regions analyzed to observe the differences in the glow curves of these TLDs in each irradiation. Field components discrimination was achieved through Monte Carlo simulations run with MCNP radiation transport code. (author)

  12. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  13. Towards an automated TLD system that meets international requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Vanamo, V.

    1988-01-01

    The new recently introduced fully automated TLD system developed by Alnor OY on the basis of the Riso prototype, is intended to meet draft IEC/ISO proposals and ANSI requirements. Part of the system is a personal dosemeter badge and an environmental dosemeter package following ICRU recommendations. The overall system consists of a software-controlled automated reader, a programable irradiator/calibrator, a computer, and dosemeters for environmental, whole body, extremity and clinical applications. The personal TLD badge that contains four TLD pellets is designed to agree with ICRU H p (10) and H s (0.07) quantities for determining dose equivalent. The badge can accommodate a large variety of the most commonly used solid TL dosemeter products. A special effort was put into the evaluation of skin dose by considering the use of graphite-mixed hot-sintered LiF pellets. The TLD system is described and results from a performance test that comprised measurements of photon energy response, angular dependence, and reproducibility are presented

  14. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  15. Dosimetric quality control in radiotherapy using TLD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravi, M.C.; Kessler, C.; Alvarez, P.E.; Feld, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Development of a Quality Assurance Program for Radiation Therapy Dosimetry in Developing Countries' a Dosimetric Quality Control Group was set up in Argentina in 1996, to develop a program in order to improve radiotherapy in the country. Nowadays, this Group, briefly called External Audit Group (EAG), is composed by the national Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), which has the responsibility for dose determinations, traceability to international dosimetry chain and TLD measurements, and two Medical Physicists from CNEA who are working at the Oncology Hospital 'Marie Curie' in Buenos Aires. The present paper reports the activities performed by the EAG with external high energy photon beams in reference conditions and the results of two pilot studies on cobalt 60 beams in non-reference conditions. The first step of the program was to update the existing data base about the radiotherapy centres operating in the country. A form was sent to each of them in order to obtain basic information about their staff, number and type of treatment machines, brachytherapy sources, measuring devices, beam calibration, treatment planning system, simulator and other relevant data. 90 radiotherapy centres were registered in the EAG data base. Forms were completed by 75/90 centres. There are nowadays 69 cobalt 60 units and 42 LINACs operating in the country (18/42 LINACs producing high energy X ray and electron beams). EAG deals with measurements performed with mailed TLD irradiated at radiotherapy centres. Internal quality control on our TLD system is made during each audit by means of reference capsules irradiated by IAEA; external controls consist in blind tests performed by IAEA once a year. The correction factor, K en , determined at our SSDL for high energy X-rays was checked with the collaboration of IAEA and Prague National Radiation Protection Institute (PNRPI) by means of a blind test. Results for 4 MV, 6 MV

  16. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  17. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate (NPR) experimental product on August 15, 2013. The Postal...

  18. 78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--CPI AGENCY... mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC), effective on January 26... Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) to reflect these new price changes. DATES: We...

  19. The cardiac catheterization laboratory personnel TLD dosimetry in Dr. Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, Sh.

    2004-01-01

    In this study all of the personnel of Angiography of Dr.Faghihi hospital used TLD service During 2002-2003. This service was given by center for Radiation Protection and Application of the Shiraz University. These staff were divided in two group, one groups was technicians and the other group was the nurses. The result of this research shows that the maximum dose received to Technicians and nurses were 0.4mSv and 0.55mSV respectively. The average annual dose to technicians and nurses were 0.02 mSv and 0.19 mSv. This result shows that the nurses of this hospital receive more dose than the techniques

  20. Environmental monitoring system with TLD; Sistema de monitoreo ambiental con TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguerre, L.; Carelli, J.; Gregori, B. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina (Argentina)]. e-mail: laguerre@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    Presently work the methodology used by the Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) to gauge it system of environmental monitoring in function of the media absorbed dose rate in free air and the environmental dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10), according to the recommendation ICRU Report 47 is described. It was studied the response of the environmental dosemeter (DA) in fields of photonic radiation of energies W60, Wl 10, W200 and {sup 137} Cs. The irradiations were carried out following the recommendations of the standard ISO:4037. It was analyzed the response in the DA of the detectors LiF: Mg, Ti and CaF{sub 2}: Dy for the different radiation qualities and the relative response at {sup 137} Cs of both. The methodology used in the evaluation of the dose includes: the correction of the readings of both detectors by fading, gotten experimentally, the witness of transfers, the energy answer and the value of the zero. The dose is calculated applying the average pondered in uncertainty of the dose obtained for each type of detector. Its were analyzed and calculated the uncertainties that affect to the measurement following the recommendation of the Argentine standard IRAM 35050. The detection limit of the absorbed dose rate in free air of this system it is 3.5 n Gy/h for a period of sampling of 3 months. With this detection limit environmental dose equivalent rates of the order of 70 n Sv/h are measured with an expanded uncertainty of the order of 10% with a cover factor k = 2. (Author)

  1. 39 CFR 265.13 - Compliance with subpoenas, summonses, and court orders by postal employees within the Inspection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assigned to the Postal Inspection Service, student interns, contractors and employees of contractors who... or testimony fails to cooperate in good faith, preventing Inspection Service legal counsel from... disruptive methods to the employee's official duties. Testimony may, for example, be provided by affidavits...

  2. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  3. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in TLD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Qronfla, M.M.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kinsara, A.A.; Taha, T.M.; Molla, N.I.; Elmohr, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is presented by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, blind tests, internal dose quality audit and external quality control audits. Two hundred and forty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 4000 degree C followed by 2 h at 1000 degree C. After exposure of 1 mGy from 90 Sr irradiator TLDs were subjected to pre-readout annealing at 1000 degree C, then readout, sorted into groups each with nearly equal sensitivity. Upon repeating the procedures, TLDs having response >3.5% from group mean were dropped to assuring group stability. Effect of pre-readout annealing has been studied. Series of repeated measurements were conducted to stabilize calibration procedures and DCF generation using SSDL level 137 Cs calibrator, dose master, ionization chambers. Performed internal dose quality audits, blind tests and validated by external QC tests with King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology

  4. Test of an albedo neutron dosimetry system: TLD calibration and readout procedure, neutron calibration, dosimetry properties, routine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1988-03-01

    The two-component albedo dosemeter in use consists of an universal boron-loaded plastic encapsulation, the beta and albedo neutron windows of which are adopted to the corresponding TLD system of the manufacturers Alnor, Harshaw, Panasonic and Vinten. Beside the TLD detectors the capsule may contain also track etch detectors. Within a BMU project the system was investigated by four governmental measurement services in the FRG with respect to its qualification for personnel monitoring with emphasis in the readout and calibration procedures for the TLD system, the evaluation technique for the estimation of the photon and neutron dose equivalent in routine monitoring and the calibration of the personnel dosemeter in stray neutron fields. The test has shown the readiness of the system to act in the application areas of nuclear power reactors and linacs behind heavy shieldings, in the fuel element cycle, use of fissile materials, criticality, use of radionuclide sources, high energy particle accelerators. The uncertainty due to energy dependence was found to be within a factor of 2 for a single application area. In the case of irradiations from the front half space the dose equivalent H'(10) is indicated sufficiently independent of the direction of the radiation incidence. After completion of the test the albedo dosemeter became the official neutron personnel dosemeter in the FRG. It allows the separate estimation of the dose equivalent of hard beta radiation, photon radiation and neutrons. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Environmental radiation measurements using TLD in and around AERE, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Husain, S.R.; Rahman, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The external background radiation level in and around the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) in Dhaka has been measured. The measurements were performed using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) at 32 locations, all one metre above the ground. The annual average dose rate measured in the AERE environs was 1.74+-0.23 mGy.y -1 in air, based on analysis of thermoluminescence dosemeter data collected from 1982 to 1984. (author)

  6. Meeting regulatory standards with BeO ceramic TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Christian, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of exposures below 1 mR are possible with BeO ceramic TLD by signal recording that discriminates against an interfering pyroelectric incandescence. Performance under environmental monitoring conditions is considered in light of current regulatory criteria. Factors such as reproducibility and batch uniformity are satisfactory. An anomalous energy dependence causes an over-response that will probably require use of an energy compensation shield

  7. 76 FR 30542 - Adult Signature Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Adult Signature Services AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final..., Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 503.8, to add a new extra service called Adult Signature. This new service has two available options: Adult Signature Required and Adult Signature Restricted Delivery. DATES...

  8. 76 FR 10628 - International Product Change-International Business Reply Service Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642.

  9. Indoor gamma radiation monitoring In Rawalpindi, Pakistan using TLD100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Sana; Tufail, Muhammad; Sohail, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Natural radioactivity originates from extraterrestrial sources as well as from radioactive elements in earth's crust. The amount of radioactivity varies from place to place and with altitude. The aim of this study was to observe the indoor radiation level in Rawalpindi using TLD. For this purpose LiF:Mg:Ti (TLD100) chips were used. Chips were annealed and then calibrated using different sources and the calibration factor obtained by using Cs137 source was selected for dose estimation. Its value was 0.1403 μGy/TL response. Rawalpindi categorized into six regions. In each region, 5 cemented houses were selected and TLD 100 chips were placed at a distance of 0.5 m from ground the level. Chips were properly covered to protect them from ultraviolet light and moisture and were placed for three months. The average annual indoor dose rate for Rawalpindi was estimated to be 392.105μGy/yr and average dose to be 97.65μGy. Therefore, the effective dose for population of Rawalpindi from indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 313.68μSv/yr using an indoor occupancy factor of 80%. (author)

  10. The Seibersdorf TL Personnel Dosimetry Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author)

  11. The Seibersdorf TL Personnel Dosimetry Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duftschmid, K E [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

    1994-11-01

    Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author).

  12. Self-shielding factors for TLD-600 and TLD-100 in an isotropic flux of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Dubi, A.; Ben Shahar, B.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters in mixed n-γ environments, and the dependence of LiF-TL on linear energy transfer are both topics of current interest. Monte Carlo calculations have therefore been carried out to determine the thermal neutron absorption probability (and consequently the self-shielding factor) for an isotropic flux of neutrons impinging on different sized cylindrical samples of LiF TLD-100 and TLD-600. The calculations were performed for cylinders of radius up to 10 cm and heights of 0.1 to 1.5 cm. The Monte Carlo results were found to be significantly different from the analytic calculations for infinitely long cylinders, but, as expected, converged to the same value for (r/h) << 1. (U.K.)

  13. Neutron dose measurements of Varian and Elekta linacs by TLD600 and TLD700 dosimeters and comparison with MCNP calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Darestani, Hoda; Banaee, Nooshin; Shagholi, Negin; Mohammadi, Kheirollah; Shahvar, Arjang; Bayat, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    High-energy linacs produce secondary particles such as neutrons (photoneutron production). The neutrons have the important role during treatment with high energy photons in terms of protection and dose escalation. In this work, neutron dose equivalents of 18 MV Varian and Elekta accelerators are measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 600 and TLD700 detectors and compared with the Monte Carlo calculations. For neutron and photon dose discrimination, first TLDs were calibrated separately by gamma and neutron doses. Gamma calibration was carried out in two procedures; by standard 60Co source and by 18 MV linac photon beam. For neutron calibration by (241)Am-Be source, irradiations were performed in several different time intervals. The Varian and Elekta linac heads and the phantom were simulated by the MCNPX code (v. 2.5). Neutron dose equivalent was calculated in the central axis, on the phantom surface and depths of 1, 2, 3.3, 4, 5, and 6 cm. The maximum photoneutron dose equivalents which calculated by the MCNPX code were 7.06 and 2.37 mSv.Gy(-1) for Varian and Elekta accelerators, respectively, in comparison with 50 and 44 mSv.Gy(-1) achieved by TLDs. All the results showed more photoneutron production in Varian accelerator compared to Elekta. According to the results, it seems that TLD600 and TLD700 pairs are not suitable dosimeters for neutron dosimetry inside the linac field due to high photon flux, while MCNPX code is an appropriate alternative for studying photoneutron production.

  14. Developmental roles of the BMP1/TLD metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2006-03-01

    The astacin family (M12A) of the metzincin subclan MA(M) of metalloproteinases has been detected in developing and mature individuals of species that range from hydra to humans. Functions of this family of metalloproteinase vary from digestive degradation of polypeptides, to biosynthetic processing of extracellular proteins, to activation of growth factors. This review will focus on a small subgroup of the astacin family; the bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1)/Tolloid (TLD)-like metalloproteinases. In vertebrates, the BMP1/TLD-like metalloproteinases play key roles in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via biosynthetic processing of various precursor proteins into mature functional enzymes, structural proteins, and proteins involved in initiating mineralization of the ECM of hard tissues. Roles in ECM formation include: processing of the C-propeptides of procollagens types I-III, to yield the major fibrous components of vertebrate ECM; proteolytic activation of the enzyme lysyl oxidase, necessary to formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers; processing of NH2-terminal globular domains and C-propeptides of types V and XI procollagen chains to yield monomers that are incorporated into and control the diameters of collagen type I and II fibrils, respectively; processing of precursors for laminin 5 and collagen type VII, both of which are involved in securing epidermis to underlying dermis; and maturation of small leucine-rich proteoglycans. The BMP1/TLD-related metalloproteinases are also capable of activating the vertebrate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like "chalones" growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, also known as myostatin), and GDF11 (also known as BMP11), involved in negative feedback inhibition of muscle and neural tissue growth, respectively; by freeing them from noncovalent latent complexes with their cleaved prodomains. BMP1/TLD-like proteinases also liberate the vertebrate TGF

  15. The characteristics of CaF2:Tm crystals (TLD-300) irradiated by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; Yona, S.; Laichter, Y.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1985-09-01

    The main characteristics of the CaF 2 :Tm crystals (TLD-300), as a dosimeter, were measured: the glow curve, sensitivity, linearity, fading and energy dependence for photons, and compared to those of LiF (TLD-100) and CaF 2 :Dy (TLD-200). It was found that CaF 2 :Tm can be used for environmental dosimetry by reading the crystals after four days. (Author)

  16. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased

  17. Study of a method based on TLD detectors for in-phantom dosimetry in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Klamert, V. [Dept. of Nuclear Eng. of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Agosteo, S. [INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Dept. of Nuclear Eng. of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Birattari, C.; Gay, S. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [FIS-ION, ENEA, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method has been developed, based on thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), aimed at measuring the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms exposed to thermal or epithermal neutrons, separating the contributions of various secondary radiation generated by neutrons. The proposed method takes advantage of the very low sensitivity of CaF{sub 2}:Tm (TLD-300) to low energy neutrons and to the different responses to thermal neutrons of LiF:Mg,Ti dosemeters with different {sup 6}Li percentage (TLD-100, TLD-700, TLD-600). The comparison of the results with those obtained by means of gel dosemeters and activation foils has confirmed the reliability of the method. The experimental modalities allowing reliable results have been studied. The glow curves of TLD-300 after gamma or neutron irradiation have been compared; moreover, both internal irradiation effect and energy dependence have been investigated. For TLD-600, TLD-100 and TLD-700, the suitable fluence limits have been determined in order to avoid radiation damage and loss of linearity. (authors)

  18. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and its other depositors which guarantee all prior endorsements thereon; (2) Give immediate credit... DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements...

  19. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R.

    1999-01-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm 3 covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  20. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 55 NRC-licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first half of 1981. The program objectives, scope, and methodology are given. The TLD system, dosimeter location, data processing scheme, and quality assurance program are outlined

  1. A TLD dose algorithm using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Rotunda, J.E.; Tawil, R.A.; Rathbone, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An artificial neural network was designed and used to develop a dose algorithm for a multi-element thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). The neural network architecture is based on the concept of functional links network (FLN). Neural network is an information processing method inspired by the biological nervous system. A dose algorithm based on neural networks is fundamentally different as compared to conventional algorithms, as it has the capability to learn from its own experience. The neural network algorithm is shown the expected dose values (output) associated with given responses of a multi-element dosimeter (input) many times. The algorithm, being trained that way, eventually is capable to produce its own unique solution to similar (but not exactly the same) dose calculation problems. For personal dosimetry, the output consists of the desired dose components: deep dose, shallow dose and eye dose. The input consists of the TL data obtained from the readout of a multi-element dosimeter. The neural network approach was applied to the Harshaw Type 8825 TLD, and was shown to significantly improve the performance of this dosimeter, well within the U.S. accreditation requirements for personnel dosimeters

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring of nuclear sites by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1978-04-01

    The measurement of environmental radiation doses around nuclear facilities requires the detection of few mrem/year. The properties of the automatic TLD-system Harshaw Mod. 2271 for such measurements have been evaluated under practical conditions and optimized techniques derived. The automatic TLD-system is based on LiF dosimeter cards with two crystals providing gamma and beta dose values. Limit of detection defined as three standard deviations of residuel dose is 1,2 mR. Automatic readout combined with electronic data evaluation are especially useful for large monitoring networks. Practical intercomparisons of this dosimeter with bulb-type CaF 2 detectors have been performed showing good agreement of both detector. Although bulb-dosimeters proved to be extremely sensitive with a limit of detection at 0,012 mR which makes them very suitable for very short exposure times, the automatic LiF system is superior in regards of man power requirement if monthly monitoring periods are sufficient. The system has been tested in practice during two international intercomparisons performed by the US Department of Energy - Health and Safety Laboratory New York and the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany, showing excellent agreement. Furthermore a routine monitoring network consisting of 12 measurement positions around the Research Center Seibersdorf has been operated with this technique since more than two years. (author)

  3. Influences of scattering radiation in a TLD irradiation room, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Suwa, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    The influence of scattering radiation (SR) on radiation dose rate (DR) in a TLD irradiation room was assessed. A single SD from a standard TLD apparatus, i.e., an acrylic or aluminum table, was examined. The maximum DR was attained at approximately 80 cm from the radiation source. Energy spectra of SR ranged up to the energy of direct radiation beam. Circular SD at one m from the radiation source, which contributed to DR to the direct radiation beam, was almost homogeneous. SD was large near the irradiation table, and the influence of SD on DR became smaller with SD being vertically farther from the apparatus. The influence of SD on RD to the direct radiation beam became less with an increase in gamma ray energy. At one m from the radiation source, 6 - 7 % of SD contributed to DR to the direct radiation beam for 0.662 MeV of gamma ray. This figure was one half of that with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Response of TLD-100"T"M microtubes to two RQR3 quality radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, M.G.; Villani, D.; Almeida, S.B.; Vivolo, V.; Yoriyaz, H.; Louis, G.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present work compares the response of TLD-100"T"M microcubes to two RQR 3 diagnostic radiology reference quality radiation beams, defined by IEC-61267 norm, aiming to evaluate the detectability of TLD-100"T"M energy dependence reported in literature within the same reference quality radiation range. TLD-100"T"M microcubes reproducibility is assessed through the response of a second set of TLD-100"T"M microcubes, evaluated in a second thermoluminescence reader, to the RQR 3 diagnostic radiology reference quality radiation beam implemented at the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. The dependence of TLD-100"T"M microcubes TL response was not detectable in these conditions and the reproducibility of the measurements is 90,2%. (author)

  5. 75 FR 66677 - New Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Authentication Confirm Customized Postage International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail... International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail Service Money Orders Post Office Box...) International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 (MC2009-14 and CP2009-20) International Business...

  6. 75 FR 53216 - New Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Authentication Confirm Customized Postage International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail... International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail Service Money Orders Post Office Box...) International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 (MC2009-14 and CP2009-20) International Business...

  7. Violence and stress at work in the postal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Giga, Sabir I; Hoel, Helge; Cooper, Cary L

    2003-01-01

    Reviews literature on the prevalence, causes and consequences of violence and stress within the postal sector and presents examples of good practice and relevant sources of information to guide practitioners and researchers.

  8. The Postal Acceptance Rule in the Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ibrahim, Marwan; Ababneh, Ala’eldin; Tahat, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the application of the postal acceptance rule to email acceptances. Differentviews have been argued against the application of traditional rule like the postal acceptance rule, which wasestablished in 1818 as a legal norm in contract formation to modern communications like the email. The paperpresents the arguments and rationale behind the application of this rule and contends its applicability to themodern communication via e-mail. The paper posits that email is not an ...

  9. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, J.; Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk for skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK.\\ud Aims: To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential str...

  10. 78 FR 67951 - Price Cap Rules for Certain Postal Rate Adjustments; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3010 [Docket No. RM2013-2; Order No. 1786] Price Cap Rules for Certain Postal Rate Adjustments; Corrections AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Postal Regulatory Commission published a document in the Federal Register...

  11. 76 FR 77483 - Nationwide Change in Postal Delivery Service Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... which it seeks this advisory opinion are explained in the Direct Testimony of David E. Williams on... public.'' Christopher Laver is designated to serve as Public Representative to represent the interests of... and 3661(c), the Commission appoints Christopher Laver to represent the interests of the general...

  12. The Humane Art, English Teachers, and the Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veidemanis, Gladys V.

    1982-01-01

    Stresses the importance of letter writing as an enriching activity; describes "All About Letters," a resource booklet for teaching students to write letters; and suggests additional activities that can be used to incorporate letter writing skills into composition classes. (JL)

  13. Department of Telecommunications and Postal Services : Cybersecurity Operations & Cybersecurity Hub

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget Yes No Unknown 5% 52% 13% 4% 1% 12% 13% Board of Directors Chief Information Officer (CIO) Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Audit Unknown Other Cybersecurity Reporting Function Development of National Standards... with any sector CSIRTs that may be established Co-ordination Making South Africa a Global Leader in Harnessing ICTs for Socio-economic Development 12 Sector CSIRTs as at end 2015- 2016 financial year • At the end of the 2015-2016 financial year...

  14. 77 FR 10033 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... speaker list must be received in writing (letter, email or fax) prior to the close of business on March 13, 2012; written comments from members of the public for distribution at this meeting must reach Mr. Hillsberg by letter, email or fax by this same date. A member of the public requesting reasonable...

  15. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... speaker list must be received in writing (letter, email or fax) prior to the close of business on May 8, 2012; written comments from members of the public for distribution at this meeting must reach Ms. Jezierny by letter, email or fax by this same date. A member of the public requesting reasonable...

  16. 76 FR 51311 - Administrative Practice and Procedure, Postal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... in the Domestic Mail Classification Schedule (DMCS) and the International Mail Manual to develop a... Conditions, and Part D--Country Price Lists for International Mail. Part A--Market Dominant Products, is... market dominant Market Tests. International products, which did not appear in the former DMCS, now are...

  17. 77 FR 63898 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction... of the contract and related financial information under seal. In the Statement of Supporting...- identifying information, and related financial information should remain confidential. Id. at 3. This...

  18. 77 FR 63899 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction... materials to maintain redacted portions of the contract and related financial information under seal. In the...- identifying information, and related financial information should remain confidential. Id. at 3. This...

  19. Brazilian two-component TLD albedo neutron individual monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Since 1983, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil, uses a TLD one-component albedo neutron monitor, which has a single different calibration factor specifically for each installation type. In order to improve its energy response, a two-component albedo monitor was developed, which measure the thermal neutron component besides the albedo one. The two-component monitor has been calibrated in reference neutron fields: thermal, five accelerator-produced monoenergetic beams (70, 144, 565, 1200 and 5000 keV) and five radionuclide sources ({sup 252}Cf, {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O), {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 241}Am-B and {sup 238}Pu-Be) at several distances. Since January 2008, mainly Brazilian workers who handle neutron sources at different distances and moderation, such as in well logging and calibration facilities are using it routinely.

  20. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  2. The intercomparison of 137Cs irradiator output measurement and personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), using TLD and film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Susetyo Trijoko; Sri Inang Sunaryati

    2010-01-01

    Intercomparison of output measurement of 137 Cs irradiator and personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) using TLD and film have been carried out in the year of 2006 to 2008. According to IAEA recommendation, intercomparison is one of audit activities but it is performed in the spirit of collaboration and support rather than in the spirit of inspection. The aim of intercomparison of output measurement of 137 Cs irradiator is to verify the dose stated by the participant laboratories. Intercomparison is also to assess the competency of the participant, to keep traceability and consistency of measurement result, to assure that instrument work correctly and the result of evaluation was in agreement, and also for fulfilling one of the clauses of ISO-17025-2005. Besides that, this intercomparison aimed to facilitate link between the system and members of national measurement and transfer of experience in measurement technique and dose evaluation of radiation. The benefit of intercomparison is important among others as tests of proficiency in dose evaluation or measurement, upgrading quality of service and for obeying supervisor body legislation (BAPETEN). TLD was used as a means of output 137 Cs irradiator measurement, whereas film and TLD were used for dose intercomparison. This paper presented result of intercomparison of output measurement and evaluation of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) in the year of 2006 to 2008 followed by 6 participants: Balai Pengamanan Fasilitas Kesehatan (BPFK) Jakarta, Medan, Surabaya, Makasar, PTLR and Laboratory of Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Lingkungan (KKL)-PTKMR BATAN. In this intercomparison, the dose of TLD stated by participant were compared with the dose measured by Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMR), and the results showed the differences were within 10 %, so it was satisfied. The results of intercomparison of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) were evaluated based on ISO/IEC Guide 43-1, 1997 analysis and expressed as E n . The values of E n

  3. Experimental determination of the photon-energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [Vivantes Clinic Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy; Feist, Harald [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Georg, Holger [PTW Freiburg (Germany). Calibration Lab.; Haering, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study has been the experimental determination of the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors (Harshaw) in X-ray beams with mean photon energies from about 20 to 200 keV in comparison with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and 6 MV X-rays. Experiments were carried out in collaboration with the German secondary standard laboratory PTW Freiburg. The energy dependent relative responses of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescence detectors were determined at radiation qualities between 30 kV{sub p} and 280 kV{sub p}. The overall uncertainty of the measured values was characterized by standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 3%. The present results agree with previous studies on the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD100. As an application example, the results were used to measure doses associated with X-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy.

  4. 76 FR 51257 - First-Class Package Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Services and Parcel Select mailpieces, all mail sent to military addresses within the United States and to...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is revising Mailing Standards of the United States Postal... Service parcels will receive the same service as First-Class Mail, however, parcels mailed at commercial...

  5. 78 FR 69711 - Change in Postal Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    .... Domestic Extra Services. Premium Forwarding Service prices increase slightly, and a new pricing option is... volume threshold for cubic pricing and other Commercial Plus offerings are decreased to 50,000 packages... methods for which GXG Commercial Base and PMEI Commercial Base pricing is available; the establishment of...

  6. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  7. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1989-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1989

  8. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, January-March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first quarter of 1988

  9. Dosimetric properties of the 'Pille' portable, wide dose range TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, P.P.; Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetric properties of a portable TLD reader are described. The TLD system named 'Pille' or 'moth' consists of a lightweight battery-operated portable TLD reader and its CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters. The reproducibility of the TLD system at constant temperature was found to be better than + -2%, and the mean time between failures exceeded 5 years. The dose range of the system is wide, covering more than 6 orders of magnitude, from 5 μGy to 10 Gy. The energy dependence of the CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters is less than + - 20% above 100 keV in the energy compensation capsules. Without additional annealing, the bulb dosemeters can be re-used at least 100 times, which is an important aspect during in situ measurements. (author)

  10. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1988

  11. Methods on TLD management be applicable in nuclear power plantsunder the multi-reactor operational mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Huiyong; Wen Qinghua; Li Ruirong; Yu Enjian

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods on management of TLD dosimeters adopted in DNMC and other NPPs, analyzes and evaluates their both defects and advantages. Facing the coming of the multi-reactor operational mode applied in NPPs, a new method intelligent management mode is put forward, this optimized method not only assures the accuracy of TLD's measurement but also reduces the cost of production and improves the efficiency of management greatly. (authors)

  12. TLD system for the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Sahagia, Maria; Tudor, Ion

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a high sensitivity TLD system, designed for the survey of the environmental radioactivity. It is based on the use of TL detectors type LiF:Mg, Cu, P, commercially known as GR-200A. The dosimeter designed in our Institute, contains 3 detectors, and the measurement value is calculated as the arithmetic mean. A very sensitive, TL Reader, READER ANALYSER RA'94 was chosen and an optimal thermal cycle was designed, such as to enhance the measurement performances. For each placement, a set of 3 dosemeters is used, and survey intervals from 1 to 100 days, depending on the radioactivity level and reporting requirements, are selected. The technical characteristics of the system were determined by exposing the dosimeters in reference X and gamma radiation fields, such as required by the IEC standard 61066:iun.2006 'Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring'. The main technical parameters are of highest quality and recommend it for use in the survey of the environmental radioactivity, at the level of ambient dose equivalent rate, due to normal natural radioactivity, in open areas. The paper describes the method of characterisation and measurement results, as well as their relevance. (author)

  13. The application of artificial neural networks to TLD dose algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the application of feed forward neural networks to multi element thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) dose algorithm development. A Neural Network is an information processing method inspired by the biological nervous system. A dose algorithm based on a neural network is a fundamentally different approach from conventional algorithms, as it has the capability to learn from its own experience. The neural network algorithm is shown the expected dose values (output) associated with a given response of a multi-element dosimeter (input) many times.The algorithm, being trained that way, eventually is able to produce its own unique solution to similar (but not exactly the same) dose calculation problems. For personnel dosimetry, the output consists of the desired dose components: deep dose, shallow dose, and eye dose. The input consists of the TL data obtained from the readout of a multi-element dosimeter. For this application, a neural network architecture was developed based on the concept of functional links network (FLN). The FLN concept allowed an increase in the dimensionality of the input space and construction of a neural network without any hidden layers. This simplifies the problem and results in a relatively simple and reliable dose calculation algorithm. Overall, the neural network dose algorithm approach has been shown to significantly improve the precision and accuracy of dose calculations. (authors)

  14. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  15. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.A.; Reitz, G.; Arkhanguelski, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised

  16. Use of MCNP to compare the response of dose deposited in the TLD 100, TLD 600 and TLD 700 in radiation fields due to {sup 60}Co and {sup 241}AmBe source; Uso do MCNP para comparacao das respostas de dose depositada nos TLD 100, TLD 600 e TLD 700 em campos de irradiacao devido a fontes de {sup 60}Co e {sup 241}AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: tassio.cavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    The successes of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depend on the ability to deliver an adequate irradiation field to the target cells. Neutron beams used in BNCT are mostly driven from reactors and therefore, not only have a neutron energy range which far exceeds the thermal region but also do have a great gamma component. Beam characterization and dosimetry are consequently one of the essential procedures to be overcome to properly apply this technique. One of the methods currently used in mixed field (field containing both neutron and gamma) characterization, lies on the use of a pair of detectors with distinct responses to each beam component. But this technique needs to be better understood of how each thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) behaves in a mixed field or in a pure field. This work presents the results of a set of simulations performed in order to analyze the response of three ordinary types of TLDs - TLD 100, TLD 600 and TLD 700 - submitted to different irradiation fields from a Cobalt source and an Americium-Beryllium source inside a paraffin disk. And is also a possible method for performing the selection and calibration of theses TLDs. (author)

  17. Assessment of dose using TLD during activity handling at RPhL, BRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choughule, Nitin V.; Bairwa, S.M.; Murali, S.; Rakesh, R.B.; Madhumita, B.; Adtani, M.M.; Mehra, Kiran; Padmanabhan, D.; Borkute, S.D.; Pal, N.; Sachdev, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical Lab (RPhL), BRIT undertakes production, supply of radiopharmaceuticals. At RPhL short lived isotopes 131 I, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 125 I, 153 Sm, 32 P and 51 Cr, are handled with total activity handled per week ranging from MBq to TBq (mCiCi). Radiological survey provides idea on radiation level helps to ensure safe working condition. In order to improve the working condition and to estimate the integrated dose over a period of week with uniform pattern of activity handling in the period, a study was carried out using TLD badges. Specifically prepared TLD badges containing CaSO 4 :Dy phosphor were placed at various locations at RPhL It is used for personnel monitoring. One set of TLD was exposed for a week long period while the other set was exposed only during activity handling, kept in the lead pot during the rest of the period. Dose measured by TLDs were compared with the dose estimated using the survey data for the respective locations as well as with the dose estimated using the activity handled by taking into account the time, distance and shielding. The maximum radiation level recorded during lab survey was used to estimate the TLD exposure during the period. It was observed that results on TLD dose measurement and estimated doses using survey results were of same order. The cumulative TLD dose recorded for week duration (168 h) was significantly higher than doses recorded by exposed TLD only during activity handling (8 h). It was expected that the TLD dose would not be more than dose estimated using radiation survey data, while in 3 among 8 experimental TLDs, the dose was ∼ 25% higher. This could be due to the movement of active material or open handling of activity do not get reflected during normal radiation survey and contribution from background radiation at the lab where those TLDs were placed. The individual dose of all the personnel working in different labs were well within the relevant dose limits indicating the safe working condition

  18. 77 FR 42341 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... cost within their target marketing areas. Request at 2. \\2\\ Docket No. MT2011-3, Order Approving Market... Service request to add Every Door Direct Mail-Retail (EDDM-R) to the market dominant product list. This... adding Every Door Direct Mail-Retail (EDDM-R) to the market dominant product list and establishing the...

  19. 75 FR 75151 - International Service Changes-Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Service Changes--Israel AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Limits, and the Individual Country Listings to incorporate a change in Israel's First-Class Mail... proposed rule Federal Register notice (75 FR 39475-39477) that included a change to Israel's First-Class...

  20. 77 FR 11437 - Inspection Service Authority; Seizure and Forfeiture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 233 Inspection Service Authority; Seizure and Forfeiture AGENCY: Postal... Service's rules and regulations regarding the seizure and forfeiture of property into three sections, 39.... The proposed revision consolidates sections 233.8 and 233.9, and treats seizures involving personal...

  1. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities

  2. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, S [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities.

  3. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rodrigues F, M. A.; Vivolo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with 7 Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  5. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries; Intercomparacion TLD en aceleradores para radioterapia en tres paises latinoamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L. [Depto. El Hombre y su Ambiente. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Calz. Del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  6. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelic, M.; Stuhec, M.; Mitic, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Ban, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF 2 :Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  7. 78 FR 17234 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... (DFS) Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) to the market dominant product list.\\1\\ After a [[Page 17235... dominant product list.\\2\\ On March 8, 2013, the Postal Service filed an amendment to the DFS NSA with the...

  8. Personnel dose equivalent monitoring at SLAC using lithium-fluoride TLD's [thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Busick, D.D.

    1987-03-01

    TLD's replaced film badges in the early 1970's for all dose equivalent monitoring, both neutron and photon, and for all locations at SLAC. The photon TLD's, composed of Li-7 loaded teflon discs, are calibrated using conventional gamma-ray sources; i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, etc. For these TLD's a nominal value of 1 nC/mrem is used, and is independent of source energy for 100 keV to 3 MeV. Since measured dose equivalents at SLAC are only a small fraction of the allowable levels, it was not deemed necessary to develop neutron dosimeters which would measure dose equivalent accurately for all possible neutron spectra. Today, wallet TLD's, composed of pairs of Li-7 and Li-6 discs, are used, with the Li-6 measuring only thermal neutrons; i.e., they aren't moderated in any way to make them sensitive to neutrons with energies greater than thermal. The assumption is made that there is a correlation between thermal neutron fluences and fast neutron fluences around the research area where almost all neutron doses (exclusive of sealed sources) are received. The calibration factor for these Li-6 TLD's is 1 nC/mrem of fast neutrons. The method of determining the validity of this calibration is the subject of this note. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L. Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Harshaw TLD system has three key calibration procedures: the Reader, the Dosemeter and the Algorithm. These functions must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosemeter calibration, Harshaw TLD recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24-48 h when calibrating the system for LiF:Mg,Ti type dosemeter. It is also recommended that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the Harshaw TLD models 6600 and 8800 operating systems. These new features are Auto Calibration, Auto QC and Auto Blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read process to be performed automatically in a sequence for each dosemeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of Auto Calibration/Auto QC to the TLD operation. (authors)

  10. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to introduce a new competitive shipping option, Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011...

  11. Improvement of Accuracy in Environmental Dosimetry by TLD Cards Using Three-dimensional Calibration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HosseiniAliabadi S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The angular dependency of response for TLD cards may cause deviation from its true value on the results of environmental dosimetry, since TLDs may be exposed to radiation at different angles of incidence from the surrounding area. Objective: A 3D setting of TLD cards has been calibrated isotropically in a standard radiation field to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of measurement for environmental dosimetry. Method: Three personal TLD cards were rectangularly placed in a cylindrical holder, and calibrated using 1D and 3D calibration methods. Then, the dosimeter has been used simultaneously with a reference instrument in a real radiation field measuring the accumulated dose within a time interval. Result: The results show that the accuracy of measurement has been improved by 6.5% using 3D calibration factor in comparison with that of normal 1D calibration method. Conclusion: This system can be utilized in large scale environmental monitoring with a higher accuracy

  12. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100 Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100 are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times, 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  13. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100) Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R

    2015-12-01

    LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100) are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy) with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC) were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times), 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  14. Optimization of the temperature profiles due to a nitrogen jet impinging on a TLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.; Bar-Kohany, T.; German, U.; Ziskind, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to simulate the temperature profiles during readout in a typical, commercial thermo-luminescence dosimeter (TLD) chip and to optimize the readout conditions. The study makes use of a previously developed numerical model which calculates the crystal's temperature profile evolution inside a TLD crystal compound. The calculated profiles were implemented in the Randall-Wilkins equation to obtain the estimated glow curve. A number of jet temperature profiles were investigated in order to optimize the readout process. - Highlights: • The temperature profiles in a TLD chip compound were simulated. • Some non-routine heating profiles are proposed. • A better efficiency and shorter time can be obtained with these profiles. • The resulting glow curves were evaluated as well

  15. Personal neutron monitoring using TLD albedo combined with etched tracks detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibarakiken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The albedo dosimetry has been carried out in personal neutron monitoring in the MOX fuel plant of JNC Tokai Works, however, it has shortcomings mainly due to the inherently poor energy response. This paper describes our efforts to overcome these difficulties in practical use of albedo dosemeters. The following four subjects are presented: (1) the neutron energy response functions of albedo TLD obtained from the mono-energetic neutron irradiation experiments and the Monte-Carlo calculations, (2) the location- dependent correction factors calculated from the response functions and neutron energy spectra measured in the workplaces, (3) the results of the international personal neutron dosimetry intercomparison program, and (4) the operational comparison program of TLD albedo and etched tracks detector worn by workers engaged in the fabrication process of the MOX fuel plant. Finally, the characteristics of the combination neutron dosemeter using TLD albedo and solid state etched track detector are summarized.

  16. A survey of hospital outpatient services for chronic diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of hospital outpatient services for chronic diseases in Gauteng. ... aspects of the organisation of services, and indirect indicators of patient care. Design. A postal survey of services for asthma, epilepsy, diabetes and hypertension at ...

  17. Program of TLD audits for quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.; Feld, D.; Gomez, C.; Kessler, C.; Montano, R.G.; Lindner, C.; Peretti, M.; Saravi, M.; Miguez, V.; Paidon, S.; Raslawski, E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is known that a high precision in radiotherapy is essential to ensure a successful radiation treatment. To reach this goal it is necessary to detect and minimise many errors, which can be done through a periodic program of quality control, not only internal checks but also participating in external audits that attempt to control the absorbed dose delivered and detect any source of error, coming from the machine itself or from human mistakes. Under the frame of the International Quality Assurance Network for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, a National External Audit Group (EAG) has been created in our country, composed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), 2 Medical Physics and 1 Medical Radiotherapist. The SSDL and one of the Medical Physics belong to the National Atomic Energy Agency, meanwhile the rest of the group belong to the National Pediatric Hospital P rof. J.P.Garrahan . This EAG performs external audits to Radiation Therapy Centres with a thermoluminescence system, which is checked periodically by the IAEA. The audits are performed to the 60 Co γ-ray and high energy X-ray beams that are being used for medical application in the whole country. The SSDL is the responsible of the thermoluminescence measurements; deviation of the absorbed dose determined by the TLD system from the one informed by the Responsible of the Center within the interval ± 5% are considered acceptable while deviations out of this interval require the intervention of the Medical Physic Group and the Radiotherapist in order to determine the cause of the discrepancies. In 1997, 4 audits performed in reference conditions were carried out 68 60 Co units participated in the audits, 61 of them with deviation within the acceptable interval in their first participation, meanwhile 1 got this deviation in repeated audits, after the follow up performed by the Medical Physic Group. Regarding high energy X-ray beams

  18. A GIS Application to Explore Postal Retail Outlet Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Trubint

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of GIS in solving a wide variety of problems in postal operations is expanding. This approach provides the development and usage of new methods in spatial data analysis, as support in achieving a better quality of the decision-making process. The use of location analysis model based on GIS software is implemented in solving the Belgrade postal retail outlet problem. One of the most important experiences of model implementation is that the local environmental conditions have a significant impact on strategic as well as operational approach. A portion of the material included in the paper has resulted from the Serbian PTT and CPC (Canada Post Corporation joint project Location Analysis.

  19. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Davis, S; Griffiths, A

    2016-06-01

    Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  20. Audit on dose delivery by using TLD in Radiotherapy Centers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin; Taiman Kadni; Husaini Salleh; Asmaliza Hashim; Hasrul Husham Hussain

    2004-01-01

    The External Audit Group (EAQ) is established and supported by IAEA. Its main objective is to audit the accuracy of dose delivery to patients in radiotherapy centres or hospitals in developing countries in IAEA member states. At MINT the operation of EAG is managed by Medical Physics Group and supported by Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), MINT. The selected radiotherapy centers are supplied with TLD powder in capsule form, to be irradiated with the required radiation doses, by their physicists. The irradiated TLD is analysed at SSDL. The result of the audit for a few radiotherapy centres in Malaysia, is presented in brief in this paper. (Author)

  1. A microcontroller based readout unit for a smart personnel monitoring TLD badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, U.P.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Kannan, S.

    1997-01-01

    An automated TLD personnel monitoring system is under development to cope up with the requirements of personnel monitoring of rapidly growing number of radiation workers. The core of the system is a smart TLD badge incorporating a memory device and a microcontroller based readout unit for reading the memory contents of the badge. The memory is used to store personnel data including the accumulated dose data. The reader unit has a serial RS 232C interface for connection to a PC for entering/modifying data in the memory. A password protected software has also been developed in C for entering/modifying the data in the single memory. 3 figs

  2. 78 FR 41128 - Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... solution through the postal network, to create an ``unfair or otherwise inappropriate competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer'' particularly with regard to small businesses. It indicates that it is unaware of any small business offering a similar return service, and that it expects small...

  3. Skin dose measurements using MOSFET and TLD for head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Murthy, Vedang; Goel, Vineeta; Tambe, Chandrashekar M.; Dhote, Dipak S.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate skin dose for the patients treated with tomotherapy using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). In vivo measurements were performed for two head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy and compared to TLD measurements. The measurements were subsequently carried out for five days to estimate the inter-fraction deviations in MOSFET measurements. The variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for first patient was 2.2%. Similarly, the variation of 2.3% was observed between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for second patient. The tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimated the skin dose as much as by 10-12% when compared to both MOSFET and TLD. However, the MOSFET measured patient skin doses also had good reproducibility, with inter-fraction deviations ranging from 1% to 1.4%. MOSFETs may be used as a viable dosimeter for measuring skin dose in areas where the treatment planning system may not be accurate.

  4. Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32 P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl and non-calibrated source of 32 P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32 P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32 P and 90 Sr/ 90 Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Development and extension of TLD audit in radiation therapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, J.; Ekendahl, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive and adequate quality assurance (QA) program is a crucial factor in minimizing gross errors and in reducing uncertainties caused during any of consecutive steps of radiation therapy process. Since 1997, the measuring centre of National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague (NRPI) has been performing TLD audit in external beam radiation therapy via mailed TL dosimeters, as a part of comprehensive QA program. The objective of TLD audit is to check dose delivery accuracy at radiation therapy centers and to inform the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) on the situation. The flexibility of the method enables NRPI to inspect each centre at least once every two years. Compared with the EU average, situation in the Czech Republic seems to be similar. 95 % of measurements show deviation up to 5 % (97 % in the EQUAL network). Nevertheless, the acceptance level is stricter (3 %) in the Czech Republic. This is affordable because o(the small size of the country, and better ability to confirm the results promptly , if tolerance levels are exceeded. Still, 84 % of results meet the criteria of 3 %. Both basic and advanced modes of TLD audit may discover deviations in clinical dosimetry or in treatment planning for reference and non reference .conditions, although they do not provide enough data for proper interpretation of errors. The results show the importance of independent TLD audit as a flexible and operational part of the comprehensive quality assurance program. (authors)

  6. Operating experience of an automated TLD dispensing system at CORAL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Arun, R.; Yuvaraj, N.; Karthikeyan, D.; Dheeraj, R.; Akila, R.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Kumar, Amudhu Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of exposures to occupational workers on individual basis is a regulatory requirement to demonstrate compliance that the dose to the workers is well within the dose limit. Over three decades for monitoring of external exposures, CaSO 4 based Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs), which exhibit the required accuracy, reliability and ruggedness have been employed. TLD cards with unique identification number are loaded in plastic cassettes along with photographs are placed in wooden racks at the entry of the controlled area of the plant. However, there is always a chance that a TLD may be misplaced, used by others or there could be a deliberate act of misuse or abuse. To circumvent this it was decided to install an automated TLD dispensing system with individual TLD tracking as well as locking arrangement. CORAL reprocessing facility at IGCAR was the first to install one such system at Kalpakkam and the operating experience of the system for the last two years is brought out in this paper

  7. Skin dose measurements using MOSFET and TLD for head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Murthy, Vedang; Goel, Vineeta; Tambe, Chandrashekar M; Dhote, Dipak S; Deshpande, Deepak D

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate skin dose for the patients treated with tomotherapy using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). In vivo measurements were performed for two head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy and compared to TLD measurements. The measurements were subsequently carried out for five days to estimate the inter-fraction deviations in MOSFET measurements. The variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for first patient was 2.2%. Similarly, the variation of 2.3% was observed between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for second patient. The tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimated the skin dose as much as by 10-12% when compared to both MOSFET and TLD. However, the MOSFET measured patient skin doses also had good reproducibility, with inter-fraction deviations ranging from 1% to 1.4%. MOSFETs may be used as a viable dosimeter for measuring skin dose in areas where the treatment planning system may not be accurate.

  8. Environmental dosimetry system based on LiF : Mg, Ti (TLD-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Vergara, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the various tests carried out to the characterize a thermoluminescence environmental dosimetry systems, using the phosphor LiF:mg,Ti (TLD-100) in chip form. The holder has been specifically designed in order to obtain simplicity in the operation and to assure correct measurements in terms of the new operational quantities in radiation protection (ICRU-1985). Some topics in TLD Environmental Monitoring are discussed (Dark Current, Reference Light, Zero Reading, Free-in-Air or Phantom Calibration, Fading Correction, Transit Dose, etc.), and the proposed solutions are exposed. The tests performed have been designed to conform with the different existing international Standards and Recommendations (ANSI : N545-1975; IEC: Draft 45B-1987, ISO : DP 8034-19849. The data from an European Interlaboratory Programm (EUR-8932) have been used to evaluate the performance : the TLD System presented is among the best systems using TLD-100. The results obtained in the characterization (linearity, repeatability, detection threshold, residue, angular response, stability of stored information, etc.) show the optimum performance of this dosimetric system in its application to environmental gamma dose monitoring. Based on these results, two operational procedures have been developed for the application of this Dosimetric System, specially in Quality Assurance Monitoring Programs around Nuclear Plants in Spain. (author)

  9. Electronic stability and reproducible accuracy of HARSHAW 2000(A,B) TLD-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossef, S.K.; Henaish, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nowadays, the thermoluminescence techniques utilizing natural materials and assorted chemical compound of various geometrical configurations are widely and popularly used on the international scale as a dose evaluation system. The main problems which are usually encounting the accuracy of the evaluated dose by means of such various dosimeter forms are the long and short term stability of the measuring system. Also this manuscript is a very essential details stated out the principle mechanisms which cause that produced TL-readers instability. As it is stated out through the different sections of this issue, it is mainly due to the interior mechanisms of the TLD measuring systems. Further more, the various detailed discussions availed through the different sections of such issue are mainly accompanied by long term experiences gained by the authors. A novel heating cycle mechanism applied to HARSHOW 2000(A and b) TLD analyzer is tested experimentally. Also long and short term stability beside the reproducibility of the TLD reader system were experimentally tested under various seasonable environmental thermal conditions. The results of experimental measurements were noted for a total duration of six months during continuous operation of the TLD reader for one year. 1 fig., 3 tab

  10. 75 FR 76282 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[reg]), to reflect changes to prices and mailing standards for the following Shipping Services: Express Mail[reg], Priority Mail[reg], Parcel Select[reg... following changes to Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM...

  11. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published... request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products List, and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) the Enabling...

  12. 77 FR 31190 - Revised Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... the fall election and holiday mailing cycles, and resume it thereafter. The Postal Service will begin... holiday, the service standard is calculated from the next Postal Service delivery day. CETs are not... destinates in Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands will remain one...

  13. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  14. Comparative study on skin dose measurement using MOSFET and TLD for pediatric patients with acute lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Huda I; Mahyoub, Fareed H; Moftah, Belal A

    2010-07-01

    The object of this study was to compare the difference of skin dose measured in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (mobile MOSFET dose verification system (TN-RD-70-W) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 chips, Harshaw/ Bicron, OH, USA). Because TLD has been the most-commonly used technique in the skin dose measurement of TBI, the aim of the present study is to prove the benefit of using the mobile MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements during the total body irradiation (TBI) over thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The measurements involved 10 pediatric patients ages between 3 and 14 years. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 9 different anatomic sites on each patient. The present results show there is a variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD in all patients, and for every anatomic site selected, there is no significant difference in the dose delivered using MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. However, there is a significant difference for every anatomic site using TLD compared with either the prescribed dose or MOSFET. The results indicate that the dosimeter measurements using the MOSFET gave precise measurements of prescribed dose. However, TLD measurement showed significant increased skin dose of cGy as compared to either prescribed dose or MOSFET group. MOSFET dosimeters provide superior dose accuracy for skin dose measurement in TBI as compared with TLD.

  15. La memoria de Vejer en sus primeras tarjetas postales

    OpenAIRE

    Gámiz-Gordo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se acaba de imprimir este libro sobre imágenes del pasado del gaditano pueblo de Vejer de la Frontera, donde el profesor Gámiz reúne un novedoso plano de la ciudad de 1907 y 40 tarjetas postales fechadas entre 1904 y 1930 (muchas de ellas con puntos de toma localizables en el plano citado, al ser callejero de la época), además de comentarios y reflexiones que el autor realiza sobre las imágenes gráficas, contexto e historia. Así, se abordan temas como memoria e imagen, sus relaciones e int...

  16. Comparison of neutron dose measured by Albedo TLD and etched tracks detector at PNC plutonium fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.

    1996-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has fabricated Plutonium and Uranium Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel for FBR MONJU at Tokai works. In this site, PNC/Panasonic albedo TLDs/1/ are used for personnel neutron monitoring. And a part of workers wore Etched Tracks Detector (ETD) combined with TLD in order to check the accuracy of the neutron dose estimated by albedo TLD. In this paper, the neutron dose measured by TLD and ETD in the routine monitoring is compared at PNC plutonium fuel facilities. (author)

  17. Application of summative content analysis to a postal questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas Howard

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis of replies to closed questions in questionnaires can be undertaken to understand remarks that may explain the responses, provide illustrative examples of issues raised in the questionnaire, define new issues or issues of importance that were not covered in the questionnaire and inform the design of new questions in future surveys. To discuss the usefulness of summative content analysis to free text in postal questionnaires. Content analysis provides useful comparative insights between two respondent groups in the case example provided. Five themes emerged: poor understanding of the concept of 'patient lateral transfer work technique' and the direct instrument nursing observation (DINO) instrument's key directions; outcomes of patient transfer; positive responses; manual handling risk; and poor translation into English of DINO. Respondents need an opportunity to clarify their responses to questionnaires using free text, to provide insight into their understanding of the question being asked, understanding of the concept or construct being discussed, and data triangulation through the confirmation of item responses and free-text comments. Responses to questions in a postal questionnaire and the opportunity for free-text commentary by respondents enable the identification of hidden meanings behind tickbox responses to questions.

  18. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results; Dosimetria in vivo mediante detectores de TLD en implantes de prostata con semillas de I-125: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  19. Thermoluminescent relative efficiencies of TLD-100 for nitrogen ions respect of gamma radiation; Eficiencias termoluminiscentes relativas de TLD-100 para iones de nitrogeno respecto de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha S, K. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the thermoluminescent relative efficiency of those TLD-100 dosemeters irradiated with nitrogen ions with respect to the gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co, in function of the linear energy transfer (LET). Two energy of such nitrogen ions were selected that has the same value from LET when impacting in the dosemeters but with E{sub 1} energy (4.8 MeV) and E{sub 2} (9.95 MeV) smaller and greater respectively that the energy of the Bragg peak. (Author)

  20. 78 FR 35649 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... whether the 2013 Agreement (1) Improves the net financial position of the Postal Service or enhances the... CFR 3015.5 (filed under seal); a public Excel file containing redacted versions of financial...

  1. Parallel analysis of film and TLD application in personal dosimetry of medical staff during application of invasive radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1997-01-01

    Although both types of dosimeters showed similar results for mentioned category of health care workers we wished to emphasize some advantages in use of TLD and film dosemeters in personal dosimetry. The main advantageous of film for dosimetric purposes are that it can provide visual representation of the radiation field and they are cheap, but there are lot of disadvantages. Advantages of TLD are based on: possibility for re-use, practically for whole users working life, small dimensions suitable for results, high precision and specially wide dose range. They are sensitive on low dose, practically for ten times more than film is. Disadvantages of TLD are based on their previous thermal and radiation history and on the fact that information about dose disappears after reading procedure. Considering advantages and disadvantages of both types of dosemeters we decided to propose TLD for routine hospital practice in personal dosimetry. (author)

  2. Studies on dosimetric tests applying source irradiation force of Cs-137 for using in chambers for calibration and TLD type dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Laila Lorena X.; Barbosa, Rugles Cesar; Correa, Rosangela S.

    2011-01-01

    The West Central region of Brazil does not have a basic infrastructure for research, development, training programs, and personnel dosimetry education. All of them applied to environmental, industrial and medical uses. Service deployment for irradiance of TLD, via 137 Cs irradiator J. L. SHEPHERD model 28-8A (444 activity GBq) in CRCN-CO, it is necessary to introduce procedures for calibration of the radiator and other procedures related to dosimetry and calibration. Such procedures should be repeated periodically, as necessary to introduce techniques that make the service of the CRCN-CO a template, and that meet all standards requirements for radioprotection and operation of dosimetry and calibration. The objective of this work was to evaluate the radiation field of Cs-137, and the automatic system which systematizes the calibration procedures attached to a system control target for the radiator/calibration of monitors, and portable dosimeters. (author)

  3. Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Bhatt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on the photon energy dependence of CaSO 4 :Dy embedded teflon TLD discs have been studied. It was found that in the commonly used TLD disc compositions, the proportion of phosphor has only little effect on energy dependence. This dependence could be significantly reduced by using phosphor of grain size less than 1 μm. The experimental results are compared with calculated results. (Auth.)

  4. Fast neutron responses of CaF2:Tm Teflon TLD discs of different thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Hoffmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    The fact that in CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) the ratio of the heights of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks at 240 0 C and 150 0 C is greater for irradiations by high LET radiations than by gamma rays has been found useful for the simultaneous and separate measurement of fast neutron and gamma ray absorbed doses. A recent study has indicated that the mixed field dosimetric characteristics of CaF 2 :Tm could be significantly improved by using thin TLDs. In the present study, CaF 2 :Tm Teflon TLD discs of thickness as low as 0.05 mm were evaluated. The thin discs could be read out by using normal planchette heating if a 400 0 C heat treatment is given to the discs prior to irradiation and TL readout. Influence of encapsulation of thin dosemeters was studied and their utility in situations such as interface dosimetry is discussed. (author)

  5. Pattern check of TLD disc readings - an important tool to identify abnormal conditions in workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Sneha, C.; Bhattacharya, M.; Sahai, M.K.; Pradeep, Ratna; Datta, D.; Bhatnagar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Personnel monitoring for external radiation using CaSO 4 :Dy based TLD badge is well established in Indian radiation protection program. TLD badge enables evaluation of occupational dose based on the pattern and values of the three disc readings. Different patterns of disc readings are obtained depending on the type and energy of radiation in the workplace. Pattern not conforming to the radiation in the workplace also called as improper pattern can be a useful tool for investigation of any deviation / abnormality in workplace or monitoring practices. The paper presents different examples of improper pattern observed in monitoring that has helped to find out the deviations in the workplace or monitoring practices. Results of the experiments conducted to simulate some of the observed pattern are also presented in the paper

  6. The Dependence of the Dose Response Supralinearity of Peak 5 in TLD-100 on Recombination Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Satinger, D.; Oster, L.

    1999-01-01

    Isothermal readout of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) has recently been used to study the dependence of the supralinearity of peak 5 on recombination temperature. The results were interpreted to be in conflict with earlier results which investigated the effect of readout heating rate on the supralinearity of peak 5 in TLD-100. In this work the two experiments are inspected in greater detail. It is illustrated that the isothermal decay data is not in conflict with the heating rate data. However, the heating rate results do apparently indicate a strong transition in the temperature dependence of the relative strengths of the recombination and competitive cross sections at approximately 235 deg. C, which requires further study and analysis. (author)

  7. Further characteristics important in the operation of ceramic BeO TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    There is now a considerable volume of published research dealing with ceramic BeO--TLD (Crase and Gammage, 1975; Yamashita et al., 1974; Scarpa et al., 1971). Its high sensitivity to radiation (1 mR), cheapness, commercial availability, non-toxicity, chemical stability, an atomic number of near tissue equivalence, and resistance to thermal fading, suggest that it should, by now, have found widespread acceptance as a TLD phosphor. It has not. There are only a small handful of reports dealing with the practical application of this type of dosimeter (Puite et al., 1974; Gammage and Haywood, 1976; Gesell et al., 1975). It seems wise, therefore, to look at the phosphor more closely and to focus on characteristics likely to cause problems under real operating conditions, especially those which are acting as a deterrent to its widespread acceptance. Operational characteristics were studied and the results are discussed

  8. PorTL - a compact, portable TLD reader for environmental and personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoke, A.; Feher, I.; Pazmandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for environmental monitoring, for personal and medical dosimetry, for dosimetry in nuclear facilities, etc. Major advantages are their independence of the power supply, small dimension, sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental changes and relatively low cost. The disadvantage is that the detector must be transported for evaluation to a laboratory equipped with a large, heavy and expensive TLD Reader operated by qualified personnel, which considerably increases the costs and delays results. To overcome this disadvantage, the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI), in co-operation with BL Electronics (Hungary), has developed a new and unique TLD system containing a small, portable, battery powered and moderate-price reader for commercial use. This paper gives a detailed description and parameters of this system.(author)

  9. Verification or treatment planning system of radiotherapy using TLD-100; Verificacion de los sistemas de planificacion de tratamiento de radioterapia empleando TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinuela, J., E-mail: jcpinuela@hotmail.co [Hospital Central de Maracay (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Servicio de Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of the treatment planning system (TPS) used in radiotherapy Precise Plan, was carried out using TLD-100 dosimeters, comparing the dose obtained with an ionization chamber. The TLD-100 were calibrated using secondary standard of SSDL, selecting dosimeters which had a standard deviation less than 1% for dosimeter calibration and less than 5% for dosimeter of field, for the tests conducted in TPS, The Alderson Phantom was used to evaluate the wedge and bolus, and Lucy 3D allowed us to evaluate correspondence of CT numbers, volume expansion, beam shaping, precise dose and beam weigh assignment. It was observed that the results of Lucy 3D were within the values expected except the volume expansion process with more than 10% difference, the evaluation of beam modulators systems with wedges and bolus as beam shaping yielded values within the expected with variations less than 5% and to assess the supply of specific doses, it was observed that the values obtained were precise and accurate since the same variation was less than 0.5% for the test. The importance of assessing the TPS lies in our country there is no procedure to verify that system and these tests provide a basis for future comparisons. (author)

  10. African Postal Heritage : Tanzania 1885-1920s : part I : German East Africa, 1885-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 119 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Ostafrika / German East Africa", written by Ton Dietz.

  11. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  12. Performance testing of the environmental TLD system for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toke, L F; Carson, B H; Baker, G G; McBride, M H; Plato, P A; Miklos, J A

    1984-05-01

    Panasonic UD-801 thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLDs ) containing two calcium sulfate phosphors were tested under Performance Specification 3.1 established by the American National Standard Institute ( ANSI75 ) and in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 4.13 ( NRC77 ). The specific qualifying tests included TLD uniformity, reproducibility, energy dependence and directional dependence. The overall measurement uncertainties and associated confidence levels are within the prescribed guidelines defined in the qualifying requirements for environmental TLDs .

  13. Evaluation of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100 for Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Liuzzi

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to investigate thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs response to intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT beams. In an IOERT treatment, a large single radiation dose is delivered with a high dose-per-pulse electron beam (2-12 cGy/pulse during surgery. To verify and to record the delivered dose, in vivo dosimetry is a mandatory procedure for quality assurance. The TLDs feature many advantages such as a small detector size and close tissue equivalence that make them attractive for IOERT as in vivo dosimeters.LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters (TLD-100 were irradiated with different IOERT electron beam energies (5, 7 and 9 MeV and with a 6 MV conventional photon beam. For each energy, the TLDs were irradiated in the dose range of 0-10 Gy in step of 2 Gy. Regression analysis was performed to establish the response variation of thermoluminescent signals with dose and energy.The TLD-100 dose-response curves were obtained. In the dose range of 0-10 Gy, the calibration curve was confirmed to be linear for the conventional photon beam. In the same dose region, the quadratic model performs better than the linear model when high dose-per-pulse electron beams were used (F test; p<0.05.This study demonstrates that the TLD dose response, for doses ≤10 Gy, has a parabolic behavior in high dose-per-pulse electron beams. TLD-100 can be useful detectors for IOERT patient dosimetry if a proper calibration is provided.

  14. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue

  15. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  16. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  17. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  18. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  19. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  20. Measurement of exposure dose rate by TLD in 60Co garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chengfang; Li Pinfang; Wu Maoliang; Zhao Quan

    1987-01-01

    The use of TLD method to measure exposure dose rate in 60 Co garden is described. As compared with chemical dosimetry, the relative deviation of measurement would not exceed 10%. The good repeatability has been proved by comparing the measurements of different times and distances with correction of decay law and 1/1 2 law. Besides, the distribution of exposure dose rate was influenced by scattering of the living plants

  1. The evaluation of dose of TSEI with TLD and diode detector of the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Young Wan; Na, Keyung Su; Yoon, Il Kyu; Park, Heung Deuk

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate radiation dose and accuracy with TLD and diode detector when treat total skin with electron beam. Using Stanford Technique, we treated patient with Mycosis Fungoides. 6 MeV electron beam of LINAC was used and the SSD was 300 cm. Also, acrylic speller(0.8 cm) was used. The patient position was 6 types and the gantry angle was 64, 90 and 116 degree. The patient's skin dose and the output were detected 5 to 6 times with TLD and diode. The deviations of dose detected with TLD from tumor dose were CA + 6%, thigh + 8%, umbilicus + 4%, calf - 8%, vertex - 74.4%, deep axillae - 10.2%, anus and testis - 87%, sole - 86% and nails shielded with 4 mm lead + 4%. The deviations of dose detected with diode were - 4.5% ∼ + 5% at the patient center and - 1.1% ∼ + 1% at the speller. The deviation of total skin dose was + 8% ∼ - 8% and that deviation was within the acceptable range(±10%). The boost dose was irradiated for the low dose areas(vertex, anus, sole). The electron beam output detected at the sootier was stable. It is thought that the deviation of dose at patient center detected with diode was induced by detection point and patient position.

  2. Comparative study of trapping parameters of LiF(TLD-100) from different production batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Vries, W. de; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Institute)

    1990-01-01

    Computerised glow curve analysis has been used to determine the trapping parameters of the main peaks of the thermoluminescent (TL) material LiF(TLD-100). The TL material (solid state chips) originated from six different production batches with at least 19 chips per batch. The maxima of glow peaks 2 to 5 are found at the same temperature within very small limits. The activation energy and frequency factor of the main glow peak (peak 5) of TLD-100 originating from two batches differ significantly from those of the other four investigated batches. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of glow peak 5 is more or less the same for all batches. The trapping parameters of glow peaks 2 to 4 of TLD-100 vary little from batch to batch. The measured half-life of peak 2 differed strongly from batch to batch. For all investigated peaks no correlation has been found between glow peak sensitivity and trapping parameters. The results of this study suggest that both defect concentration and nature of the trapping centres vary from batch to batch. It would appear that as a consequence of selection by the manufacturer, the differences between the batches in terms of total light output are small. (author).

  3. Quality control of the breast cancer treatments on Hdr brachytherapy with TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres H, F. [Universidad de Cordoba, Materials and Applied Physics Group, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia); De la Espriella V, N. [Universidad de Cordoba, Grupo Avanzado de Materiales y Sistemas Complejos, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia); Sanchez C, A., E-mail: franciscotorreshoyos@yahoo.com [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Enfermeria, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia)

    2014-07-01

    An anthropomorphic Phantom, a female trunk, was built with a natural bone structure and experimental material coated, glycerin and water-based material called JJT to build soft tissue equivalent to the muscle of human tissue, and a polymer (styrofoam) to build the lung as critical organ to simulate the treatment of breast cancer, with high dose rate brachytherapy (Hdr) and sources of Ir-192. The treatments were planned and calculated for the critical organ: Lung, and injury of 2 cm in diameter in breast with Micro Selectron Hdr system and the software Plato Brachytherapy V 14.1 of the Nucletron (Netherlands) which uses the standard protocol of radiotherapy for brachytherapy treatments. The dose experimentally measured with dosimeters TLD-100 LiF: Mg; Ti, which were previously calibrated, were placed in the same positions and bodies mentioned above, with less than 5% uncertainty. The reading dosimeters was carried out in a Harshaw TLD 4500. The results obtained for calculated treatments, using the standard simulator, and the experimental with TLD-100, show a high concordance, as they are on average a ± 1.1% making process becomes in a quality control of this type of treatments. (Author)

  4. Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10 11 Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410 9 Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510 9 Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

  5. Application of Glow Curve Deconvolution Method to Evaluate Low Dose TLD LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, E; Oetami, H R; Mutiah

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD), especially LiF:Mg, Ti material, is one of the most practical personal dosimeter in known to date. Dose measurement under 100 uGy using TLD reader is very difficult in high precision level. The software application is used to improve the precision of the TLD reader. The objectives of the research is to compare three Tl-glow curve analysis method irradiated in the range between 5 up to 250 uGy. The first method is manual analysis, dose information is obtained from the area under the glow curve between pre selected temperature limits, and background signal is estimated by a second readout following the first readout. The second method is deconvolution method, separating glow curve into four peaks mathematically and dose information is obtained from area of peak 5, and background signal is eliminated computationally. The third method is deconvolution method but the dose is represented by the sum of area of peak 3,4 and 5. The result shown that the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method can improve reproducibility six times better than manual analysis for dose 20 uGy, the ability to reduce MMD until 10 uGy rather than 60 uGy with manual analysis or 20 uGy with peak 5 area method. In linearity, the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method yields exactly linear dose response curve over the entire dose range

  6. The effect of the build-up wall at the TLD calibration using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    Absorbed dose in thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material at the calibration using Co-60 gamma rays depends on the TLD thickness and the wall material used for electric equilibrium condition. The relation was examined for LiF, BeO and CaF 2 TLDs sandwiched with PMMA, Teflon and Pyrex glass walls using a Monte Carlo transport code and compared with cavity ionization theory calculations. For the mismatched combination of LiF, BeO/Pyrex glass and CaF 2 /PMMA, it was found that the energy deposition did not change monotonously with TLD thickness from small cavity to large cavity value: a depression observed around 1-mm thickness for LiF/Pyrex glass and a peak around 0.6-mm thickness for CaF 2 /PMMA. The phenomena were explained by using different exponential attenuation coefficients β and β' for the weighting functions of cavity theory. Moreover, use of large cavity values was found to lead possibly to 3-5% errors in the calibration of thin TLDs. (author)

  7. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the Harshaw TLD system, there are three key calibration procedures; the reader, the dosimeter and the algorithm. These procedures must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosimeter calibration, Harshaw recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24 - 48 hours when calibrating the system. Harshaw also emphasizes that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the operating system. These new features are auto calibration, auto QC and auto blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read performed automatically in a sequence for each dosimeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of auto calibration / auto QC to the TLD operation. (author)

  8. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Colli, V.; Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF{sub 2}:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of mixed energy neutron doses using TLD NG-67 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, Mukhlis; Thoyib Thamrin, M; Usmiyati Dewi, K.

    2000-01-01

    A research has been carried out to develop dose evaluation method of mixed neutron source with its neutron doses can be classified to two groups, I.e neutron doses with energy ≥ 0.5 eV and thermal neutron doses with energy less than 0.5 e V consist of epithermal and fast neutron, but in this research they were classified as fast neutron. Development of this dose evaluation method was carried out by sensitivity (S) intercomparison of TLD-600 to fast neutron, mixed energy neutron of nuclear rectors, and thermal neutron. From the experiment it was obtained that the value of Sfast : Sreactor : Sthermal = 0.005 : 0.010 : 1. Calibration factor (CF) of TLD is defined as 1/S. from the sensitivity data it can be obtained that the value of Cffast : Cfreactor : Cfthermal = 200 :100 : 1. The value of Cfreactor can be applied for mixed energy neutron doses evaluation of TLD-600. Key word : dosemeter, neutron dose, calibration factor, fast neutron, thermal neutron, nuclear reactor

  10. FLUXUS E ARTE POSTAL COMO ARTE RELACIONAL: BREVE ESTUDO

    OpenAIRE

    Amizo, Isadora Banducci

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo a análise das questões que envolvem a produção da Arte postal ou Mail art, e do grupo Fluxus, difundidas ao redor do mundo a partir da década de 1960. Procura-se investigar sua aproximação com o conceito de arte relacional, exposto pelo crítico e filósofo francês Nicolas Bourriaud no livro “Estética relacional”. Para isso, são revisadas algumas das temáticas que envolvem as duas expressões artísticas destacando–se a produção de alguns de seus principais expoentes...

  11. 77 FR 63771 - Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Requirements for Automation Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... large amount of additional data. Also, it requires each of my customers to have their own CRID. Today... Automation Prices AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is proposing...]) throughout various sections to modify eligibility requirements for mailers to obtain automation prices for...

  12. A study on dose attenuation in bone density when TBI using diode detector and TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hyun Sil; Lee, Jung Jin; Jang, Ahn Ki; KIm, Wan Sun

    2003-01-01

    Uniform dose distribution of the whole body is essential factor for the total body irradiation(TBI). In order to achieved this goal, we used to compensation filter to compensate body contour irregularity and thickness differences. But we can not compensate components of body, namely lung or bone. The purpose of this study is evaluation of dose attenuation in bone tissue when TBI using diode detectors and TLD system. The object of this study were 5 patients who undergo TBI at our hospital. Dosimetry system were diode detectors and TLD system. Treatment method was bilateral and delivered 10 MV X-ray from linear accelerator. Measurement points were head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles. TLD used two patients and diode detectors used three patients. Results are as followed. All measured dose value were normalized skin dose. TLD dosimetry : Measured skin dose of head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles were 92.78±3.3, 104.34±2.3, 98.03±1.4, 99.9±2.53, 98.17±0.56 respectably. Measured mid-depth dose of pelvis, knees and ankles were 86±1.82, 93.24±2.53, 91.50±2.84 respectably. There were 6.67%-11.65% dose attenuation at mid-depth in pelvis, knees and ankles. Diode detector : Measured skin dose of head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles were 95.23±1.18, 98.33±0.6, 93.5±1.5, 87.3±1.5, 86.90±1.16 respectably. There were 4.53%-12.6% dose attenuation at mid-depth in pelvis, knees and ankles. We concluded that dose measurement with TLD or diode detector was inevitable when TBI treatment. Considered dose attenuation in bone tissue, We must have adequately deduction of compensator thickness that body portion involved bone tissue.

  13. TLD personnel dosimetry and its relationship with the radiodiagnostic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Gaona C, E.

    2002-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry and the training in radiological protection in radiodiagnostic in Mexico before 1997 were almost nonexistent except few services of public and private radiology, we can to say that the personnel dosimetry and the obligatory training was born in the year 1997, together with the present Mexican Official Standards in radiology. This study has the purpose to make an evaluation of the personnel dosimetry of 110 radiology services distributed in the Mexican Republic for the year 2001 and to estimate the annual and bimonthly mean doses, as well as its trust intervals and its relationships with the personnel training in radiological protection by means of a sampling that was realized in two stages (1997 and 2000) in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The results show that the received doses by the medical and technical personnel in the participating radiology services are in the 0.03 mSv and 0.94 mSv interval and the mean is 0.25 mSv. The estimated annual personnel dose would be in the 0.18 mSv to 5.64 mSv interval, which are values very lower to the annual dose limit that is 50 mSv and its magnitude is similar to the effective annual dose by natural background radiation. In the first stage in training was found that there is not a significant difference in the response frequencies among the medical and technical personnel with a p < 0.05. The 52% of the occupational exposure personnel of radiology uses dosemeter, but only 17% of them know the dose reports. the 15.8% of personnel considers that dosemeter protects against radiation and only 16.5% knows the annual maximum permissible dose for stochastic effects. The second stage, the results shown that there is a significant difference in the response of frequencies among medical and technical personnel, the same results which are obtained for members and non members of a professional association with a p < 0.05. The 38% has personnel dosimetry, the 19% knows the principles of radiological

  14. SU-E-T-425: Feasibility of Establishing a National Postal Dosimetry System Using EBT3 Gafchromic Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, W; Mohammed, I; Bamajboor, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a postal dosimeter consisting of EBT3 films and a miniature Lucite phantom to be used for photon beams output audits for mega-voltage photon beams across the Saudi Arabia. Methods: Two batches of EBT3 films were calibrated in 5 mega-voltage photon beams with energies ranging between 6 MV and 18 MV in the dose range between 0 to 4 Gy. A 4×4×20 cm 3 lucite phantom was constructed to be used as an irradiation phantom. The lucite irradiation phantom consists of two parts and allows for embedding a 2.5×2.0 cm 2 EBT3 film at 8.9 cm depth. Factors that convert the dose measured in the lucite irradiation phantom at 8.9 cm depth to the dose at 10 cm depth in water for 10×10 cm 2 field for different photon energies were calculated using the dosxyznrc/EGSnrcMP user code. The performance of the proposed postal dosimeter was tested in 17 different photon beams across 4 radiotherapy centres in Saudi Arabia. The outputs of the 17 beams are monitored by either the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the Radiological Physics Centre. Results: For the 17 photon beams, the average of the ratios of measured to stated outputs was 1.01 ± 0.02 and with a maximum ratio of 1.05. Conclusion: The results of our work indicate that the proposed postal dosimetry system can be used for national auditing of outputs for mega-voltage photon beams. The service can be offered to other national radiotherapy centres or to a be used for credentialing of centres participating in national trials

  15. SU-E-T-425: Feasibility of Establishing a National Postal Dosimetry System Using EBT3 Gafchromic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, W [KING FAHAD SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, Dammam, Eastern Province (Saudi Arabia); Mohammed, I [King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Eastern Province (Saudi Arabia); Bamajboor, S [Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a postal dosimeter consisting of EBT3 films and a miniature Lucite phantom to be used for photon beams output audits for mega-voltage photon beams across the Saudi Arabia. Methods: Two batches of EBT3 films were calibrated in 5 mega-voltage photon beams with energies ranging between 6 MV and 18 MV in the dose range between 0 to 4 Gy. A 4×4×20 cm{sup 3} lucite phantom was constructed to be used as an irradiation phantom. The lucite irradiation phantom consists of two parts and allows for embedding a 2.5×2.0 cm{sup 2} EBT3 film at 8.9 cm depth. Factors that convert the dose measured in the lucite irradiation phantom at 8.9 cm depth to the dose at 10 cm depth in water for 10×10 cm{sup 2} field for different photon energies were calculated using the dosxyznrc/EGSnrcMP user code. The performance of the proposed postal dosimeter was tested in 17 different photon beams across 4 radiotherapy centres in Saudi Arabia. The outputs of the 17 beams are monitored by either the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the Radiological Physics Centre. Results: For the 17 photon beams, the average of the ratios of measured to stated outputs was 1.01 ± 0.02 and with a maximum ratio of 1.05. Conclusion: The results of our work indicate that the proposed postal dosimetry system can be used for national auditing of outputs for mega-voltage photon beams. The service can be offered to other national radiotherapy centres or to a be used for credentialing of centres participating in national trials.

  16. Centro de clasificación postal en la estación de Chamartin Madrid - España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Cruz, Luis

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available This mail sorting center in the Chamartin Railroad Station is made up by three clearly differentiated buildings: — Mail station, located between the railroad tracks in order to facilitate the loading and unloading of mail trains. — Mail sorting building located between the railroad tracks and the parking area for vehicles. — Administrative offices and social services, to the South-East of the complex. The structure consists of: main portals in reinforced concrete for large spans; floor structures capable of supporting loads of 1,000 kg/m2, and rolled steel shapes supported on the portal frames. Throughout the construction an effort has been made to achieve maximum use of gravity for the functions of moving the objects to be sorted.

    Este centro de clasificación postal, realizado en la Estación de Chamartin, está formado por tres edificios claramente diferenciados: — Estación postal, situada sobre las vías de ferrocarril, para facilitar la carga y descarga de trenes postales. — Edificio de clasificación de correspondencia con un emplazamiento entre las vías de ferrocarril y la explanada para vehículos automóviles. — Oficinas administrativas y servicios sociales, situados al S.E. del conjunto. La estructura de la obra se compone de: pórticos principales de hormigón armado para grandes luces; forjados aptos para cargas de 1.000 kg/m2 y perfiles laminados de acero apoyados en los pórticos. En todo el conjunto se ha procurado, lo más posible, la utilización de la gravedad para las funciones de movimiento de los objetos a clasificar.

  17. Recommendations: Introducing the quality system into the use of significant ionizing radiation sources in radiotherapy. TLD audit by mail within the quality system in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, D.; Valenta, J.; Horakova, I.

    2005-01-01

    The publication consists of the following sections: TLD measurement methodology (Description of the TLD system; Dose determination); TLD audit in radiotherapy: methodologies and evaluation of results (Checking the dose calculated by the planning system and beam quality control; Checking the calculated dose distribution using a versatile phantom; Checking the calculated doses for linear accelerators with multilammelar collimators; Evaluation and analysis of results; Organizing a performing audits by mail); and Annexes: Detailed guidelines and protocols for radiotherapy departments. (P.A.)

  18. Jobs in Public Service. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in public service. The introductory chapter provides a definition and overview of public service work. Following chapters describe various levels of public service including: (1) neighborhood workers--letter carriers and postal employees, fire fighters, police officers, service repair workers, and bus drivers; (2) city…

  19. Comparison of wrist and head TLD doses with whole body TLD doses during high active jobs at RAPS-5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ravi Kant; Abhishek, Neel; Kakkar, Amandeep; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear power plant radiation dose monitoring and assessment is done to control the individual dose and station collective doses. While performing a radioactive job on systems or equipment with significant radiation levels of non uniform and beaming radiation; there is potential of localized exposure to extremities hands in particular and lens of the eye in comparison to other body parts. Keeping in view of this, separate equivalent dose limit to the extremities (hands and feet) and lens of the eye are defined by ICRP. A study has been carried out during Biennial Shutdown (BSD) of RAPS-6 in the month of October-2015 to establish the correlation between the doses received by chest TLDs which is being used to estimate the effective whole body dose of the radiation worker and the doses received in wrist TLD and head TLDs which are being used to monitor the equivalent dose received by hands and lens of the eye with applying a suitable correction factor

  20. Propuesta de un sistema integral para una empresa de servicios postales

    OpenAIRE

    Ancajima Navarro, Julia Noemi; Ancajima Navarro, Julia Noemi; Ancajima Navarro, Julia Noemi

    2013-01-01

    El servicio postal es un sistema dedicado a transportar alrededor del mundo documentos escritos, así como paquetes de tamaño pequeño o mediano (encomiendas). Todo envió a través del sistema postal es llamado correo o correspondencia. Los paquetes y las cartas son "envíos postales" que se pueden transportar por tierra, mar o aire, cada uno con tarifas diferentes. Las cartas y documentos son inviolables hasta que son entregadas al destinatario. La aparición del ferrocarril entre 1840 y 18...

  1. A postal survey of maternal sleep in late pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison B Lynne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances in late pregnancy are common. This study aimed to survey sleep problems in third trimester pregnant women and to compare sleep in the pre-pregnancy period with the third trimester. Methods Third-trimester women (n=650 were sent a postal survey containing questions relating to sleep experience, including perceived sleep quality, sleep difficulties, night waking, sleep environment, snoring, daytime tiredness and daytime napping. Time periods reported on were before pregnancy and in the last week. Results Respondents numbered 244 (38%. Before pregnancy, the mean reported duration of night-time sleep was 8.1 (SD 1.1 hours; in the last week this had decreased to 7.5 (SD 1.8 hours (p10 prior to pregnancy, whereas in the last week 33% scored in the abnormal range. Likewise, 5% had regularly napped during the daytime before pregnancy, compared with 41% in the last week. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in women in late pregnancy, and increase markedly compared with before pregnancy.

  2. A new postal quality assurance program for diagnostic radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Government of Canada has responsibility for the design and performance of new x-ray equipment, but the Provinces have responsibility for controlling the installation, maintenance and use of the equipment. For the past 30 years Saskatchewan has had regular inspection of X-ray units by radiation health officers who have ensured that deficiencies are corrected. With the present emphasis on quality assurance procedures and hospital accreditation requirements some additional needs have had to be met. These are primarily due to unusual geographical factors. The province covers a quarter to a million square miles and has a continental climate with very severe winters. This used to impede winter travel and many small communities therefore established their own hospital. Today there are a large number of very small hospitals (four beds and upwards) which are geographically widely spread and which, with current resources, can only be visited rather infrequently. A mail out test package, primarily designed to give early warning of the existence of radiation related problems, has therefore been introduced. If a test gives an unexpected result, a prompt visit can be made to the centre concerned to carry out whatever more sophisticated test procedures may be necessary. Experience has shown however that the postal test package has, in itself, a high diagnostic potential so the source of the problem can often be identified without a visit becoming necessary

  3. Thermoluminescent relative efficiencies of TLD-100 for nitrogen ions respect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha S, K.; Avila, O.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the thermoluminescent relative efficiency of those TLD-100 dosemeters irradiated with nitrogen ions with respect to the gamma radiation of 60 Co, in function of the linear energy transfer (LET). Two energy of such nitrogen ions were selected that has the same value from LET when impacting in the dosemeters but with E 1 energy (4.8 MeV) and E 2 (9.95 MeV) smaller and greater respectively that the energy of the Bragg peak. (Author)

  4. TLD Quality Assurance (QA) network in radiotherapy and radiology in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Novak, N.; Novotny, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Czech TLD QA network was established in 1997, as a part of the External Auditing Group (EAG) originated in 1995, in order to perform an independent quality audit in external beam therapy for two purposes: a) to unify the dose within radiotherapy departments, b) to impact state supervision. On basis of a good experience with this network in radiotherapy, new methods were developed to expand the network also to radiology in order to simplify the operation of state supervision. The TLD QA network in dental radiology has been brought into practice in 2001. Both the TLD audits performed in radiotherapy and radiology are realized via mailed dosimetry. In radiotherapy, two modes of the audit are used. Basic mode of TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. According to Czech regulations every beam must be checked in this way at least once during two years' period. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non- reference conditions using Leuven multi-purpose phantom for photon beams. It enables to check a substantial part of the treatment planning process inclusive of final dose realization of the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy centers are instructed to deliver absorbed dose of 2 Gy to the TLDs on central beam axis based on calculated treatment time or monitor units by their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. In this way the TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of ±3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced modes of the audit, deviations up to ±6% are still tolerable, but new audit is repeated as soon as possible to solve the dosimetry problem. Deviations above ±6% leads immediately to investigation by EAG. There are 34 centers in the Czech Republic, which provide external beam radiotherapy. Since they must undergo the basic TLD audit regularly every

  5. Evaluation of the breast plan using the TLD and MOSFET for the skin dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Myeong; Kim, Young Bum; Bak, Sang Yun; Lee, Sang Rok; Jeong, Se Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The measurement of skin dose is very important that treatment of breast cancer. On account of the cold or hot dose as compared with prescription dose, it is necessary to analyse the skin dose occurring during the various plan of the breast cancer treatment. At our hospital, we want to apply various analyses using a diversity of dosimeters to the breast cancer treatment. In the study, the anthropomorphic phantom is used to find out the dose difference of the skin(draining site), scar and others occurring from the tangential treatment plan of breast cancer. We took computed tomography scan of the anthropomorphic phantom and made plans for the treatment planing using open and wedge, Field-in-Field, Dose fluence. Using these, we made a comparative analysis of the dose date points by using the Eclipse. For the dose comparison, we place the anthropomorphic phantom in the treatment room and compared the measurement results by using the TLD and MOSFET on the dose data points. On the central point of treatment planing basis, the upward and downward skin dose measured by the MOSFET was the highest when the fluence was used. The skin dose of inner and outer was distinguished from the figure(5.7% - 10.3%) when the measurements were fulfilled by using TLD and MOSFET. The other side of breast dose was the lowest in the open beam, on the other hand, is highest in the Dose fluence plan. In the different kinds of treatment, the dose deviation of inner and outer was the highest, and so this was the same with the TLD and MOSFET measurement case. The outer deviation was highest in the TLD, and the Inner' was highest in the MOSFET. Skin dose in relation to the treatment plan was the highest in the planing using the fluence technique in general and it was supposed that the high dose had been caused by the movement of the MLC. There's some differences among the all the treatment planning, but the sites such as IM node occurring the lack of dose, scar, drain site are needed pay

  6. Development and evaluation of new semi-automatic TLD reader software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, M.S.; Pradhan, S.M.; Palani Selvam, T.; Datta, D.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, all technology advancement is primarily focused on creating the user-friendly environment while operating any machine, also minimizing the human errors by automation of procedures. In the present study development and evaluation of new software for semi-automatic TLD badge reader (TLDBR-7B) is presented. The software provides an interactive interface and is compatible with latest windows OS as well as USB mode of data communication. Important new features of the software are automatic glow curve analysis for identifying any abnormality, event log register, user defined limits on TL count and time of temperature stabilization for readout interruption and auto reading resumption options

  7. Evaluation of the breast plan using the TLD and MOSFET for the skin dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Myeong; Kim, Young Bum; Bak, Sang Yun; Lee, Sang Rok; Jeong, Se Young

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of skin dose is very important that treatment of breast cancer. On account of the cold or hot dose as compared with prescription dose, it is necessary to analyse the skin dose occurring during the various plan of the breast cancer treatment. At our hospital, we want to apply various analyses using a diversity of dosimeters to the breast cancer treatment. In the study, the anthropomorphic phantom is used to find out the dose difference of the skin(draining site), scar and others occurring from the tangential treatment plan of breast cancer. We took computed tomography scan of the anthropomorphic phantom and made plans for the treatment planing using open and wedge, Field-in-Field, Dose fluence. Using these, we made a comparative analysis of the dose date points by using the Eclipse. For the dose comparison, we place the anthropomorphic phantom in the treatment room and compared the measurement results by using the TLD and MOSFET on the dose data points. On the central point of treatment planing basis, the upward and downward skin dose measured by the MOSFET was the highest when the fluence was used. The skin dose of inner and outer was distinguished from the figure(5.7% - 10.3%) when the measurements were fulfilled by using TLD and MOSFET. The other side of breast dose was the lowest in the open beam, on the other hand, is highest in the Dose fluence plan. In the different kinds of treatment, the dose deviation of inner and outer was the highest, and so this was the same with the TLD and MOSFET measurement case. The outer deviation was highest in the TLD, and the Inner' was highest in the MOSFET. Skin dose in relation to the treatment plan was the highest in the planing using the fluence technique in general and it was supposed that the high dose had been caused by the movement of the MLC. There's some differences among the all the treatment planning, but the sites such as IM node occurring the lack of dose, scar, drain site are needed pay

  8. Interpretation of TLD data measured in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Baggenstos, M.; Schuler, J.; Voelkle, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that incorporating the location-specific characteristics of natural radiation into the interpretation of the surrounding measurements makes some valuable contributions to the improvement of the measuring quality of thermoluminescent enviromental dosimetry. This brings the possibility to determine the net dose of the additional man-made radiations (e.g. caused by the nuclear power plant) with better accuracy. The authors propose a method of analysing the measured results which enables one to include the measured data from the evidence finding phase in the interpretation of the environment monitoring-TLD-measurement (orig./DG) [de

  9. Analysis of read-out heating rate effects on the glow peaks of TLD-100 using WinGCF software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauk, Sabar, E-mail: sabar@usm.my [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hussin, Siti Fatimah [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Alam, Md. Shah [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet (Bangladesh)

    2016-01-22

    This study was done to analyze the effects of the read-out heating rate on the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) glow peaks using WinGCF computer software. The TLDs were exposed to X-ray photons with a potential difference of 72 kVp and 200 mAs in air and were read-out using a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The TLDs were read-out using four read-out heating rates at 10, 7, 4 and 1 °C s{sup −1}. It was observed that lowering the heating rate could separate more glow peaks. The activation energy for peak 5 was found to be lower than that for peak 4. The peak maximum temperature and the integral value of the main peak decreased as the heating rate decreases.

  10. 76 FR 41411 - Group E Post Office Box Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... conforming with local practice, driving conditions, driver expectations, etc. Further, postmasters already... carrier's line of travel and to which the Postal Service makes delivery. c. A customer must pay the...

  11. 17 CFR 201.150 - Service of papers by parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... motion, brief, or other written communication, shall be served upon each party in the proceeding in... age and discretion then residing therein; (2) Mailing the papers through the U.S. Postal Service by...

  12. Unfolding neutron spectra obtained from BS–TLD system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.L.; Silva, E.R.; Ferreira, T.A.E; Vilela, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as a function of energy should be characterized. The precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum, but it is necessary that a spectrometric system covers a large interval of energy and an unfolding process is appropriate. This paper proposes use of a technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI) called genetic algorithm (GA), which uses bio-inspired mathematical models with the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a BS system to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enabling this technique to unfold neutron spectra with the BS–TLD system. - Highlights: ► The unfolding code used the artificial intelligence technique called genetic algorithms. ► A response matrix specific to the unfolding data obtained with the BS–TLD system is used by the AGLN. ► The observed results demonstrate the potential use of genetic algorithms in solving complex nuclear problems.

  13. Measurements of environmental background radiation levels by TLD in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Aleya Begum; Idris Miah, M.; Yunus, Afrozi

    1997-01-01

    The background radiation levels at 30 locations in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus (JUC) were measured using a LiF(TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). In addition, dose rates at three pre-selected locations were measured on a monthly as well as quarterly basis for one year period (July 1993 - June 1994). The dose rate ranges from 1016 to 2167 μSv.y -1 (101.6 to 216.7 mrem.y -1 ) with a mean value of 1595 μSv.y -1 (159.5 mrem.y -1 ). These values are comparable with those of pre- and post-operational values for the reactor site. The estimated average annual effective dose equivalent to the inhabitants at the study areas was found to be 1276 μSv (127.6 mrem). Variation of background radiation level with meteorological parameters, namely, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and pressure was also studied. The influence on the dose rate of the meteorological parameters was observed. (author)

  14. The design philosophy for an automatic TLD system to meet current international specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaslahti, J.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this paper is to describe the elements of a new automatic TLD system intended to meet draft IEC/ISO proposals and ANSI requirements in the USA. Dosemeter badge design is based on ICRU recommendations. The basic intent has been to produce a standard system that can measure and file raw data that can be adapted to specific user requirements with software. The system consists of a programmable automatic reader, an automatic irradiator, a computer, and dosemeters for environmental, whole body, extremity, and clinical applications. The reader uses hot nitrogen heating and photon counting, and measurement conditions may be chosen with complete freedom. The reader can produce a real-time glow curve to assist in checking performance. The irradiator has a 90 Sr- 90 Y source to permit programmed irradiation for calibration and material sensitivity checks. Cassettes are used to hold TLD cards during processing. Cassette coding both identifies samples and calls measurement parameters into use from memory. The system can be preprogrammed to measure all common materials and all common dosemeter elements (both square and round). (author)

  15. On the determination of the post-irradiation time from the glow curve of TLD-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, M.; German, U.; Dubinsky, S.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of peak 3 to the sum of peaks 4 + 5 in TLD-100 was measured for various pre-irradiation and post-irradiation time periods, under conditions characteristic of routine personal dosimetry. It was confirmed that the value of this ratio depends only on the elapsed time between the prior readout and the present one, independent of the moment when the irradiation took place during the total time interval (storage time). This effect indicates that fading of peak 3 seems to be due mainly to changes in the unoccupied traps, and not to decay of trapped charges, being almost independent of the presence of electrons or holes in the traps. This observation leads to the conclusion that the suggestions in the past to use the decay of peak 3 in TLD-100 for the measurement of the elapsed time between irradiation and readout may have been wrong. On the other hand, the decay of peak 2 can be used to measure the elapsed time from irradiation, since the rate of decay is different when related to pre-irradiation and post-irradiation times, indicating a much higher decay rate of the trapped charges (Randall-Wilkins decay). However, because of the fast decay rate of peak 2, its use for determination of the elapsed time since irradiation is of little practical significance. (author)

  16. Response of TLD badge for the estimation of exposure conditions in diagnostic x-ray departments - use of lead aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Chatterjee, S.; Bakshi, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the conditions of exposure of the TLD badge and to evaluate the inaccuracy involved in the estimation of dose received by the worker using an averaged lead apron transmission factor for the use of the badge above lead apron

  17. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  18. The anthrax vaccine and research: reactions from postal workers and public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya

    2008-12-01

    During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies.

  19. Electronic mail was not better than postal mail for surveying residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Klocke, Robert A; Montori, Victor; Schünemann, Holger J

    2005-04-01

    To compare response rate, time to response, and data quality of electronic and postal surveys in the setting of postgraduate medical education. A randomized controlled trial in a university-based internal medicine residency program. We randomized 119 residents and 83 faculty to an electronic versus a postal survey with up to two reminders and measured response rate, time to response, and data quality. For residents, the e-survey resulted in a lower response rate than the postal survey (63.3% versus 79.7%; difference -16.3%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -32.3% to -0.4%%; P=.049), but a shorter mean response time, by 3.8 days (95% CI 0.2-7.4; P=.042). For faculty, the e-survey did not result in a significantly lower response rate than the postal survey (85.4% vs. 81.0%; difference 4.4%, 95% CI -11.7 to 20.5%; P=.591), but resulted in a shorter average response time, by 8.4 days (95% CI 4.4 to 12.4; P < 0.001). There were no differences in the quality of data or responses to the survey between the two methods. E-surveys were not superior to postal surveys in terms of response rate, but resulted in shorter time to response and equivalent data quality.

  20. No 2151. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of resolution (no 2121) of M. Daniel Paul and some of his colleagues for the creation of an inquiry commission about the opening to competition of public utilities in the sectors of energy, postal and telecommunication services and railway transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Paul

    2005-03-01

    This report explains the contradictions between the European liberalization process and the logics of the French public utilities at three different levels: historical, economical and legal: 1 - the public utilities and Europe: the French model, the European change, an inexorable-like designed process; 2 - the dead-end of network activities liberalization: destructive strategy of the unique market, forced introduction of competition into networks, the dark side of a non-judicious liberalization: convergence towards the private monopoly, degradation of services quality, destruction of solidarity mechanisms, occurrence of new risks; 3 - public utilities in front of the European law: a basic concept of French administrative right (area and principles of public utilities), European juridical approach (confuse definition and surveillance regime), weak consideration (symbolic acknowledgement, marginal juridical protection). The examination of the report by the commission follows. (J.S.)

  1. Implementation of a self-directed work team in a TLD Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnwine, A.A.; Bogard, R.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Somers, D.E.; Souleyrette, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to maintain productivity with a decreasing work force, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has adopted the concept of Self-Directed Work Teams in various disciplines. The plant's Health Physics Department was able to eliminate a layer of front-line supervisors by establishing four self-directed work teams. Each team was able to choose their method of implementation. The TLD Processing Center Team chose to use project managment tools to ensure a smooth transition from the traditional work group to a self-directed approach. This process focused on establishing responsibilities, determining training requirements, determining a leadership style for the group, and performing a potential problem analysis for the transition. The transition also reviewed interface issues that could occur with upper management, matrix management, technical oversight, and organizational peers. The team's experience is also evaluated in comparison to other Self-Directed Work Teams

  2. Performance and Test Results of Harshaw Pelletised LiF:Mg,Ti TLD Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Zhang, L.; Green, R.; Tomlins, P.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has recently introduced a pelletised version of their popular TLD-100, 600 and 700 lithium fluoride based thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). These materials can be used unmounted or in card and ring formats. Applications include whole-body, environmental, medical, and extremity monitoring. The former manufacturing process included purifying, growing doped LiF, grinding, blending, pressing, slicing, and dicing. The new process eliminates the last four steps, replacing them with a pelletising process. This process transforms the material directly from a powder to its final form. This new process provides the benefits of better batch uniformity and excellent dimensional consistency. The testing is described that was performed for the purpose of accepting the pelletised material as a directly interchangeable substitute for the same material produced by the former process. Tests performed include reproducibility, batch homogeneity, linearity, detection threshold, and light sensitivity. (author)

  3. A new TLD badge with machine readable ID for fully automated readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S. Ratna P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The TLD badge currently being used for personnel monitoring of more than 40,000 radiation workers has a few drawbacks such as lack of on-badge machine readable ID code, delicate two-point clamping of dosimeters on an aluminium card with the chances of dosimeters falling off during handling or readout, projections on one side making automation of readout difficult etc. A new badge has been designed with a 8-digit identification code in the form of an array of holes and smooth exteriors to enable full automation of readout. The new badge also permits changing of dosimeters when necessary. The new design does not affect the readout time or the dosimetric characteristics. The salient features and the dosimetric characteristics are discussed. (author)

  4. Characterization of TLD-100 micro-cubes for use in small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Jiménez, Salvador, E-mail: zoid-9861@yahoo.com.mx; Gamboa-deBuen, Isabel, E-mail: gamboa@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, 04510 DF (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, 14269 DF (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    At present there are no international regulations for the management of millimeter scale fields and there are no suggestions for a reference detector to perform the characterization and dose determination for unconventional radiation beams (small fields) so that the dosimetry of small fields remains an open research field worldwide because these fields are used in radiotherapy treatments. Sensitivity factors and reproducibility of TLD-100 micro-cubes (1×1×1 mm3) were determinate irradiating the dosimeters with a 6 MV beam in a linear accelerator dedicated to radiosurgery at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN). Thermoluminescent response as a function of dose was determined for doses in water between 0.5 and 3 Gy and two field sizes (2×2 cm2 and 10×10 cm2). It was found that the response is linear over the dose range studied and it does not depend on field size.

  5. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, I.H. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Caixa Postal 68550, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, L.A.R. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Caixa Postal 37760, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br; Crispim, V.R. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/POLI/CT/UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected.

  6. Nuclear accident dosimeter designed for use with the Panasonic TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A new design for the nuclear accident dosimeter (NAD) compatible with the Panasonic TLD badge has recently been adopted for use at LLNL. This NAD was tested at the 1984 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimeters study. We describe the procedures and constants developed to evaluate the NAD components. These constants were averaged to give reasonable results from bare and moderated spectra. Other procedures to evaluate a person's neutron dose using activation of the blood sodium and hair are described. These latter procedures are used to complement the dose determined using the NAD, or to determine a dose if a NAD had not been worn during exposure. If little is known about the configuration of the fissile material or shielding between the material and the exposed person, a procedure which combines the blood and hair activations gives a good estimate of the dose. (DT) 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Effect of temperatures up to 130 deg C on the responses of TLD 700

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J A; Binns, P J [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-01-01

    The need to measure doses at temperatures up to 130 deg C led to an investigation into the effect of exposure and storage at these temperatures on the response of TLD 700 before and after UV phototransfer. As a preliminary, the delays required during the UV re-estimation process were optimised. The effects of storage and exposure were compared. This was followed by a detailed examination of the effects of storage at temperatures up to 130 deg C. Glow curves were analysed to investigate the rates of growth and decay of the different peaks. The findings for peaks 6 and 7 are compatible with previously reported effects at lower temperatures on peaks 3, 4 and 5. Storage at temperatures of 130 deg C or below for periods up to 28 days does not affect the UV photo-transfer response.

  8. Radiation doses measured by TLD (thermo luminescent dosimeter) in x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hiraki, Motoji; Murakami, Shozo; Nishikawa, Naozo; Yagi, Takayuki

    1977-01-01

    By means of TLD, we measured the radiation doses to the skin in the central area of the field of radiation and doses scattered outside of the radiation field, utilizing a phantom to define a suitable radiation field. Clinically, when radiography of the gall bladder and the chest was done, we measured both the radiation doses of the central skin area where radiation was done and the skin above the area of the female gonads. In radiography of the chest, the radiation doses to the skin area above the female gonads situate was under 0.1 mR. When female gonads are less than 15 cm from the margin of the radiation field of the radiation dose can be decreased by 30% if gum sheets containing lead are used to cover the skin area outside the radiation field. (auth.)

  9. A review of TLD's zero-count based on temperature and radiation history of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçel, Nina; Karakuş, İsmail; Dündar, Ertuğrul; Toykan Çiflikçi, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    In order to review the background value of a group of TLD-100, the zero-count values were collected from the first reading and after seven years after using them in experimental irradiations. The zero-counts for these two conditions were collected, as well as the dependence of temperature and radiation history of this group was evaluated. This study recommended that after frequently irradiation of TLDs the rearrangement for obtaining zero-count value must be performed before using TLDs in a new irradiation examination. Regarding on memory of radiation and thermal history, the sensitivity can change after receiving a large dose of radiation and undergoing readout. Additional annealing would be necessary to restore the original sensitivity. TLDs must be used under reproducible conditions to obtain consistent results.

  10. Response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for X-rays of low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    In diverse practical applications as the existent in radiological clinics, industrial facilities and research laboratories, the solid state dosimeters are used for the measure of the different types of ionizing radiations. At the present time dosimeters are manufactured with different types of materials that present thermoluminescent properties, to the effects of determining the absorbed radiation dose. Under these conditions, the radiation dose is determined integrated in all the range of energies of the beam of X-rays, since it assumes that the response of these dosimeters is lineal with the energy of the photons or radiant particles. Because interest exists in advancing in the development of a determination method in the way of the X-rays spectrum emitted by a tube of those used in diagnostic or therapy, we have measured the response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for low energies, minor at 60 keV, for a several group of these dosimeters. (Author)

  11. Thermoluminescence of pure LiF and Lif (TLD-100) irradiated at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagastibelza Chivite, F.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence of pure LiF and LiF (TLD-100) crystals irradiated at room temperature with x - or gamma-rays has been studied up to 460 degree centigree. For most of the glow peaks found the kinetics, preexponential factors and activation energies have been determined. These parameters have been obtained by means of the isothermal method. The study of the thermal annealing of the radiation induced F and Z centres has allow to show that there is a correlation among the glow peaks and the annealing stages of these centres. It is concluded that the F and Z - centres play the role of recombination centres for halogen interstitial atom thermally released from traps. Light emission occurs in this recombination. (Author) 120 refs

  12. Evaluation of the kinetic parameters of CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, Juan; Gutierrez, Alicia; Furetta, Claudio

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the first, third and fifth peaks of CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) dosemeters were determined experimentally using methods based on initial rise, peak shape, different heating rates, isothermal decay and numerical fitting method and a comparison was made between the results obtained. The average activation energy values determined by the methods used here were 0.72, 1.16 and 1.77 eV, with mean values for the frequency factor of 2.58 x 10 8 , 2.89 x 10 13 and 6.16 x 10 16 s -1 for the first, third and fifth peaks respectively. The values of activation energy obtained for each peak using the different methods covered a spread of about 4%. However, the spread for each of the frequency factors was very high. (author)

  13. Unfolding neutron spectra with BS-TLD system using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joelan A.L.; Silva, Everton R.; Vilela, Eudice C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as function of energy to be characterized. To perform this task, the neutron spectrometer has a primary role in determining the neutron flux (Φ E (E)). Precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum but it is necessary, however, a series of steps with a spectrometric system that can cover a large interval of energy and whose answer is isotropic. The most widely used for accomplishing this task is the spectrometric Bonner spheres system. One of the biggest problems related to neutron spectrometry is the process of data analysis, known as unfolding. Most of the work undertaken to implement new techniques of this process, using data obtained with the scintillator 6 LiI(I). However, characteristics related to the dead time make it not be so effective when used in high flow neutron fields. An alternative to this problem is the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), but the codes used do not provide a more specific response matrix to unfolding the information obtained through these materials, which makes the development of a specific response matrix important to adequately characterize the response obtained by them. This paper proposes using a technique of artificial intelligence called genetic algorithm, which uses bio-inspired mathematical models and through the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a system of Bonner spheres, such as thermal neutron detectors, to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enables of this technique to unfolding neutrons spectra with BS-TLD system. (author)

  14. Unfolding neutron spectra with BS-TLD system using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelan A.L., E-mail: jasantos@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Everton R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Informatica; Ferreira, Tiago A.E. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica e Informatica; Fonseca, Evaldo S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vilela, Eudice C., E-mail: ecvilela@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as function of energy to be characterized. To perform this task, the neutron spectrometer has a primary role in determining the neutron flux ({Phi}{sub E}(E)). Precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum but it is necessary, however, a series of steps with a spectrometric system that can cover a large interval of energy and whose answer is isotropic. The most widely used for accomplishing this task is the spectrometric Bonner spheres system. One of the biggest problems related to neutron spectrometry is the process of data analysis, known as unfolding. Most of the work undertaken to implement new techniques of this process, using data obtained with the scintillator {sup 6}LiI(I). However, characteristics related to the dead time make it not be so effective when used in high flow neutron fields. An alternative to this problem is the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), but the codes used do not provide a more specific response matrix to unfolding the information obtained through these materials, which makes the development of a specific response matrix important to adequately characterize the response obtained by them. This paper proposes using a technique of artificial intelligence called genetic algorithm, which uses bio-inspired mathematical models and through the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a system of Bonner spheres, such as thermal neutron detectors, to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enables of this technique to unfolding neutrons spectra with BS-TLD system. (author)

  15. A TLD-based personal dosemeter system for air crew monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Due to the complex spectrum of different particles and energies involved, in-flight radiation dosimetry is usually associated with extensive instrumentation. The exposure of air crew personnel to cosmic radiation is paid serious attention, being further enhanced by the release of the European Council Directive 96/29/Euratom which makes the surveillance of crew members an obligatory issue. The high temperature ratio (HTR) method for small and easy-to-handle LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters was developed at the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities and fulfils these demands by permitting the determination of dose equivalent in radiation fields of unknown composition. The method uses the relative intensity of glow peaks 6 and 7 compared with the dominant peak 5 in the LiF Tl emission as an indication for the average LET and, thus, the mean quality factor of the radiation field. Extensive experiments in various ion beams established a HTR vs. LET calibration curve for the commercially available Tl phosphors TLD-600 and TLD-700. Additionally, the different neutron sensitivity of both types may be exploited for the determination of the dose equivalent delivered from neutrons which dominate at aviation altitudes. However, it is essential that the calibration of the Tl detectors is performed in a neutron environment of similar spectral shape as that encountered in flight. In our case, this constraint was satisfied by the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF). Results of both neutron and total dose equivalent for several different north-bound and trans-equatorial routes are presented, ranging from 2.1 ± 0.1 μSv/h with a 30 % neutron contribution for Vienna-Sydney to 4.9 ± 0.2 μSv/h and a roughly 55 % neutron contribution for Vienna-Tokyo. The measured route doses are compared with CARI-6M calculations. (author)

  16. Measuring thermo-luminescence efficiency of TLD-2000 detectors to different energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei Min; Chen, Bao Wei; Han, Yi; Yang, Zhong Jian [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    As an important detecting device, TLD is a widely used in the radiation monitoring. It is essential for us to study the property of detecting element. The aim of this study is to calculate the thermo-luminescence efficiency of TL elements. A batch of thermo-luminescence elements were irradiated by the filtered X-ray beams of average energies in the range 40-200 kVp, 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays and then the amounts of lights were measured by the TL reader. The deposition energies in elements were calculated by theory formula and Monte Carlo simulation. The unit absorbed dose in elements by photons with different energies corresponding to the amounts of lights was calculated, which is called the thermo luminescent efficiency (η(E)). Because of the amounts of lights can be calculated by the absorbed dose in elements multiply η(E), the η(E) can be calculated by the experimental data (the amounts of lights) divided by absorbed dose. The deviation of simulation results compared with theoretical calculation results were less than 5%, so the absorbed dose in elements was calculated by simulation results in here. The change range of η(E) value, relative to 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, is about 30% in the energy range of 33 keV to 662 keV, is in accordance by the comparison with relevant foreign literatures. The η(E) values can be used for updating the amounts of lights that are got by the direct ratio assumed relations with deposition energy in TL elements, which can largely reduce the error of calculation results of the amounts of lights. These data can be used for the design of individual dosimeter which used TLD-2000 thermo-luminescence elements, also have a certain reference value for manufacturer to improve the energy-response performance of TL elements by formulation adjustment.

  17. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Porras Chaverria, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  18. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia; Dosimetria personal TLD 110 en medicos ortopedistas expuestos a radiacion ionizante en Bogota - Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra C, B. Y.; Jimenez, Y. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Plazas, M. C. [Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogota, Instituto de Oncologia Carlos Ardila Lulle, Calle 119, No. 7-90, 220246 Bogota (Colombia); Eslava S, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas, Grupo Equidad en Salud, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Groot R, H., E-mail: brigith.sierra@gmail.com [Universidad de los Andes, Laboratorio de Genetica Humana, Carrera 1 No. 18A -12, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  19. 76 FR 79072 - New Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Regulatory Commission's Web site at www.prc.gov , and also on the Postal Explorer[supreg] Web site at pe.usps... Service discontinues Confirm service as a paid subscription service and replaces it with ``IMb TM Tracing... subscription required. Under IMb Tracing service, mailers will continue to receive the same raw scan data...

  20. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments; Trazabilidad de un irradiador panoramico mediante sistemas de dosimetria TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-07-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs.