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Sample records for tks5-dependent nox-mediated generation

  1. Novel p47(phox)-related organizers regulate localized NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity.

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    Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begoña; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A; Bokoch, Gary M

    2009-09-15

    The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) family members in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 (tyrosine kinase substrate with four SH3 domains) and Tks5 are functional members of a p47(phox)-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (and not Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an Src homology 3 domain-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac guanosine triphosphatase- and Nox1-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Our results are consistent with the Tks-mediated recruitment of Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent previously unrecognized members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation.

  2. Novel p47phox-related organizers regulate NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity and localization

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    Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begoña; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A.; Bokoch, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidases (Nox) in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 are functional members of a p47phox-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (vs. Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems, and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an SH3-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac GTPase-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Tks4 recruits Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent novel members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation. PMID:19755710

  3. STAT5A-mediated NOX5-L expression promotes the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells

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    Dho, So Hee [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Radioisotope Research Division, Department of Research Reactor Utilization, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kwon, Eun-Soo [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Cheong [Radioisotope Research Division, Department of Research Reactor Utilization, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Jin [Department of Pathology, Soonchunhyang Medical Science Research Institute, Chonan 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Dongjun, E-mail: juny1024@sch.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Soonchunhyang Medical Science Research Institute, Chonan 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun, E-mail: kwonks@kribb.re.kr [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been suggested to mediate cell proliferation in some cancers. Here, we show that an increase in the expression of NOX5 long form (NOX5-L) is critical for tumor progression in breast tumor tissues. Immunostaining of clinical samples indicated that NOX5 was overexpressed in 41.1% of breast ductal carcinoma samples. NOX5-L depletion consistently suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. Antibody-mediated neutralization of NOX5-L attenuated tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model. Promoter analysis revealed that NOX5-L expression is regulated by STAT5A in breast cancer cells. Based on our novel findings, we suggest that inhibition of NOX5-L may be a promising therapeutic strategy that exerts anti-cancer effects via the modulation of ROS-mediated cell signaling. - Highlights: • The ROS-generating protein, NOX5-L, determines cellular proliferation and metastasis in subset of breast tumor. • Tumor growth was attenuated by the treatment of anti-NOX5-L antibody in a xenograft model. • NOX5-L expression is transcriptionally regulated by STAT5A in breast cancer cells.

  4. Frank-ter Haar syndrome protein Tks4 regulates epidermal growth factor-dependent cell migration.

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    Bögel, Gábor; Gujdár, Annamária; Geiszt, Miklós; Lányi, Árpád; Fekete, Anna; Sipeki, Szabolcs; Downward, Julian; Buday, László

    2012-09-07

    Mutations in the SH3PXD2B gene coding for the Tks4 protein are responsible for the autosomal recessive Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Tks4, a substrate of Src tyrosine kinase, is implicated in the regulation of podosome formation. Here, we report a novel role for Tks4 in the EGF signaling pathway. In EGF-treated cells, Tks4 is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the activated EGF receptor. This association is not direct but requires the presence of Src tyrosine kinase. In addition, treatment of cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, or mutations of the PX domain reduces tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane translocation of Tks4. Furthermore, a PX domain mutant (R43W) Tks4 carrying a reported point mutation in a Frank-ter Haar syndrome patient showed aberrant intracellular expression and reduced phosphoinositide binding. Finally, silencing of Tks4 was shown to markedly inhibit HeLa cell migration in a Boyden chamber assay in response to EGF or serum. Our results therefore reveal a new function for Tks4 in the regulation of growth factor-dependent cell migration.

  5. Cdc42 and Tks5: a minimal and universal molecular signature for functional invadosomes.

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    Di Martino, Julie; Paysan, Lisa; Gest, Caroline; Lagrée, Valérie; Juin, Amélie; Saltel, Frédéric; Moreau, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    Invadosomes are actin-based structures involved in extracellular-matrix degradation. Invadosomes, either known as podosomes or invadopodia, are found in an increasing number of cell types. Moreover, their overall organization and molecular composition may vary from one cell type to the other. Some are constitutive such as podosomes in hematopoietic cells whereas others are inducible. However, they share the same feature, their ability to interact and to degrade the extracellular matrix. Based on the literature and our own experiments, the aim of this study was to establish a minimal molecular definition of active invadosomes. We first highlighted that Cdc42 is the key RhoGTPase involved in invadosome formation in all described models. Using different cellular models, such as NIH-3T3, HeLa, and endothelial cells, we demonstrated that overexpression of an active form of Cdc42 is sufficient to form invadosome actin cores. Therefore, active Cdc42 must be considered not only as an inducer of filopodia, but also as an inducer of invadosomes. Depending on the expression level of Tks5, these Cdc42-dependent actin cores were endowed or not with a proteolytic activity. In fact, Tks5 overexpression rescued this activity in Tks5 low expressing cells. We thus described the adaptor protein Tks5 as a major actor of the invadosome degradation function. Surprisingly, we found that Src kinases are not always required for invadosome formation and function. These data suggest that even if Src family members are the principal kinases involved in the majority of invadosomes, it cannot be considered as a common element for all invadosome structures. We thus define a minimal and universal molecular signature of invadosome that includes Cdc42 activity and Tks5 presence in order to drive the actin machinery and the proteolytic activity of these invasive structures.

  6. Nck adaptor proteins link Tks5 to invadopodia actin regulation and ECM degradation.

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    Stylli, Stanley S; Stacey, T T I; Verhagen, Anne M; Xu, San San; Pass, Ian; Courtneidge, Sara A; Lock, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Invadopodia are actin-based projections enriched with proteases, which invasive cancer cells use to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). The Phox homology (PX)-Src homology (SH)3 domain adaptor protein Tks5 (also known as SH3PXD2A) cooperates with Src tyrosine kinase to promote invadopodia formation but the underlying pathway is not clear. Here we show that Src phosphorylates Tks5 at Y557, inducing it to associate directly with the SH3-SH2 domain adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2 in invadopodia. Tks5 mutants unable to bind Nck show reduced matrix degradation-promoting activity and recruit actin to invadopodia inefficiently. Conversely, Src- and Tks5-driven matrix proteolysis and actin assembly in invadopodia are enhanced by Nck1 or Nck2 overexpression and inhibited by Nck1 depletion. We show that clustering at the plasma membrane of the Tks5 inter-SH3 region containing Y557 triggers phosphorylation at this site, facilitating Nck recruitment and F-actin assembly. These results identify a Src-Tks5-Nck pathway in ECM-degrading invadopodia that shows parallels with pathways linking several mammalian and pathogen-derived proteins to local actin regulation.

  7. Genetic disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene reveals an essential role in mouse development and the existence of a novel isoform of tks5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; Yuen, Angela; Vlahovich, Nicole; Lock, Peter; Courtneidge, Sara A; Díaz, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Tks5 is a scaffold protein and Src substrate involved in cell migration and matrix degradation through its essential role in invadosome formation and function. We have previously described that Tks5 is fundamental for zebrafish neural crest cell migration in vivo. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of Tks5 in mammalian development by analyzing mice mutant for sh3pxd2a, the gene encoding Tks5. Homozygous disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene by gene-trapping in mouse resulted in neonatal death and the presence of a complete cleft of the secondary palate. Interestingly, embryonic fibroblasts from homozygous gene-trap sh3pxd2a mice lacked only the highest molecular weight band of the characteristic Tks5 triplet observed in protein extracts, leaving the lower molecular weight bands unaffected. This finding, together with the existence of two human Expressed Sequence Tags lacking the first 5 exons of SH3PXD2A, made us hypothesize about the presence of a second alternative transcription start site located in intron V. We performed 5'RACE on mouse fibroblasts and isolated a new transcript of the sh3pxd2a gene encoding a novel Tks5 isoform, that we named Tks5β. This novel isoform diverges from the long form of Tks5 in that it lacks the PX-domain, which confers affinity for phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. Instead, Tks5β has a short unique amino terminal sequence encoded by the newly discovered exon 6β; this exon includes a start codon located 29 bp from the 5'-end of exon 6. Tks5β mRNA is expressed in MEFs and all mouse adult tissues analyzed. Tks5β is a substrate for the Src tyrosine kinase and its expression is regulated through the proteasome degradation pathway. Together, these findings indicate the essentiality of the larger Tks5 isoform for correct mammalian development and the transcriptional complexity of the sh3pxd2a gene.

  8. Genetic disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene reveals an essential role in mouse development and the existence of a novel isoform of tks5.

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    Pilar Cejudo-Martin

    Full Text Available Tks5 is a scaffold protein and Src substrate involved in cell migration and matrix degradation through its essential role in invadosome formation and function. We have previously described that Tks5 is fundamental for zebrafish neural crest cell migration in vivo. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of Tks5 in mammalian development by analyzing mice mutant for sh3pxd2a, the gene encoding Tks5. Homozygous disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene by gene-trapping in mouse resulted in neonatal death and the presence of a complete cleft of the secondary palate. Interestingly, embryonic fibroblasts from homozygous gene-trap sh3pxd2a mice lacked only the highest molecular weight band of the characteristic Tks5 triplet observed in protein extracts, leaving the lower molecular weight bands unaffected. This finding, together with the existence of two human Expressed Sequence Tags lacking the first 5 exons of SH3PXD2A, made us hypothesize about the presence of a second alternative transcription start site located in intron V. We performed 5'RACE on mouse fibroblasts and isolated a new transcript of the sh3pxd2a gene encoding a novel Tks5 isoform, that we named Tks5β. This novel isoform diverges from the long form of Tks5 in that it lacks the PX-domain, which confers affinity for phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. Instead, Tks5β has a short unique amino terminal sequence encoded by the newly discovered exon 6β; this exon includes a start codon located 29 bp from the 5'-end of exon 6. Tks5β mRNA is expressed in MEFs and all mouse adult tissues analyzed. Tks5β is a substrate for the Src tyrosine kinase and its expression is regulated through the proteasome degradation pathway. Together, these findings indicate the essentiality of the larger Tks5 isoform for correct mammalian development and the transcriptional complexity of the sh3pxd2a gene.

  9. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  10. NOX4-dependent Hydrogen peroxide promotes shear stress-induced SHP2 sulfenylation and eNOS activation.

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    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Calvo, Enrique; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Anilkumar, Narayana; Shah, Ajay M; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Vázquez, Jesús; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Laminar shear stress (LSS) triggers signals that ultimately result in atheroprotection and vasodilatation. Early responses are related to the activation of specific signaling cascades. We investigated the participation of redox-mediated modifications and in particular the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the sulfenylation of redox-sensitive phosphatases. Exposure of vascular endothelial cells to short periods of LSS (12 dyn/cm(2)) resulted in the generation of superoxide radical anion as detected by the formation of 2-hydroxyethidium by HPLC and its subsequent conversion to H2O2, which was corroborated by the increase in the fluorescence of the specific peroxide sensor HyPer. By using biotinylated dimedone we detected increased total protein sulfenylation in the bovine proteome, which was dependent on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of peroxide. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to identify the phosphatase SHP2 as a protein susceptible to sulfenylation under LSS. Given the dependence of FAK activity on SHP2 function, we explored the role of FAK under LSS conditions. FAK activation and subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation were promoted by LSS and both processes were dependent on NOX4, as demonstrated in lung endothelial cells isolated from NOX4-null mice. These results support the idea that LSS elicits redox-sensitive signal transduction responses involving NOX4-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide, SHP2 sulfenylation, and ulterior FAK-mediated eNOS activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Disruption of the Sh3pxd2a Gene Reveals an Essential Role in Mouse Development and the Existence of a Novel Isoform of Tks5

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    Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; Yuen, Angela; Vlahovich, Nicole; Lock, Peter; Courtneidge, Sara A.; Díaz, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Tks5 is a scaffold protein and Src substrate involved in cell migration and matrix degradation through its essential role in invadosome formation and function. We have previously described that Tks5 is fundamental for zebrafish neural crest cell migration in vivo. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of Tks5 in mammalian development by analyzing mice mutant for sh3pxd2a, the gene encoding Tks5. Homozygous disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene by gene-trapping in mouse resulte...

  12. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via the NOD2/COX-2/NOX4 signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

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    Kong, Ling-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Xue, Ying; Gao, Wei; Lv, Qian-Zhou

    2018-03-20

    Vascular endothelium dysfunction caused by oxidative stress accelerates the pathologic process of cardiovascular diseases. NOD2, an essential receptor of innate immune system, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. Here, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanism of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) on NOX4-mediated ROS generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining was to measure the intracellular ROS level and showed MDP promoted ROS production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of NOX4 and COX-2 were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence NOD2 or COX-2 gene expression and investigate the mechanism of NOD2-mediated signaling pathway in HUVECs. Data showed that MDP induced NOX4 and COX-2 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. NOD2 knock-down suppressed up-regulation of COX-2 and NOX4 in HUVECs treated with MDP. Furthermore, silence of COX-2 in HUVECs down-regulated the NOX4 expression after MDP stimulation. Collectively, we indicated that NOD2 played a leading role in MDP-induced COX-2/NOX4/ROS signaling pathway in HUVECs, which was a novel regulatory mechanism in the progress of ROS generation.

  13. Constitutive NADPH-dependent electron transferase activity of the Nox4 dehydrogenase domain.

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    Nisimoto, Yukio; Jackson, Heather M; Ogawa, Hisamitsu; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Lambeth, J David

    2010-03-23

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is constitutively active, while Nox2 requires the cytosolic regulatory subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox) and activated Rac with activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This study was undertaken to identify the domain on Nox4 that confers constitutive activity. Lysates from Nox4-expressing cells exhibited constitutive NADPH- but not NADH-dependent hydrogen peroxide production with a K(m) for NADPH of 55 +/- 10 microM. The concentration of Nox4 in cell lysates was estimated using Western blotting and allowed calculation of a turnover of approximately 200 mol of H(2)O(2) min(-1) (mol of Nox4)(-1). A chimeric protein (Nox2/4) consisting of the Nox2 transmembrane (TM) domain and the Nox4 dehydrogenase (DH) domain showed H(2)O(2) production in the absence of cytosolic regulatory subunits. In contrast, chimera Nox4/2, consisting of the Nox4 TM and Nox2 DH domains, exhibited PMA-dependent activation that required coexpression of regulatory subunits. Nox DH domains from several Nox isoforms were purified and evaluated for their electron transferase activities. Nox1 DH, Nox2 DH, and Nox5 DH domains exhibited barely detectable activities toward artificial electron acceptors, while the Nox4 DH domain exhibited significant rates of reduction of cytochrome c (160 min(-1), largely superoxide dismutase-independent), ferricyanide (470 min(-1)), and other electron acceptors (artificial dyes and cytochrome b(5)). Rates were similar to those observed for H(2)O(2) production by the Nox4 holoenzyme in cell lysates. The activity required added FAD and was seen with NADPH but not NADH. These results indicate that the Nox4 DH domain exists in an intrinsically activated state and that electron transfer from NADPH to FAD is likely to be rate-limiting in the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen by holo-Nox4.

  14. TGF-β1-induced cell migration in pancreatic carcinoma cells is RAC1 and NOX4-dependent and requires RAC1 and NOX4-dependent activation of p38 MAPK.

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    Witte, David; Bartscht, Tobias; Kaufmann, Roland; Pries, Ralph; Settmacher, Utz; Lehnert, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion of cancer cells in part through the small GTPase RAC1. Since RAC1 can signal through reactive oxygen species (ROS), we probed the role of the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating TGF-β1/RAC1-driven random cell migration (chemokinesis). Although the NOX isoforms NOX2, 4, 5, 6, and RAC1 were readily detectable by RT-PCR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)-derived Panc1 and Colo357 cells, only NOX4 and RAC1 were expressed at higher levels comparable to those in peripheral blood monocytes. TGF-β1 treatment resulted in upregulation of NOX4 (and NOX2) and rapid intracellular production of ROS. To analyze whether RAC1 functions through NOX and ROS to promote cell motility, we performed real-time cell migration assays with xCELLigence® technology in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and various NOX inhibitors. NAC, the NOX4 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium or small interfering RNA (siRNA) to NOX4, and the NOX2 inhibitor apocynin all suppressed TGF-β1-induced chemokinesis of Panc1 and Colo357 cells as did various inhibitors of RAC1 used as control. In addition, we showed that blocking NOX4 or RAC1 function abrogated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK signaling by TGF-β1 and that inhibition of p38 MAPK reduced TGF-β1-induced random cell migration, while ectopic expression of a kinase-active version of the p38 activating kinase MKK6 was able to partially rescue the decline in migration after RAC1 inhibition. Our data suggest that TGF-β1-induced chemokinesis in PDAC cells is mediated through a RAC1/NOX4/ROS/p38 MAPK cascade.

  15. Upregulation of NOX2 and NOX4 Mediated by TGF-β Signaling Pathway Exacerbates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Oxidative Stress Injury

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    Zheng Lou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemic stroke is still one of the leading debilitating diseases with high morbidity and mortality. NADPH oxidase (NOX-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of ROS generation is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of transforming growth beta (TGF-β signals in ROS generation. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to I/R injury, and PC-12 cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and/or treated with activin receptor-like kinase (ALK5 inhibitor Sb505124 or siRNA against ALK5. Brain damage was evaluated using neurological scoring, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, infarct volume measurement, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity measurement. Expression of TGF-β and oxidative stress-related genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; NOX activity and ROS level were measured using spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Results: I/R contributed to severe brain damage (impaired neurological function, brain infarction, tissue edema, apoptosis, TGF-β signaling activation (upregulation of ALK5, phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 and oxidative stress (upregulation of NOX2/4, rapid release of ROS [oxidative burst]. However, Sb505124 significantly reversed these alterations and protected rats against I/R injury. As in the animal results, H/R also contributed to TGF-β signaling activation and oxidative stress. Likewise, the inhibition of ALK5 or ALK5 knockdown significantly reversed these alterations in PC-12 cells. Other than ALK5 knockdown, ALK5 inhibition had no effect on the expression of ALK5 in PC-12 cells. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrated that TGF-β signaling activation is involved in the regulation of NOX2/NOX4 expression and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury.

  16. High circulatory leptin mediated NOX-2-peroxynitrite-miR21 axis activate mesangial cells and promotes renal inflammatory pathology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Firas Alhasson

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available High circulatory insulin and leptin followed by underlying inflammation are often ascribed to the ectopic manifestations in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD but the exact molecular pathways remain unclear. We have shown previously that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and circulating leptin in NAFLD is associated with renal disease severity. Extending the studies, we hypothesized that high circulatory leptin in NAFLD causes renal mesangial cell activation and tubular inflammation via a NOX2 dependent pathway that upregulates proinflammatory miR21. High-fat diet (60% kcal was used to induce fatty liver phenotype with parallel insulin and leptin resistance. The kidneys were probed for mesangial cell activation and tubular inflammation that showed accelerated NASH phenotype and oxidative stress in the liver. Results showed that NAFLD kidneys had significant increases in α-SMA, a marker of mesangial cell activation, miR21 levels, tyrosine nitration and renal inflammation while they were significantly decreased in leptin and p47 phox knockout mice. Micro RNA21 knockout mice showed decreased tubular immunotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator release. Mechanistically, use of NOX2 siRNA or apocynin,phenyl boronic acid (FBA, DMPO or miR21 antagomir inhibited leptin primed-miR21-mediated mesangial cell activation in vitro suggesting a direct role of leptin-mediated NOX-2 in miR21-mediated mesangial cell activation. Finally, JAK-STAT inhibitor completely abrogated the mesangial cell activation in leptin-primed cells suggesting that leptin signaling in the mesangial cells depended on the JAK-STAT pathway. Taken together the study reports a novel mechanistic pathway of leptin-mediated renal inflammation that is dependent on NOX-2-miR21 axis in ectopic manifestations underlying NAFLD-induced co-morbidities. Keywords: Leptin, NOX-2, NADPH, Mesangial cells, miR21, Oxidative stress, NAFLD, JAK/STAT, siRNA

  17. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS) increases tibial speed of sound and urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC) in premature infants (29-32weeks PMA).

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    Haley, S; Beachy, J; Ivaska, K K; Slater, H; Smith, S; Moyer-Mileur, L J

    2012-10-01

    Preterm delivery (kinesthetic stimulation (TKS), a form of infant massage that incorporates kinesthetic movement, would increase bone strength and markers of bone accretion in preterm infants. Preterm, AGA infants (29-32 weeks) were randomly assigned to TKS (N=20) or Control (N=20). Twice daily TKS was provided 6 days per week for 2 weeks. Control infants received the same care without TKS treatment. Treatment was masked to parents, health care providers, and study personnel. Baseline and week two measures were collected for tibial speed of sound (tSOS, m/sec), a surrogate for bone strength, by quantitative ultrasound (Sunlight8000) and urine markers of bone metabolism, pyridinium crosslinks and osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC). Infant characteristics at birth and study entry as well as energy/nutrient intake were similar between TKS and Control. TKS intervention attenuated the decrease in tSOS observed in Control infants (p<0.05). Urinary pyridinium crosslinks decreased over time in both TKS and CTL (p<0.005). TKS infants experienced greater increases in urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC, p<0.001 and unOC, p<0.05). We conclude that TKS improves bone strength in premature infants by attenuating the decrease that normally follows preterm birth. Further, biomarkers of bone metabolism suggest a modification in bone turnover in TKS infants in favor of bone accretion. Taken together, we speculate that TKS improves bone mineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptation in NOX4-overexpressed non-small cell lung cancer cells

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    Wu, Qipeng; Yao, Bei; Li, Ning; Ma, Lei; Deng, Yanchao; Yang, Yang; Zeng, Cheng; Yang, Zhicheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Bing, E-mail: liubing520@gdpu.edu.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The redox adaptation mechanisms in cancer cells are very complex and remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confers apoptosis resistance on NSCLC cells. However, the comprehensive mechanisms for NOX4-mediated oxidative resistance of cancer cells remain still undentified. The present study found that NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stability via disruption of redox-dependent proteasomal degradation and stimulated its activity through activation of PI3K signaling. Specifically, the results showed that ectopic NOX4 expression did not induce apoptosis of A549 cells; however, inhibition of Nrf2 resulted in obvious apoptotic death of NOX4-overexpressed A549 cells, accompanied by a significant increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level and decrease in GSH content. Besides, inhibition of Nrf2 could suppress cell growth and efficiently reverse the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth. The in vivo data confirmed that inhibition of Nrf2 could interfere apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed A549 tumors and led to cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, these results reveal that Nrf2 is critically involved in redox adaptation regulation in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. Therefore, NOX4 and Nrf2 may be promising combination targets against malignant progression of NSCLC. - Highlights: • NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} upregulates Nrf2 expression and activity in NSCLC. • Nrf2 confers apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 reverses the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth.

  19. Protocatechuic aldehyde attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a classic chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat different types of cancers including ovarian, head and neck, testicular and uterine cervical carcinomas. However, cisplatin induces acute kidney injury by directly triggering an excessive inflammatory response, oxidative stress and programmed cell death of renal tubular epithelial cells. All of which lead to higher mortality rates in patients. In this study we examined the protective effect of protocatechuic aldehyde (PA in vitro in cisplatin-treated tubular epithelial cells and in vivo in cisplatin nephropathy. PA is a monomer of Traditional Chinese Medicine isolated from the root of S. miltiorrhiza. Results show that PA prevented cisplatin-induced decline of renal function and histological damage, which was confirmed by attenuation of KIM1 in both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PA reduced renal inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress and programmed cell death in response to cisplatin, which was further evidenced by in vitro data. Of note, PA suppressed NAPDH oxidases, including Nox2 and Nox4, in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, silencing Nox4, but not Nox2, removed the inhibitory effect of PA on cisplatin-induced renal injury, indicating that Nox4 may play a pivotal role in mediating the protective effect of PA in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Collectively, our data indicate that PA largely blocked cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation without compromising anti-tumor activity of cisplatin. These findings suggest that PA and its derivatives may serve as potential protective agents for cancer patients with cisplatin treatment.

  20. NOX4 mediates cytoprotective autophagy induced by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in head and neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhakumari, Arya; Schickling, Brandon M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Raeburn, Ayanna; Fletcher, Elise V.M.; Case, Adam J.; Domann, Frederick E.; Miller, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR inhibitors are routinely used in the treatment of HNSCC. However, many HNSCC tumors do not respond or become refractory to EGFR inhibitors. Autophagy, which is a stress-induced cellular self-degradation process, has been reported to reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy in various disease models. The purpose of this study is to determine if the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib is reduced by activation of autophagy via NOX4-mediated oxidative stress in HNSCC cells. Erlotinib induced the expression of the autophagy marker LC3B-II and autophagosome formation in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and knockdown of autophagy pathway genes Beclin-1 and Atg5 sensitized both cell lines to erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that autophagy may serve as a protective mechanism. Treatment with catalase (CAT) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) in the presence of erlotinib suppressed the increase in LC3B-II expression in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Erlotinib increased NOX4 mRNA and protein expression by increasing its promoter activity and mRNA stability in FaDu cells. Knockdown of NOX4 using adenoviral siNOX4 partially suppressed erlotinib-induced LC3B-II expression, while overexpression of NOX4 increased expression of LC3B-II. These studies suggest that erlotinib may activate autophagy in HNSCC cells as a pro-survival mechanism, and NOX4 may play a role in mediating this effect. - Highlights: • Erlotinib increased LC3B-II and autophagosome formation in HNSCC cells. • Inhibition of autophagy sensitized HNSCC cells to erlotinib. • Erlotinib increased NOX4 promoter and 3′UTR luciferase activity. • Manipulating NOX4 decreases or increases autophagy

  1. NOX4 mediates cytoprotective autophagy induced by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in head and neck cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhakumari, Arya [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Schickling, Brandon M. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Love-Homan, Laurie; Raeburn, Ayanna [Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Fletcher, Elise V.M. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Case, Adam J. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), Iowa City, IA (United States); Miller, Francis J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), Iowa City, IA (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR inhibitors are routinely used in the treatment of HNSCC. However, many HNSCC tumors do not respond or become refractory to EGFR inhibitors. Autophagy, which is a stress-induced cellular self-degradation process, has been reported to reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy in various disease models. The purpose of this study is to determine if the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib is reduced by activation of autophagy via NOX4-mediated oxidative stress in HNSCC cells. Erlotinib induced the expression of the autophagy marker LC3B-II and autophagosome formation in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and knockdown of autophagy pathway genes Beclin-1 and Atg5 sensitized both cell lines to erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that autophagy may serve as a protective mechanism. Treatment with catalase (CAT) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) in the presence of erlotinib suppressed the increase in LC3B-II expression in FaDu and Cal-27 cells. Erlotinib increased NOX4 mRNA and protein expression by increasing its promoter activity and mRNA stability in FaDu cells. Knockdown of NOX4 using adenoviral siNOX4 partially suppressed erlotinib-induced LC3B-II expression, while overexpression of NOX4 increased expression of LC3B-II. These studies suggest that erlotinib may activate autophagy in HNSCC cells as a pro-survival mechanism, and NOX4 may play a role in mediating this effect. - Highlights: • Erlotinib increased LC3B-II and autophagosome formation in HNSCC cells. • Inhibition of autophagy sensitized HNSCC cells to erlotinib. • Erlotinib increased NOX4 promoter and 3′UTR luciferase activity. • Manipulating NOX4 decreases or increases autophagy.

  2. Generation and Reduction of NOx on Air-Fed Ozonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Amemiya, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    A generation and reduction of NOx on air-fed ozonizers using a ferroelectric packed bed reactor have been experimentally investigated. The reactors packed with CaTiO3, SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 pellets are examined for ozone generation. An ac voltage is applied to the reactor to generate partial discharge. Ozone concentration and the different nitrogen oxides at downstream of the packed bed reactor were measured with UV absorption ozone monitor and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope respectively. The dielectric constant of packed ferroelectric pellets influences the discharge characteristic, ozone and NOx generations are varied by the dielectric constant value. Focusing on a discharge pulse current and maximum discharge magnitude, the ferroelectric packed bed plasma reactors have been evaluated on nitrogen oxide and ozone generated concentrations.

  3. Constitutive NADPH-Dependent Electron Transferase Activity of the Nox4 Dehydrogenase Domain?

    OpenAIRE

    Nisimoto, Yukio; Jackson, Heather M.; Ogawa, Hisamitsu; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Lambeth, J. David

    2010-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is constitutively active, while Nox2 requires the cytosolic regulatory subunits p47 phox and p67 phox and activated Rac with activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This study was undertaken to identify the domain on Nox4 that confers constitutive activity. Lysates from Nox4-expressing cells exhibited constitutive NADPH- but not NADH-dependent hydrogen peroxide production with a K m for NADPH of 55 ? 10 ?M. The concentration of Nox4 in cell lysates was esti...

  4. NADPH Oxidase, NOX1, Mediates Vascular Injury in Ischemic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyanti, Devy; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Miller, Antonia G.; Agrotis, Alex; Armani, Roksana; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Wingler, Kirstin; Touyz, Rhian M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A.; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Ischemic retinal diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity are major causes of blindness due to damage to the retinal microvasculature. Despite this clinical situation, retinopathy of prematurity is mechanistically poorly understood. Therefore, effective preventative therapies are not available. However, hypoxic-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to be involved with NADPH oxidases (NOX), the only known dedicated enzymatic source of ROS. Our major aim was to determine the contribution of NOX isoforms (1, 2, and 4) to a rodent model of retinopathy of prematurity. Results: Using a genetic approach, we determined that only mice with a deletion of NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, were protected from retinal neovascularization and vaso-obliteration, adhesion of leukocytes, microglial accumulation, and the increased generation of proangiogenic and proinflammatory factors and ROS. We complemented these studies by showing that the specific NOX inhibitor, GKT137831, reduced vasculopathy and ROS levels in retina. The source of NOX isoforms was evaluated in retinal vascular cells and neuro-glial elements. Microglia, the immune cells of the retina, expressed NOX1, 2, and 4 and responded to hypoxia with increased ROS formation, which was reduced by GKT137831. Innovation: Our studies are the first to identify the NOX1 isoform as having an important role in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that strategies targeting NOX1 have the potential to be effective treatments for a range of ischemic retinopathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2726–2740. PMID:24053718

  5. Molecular evolution of the reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox/Duox family of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambeth J David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NADPH-oxidases (Nox and the related Dual oxidases (Duox play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Members of the Nox/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. Results We assembled and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of 101 Nox/Duox orthologs from 25 species, including vertebrates, urochordates, echinoderms, insects, nematodes, fungi, slime mold amoeba, alga and plants. In contrast to ROS defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase that are present in prokaryotes, ROS-generating Nox/Duox orthologs only appeared later in evolution. Molecular taxonomy revealed seven distinct subfamilies of Noxes and Duoxes. The calcium-regulated orthologs representing 4 subfamilies diverged early and are the most widely distributed in biology. Subunit-regulated Noxes represent a second major subdivision, and appeared first in fungi and amoeba. Nox5 was lost in rodents, and Nox3, which functions in the inner ear in gravity perception, emerged the most recently, corresponding to full-time adaptation of vertebrates to land. The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus possesses the earliest Nox2 co-ortholog of vertebrate Nox1, 2, and 3, while Nox4 first appeared somewhat later in urochordates. Comparison of evolutionary substitution rates demonstrates that Nox2, the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox, and Duox are more stringently conserved in vertebrates than other Noxes and Nox regulatory subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons identified key catalytic or regulatory regions, as 68 residues were highly conserved among all Nox/Duox orthologs, and 14 of these were identical with those mutated in Nox2 in variants of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. In addition to

  6. Cardiac and renal upregulation of Nox2 and NF-κB and repression of Nox4 and Nrf2 in season- and diabetes-mediated models of vascular oxidative stress in guinea-pig and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos-Draus, Anna; Duda, Monika; Beręsewicz, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The superoxide-forming NADPH oxidase homologues, Nox1, Nox2, and Nox5, seem to mediate the pro-atherosclerotic vascular phenotype. The hydrogen peroxide-forming Nox4 afforded vascular protection, likely via NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation and/or Nox2 downregulation in transgenic mice. We hypothesized that oxidative stress in the intact vasculature involves, aside from the upregulation of the superoxide-forming Noxs, the downregulation of the Nox4/Nrf2 pathway. Guinea-pigs and rats were studied either in winter or in summer, and the streptozotocin diabetic rats in winter. Plasma nitrite, and superoxide production by isolated hearts were measured, while frozen tissues served in biochemical analyses. Summer in both species and diabetes in rats downregulated myocardial Nox4 while reciprocally upregulating Nox2 and Nox5 in guinea-pigs, and Nox2 in rats. Simultaneously, myocardial Nrf2 activity and the expression of the Nrf2-directed heme oxygenase-1 and endothelial NO synthase were reduced while activity of the nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B) and the expression of NF- κ B-directed inducible NO synthase and the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were increased. Cardiac superoxide production was increased while plasma nitrite was decreased reciprocally. Analogous disregulation of Noxs, Nrf2, and NF- κ B, occurred in diabetic rat kidneys. Given the diversity of the experimental settings and the uniform pattern of the responses, we speculate that: (1) chronic vascular oxidative stress is a nonspecific (model-, species-, organ-independent) response involving the induction of Nox2 (and Nox5 in guinea-pigs) and the NF- κ B pathway, and the repression of Nox4 and the Nrf2 pathway; and (2) the systems Nox2-NF- κ B and Nox4-Nrf2 regulate each other negatively. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. GPER Mediates Functional Endothelial Aging in Renal Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias R; Rosemann, Thomas; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired renal artery function, which is partly characterized by arterial stiffening and a reduced vasodilatory capacity due to excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidases (Nox). The abundance and activity of Nox depends on basal activity of the heptahelical transmembrane receptor GPER; however, whether GPER contributes to age-dependent functional changes in renal arteries is unknown. This study investigated the effect of aging and Nox activity on renal artery tone in wild-type and GPER-deficient (Gper-/-) mice (4 and 24 months old). In wild-type mice, aging markedly impaired endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations to acetylcholine, which were largely preserved in renal arteries of aged Gper-/- mice. The Nox inhibitor gp91ds-tat abolished this difference by greatly enhancing relaxations in wild-type mice, while having no effect in Gper-/- mice. Contractions to angiotensin II and phenylephrine in wild-type mice were partly sensitive to gp91ds-tat but unaffected by aging. Again, deletion of GPER abolished effects of Nox inhibition on contractile responses. In conclusion, basal activity of GPER is required for the age-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation in the renal artery. Restoration of relaxation by a Nox inhibitor in aged wild-type but not Gper-/- mice strongly supports a role for Nox-derived reactive oxygen species as the underlying cause. Pharmacological blockers of GPER signaling may thus be suitable to inhibit functional endothelial aging of renal arteries by reducing Nox-derived oxidative stress and, possibly, the associated age-dependent deterioration of kidney function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. An artificial intelligence (AI) NOx/heat rate optimization system for Ontario Hydro`s fossil generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, J.; Frank, A.; Bodach, P. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Warriner, G. [Radian International, Tucker, GA (United States); Noblett, J. [Radian International, Austin, TX (United States); Slatsky, M. [Southern Company, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software packages which can optimize power plant operations that improves heat rate and also reduces nitrogen oxide emissions are now commonly available for commercial use. This paper discusses the implementation of the AI-based NOx and Heat Rate Optimization System at Ontario Hydro`s generation stations, emphasizing the current AI Optimization Project at Units 5 and 6 of the Lakeview Generating Station. These demonstration programs are showing promising results in NOx reduction and plant performance improvement. The availability of the plant Digital Control System (DCS) in implementing AI optimization in a closed-loop system was shown to be an important criterion for success. Implementation of AI technology at other Ontario Hydro fossil generating units as part of the overall NOx emission reduction system is envisaged to coincide with the retrofit of the original plant control system with the latest DCS systems. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. An artificial intelligence heat rate/NOx optimization system for Ontario Hydro`s Lambton Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, J.; Bachalo, K.; Henrikson, J. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Roland, W.; Booth, R.C.; Parikh, N.; Radl, B. [Pegasus Technologies Ltd., Painesville, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The utilization of artificial Intelligence (AI)-based software programs to optimize power plant operations by simultaneously improving heat rate performance and reducing NOx emissions was discussed. While many AI programs were initially used for demonstration purposes, they are now available for commercial use due to their promising results. In 1996, the Fossil Business Unit of Ontario Hydro initiated a study to evaluate AI technology as a tool for optimizing heat rate and NOx reduction in coal fired stations. Tests were conducted at Units 3 and 4 of the Lambton Generation Station, located just south of Sarnia, Ontario. The tests were conducted to examine three desirable options: (1) achieve at least 0.5 per cent improvement in heat rate concurrently with a NOx reduction of at least 5 per cent, (2) optimize on `heat rate` only with minimum improvement of 2 per cent, and optimize `minimal NOx` only with reduction target of 20 per cent or more, and (3) reach a collaborative agreement with a supplier to further explore and develop AI optimization applications for other advanced and more complex plant processes. Results indicated that NOx reduction and heat rate improvement are not contradictory goals. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Silibinin induces mitochondrial NOX4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its subsequent apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Seo, Young-Kyo; Chun, Sung-Sik; Yu, Hak-Sun; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a biologically active compound of milk thistle, has chemopreventive effects on cancer cell lines. Recently it was reported that silibinin inhibited tumor growth through activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway. Although various evidences showed multiple signaling pathways of silibinin in apoptosis, there were no reports to address the clear mechanism of ROS-mediated pathway in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Several studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in various signaling cascades, but the primary source of ROS was currently unclear. The effect of silibinin was investigated on cell growth of prostate cell lines by MTT assay. We examined whether silibinin induced apoptosis through production of ROS using flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related protein and gene were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Results showed that silibinin triggered mitochondrial ROS production through NOX4 expression and finally led to induce apoptosis. In addition, mitochondrial ROS caused ER stress through disruption of Ca 2+ homeostasis. Co-treatment of ROS inhibitor reduced the silibinin-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of NOX4 expression, resulting in reduction of both Ca 2+ level and ER stress response. Taken together, silibinin induced mitochondrial ROS-dependent apoptosis through NOX4, which is associated with disruption of Ca 2+ homeostasis and ER stress response. Therefore, the regulation of NOX4, mitochondrial ROS producer, could be a potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2516-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. SNAP23-Dependent Surface Translocation of Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) Receptor 1 Is Essential for NOX2-Mediated Exocytotic Degranulation in Human Mast Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Secreted LTB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited. In this study, we found that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of LTB 4 receptor 1 (BLT1) is required for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2)-mediated exocytotic degranulation of mast cells induced by TvSP. First, stimulation with TvSP induced exocytotic degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HMC-1 cells. Next, TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytosis were strongly inhibited by transfection of BLT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). TvSP induced trafficking of BLT1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. We also found that knockdown of SNAP23 abrogated TvSP-induced ROS generation, exocytosis, and surface trafficking of BLT1 in HMC-1 cells. By coimmunoprecipitation, there was a physical interaction between BLT1 and SNAP23 in TvSP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of BLT1 is essential for exocytosis in human mast cells induced by T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 Our data collectively demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism for SNAP23-dependent mast cell activation of T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 involving surface trafficking of BLT1. These results can help to explain how the cross talk mechanism between parasite and host can govern deliberately tissue inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, or sonic hedgehog (Shh in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days. Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC.

  13. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-κB-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1β-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μM), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level.

  14. Both cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell Nox4 mediate protection against hemodynamic overload-induced remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Martin, Daniel; Catibog, Norman; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Zhang, Xiaohong; Yu, Bin; Wang, Minshu; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-03-01

    NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) source that is upregulated in the haemodynamically overloaded heart. Our previous studies using global Nox4 knockout (Nox4KO) mice demonstrated a protective role of Nox4 during chronic abdominal aortic banding, involving a paracrine enhancement of myocardial capillary density. However, other authors who studied cardiac-specific Nox4KO mice reported detrimental effects of Nox4 in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). It has been speculated that these divergent results are due to cell-specific actions of Nox4 (i.e. cardiomyocyte Nox4 detrimental but endothelial Nox4 beneficial) and/or differences in the model of pressure overload (i.e. abdominal banding vs. TAC). This study aimed to (i) investigate whether the effects of Nox4 on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling vary according to the pressure overload model and (ii) compare the roles of cardiomyocyte vs. endothelial cell Nox4. Global Nox4KO mice subjected to TAC developed worse cardiac remodelling and contractile dysfunction than wild-type littermates, consistent with our previous results with abdominal aortic banding. Next, we generated inducible cardiomyocyte-specific Nox4 KO mice (Cardio-Nox4KO) and endothelial-specific Nox4 KO mice (Endo-Nox4KO) and studied their responses to pressure overload. Both Cardio-Nox4KO and Endo-Nox4KO developed worse pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling and dysfunction than wild-type littermates, associated with significant decrease in protein levels of HIF1α and VEGF and impairment of myocardial capillarization. Cardiomyocyte as well as endothelial cell Nox4 contributes to protection against chronic hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac remodelling, at least in part through common effects on myocardial capillary density. © The Author 2017 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  15. NOX4-mediated ROS production induces apoptotic cell death via down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression in combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Un Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thioridazine is known to have anti-tumor effects by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling, which is an important signaling pathway in cell survival. However, thioridazine alone does not induce apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (AMC-HN4, human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231, and human glioma (U87MG cells. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin induces apoptosis. Combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells without inducing apoptosis in human normal mesangial cells and human normal umbilical vein cells (EA.hy926. We found that combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin had synergistic effects in AMC-HN4 cells. Among apoptosis-related proteins, thioridazine plus curcumin induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels in a proteasome-dependent manner. Augmentation of proteasome activity was related to the up-regulation of proteasome subunit alpha 5 (PSMA5 expression in curcumin plus thioridazine-treated cells. Combined treatment with curcumin and thioridazine produced intracellular ROS in a NOX4-dependent manner, and ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling played a critical role in the up-regulation of PSMA5 expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 inhibited apoptosis in thioridazine and curcumin-treated cells. Therefore, we demonstrated that thioridazine plus curcumin induces proteasome activity by up-regulating PSMA5 expression via NOX4-mediated ROS production and that down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression post-translationally is involved in apoptosis.

  16. Intracellular expression of reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 in normal and cancer thyroid tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyemi, Urbain; Caillou, Bernard; Talbot, Monique; Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Lacroix, Ludovic; Lagent-Chevallier, Odile; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Roos, Dirk; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Virion, Alain; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) belongs to the NOX family that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Function and tissue distribution of NOX4 have not yet been entirely clarified. To date, in the thyroid gland, only DUOX1/2 NOX systems have been described. NOX4 mRNA expression, as shown by real-time PCR,

  17. Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y. [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A. [ORNL; Toops, Todd J. [ORNL; Parks, II, James E. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation. Since the fuel penalty associated with passive SCR NOX control depends on the fraction of time that the engine is running rich rather than lean, both benefits (longer lean times and shorter rich times achieved via improved NH3 production) will decrease the passive SCR fuel penalty. However, these benefits are primarily realized at low to moderate temperatures (300-500 °C), where the NOX storage component is able to store NOX, with little to no benefit at higher temperatures (>500 °C), where NOX storage is no longer effective. This study discusses engine parameters and control strategies affecting the NH3 generation over a TWC with NOX storage component.

  18. The matricellular protein TSP1 promotes human and mouse endothelial cell senescence through CD47 and Nox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijles, Daniel N; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Amaral, Jefferson H; Bienes-Martinez, Raquel; Knupp, Heather E; Attaran, Shireen; Sembrat, John C; Nouraie, Seyed M; Rojas, Mauricio M; Novelli, Enrico M; Gladwin, Mark T; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Cifuentes-Pagano, Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2017-10-17

    Senescent cells withdraw from the cell cycle and do not proliferate. The prevalence of senescent compared to normally functioning parenchymal cells increases with age, impairing tissue and organ homeostasis. A contentious principle governing this process has been the redox theory of aging. We linked matricellular protein thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) and its receptor CD47 to the activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), but not of the other closely related Nox isoforms, and associated oxidative stress, and to senescence in human cells and aged tissue. In human endothelial cells, TSP1 promoted senescence and attenuated cell cycle progression and proliferation. At the molecular level, TSP1 increased Nox1-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the increased abundance of the transcription factor p53. p53 mediated a DNA damage response that led to senescence through Rb and p21 cip , both of which inhibit cell cycle progression. Nox1 inhibition blocked the ability of TSP1 to increase p53 nuclear localization and p21 cip abundance and its ability to promote senescence. Mice lacking TSP1 showed decreases in ROS production, p21 cip expression, p53 activity, and aging-induced senescence. Conversely, lung tissue from aging humans displayed increases in the abundance of vascular TSP1, Nox1, p53, and p21 cip Finally, genetic ablation or pharmacological blockade of Nox1 in human endothelial cells attenuated TSP1-mediated ROS generation, restored cell cycle progression, and protected against senescence. Together, our results provide insights into the functional interplay between TSP1 and Nox1 in the regulation of endothelial senescence and suggest potential targets for controlling the aging process at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. 40 CFR 76.5 - NOX emission limitations for Group 1 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX emission limitations for Group 1 boilers. 76.5 Section 76.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.5 NOX emission limitations...

  20. Zinc regulates Nox1 expression through a NF-κB and mitochondrial ROS dependent mechanism to induce senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, G; Huang, J; Feresin, R G; Zhao, Y; Griendling, K K

    2017-07-01

    The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is well established. Increases in oxidative stress can further exacerbate the inflammatory response and lead to cellular senescence. We previously reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) and zinc increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and that senescence induced by Ang II is a zinc-dependent process. Zinc stimulated NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity; however, the role of Nox isoforms in zinc effects was not determined. Here, we show that downregulation of Nox1, but not Nox4, by siRNA prevented both Ang II- and zinc-induced senescence in VSMCs. On the other hand, overexpression of Nox1 induced senescence, which was associated with reduced proliferation, reduced expression of telomerase and increased DNA damage. Zinc increased Nox1 protein expression, which was inhibited by chelation of zinc with TPEN and by overexpression of the zinc exporters ZnT3 and ZnT10. These transporters work to reduce cytosolic zinc, suggesting that increased cytosolic zinc mediates Nox1 upregulation. Other metals including copper, iron, cobalt and manganese failed to upregulate Nox1, suggesting that this pathway is zinc specific. Nox1 upregulation was inhibited by actinomycin D (ACD), an inhibitor of transcription, by inhibition of NF-κB, a known Nox1 transcriptional regulator and by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and MitoTEMPO, suggesting that NF-κB and mitochondrial ROS mediate zinc effects. Supporting this idea, we found that zinc increased NF-κB activation in the cytosol, stimulated the translocation of the p65 subunit to the nucleus, and that zinc accumulated in mitochondria increasing mitochondrial ROS, measured using MitoSox. Further, zinc-induced senescence was reduced by inhibition of NF-κB or reduction of mitochondrial ROS with MitoTEMPO. NF-κB activity was also reduced by MitoTEMPO, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS

  1. Disruption of the podosome adaptor protein TKS4 (SH3PXD2B) causes the skeletal dysplasia, eye, and cardiac abnormalities of Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; de Brouwer, Arjan; van der Zwaag, Bert; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Scimia, M Cecilia; Lindsey, James D; Weinreb, Robert; Albrecht, Beate; Megarbane, Andre; Alanay, Yasemin; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Amenduni, Mariangela; Artuso, Rosangela; Veltman, Joris A; van Beusekom, Ellen; Oudakker, Astrid; Millán, José Luis; Hennekam, Raoul; Hamel, Ben; Courtneidge, Sara A; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2010-02-12

    Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (FTHS), also known as Ter Haar syndrome, is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by skeletal, cardiovascular, and eye abnormalities, such as increased intraocular pressure, prominent eyes, and hypertelorism. We have conducted homozygosity mapping on patients representing 12 FTHS families. A locus on chromosome 5q35.1 was identified for which patients from nine families shared homozygosity. For one family, a homozygous deletion mapped exactly to the smallest region of overlapping homozygosity, which contains a single gene, SH3PXD2B. This gene encodes the TKS4 protein, a phox homology (PX) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor protein and Src substrate. This protein was recently shown to be involved in the formation of actin-rich membrane protrusions called podosomes or invadopodia, which coordinate pericellular proteolysis with cell migration. Mice lacking Tks4 also showed pronounced skeletal, eye, and cardiac abnormalities and phenocopied the majority of the defects associated with FTHS. These findings establish a role for TKS4 in FTHS and embryonic development. Mutation analysis revealed five different homozygous mutations in SH3PXD2B in seven FTHS families. No SH3PXD2B mutations were detected in six other FTHS families, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of this condition. Interestingly however, dermal fibroblasts from one of the individuals without an SH3PXD2B mutation nevertheless expressed lower levels of the TKS4 protein, suggesting a common mechanism underlying disease causation. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of vascular NADPH oxidase expression and reactive oxygen species production by histone deacetylase-dependent mechanisms in experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Adriana Manea

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox contribute to structural-functional alterations of the vascular wall in diabetes. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation, emerged as important regulators of gene expression in cardiovascular disorders. Since their role in diabetes is still elusive we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC-dependent mechanisms could mediate vascular Nox overexpression in diabetic conditions. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive vehicle or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor. In vitro studies were performed on a human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC line. Aortic SMCs typically express Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5 subtypes. HDAC1 and HDAC2 proteins along with Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 levels were found significantly elevated in the aortas of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic animals. Treatment of diabetic mice with SAHA mitigated the aortic expression of Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 subtypes and NADPH-stimulated ROS production. High concentrations of glucose increased HDAC1 and HDAC2 protein levels in cultured SMCs. SAHA significantly reduced the high glucose-induced Nox1/4/5 expression, ROS production, and the formation malondialdehyde-protein adducts in SMCs. Overexpression of HDAC2 up-regulated the Nox1/4/5 gene promoter activities in SMCs. Physical interactions of HDAC1/2 and p300 proteins with Nox1/4/5 promoters were detected at the sites of active transcription. High glucose induced histone H3K27 acetylation enrichment at the promoters of Nox1/4/5 genes in SMCs. The novel data of this study indicate that HDACs mediate vascular Nox up-regulation in diabetes. HDAC inhibition reduces vascular ROS production in experimental diabetes, possibly by a mechanism involving negative regulation of Nox expression. Keywords: NADPH oxidase, Epigenetics, HDAC, Histone acetylation, Diabetes

  3. Nox2 and p47phox modulate compensatory growth of primary collateral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStasi, Matthew R.; Unthank, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in both the promotion and impairment of compensatory collateral growth remains controversial because the specific Nox and reactive oxygen species involved are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the primary Nox and reactive oxygen species associated with early stage compensatory collateral growth in young, healthy animals. Ligation of the feed arteries that form primary collateral pathways in rat mesentery and mouse hindlimb was used to assess the role of Nox during collateral growth. Changes in mesenteric collateral artery Nox mRNA expression determined by real-time PCR at 1, 3, and 7 days relative to same-animal control arteries suggested a role for Nox subunits Nox2 and p47phox. Administration of apocynin or Nox2ds-tat suppressed collateral growth in both rat and mouse models, suggesting the Nox2/p47phox interaction was involved. Functional significance of p47phox expression was assessed by evaluation of collateral growth in rats administered p47phox small interfering RNA and in p47phox−/− mice. Diameter measurements of collateral mesenteric and gracilis arteries at 7 and 14 days, respectively, indicated no significant collateral growth compared with control rats or C57BL/6 mice. Chronic polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase administration significantly suppressed collateral development in rats and mice, implying a requirement for H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that Nox2, modulated at least in part by p47phox, mediates early stage compensatory collateral development via a process dependent upon peroxide generation. These results have important implications for the use of antioxidants and the development of therapies for peripheral arterial disease. PMID:24633549

  4. NOX4-mediated ROS production induces apoptotic cell death via down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression in combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Un; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Dong Eun; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-10-01

    Thioridazine is known to have anti-tumor effects by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling, which is an important signaling pathway in cell survival. However, thioridazine alone does not induce apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (AMC-HN4), human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231), and human glioma (U87MG) cells. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin induces apoptosis. Combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells without inducing apoptosis in human normal mesangial cells and human normal umbilical vein cells (EA.hy926). We found that combined treatment with thioridazine and curcumin had synergistic effects in AMC-HN4 cells. Among apoptosis-related proteins, thioridazine plus curcumin induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels in a proteasome-dependent manner. Augmentation of proteasome activity was related to the up-regulation of proteasome subunit alpha 5 (PSMA5) expression in curcumin plus thioridazine-treated cells. Combined treatment with curcumin and thioridazine produced intracellular ROS in a NOX4-dependent manner, and ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling played a critical role in the up-regulation of PSMA5 expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 inhibited apoptosis in thioridazine and curcumin-treated cells. Therefore, we demonstrated that thioridazine plus curcumin induces proteasome activity by up-regulating PSMA5 expression via NOX4-mediated ROS production and that down-regulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 expression post-translationally is involved in apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting vascular NADPH oxidase 1 blocks tumor angiogenesis through a PPARα mediated mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Garrido-Urbani

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPARα, a regulator of NF-κB. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPARα dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  6. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A.; Philip, Lijy M.; Cheung, Guillaume; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Grasemann, Hartmut; Sweezey, Neil; Palaniyar, Nades

    2018-01-01

    Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45) into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe) conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox), neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi). Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units) increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements). Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging) during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs). In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots) and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative)-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive)-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM) increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  7. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraj A. Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45 into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox, neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi. Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation (NETosis is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements. Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs. In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  8. Deficiency of Nox2 prevents angiotensin II-induced inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Lung eChan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is an important determinant of inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. Many of the vascular effects of angiotensin II are mediated by reactive oxygen species generated from homologues of NADPH oxidase with Nox2 predominating in small arteries and arterioles. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that superoxide generated by Nox2 plays a role in angiotensin II-induced cerebral arteriolar remodeling. We examined Nox2-deficient and wild-type mice in which a pressor or a non-pressor dose of angiotensin II (1000 or 200 ng/kg/day or saline was infused for 4 weeks via osmotic minipumps. Systolic arterial pressure was measured by a tail-cuff method. Pressure and diameter of cerebral arterioles were measured through an open cranial window in anesthetized mice. Cross-sectional area (by histology and superoxide level (by hydroethidine staining of cerebral arterioles were determined ex vivo. The pressor, but not the non-pressor, dose of angiotensin II significantly increased systolic arterial pressure in both wild-type and Nox2-deficient mice. Both doses of angiotensin II increased superoxide levels and significantly reduced external diameter in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in wild-type mice. Increased superoxide and inward remodeling were prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. Moreover, only the pressor dose of AngII increased cross-sectional area of arteriolar wall in wild-type mice and was prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. In conclusion, superoxide derived from Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase plays an important role in angiotensin II-mediated inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. This effect appears to be independent of pressure and different from that of hypertrophy.

  9. Crosstalk between HDAC6 and Nox2-based NADPH oxidase mediates HIV-1 Tat-induced pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Soo Youn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 likely is important in inflammatory diseases. However, how HDAC6 exerts its effect on inflammatory processes remains unclear. HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat activates NADPH oxidase resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to extensive neuro-inflammation in the central nervous system. We investigated the correlation of HDAC6 and NADPH oxidase in HIV-1 Tat-stimulated astrocytes. HDAC6 knockdown attenuated HIV-1 Tat-induced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase activation. HDAC6 knockdown suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, such as Nox2, p47phox, and p22phox. Specific inhibition of HDAC6 using tubastatin A suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced ROS generation and activation of NADPH oxidase. N-acetyl cysteine, diphenyl iodonium, and apocynin suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of HDAC6 and the pro-inflammatory chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10. Nox2 knockdown attenuated HIV-1 Tat-induced HDAC6 expression and subsequent expression of chemokines. The collective results point to the potential crosstalk between HDAC6 and NADPH oxidase, which could be a combined therapeutic target for relief of HIV-1 Tat-mediated neuro-inflammation. Keywords: HIV-1 Tat, HDAC6, NADPH oxidase, ROS, Inflammation, Astrocytes

  10. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    Lightning flashes, associated with vigorous convective activity, is one of the most prominent weather phenomena in the tropical atmosphere. High aerosol loading is indirectly associated with the increase in lightning flash rates via the formation of tropospheric ozone during the pre-monsoon and monsoon over the tropics. Tropospheric ozone, an important greenhouse pollutant gas have impact on Earth’s radiation budget and play a key role in changing the atmospheric circulation patterns. Lightning-induced NOx is a primary pollutant found in photochemical smog and an important precursor for the formation of tropospheric ozone. A critical analysis is done to study the indirect effects of high aerosol loading on the formation of tropospheric ozone via lightning flashes and induced NOx formation over an urban metropolitan location Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), India during the period 2001-2012. The seasonal variation of lightning flash rates (LFR), taken from TRMM-LIS 2.5o x 2.5o gridded dataset, show that the LFR was observed to be intensified in the pre-monsoon (March-May) and high in monsoon (June-September) months over the region. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 555nm, taken from MISR 0.5o x 0.5o gridded level-3 dataset, plays an indirect effect on the increase in LFR during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months and has positive correlations between them during these periods. This is also justified from the seasonal variation of the increase in LFR due to the increase in AOD over the region during 2001-2012. The calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis shows that the tropospheric ozone, formed as a result of lightning-induced NOx and due to the increased AOD at 555 nm, also increases during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months. The seasonal variation of lightning-induced tropospheric NOx, taken from SCIAMACHY observations also justified the fact that the pre-monsoon and monsoon LFR solely responsible for the generation of induced NOx over the region. The

  11. NOx reduction using amine reclaimer wastes (ARW) generated in post combustion CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botheju, Deshai; Glarborg, Peter; Tokheim, Lars-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Amine reclaimer wastes (ARW) generated in CO2 capture processes demand suitable disposal means. Such wastes contain remaining amine, NH3 and other degradation compounds. This study investigated the potential of using ARW as a NOx reducing agent, under laboratory conditions in a flow reactor....../NO ratios (waste product, together with its demonstrated NOx reduction capability and its calorific value contribution, makes it attractive as an additive...

  12. NOX4 mediates BMP4-induced upregulation of TRPC1 and 6 protein expressions in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.

  13. Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin, E-mail: iamicehe@163.com [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Cao, Bo, E-mail: caobo19814@126.com [Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Target Organ Injury, Tianjin, 300162 (China); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdibad@163.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Otorhinolaryngology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin 300192 (China); Xiao, Na [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Chen, Hong [Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Li, Guo-qiang; Peng, Shou-chun [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Wei, Lu-qing, E-mail: luqing-wei@163.com [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The present study was aimed at exploring the protective effects of Salvianolic acid B (SalB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury in mice. Lung fibrotic injuries were induced in mice by a single intragastrical administration of 300 mg/kg PQ, then the mice were administrated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg SalB, 100 mg/kg vitamin C (Vit C) and dexamethasone (DXM) for 14 days. PQ-triggered structure distortion, collagen overproduction, excessive inflammatory infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and oxidative stress damages in lung tissues and mortality of mice were attenuated by SalB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SalB was noted to enhance the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduce expression of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme Nox4 [NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-4]. SalB also inhibited the increasing expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and the phosphorylation of its downstream target Smad3 which were enhanced by PQ. These results suggest that SalB may exert protective effects against PQ-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Its mechanisms involve the mediation of Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. - Highlights: • Salvianolic acid B (SalB) reduced Paraquat-induced mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. • SalB has anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects simultaneously. • Its mechanisms were targeting Nrf2-Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling.

  14. Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bin; Cao, Bo; Zhang, Di; Xiao, Na; Chen, Hong; Li, Guo-qiang; Peng, Shou-chun; Wei, Lu-qing

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the protective effects of Salvianolic acid B (SalB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury in mice. Lung fibrotic injuries were induced in mice by a single intragastrical administration of 300 mg/kg PQ, then the mice were administrated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg SalB, 100 mg/kg vitamin C (Vit C) and dexamethasone (DXM) for 14 days. PQ-triggered structure distortion, collagen overproduction, excessive inflammatory infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and oxidative stress damages in lung tissues and mortality of mice were attenuated by SalB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SalB was noted to enhance the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduce expression of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme Nox4 [NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-4]. SalB also inhibited the increasing expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and the phosphorylation of its downstream target Smad3 which were enhanced by PQ. These results suggest that SalB may exert protective effects against PQ-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Its mechanisms involve the mediation of Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. - Highlights: • Salvianolic acid B (SalB) reduced Paraquat-induced mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. • SalB has anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects simultaneously. • Its mechanisms were targeting Nrf2-Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling.

  15. miR-9-5p suppresses pro-fibrogenic transformation of fibroblasts and prevents organ fibrosis by targeting NOX4 and TGFBR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Busnadiego, Óscar; Sandoval, Pilar; Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Blanco-Ruiz, Eva; Rodríguez, Macarena; Pian, Héctor; Ramos, Ricardo; López-Cabrera, Manuel; García-Bermejo, Maria Laura; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Uncontrolled extracellular matrix (ECM) production by fibroblasts in response to injury contributes to fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulates the production of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-dependent ROS, promoting lung fibrosis (LF). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to contribute to LF. To identify miRNAs involved in redox regulation relevant for IPF, we performed arrays in human lung fibroblasts exposed to ROS. miR-9-5p was selected as the best candidate and we demonstrate its inhibitory effect on TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2) and NOX4 expression. Increased expression of miR-9-5p abrogates TGF-β1-dependent myofibroblast phenotypic transformation. In the mouse model of bleomycin-induced LF, miR-9-5p dramatically reduces fibrogenesis and inhibition of miR-9-5p and prevents its anti-fibrotic effect both in vitro and in vivo. In lung specimens from patients with IPF, high levels of miR-9-5p are found. In omentum-derived mesothelial cells (MCs) from patients subjected to peritoneal dialysis (PD), miR-9-5p also inhibits mesothelial to myofibroblast transformation. We propose that TGF-β1 induces miR-9-5p expression as a self-limiting homeostatic response. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Observations of the temperature dependent response of ozone to NOx reductions in the Sacramento, CA urban plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranchi, B. W.; Goldstein, A. H.; Cohen, R. C.

    2011-07-01

    Observations of NOx in the Sacramento, CA region show that mixing ratios decreased by 30 % between 2001 and 2008. Here we use an observation-based method to quantify net ozone (O3) production rates in the outflow from the Sacramento metropolitan region and examine the O3 decrease resulting from reductions in NOx emissions. This observational method does not rely on assumptions about detailed chemistry of ozone production, rather it is an independent means to verify and test these assumptions. We use an instantaneous steady-state model as well as a detailed 1-D plume model to aid in interpretation of the ozone production inferred from observations. In agreement with the models, the observations show that early in the plume, the NOx dependence for Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) production is strongly coupled with temperature, suggesting that temperature-dependent biogenic VOC emissions and other temperature-related effects can drive Ox production between NOx-limited and NOx-suppressed regimes. As a result, NOx reductions were found to be most effective at higher temperatures over the 7 year period. We show that violations of the California 1-h O3 standard (90 ppb) in the region have been decreasing linearly with decreases in NOx (at a given temperature) and predict that reductions of NOx concentrations (and presumably emissions) by an additional 30 % (relative to 2007 levels) will eliminate violations of the state 1 h standard in the region. If current trends continue, a 30 % decrease in NOx is expected by 2012, and an end to violations of the 1 h standard in the Sacramento region appears to be imminent.

  17. TLR4-NOX4-AP-1 signaling mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced CXCR6 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Devang N.; Bailey, Steven R.; Gresham, John K.; Schuchman, David B.; Shelhamer, James H.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Foxwell, Brian M.; Stemerman, Michael B.; Maranchie, Jodi K.; Valente, Anthony J.; Mummidi, Srinivas; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2006-01-01

    CXCL16 is a transmembrane non-ELR CXC chemokine that signals via CXCR6 to induce aortic smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation. While bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to stimulate CXCL16 expression in SMC, its effects on CXCR6 are not known. Here, we demonstrate that LPS upregulates CXCR6 mRNA, protein, and surface expression in human ASMC. Inhibition of TLR4 with neutralizing antibodies or specific siRNA interference blocked LPS-mediated CXCR6 expression. LPS stimulated both AP-1 (c-Fos, c-Jun) and NF-κB (p50 and p65) activation, but only inhibition of AP-1 attenuated LPS-induced CXCR6 expression. Using dominant negative expression vectors and siRNA interference, we demonstrate that LPS induces AP-1 activation via MyD88, TRAF6, ERK1/2, and JNK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleniodonium chloride significantly attenuated LPS-mediated AP-1-dependent CXCR6 expression, as did inhibition of NOX4 NADPH oxidase by siRNA. Finally, CXCR6 knockdown inhibited CXCL16-induced ASMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that LPS-TLR4-NOX4-AP-1 signaling can induce CXCR6 expression in ASMC, and suggest that the CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may be an important proinflammatory pathway in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

  18. Coagulin-L ameliorates TLR4 induced oxidative damage and immune response by regulating mitochondria and NOX-derived ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sukka Santosh [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chauhan, Parul [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Preeti [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India); Saini, Deepika [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Yadav, Prem Prakash, E-mail: pp_yadav@cdri.res.in [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Barthwal, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojbarthwal@cdri.res.in [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Withanolides possess diverse biological and pharmacological activity but their immunomodulatory function is less realized. Hence, coagulin-L, a withanolide isolated from Withania coagulans Dunal has been studied for such an effect in human and murine cells, and mice model. Coagulin-L (1, 3, 10 μM) exhibited immunomodulatory effect by suppressing TLR4 induced immune mediators such as cytokines (GMCSF, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-1Rα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12 (p40/p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17), chemokines (IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, KC, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, RANTES/CCL5, eotaxin/CCL11), growth factors (FGF-basic, VEGF), nitric oxide and intracellular superoxide. Mechanistically, coagulin-L abrogated LPS induced total and mitochondrial ROS generation, NOX2, NOX4 mRNA expression, IRAK and MAPK (p38, JNK, ERK) activation. Coagulin-L also attenuated IκBα degradation, which prevented NFκB downstream iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Furthermore, coagulin-L (10, 25, 50 mg/kg, p.o.), undermined the LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) induced endotoxemia response in mice as evinced from diminished cytokine release, nitric oxide, aortic p38 MAPK activation and endothelial tissue impairment besides suppressing NOX2 and NOX4 expression in liver and aorta. Moreover, coagulin-L also alleviated the ROS mediated oxidative damage which was assessed through protein carbonyl, lipid hydroperoxide, 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine quantification. To extend, coagulin-L also suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis in mice. Therefore, coagulin-L can be of therapeutic importance in pathological conditions induced by oxidative damage. - Highlights: • Coagulin-L demonstrates immunomodulatory effects in vivo and in vitro by modulating ROS. • Coagulin-L modulates TH1/TH2/TH17 immunokines. • Coagulin-L exerts immunomodulatory effect by regulating TLR4-IRAK- ROS

  19. Nox-2-mediated phenotype loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons might contribute to postoperative cognitive decline in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lili qiu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD is a common complication following anesthesia and surgery, especially in elderly patients; however, the precise mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase mediated-abnormalities in parvalbumin (PV interneurons play an important role in the pathophysiology of POCD. The animal model was established using isoflurane anesthesia and exploratory laparotomy in sixteen-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For interventional experiments, mice were chronically treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (APO. Open field and fear conditioning behavioral tests were performed on day 6 and 7 post-surgery, respectively. In a separate experiment, brain tissue was harvested and subjected to biochemical analysis. Primary hippocampal neurons challenged with lipopolysaccharide in vitro were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in PV interneurons. Our results showed that anesthesia and surgery induced significant hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, which was accompanied by PV interneuron phenotype loss and increased expression of interleukin-1β, markers of oxidative stress, and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2 in the hippocampus. In addition, lipopolysaccharide exposure increased Nox2 level and decreased the expression of PV and the number of excitatory synapses onto PV interneurons in the primary hippocampal neurons. Notably, treatment with APO reversed these abnormalities. Our study suggests that Nox2-derived ROS production triggers, at least in part, anesthesia- and surgery-induced hippocampal PV interneuron phenotype loss and consequent cognitive impairment in aging mice.

  20. Ebselen and congeners inhibit NADPH oxidase 2-dependent superoxide generation by interrupting the binding of regulatory subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M E; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Diebold, Becky; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Zhu, Yerun; McCoy, James; Sun, Aiming; Snyder, James P; Fu, Haian; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Lambeth, J David

    2012-06-22

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function in normal physiology and, when overproduced, in pathophysiology. Recent studies using mice deficient in Nox2 identify this isoform as a novel target against Nox2-implicated inflammatory diseases. Nox2 activation depends on the binding of the proline-rich domain of its heterodimeric partner p22phox to p47phox. A high-throughput screen that monitored this interaction via fluorescence polarization identified ebselen and several of its analogs as inhibitors. Medicinal chemistry was performed to explore structure-activity relationships and to optimize potency. Ebselen and analogs potently inhibited Nox1 and Nox2 activity but were less effective against other isoforms. Ebselen also blocked translocation of p47phox to neutrophil membranes. Thus, ebselen and its analogs represent a class of compounds that inhibit ROS generation by interrupting the assembly of Nox2-activating regulatory subunits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of new particle formation from monoterpene oxidation by NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, J.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Andres, S.; Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Müsgen, P.; Rohrer, F.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2014-03-01

    The impact of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) on new particle formation (NPF) and on photochemical ozone production from real plant volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions was studied in a laboratory setup. At high NOx conditions ([BVOC] / [NOx] 23 ppb) new particle formation was suppressed. Instead, photochemical ozone formation was observed resulting in higher hydroxyl radical (OH) and lower nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations. When [NO] was reduced back to levels below 1 ppb by OH reactions, NPF was observed. Adding high amounts of NOx caused NPF to be slowed by orders of magnitude compared to analogous experiments at low NOx conditions ([NOx] ~300 ppt), although OH concentrations were higher. Varying NO2 photolysis enabled showing that NO was responsible for suppression of NPF. This suggests that peroxy radicals are involved in NPF. The rates of NPF and photochemical ozone production were related by power law dependence with an exponent approaching -2. This exponent indicated that the overall peroxy radical concentration must have been similar when NPF occurred. Thus, permutation reactions of first-generation peroxy radicals cannot be the rate limiting step in NPF from monoterpene oxidation. It was concluded that permutation reactions of higher generation peroxy-radical-like intermediates limit the rate of new particle formation. In contrast to the strong effects on the particle numbers, the formation of particle mass was substantially less sensitive to NOx concentrations. If at all, yields were reduced by about an order of magnitude only at very high NOx concentrations.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by NADPH Oxidases Promote Radicle Protrusion and Root Elongation during Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulation through various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Although it has been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS regulate radicle emergence and root elongation in a non-enzymatic manner during dicot seed germination, the role of ROS in monocot seed germination remains unknown. NADPH oxidases (NOXs are the major ROS producers in plants; however, whether and how NOXs regulate rice seed germination through ROS generation remains unclear. Here, we report that diphenyleneiodinium (DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, potently inhibited embryo and seedling growth—especially that of the radicle and of root elongation—in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the DPI-mediated inhibition of radicle and root growth could be eliminated by transferring seedlings from DPI to water. Furthermore, ROS production/accumulation during rice seed germination was quantified via histochemistry. Superoxide radicals (O2−, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (•OH accumulated steadily in the coleorhiza, radicle and seedling root of germinating rice seeds. Expression profiles of the nine typical NOX genes were also investigated. According to quantitative PCR, OsNOX5, 7 and 9 were expressed relatively higher. When seeds were incubated in water, OsNOX5 expression progressively increased in the embryo from 12 to 48 h, whereas OsNOX7 and 9 expressions increased from 12 to 24 h and decreased thereafter. As expected, DPI inhibits the expression at predetermined time points for each of these genes. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS produced by NOXs are involved in radicle and root elongation during rice seed germination, and OsNOX5, 7 and 9 could play crucial roles in rice seed germination. These findings will facilitate further studies of the roles of ROS generated by NOXs during seed germination and seedling establishment and also provide valuable information for the

  3. Commercial introduction of the Advanced NOxTECH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, B.C. [NOxTECH, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    NOxTECH is BACT for diesel electric generators. Emissions of NO{sub x} are reduced 95% or more with substantial concurrent reductions in CO, particulates, and ROG`s. No engine modifications or other exhaust aftertreatments can remove all criteria pollutants as effectively as NOxTECH. The NOxTECH system reliably maintains NH{sub 3} slip below 2 ppm. Unlike other emissions controls, NOxTECH does not generate hazardous by-products. The Advanced NOxTECH system reduces the size, weight, and cost for BACT emissions reductions. Based on the operation of a 150 kW prototype, NOxTECH, Inc. is quoting commercial units for diesel electric generators. Advanced NOxTECH equipment costs about half as much as SCR systems, and NO{sub x} reduction can exceed 95% with guarantees for emissions compliance.

  4. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  6. Azithromycin attenuates myofibroblast differentiation and lung fibrosis development through proteasomal degradation of NOX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Araya, Jun; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Hara, Hiromichi; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Saito, Nayuta; Kadota, Tsukasa; Sato, Nahoko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Kurita, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Kenji; Ito, Saburo; Fujita, Yu; Utsumi, Hirofumi; Yanagisawa, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Wakui, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Takeo; Numata, Takanori; Kaneko, Yumi; Asano, Hisatoshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Odaka, Makoto; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-03

    Accumulation of profibrotic myofibroblasts is involved in the process of fibrosis development during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis. TGFB (transforming growth factor β) is one of the major profibrotic cytokines for myofibroblast differentiation and NOX4 (NADPH oxidase 4) has an essential role in TGFB-mediated cell signaling. Azithromycin (AZM), a second-generation antibacterial macrolide, has a pleiotropic effect on cellular processes including proteostasis. Hence, we hypothesized that AZM may regulate NOX4 levels by modulating proteostasis machineries, resulting in inhibition of TGFB-associated lung fibrosis development. Human lung fibroblasts (LF) were used to evaluate TGFB-induced myofibroblast differentiation. With respect to NOX4 regulation via proteostasis, assays for macroautophagy/autophagy, the unfolded protein response (UPR), and proteasome activity were performed. The potential anti-fibrotic property of AZM was examined by using bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mouse models. TGFB-induced NOX4 and myofibroblast differentiation were clearly inhibited by AZM treatment in LF. AZM-mediated NOX4 reduction was restored by treatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. AZM inhibited autophagy and enhanced the UPR. Autophagy inhibition by AZM was linked to ubiquitination of NOX4 via increased protein levels of STUB1 (STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase. An increased UPR by AZM was associated with enhanced proteasome activity. AZM suppressed lung fibrosis development induced by BLM with concomitantly reduced NOX4 protein levels and enhanced proteasome activation. These results suggest that AZM suppresses NOX4 by promoting proteasomal degradation, resulting in inhibition of TGFB-induced myofibroblast differentiation and lung fibrosis development. AZM may be a candidate for the treatment of the fibrotic lung disease IPF.

  7. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rezende

    2018-05-01

    Innovation and conclusion: ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response.

  8. Increased synaptophysin is involved in inflammation-induced heat hyperalgesia mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Mechanisms associated with cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5-mediated heat hyperalgesia induced by inflammation remain undefined. This study was designed to examine whether Cdk5 mediates heat hyperalgesia resulting from peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA in the spinal dorsal horns of rats by interacting with synaptophysin, a well known membrane protein mediating the endocytosis-exocytosis cycle of synaptic vesicles as a molecular marker associated with presynaptic vesicle membranes. The role of Cdk5 in mediating synaptophysin was examined through the combined use of behavioral approaches, imaging studies, and immunoprecipitation following CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Results showed that Cdk5 colocalized with both synaptophysin and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs consisting of VAMP-2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 1A in spinal dorsal horn of rats. Increased synaptophysin expression of spinal cord horn neurons post intraplantar injection of CFA coincided with increased duration of heat hyperalgesia lasting from 6 h to 3 d. Intrathecal administration of roscovitine, a Cdk5 specific inhibitor, significantly depressed synaptophysin expression during peak heat hyperalgesia and heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA. Data presented in this report indicated that calpain activity was transiently upregulated 6 h post CFA-treatment despite previous reports suggesting that calpain was capable of cleaving p35 into p25. Results from previous studies obtained by other laboratories demonstrated that significant changes in p35 expression levels within spinal cord horn neurons were not observed in the CFA-treated inflammatory pain model although significant upregulation of Cdk5 kinase was observed between 2 h to 7 d. Therefore, generation of p25 occurred in a calpain-independent fashion in a CFA-treated inflammatory pain model. Our results demonstrated that increased synaptophysin

  9. Calcineurin Aβ regulates NADPH oxidase (Nox) expression and activity via nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in response to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clintoria R; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-02-21

    Hypertrophy is an adaptive response that enables organs to appropriately meet increased functional demands. Previously, we reported that calcineurin (Cn) is required for glomerular and whole kidney hypertrophy in diabetic rodents (Gooch, J. L., Barnes, J. L., Garcia, S., and Abboud, H. E. (2003). Calcineurin is activated in diabetes and is required for glomerular hypertrophy and ECM accumulation. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 284, F144-F154; Reddy, R. N., Knotts, T. L., Roberts, B. R., Molkentin, J. D., Price, S. R., and Gooch, J. L. (2011). Calcineurin Aβ is required for hypertrophy but not matrix expansion in the diabetic kidney. J. Cell Mol. Med. 15, 414-422). Because studies have also implicated the reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes NADPH oxidases (Nox) in diabetic kidney responses, we tested the hypothesis that Nox and Cn cooperate in a common signaling pathway. First, we examined the role of the two main isoforms of Cn in hypertrophic signaling. Using primary kidney cells lacking a catalytic subunit of Cn (CnAα(-/-) or CnAβ(-/-)), we found that high glucose selectively activates CnAβ, whereas CnAα is constitutively active. Furthermore, CnAβ but not CnAα mediates hypertrophy. Next, we found that chronic reactive oxygen species generation in response to high glucose is attenuated in CnAβ(-/-) cells, suggesting that Cn is upstream of Nox. Consistent with this, loss of CnAβ reduces basal expression and blocks high glucose induction of Nox2 and Nox4. Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a CnAβ-regulated transcription factor, decreases Nox2 and Nox4 expression, whereas NFAT overexpression increases Nox2 and Nox4, indicating that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway modulates Nox. These data reveal that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway regulates Nox and plays an important role in high glucose-mediated hypertrophic responses in the kidney.

  10. TMEM16A Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction by Facilitating Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Ming; Gao, Min; Guo, Kai-Min; Wang, Mi; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zeng, Xue-Lin; Sun, Lu; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Du, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guan-Lei; Zhou, Jia-Guo; Guan, Yong-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, the role of TMEM16A in vascular endothelial dysfunction during hypertension is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific involvement of TMEM16A in regulating endothelial function and blood pressure and the underlying mechanism. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and TMEM16A endothelial-specific transgenic and knockout mice were used. We found that TMEM16A was expressed abundantly and functioned as a Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channel in endothelial cells. Angiotensin II induced endothelial dysfunction with an increase in TMEM16A expression. The knockout of endothelial-specific TMEM16A significantly lowered the blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas the overexpression of endothelial-specific TMEM16A resulted in the opposite effects. These results were related to the increased reactive oxygen species production, Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase activation, and Nox2 and p22phox protein expression that were facilitated by TMEM16A on angiotensin II-induced hypertensive challenge. Moreover, TMEM16A directly bound with Nox2 and reduced the degradation of Nox2 through the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Therefore, TMEM16A is a positive regulator of endothelial reactive oxygen species generation via Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, which induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Modification of TMEM16A may be a novel therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-associated diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Plasma and catalyst for the oxidation of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jögi, I.; Erme, K.; Levoll, E.

    2017-01-01

    The removal of NOx from the exhaust gases requires the oxidation of most abundant NO to NO2 or N2O5. The oxidation can be done by non-thermal plasma but the efficiency is limited due to the back-reaction of NO2 to NO by O radicals. Present contribution investigates the role of catalysts in the im......The removal of NOx from the exhaust gases requires the oxidation of most abundant NO to NO2 or N2O5. The oxidation can be done by non-thermal plasma but the efficiency is limited due to the back-reaction of NO2 to NO by O radicals. Present contribution investigates the role of catalysts...... in the improvement of oxidation efficiency based on the stationary and time-dependent studies of the NOx oxidation at different reactor configurations and experimental conditions. The plasma produced active oxygen species (O, O3) were shown to play an important role in the reactions taking place on the catalyst...... surfaces while the exact mechanism and extent of the effect depended on the reactor configuration. The effect of catalyst at different experimental conditions was quantitatively described with the aid of analytical lumped kinetic models derived for the NOx oxidation when the catalyst was directly...

  12. LDL oxidation by platelets propagates platelet activation via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Assessment of Combustion Dynamics in a Low-Nox, Second-Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Chang, C. T.; Lee, P.; Mongia, H.; Podboy, D. P.; Dam, B.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic pressure measurements were taken during flame-tube emissions testing of three second-generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) combustor configurations. These measurements show that combustion dynamics were typically small. However, a small number of points showed high combustion dynamics, with peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations above 0.5 psi. High combustion dynamics occurred at low inlet temperatures in all three SV-LDI configurations, so combustion dynamics were explored further at low temperature conditions. A point with greater than 1.5 psi peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations was identified at an inlet temperature of 450!F, a pressure of 100 psia, an air pressure drop of 3%, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.35. This is an off design condition: the temperature and pressure are typical of 7% power conditions, but the equivalence ratio is high. At this condition, the combustion dynamics depended strongly on the fuel staging. Combustion dynamics could be reduced significantly without changing the overall equivalence ratio by shifting the fuel distribution between stages. Shifting the fuel distribution also decreased NOx emissions.

  14. Resolving Contributions of Oxygen-Consuming and ROS-Generating Enzymes at the Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy A. Abdel-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of cellular redox homeostasis is implicated in a wide variety of pathologic conditions and aging. A fundamental factor that dictates such balance is the ratio between mitochondria-mediated complete oxygen reduction into water and incomplete reduction into superoxide radical by mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (NOX enzymatic activity. Here we determined mitochondrial as well as NOX-dependent rates of oxygen consumption in parallel with H2O2 generation in freshly isolated synaptosomes using high resolution respirometry combined with fluorescence or electrochemical sensory. Our results indicate that although synaptic mitochondria exhibit substantially higher respiratory activities (8–82-fold greater than NOX oxygen consumption depending on mitochondrial respiratory state, NADPH-dependent oxygen consumption is associated with greater H2O2 production (6-7-fold higher NOX-H2O2. We also show that, in terms of the consumed oxygen, while synaptic mitochondria “leaked” 0.71%±0.12 H2O2 during NAD+-linked resting, 0.21%±0.04 during NAD+-linked active respiration, and 0.07%±0.02 during FAD+-linked active respiration, NOX converted 38%±13 of O2 into H2O2. Our results indicate that NOX rather than mitochondria is the major source of synaptic H2O2. The present approach may assist in the identification of redox-modulating synaptic factors that underlie a variety of physiological and pathological processes in neurons.

  15. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based deNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Michelsen, Poul

    . Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. An optimized oxidation scheme for NOx reduction processes with time dependent combustion, such as the biomass power plants, was developed. Ozone production by micro-hollow and capillary discharges at atmospheric pressures was investigated......The NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments at two industrial power plants running on natural gas (Ringsted) and biomass (Haslev). Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx of 1.56. Fourier transform infrared...... and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled including the influence of the flue gas temperature, water droplets and SOx and HCl content...

  16. Nox regulation of smooth muscle contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsick, Darren R.; Edens, William A.; Finnerty, Victoria; Lambeth, J. David

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic subunit, gp91phox (a.k.a., Nox2) of the NADPH-oxidase of mammalian phagocytes is activated by microbes and immune mediators to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which participate in microbial killing. Homologs of gp91phox, the Nox and Duox enzymes, were recently described in a range of organisms, including plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster. While their enzymology and cell biology is being extensively studied in many labor...

  17. INF-γ Enhances Nox2 Activity by Upregulating phox Proteins When Applied to Differentiating PLB-985 Cells but Does Not Induce Nox2 Activity by Itself.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ellison

    Full Text Available The cytokine and drug interferon-γ enhances superoxide anion production by the antimicrobicidal Nox2 enzyme of neutrophils. Because mature neutrophils have a short lifespan, we hypothesized that the effects of interferon-γ on these cells might be mediated by its prolonged exposure to differentiating neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow rather than its brief exposure to mature circulating neutrophils. Effects of INF-Γ on NOX2 activity: To address this possibility we exposed the myeloid PLB-985 cell line to interferon-γ for 3 days in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide which induces terminal differentiation of these cells. Interferon-γ was found to enhance superoxide production by Nox2 in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, application of interferon-γ alone for 3 days failed to induce detectible Nox2 activity. Additionally, application of interferon-γ for 3 hours to pre-differentiated PLB-985 cells, which models studies using isolated neutrophils, was much less effective at enhancing superoxide anion production. Effects of INF-Γ on phox protein levels: Addition of interferon-γ during differentiation was found to upregulate the Nox2 proteins gp91phox and p47phox in concert with elevated transcription of their genes. The p22phox protein was upregulated in the absence of increased transcription presumably reflecting stabilization resulting from binding to the elevated gp91phox. Thus, increased levels of gp91phox, p47phox and p22phox likely account for the interferon-γ mediated enhancement of dimethyl sulfoxide-induced Nox2 activity. In contrast, although interferon-γ alone also increased various phox proteins and their mRNAs, the pattern was very different to that seen with interferon-γ plus dimethyl sulfoxide. In particular, p47phox was not induced thus explaining the inability of interferon -γ alone to enhance Nox2 activity. Short application of interferon-γ to already differentiated cells failed to increase any phox

  18. Formation of fuel NOx during black-liquor combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Lien, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O 2 ) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0 2 in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx

  19. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  20. A hybrid plasma-chemical system for high-NOx flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Zwolińska, Ewa; Licki, Janusz; Sun, Yongxia; Zimek, Zbigniew; Bułka, Sylwester

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 from simulated flue gas has been studied. Our aim was to optimise energy consumption for NOx and SO2 removal from off-gases from a diesel generator using heavy fuel oil. A hybrid process: electron beam (EB) plasma and wet scrubber has been applied. A much higher efficiency of NOx and SO2 removal was achieved in comparison to dry, ammonia free, electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT). A recorded removal from a concentration of 1500 ppm NOx reached 49% at a low dose of 6.5 kGy, while only 2% NOx was removed at the same dose if EB only was applied. For SO2, removal efficiency at a dose of 6.5 kGy increased from 15% (EB only) to 84% when sea water was used as a wet scrubber agent for 700 ppm SO2. The results of this study indicate that EB combined with wet scrubber is a very promising technology to be applied for removal of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 emitted from diesel engines operated e.g. on cargo ships, which are the main sources of SO2 and NOx pollution along their navigation routes.

  1. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Flávia; Moll, Franziska; Walter, Maria; Helfinger, Valeska; Hahner, Fabian; Janetzko, Patrick; Ringel, Christian; Weigert, Andreas; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Kuenne, Carsten; Looso, Mario; Rieger, Michael A; Nawroth, Peter; Fleming, Thomas; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2018-05-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several Nox homologues are present together in the vascular system but whether they exhibit crosstalk at the activity level is unknown. To address this, vessel function of knockout mice for the cytosolic Nox organizer proteins p47phox, NoxO1 and a p47phox-NoxO1-double knockout were studied under normal condition and during streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In the mouse aorta, mRNA expression for NoxO1 was predominant in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas p47phox was markedly expressed in adventitial cells comprising leukocytes and tissue resident macrophages. Knockout of either NoxO1 or p47phox resulted in lower basal blood pressure. Deletion of any of the two subunits also prevented diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. mRNA expression analysis by MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA ends) identified substantial gene expression differences between the mouse lines and in response to diabetes. Deletion of p47phox induced inflammatory activation with increased markers of myeloid cells and cytokine and chemokine induction. In contrast, deletion of NoxO1 resulted in an attenuated interferon gamma signature and reduced expression of genes related to antigen presentation. This aspect was also reflected by a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes in NoxO1-/- mice. ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  3. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yue, E-mail: ly99ly@vip.163.com [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  4. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  5. Impact of NOx and OH on secondary organic aerosol formation from β-pinene photooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarrafzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the NOx dependence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from photooxidation of the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC β-pinene was comprehensively investigated in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber. Consistent with the results of previous NOx studies we found increases of SOA yields with increasing [NOx] at low-NOx conditions ([NOx]0  <  30 ppb, [BVOC]0 ∕ [NOx]0  >  10 ppbC ppb−1. Furthermore, increasing [NOx] at high-NOx conditions ([NOx]0  >  30 ppb, [BVOC]0 ∕ [NOx]0  ∼  10 to  ∼  2.6 ppbC ppb−1 suppressed the SOA yield. The increase of SOA yield at low-NOx conditions was attributed to an increase of OH concentration, most probably by OH recycling in NO + HO2  →  NO2 + OH reaction. Separate measurements without NOx addition but with different OH primary production rates confirmed the OH dependence of SOA yields. After removing the effect of OH concentration on SOA mass growth by keeping the OH concentration constant, SOA yields only decreased with increasing [NOx]. Measuring the NOx dependence of SOA yields at lower [NO] ∕ [NO2] ratio showed less pronounced increase in both OH concentration and SOA yield. This result was consistent with our assumption of OH recycling by NO and to SOA yields being dependent on OH concentrations. Our results furthermore indicated that NOx dependencies vary for different NOx compositions. A substantial fraction of the NOx-induced decrease of SOA yields at high-NOx conditions was caused by NOx-induced suppression of new particle formation (NPF, which subsequently limits the particle surface where low volatiles condense. This was shown by probing the NOx dependence of SOA formation in the presence of seed particles. After eliminating the effect of NOx-induced suppression of NPF and NOx-induced changes of OH concentrations, the remaining effect of NOx on the SOA yield from

  6. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  7. Criticality safety evaluation for TWR-S fuel assembly transportation using TK-S16 containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.P.; Steljic, M.M.; Antic, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Criticality safety issues, concerning transportation of fresh high-enriched uranium fuel elements (TWR-S fuel assembly type) with Russian containers TK-S16, are objects of study in this paper. Three-dimensional (3D) models of fuel element and container were made, based upon their well-known geometry and material structure. The way to pack fuel elements in a bundle inside of the container is proposed. Calculations were done by MCNP4B2 computer code. This Monte Carlo criticality code determined the effective multiplication factor from the cross-section data and specific geometry data. This evaluation demonstrated the subcriticality of a single package and an array of packages during normal conditions of transport and various hypothetical accident conditions. (author)

  8. Thymidine kinases share a conserved function for nucleotide salvage and play an essential role in Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Dong-Lei; Li, Qun; He, Zuhua

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) are important components in the nucleotide salvage pathway. However, knowledge about plant TKs is quite limited. In this study, the molecular function of TKs in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. Two TKs were identified and named AtTK1 and AtTK2. Expression of both genes was ubiquitous, but AtTK1 was strongly expressed in high-proliferation tissues. AtTK1 was localized to the cytosol, whereas AtTK2 was localized to the mitochondria. Mutant analysis indicated that the two genes function coordinately to sustain normal plant development. Enzymatic assays showed that the two TK proteins shared similar catalytic specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. They were able to complement an Escherichia coli strain lacking TK activity. 5'-Fluorodeoxyuridine (FdU) resistance and 5-ethynyl 2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays confirmed their activity in vivo. Furthermore, the tk mutant phenotype could be alleviated by nucleotide feeding, establishing that the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides was disrupted by the TK deficiency. Finally, both human and rice (Oryza sativa) TKs were able to rescue the tk mutants, demonstrating the functional conservation of TKs across organisms. Taken together, our findings clarify the specialized function of two TKs in A. thaliana and establish that the salvage pathway mediated by the kinases is essential for plant growth and development. © 2015 Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, SIBS, CAS New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Inhibition of CPU0213, a Dual Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, on Apoptosis via Nox4-Dependent ROS in HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our previous studies have indicated that a novel endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 effectively normalized renal function in diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 remain unknown. Methods and Results: In the present study, we first detected the role of CPU0213 on apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cell (HK-2. It was shown that high glucose significantly increased the protein expression of Bax and decreased Bcl-2 protein in HK-2 cells, which was reversed by CPU0213. The percentage of HK-2 cells that showed Annexin V-FITC binding was markedly suppressed by CPU0213, which confirmed the inhibitory role of CPU0213 on apoptosis. Given the regulation of endothelin (ET system to oxidative stress, we determined the role of redox signaling in the regulation of CPU0213 on apoptosis. It was demonstrated that the production of superoxide (O2-. was substantially attenuated by CPU0213 treatment in HK-2 cells. We further found that CPU0213 dramatically inhibited expression of Nox4 protein, which gene silencing mimicked the role of CPU0213 on the apoptosis under high glucose stimulation. We finally examined the role of CPU0213 on ET-1 receptors and found that high glucose-induced protein expression of endothelin A and B receptors was dramatically inhibited by CPU0213. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that this Nox4-dependenet O2- production is critical for the apoptosis of HK-2 cells in high glucose. Endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 has an anti-apoptosis role through Nox4-dependent O2-.production, which address the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L.; McDuffie, Erin E.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Green, Jaime R.; Fiddler, Marc N.; Holloway, John S.; Ebben, Carlena; Sparks, Tamara L.; Wooldridge, Paul; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan J.; Blake, Nicola J.; DiGangi, Josh P.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Bililign, Solomon; Cohen, Ronald C.; Thornton, Joel A.; Brown, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted in large quantities from coal-burning power plants. During the day, the plumes from these sources are efficiently mixed into the boundary layer, while at night, they may remain concentrated due to limited vertical mixing during which they undergo horizontal fanning. At night, the degree to which NO is converted to HNO3 and therefore unable to participate in next-day ozone (O3) formation depends on the mixing rate of the plume, the composition of power plant emissions, and the composition of the background atmosphere. In this study, we use observed plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity campaign to test sensitivity of overnight NOx removal to the N2O5 loss rate constant, plume mixing rate, background O3, and background levels of volatile organic compounds using a 2-D box model of power plant plume transport and chemistry. The factor that exerted the greatest control over NOx removal was the loss rate constant of N2O5. At the lowest observed N2O5 loss rate constant, no other combination of conditions converts more than 10% of the initial NOx to HNO3. The other factors did not influence NOx removal to the same degree.

  11. Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-Fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L.; McDuffie, Erin E.; Dube, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Green, Jaime R.; Fiddler, Marc N.; Holloway, John S.; Ebben, Carlena; hide

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted in large quantities from coal-�burning power plants. During the day, the plumes from these sources are efficiently mixed into the boundary layer, while at night, they may remain concentrated due to limited vertical mixing during which they undergo horizontal fanning. At night, the degree to which NO is converted to HNO3 and therefore unable to participate in next-�day ozone (O3) formation depends on the mixing rate of the plume, the composition of power plant emissions, and the composition of the background atmosphere. In this study, we use observed plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign to test sensitivity of overnight NOx removal to the N2O5 loss rate constant, plume mixing rate, background O3, and background levels of volatile organic compounds using a 2-�D box model of power plant plume transport and chemistry. The factor that exerted the greatest control over NOx removal was the loss rate constant of N2O5. At the lowest observed N2O5 loss rate constant, no other combination of conditions converts more than 10 percent of the initial NOx to HNO3. The other factors did not influence NOx removal to the same degree.

  12. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... TGFβ/contact disruption-provoked Nox4 protein and mRNA expression, Nox4 promoter activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Mutation of the CC(A/T)6GG box eliminates the synergistic activation of the Nox4 promoter. Jasplakinolide-induced actin polymerization synergizes with TGFβ to facilitate...... MRTF-dependent Nox4 mRNA expression/promoter activation. Moreover, MRTF inhibition prevents Nox4 expression during TGFβ-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as well. Although necessary, MRTF is insufficient; Nox4 expression also requires TGFβ-activated Smad3 and TAZ/YAP, two contact...

  13. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by γ-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment

  14. Ofloxacin induces apoptosis via β1 integrin-EGFR-Rac1-Nox2 pathway in microencapsulated chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Quinolones (QNs)-induced arthropathy is an important toxic side-effect in immature animals leading to the restriction of their therapeutic use in pediatrics. Ofloxacin, a typical QN, was found to induce the chondrocytes apoptosis in the early phase (12–48 h) of arthropathy in our previous study. However, the exact mechanism(s) is unclear. Microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes, a three-dimensional culture system, is utilized to perform the present study. Ofloxacin, at a therapeutically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml), disturbs the interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins at 12 h, which is inhibited when supplementing Mg 2+ . Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increases in a time-dependent manner after exposure to ofloxacin for 12–48 h. Furthermore, ofloxacin markedly enhances the level of activated Rac1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, and its inhibition in turn reduces the ROS production, apoptosis and Rac1 activation. Silencing Nox2, Rac1 or supplementing Mg 2+ inhibits ROS accumulation, apoptosis occurrence and EGFR phosphorylation induced by ofloxacin. However, depletion of Nox2, Rac1 and inhibition of EGFR do not affect ofloxacin-mediated loss of interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins. In addition, ofloxacin also induces Vav2 phosphorylation, which is markedly suppressed after inactivating EGFR or supplementing Mg 2+ . These results suggest that ofloxacin causes Nox2-mediated intracellular ROS production by disrupting the β1 integrin function and then activating the EGFR-Vav2-Rac1 pathway, finally resulting in apoptosis within 12–48 h exposure. The present study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of Nox-driven ROS in QNs-induced arthropathy. - Highlights: ► Ofloxacin induces Nox2-driven ROS in encapsulated chondrocyte at 12–48 h. ► Ofloxacin stimulates ROS production via the β1

  15. Ofloxacin induces apoptosis via β1 integrin-EGFR-Rac1-Nox2 pathway in microencapsulated chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Wei [Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 1000191 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan, Ye [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Quinolones (QNs)-induced arthropathy is an important toxic side-effect in immature animals leading to the restriction of their therapeutic use in pediatrics. Ofloxacin, a typical QN, was found to induce the chondrocytes apoptosis in the early phase (12–48 h) of arthropathy in our previous study. However, the exact mechanism(s) is unclear. Microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes, a three-dimensional culture system, is utilized to perform the present study. Ofloxacin, at a therapeutically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml), disturbs the interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins at 12 h, which is inhibited when supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increases in a time-dependent manner after exposure to ofloxacin for 12–48 h. Furthermore, ofloxacin markedly enhances the level of activated Rac1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, and its inhibition in turn reduces the ROS production, apoptosis and Rac1 activation. Silencing Nox2, Rac1 or supplementing Mg{sup 2+} inhibits ROS accumulation, apoptosis occurrence and EGFR phosphorylation induced by ofloxacin. However, depletion of Nox2, Rac1 and inhibition of EGFR do not affect ofloxacin-mediated loss of interaction between β1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins. In addition, ofloxacin also induces Vav2 phosphorylation, which is markedly suppressed after inactivating EGFR or supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. These results suggest that ofloxacin causes Nox2-mediated intracellular ROS production by disrupting the β1 integrin function and then activating the EGFR-Vav2-Rac1 pathway, finally resulting in apoptosis within 12–48 h exposure. The present study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of Nox-driven ROS in QNs-induced arthropathy. - Highlights: ► Ofloxacin induces Nox2-driven ROS in encapsulated chondrocyte at 12–48 h. ► Ofloxacin stimulates ROS production via

  16. NOx from cement production - reduction by primary measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Skaarup

    1999-01-01

    cement production processes cement is typically produced by thermally treating a mixture of limestone and clay minerals in kiln systems consisting of a rotary kiln and a calciner. Clinker burning at a temperature of about 1450 °C takes place in the internally fired rotary kiln and calcination, which...... rotary kilns, while NOx formation from fuel-N and reduction of NOx take place in calciners. NOx formation in the rotary kiln is mainly governed by the necessary clinker burning temperature and is not very amenable to control, while net NOx formation in calciners depends strongly on calciner design......, calciner operation, fuel properties and on the NOx level from the rotary kiln. The low-NOx calciner types presently marketed are based on combinations of reburning, air staging and temperature control and seem equivalent in their ability to restrict NOx formation. If fuels with a significant volatile...

  17. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

    2013-06-01

    Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  19. Molecular characterization of brown carbon (BrC) chromophores in secondary organic aerosol generated from photo-oxidation of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E; Kathmann, Shawn M; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365 nm = 0.78 m(2) g(-1)) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene atmosphere.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2237 - NOX RACT and NOX conformity exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX RACT and NOX conformity exemption... RACT and NOX conformity exemption. Approval. EPA is approving the section 182(f) oxides of nitrogen (NOX) reasonably available control technology (RACT) and NOX conformity exemption request submitted by...

  1. Crosstalk between Rac1-mediated actin regulation and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Alejandro; González-Billault, Christian

    2018-02-20

    The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX. How Rac1-mediated signaling ends up promoting actin-related events, NOX-derived ROS, or both is poorly understood. Rac1 regulators, including scaffold proteins, are known to exert tight control over its functions. Hence, evidence of Rac1 regulatory events leading to both actin remodeling and NOX-mediated ROS generation are discussed. Moreover, cellular functions linked to physiological and pathological conditions that exhibit crosstalk between Rac1 outcomes are analyzed, while plausible roles in neuronal functions (and dysfunctions) are highlighted. Together, discussed evidence shed light on cellular mechanisms which requires Rac1 to direct either actin- and/or ROS-related events, helping to understand crucial roles of Rac1 dual functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taijin kyofusho and social anxiety and their clinical relevance in indonesia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriends, N; Pfaltz, M C; Novianti, P; Hadiyono, J

    2013-01-01

    Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  3. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje eVriends

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears.Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms.Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  4. Serotonin Signaling Through the 5-HT1B Receptor and NADPH Oxidase 1 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Katie Y; Mair, Kirsty M; Harvey, Adam P; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M; MacLean, Margaret R

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin can induce human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (hPASMC) proliferation through reactive oxygen species (ROS), influencing the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesize that in PASMCs, serotonin induces oxidative stress through NADPH-oxidase-derived ROS generation and reduced Nrf-2 (nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2) antioxidant systems, promoting vascular injury. HPASMCs from controls and PAH patients, and PASMCs from Nox1 -/- mice, were stimulated with serotonin in the absence/presence of inhibitors of Src kinase, the 5-HT 1B receptor, and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). Markers of fibrosis were also determined. The pathophysiological significance of our findings was examined in vivo in serotonin transporter overexpressing female mice, a model of pulmonary hypertension. We confirmed thatserotonin increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in these cells. For the first time, we show that serotonin increased oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases and hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin and decreased Nrf-2 and catalase activity in hPASMCs. ROS generation was exaggerated and dependent on cellular Src-related kinase, 5-HT 1B receptor, and the serotonin transporter in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH subjects. Proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling were exaggerated in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH subjects and dependent on 5-HT 1B receptor signaling and Nox1, confirmed in PASMCs from Nox1 -/- mice. In serotonin transporter overexpressing mice, SB216641, a 5-HT 1B receptor antagonist, prevented development of pulmonary hypertension in a ROS-dependent manner. Serotonin can induce cellular Src-related kinase-regulated Nox1-induced ROS and Nrf-2 dysregulation, contributing to increased post-translational oxidative modification of proteins and activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways in hPASMCs, associated with mitogenic responses. 5-HT 1B receptors contribute to

  5. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser727 (but not Tyr701) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  6. Revealing mechanisms of selective, concentration-dependent potentials of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to induce apoptosis in cancer cells through inactivation of membrane-associated catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling by the expression of membrane-associated catalase. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a versatile second messenger generated during lipid peroxidation, has been shown to induce apoptosis selectively in malignant cells. The findings described in this paper reveal the strong, concentration-dependent potential of 4-HNE to specifically inactivate extracellular catalase of tumor cells both indirectly and directly and to consequently trigger apoptosis in malignant cells through superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Namely, 4-HNE caused apoptosis selectively in NOX1-expressing tumor cells through inactivation of their membrane-associated catalase, thus reactivating subsequent intercellular signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and HOCl pathways, followed by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Concentrations of 4-HNE of 1.2 µM and higher directly inactivated membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells, whereas at lower concentrations, 4-HNE triggered a complex amplificatory pathway based on initial singlet oxygen formation through H2O2 and peroxynitrite interaction. Singlet-oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8 increased superoxide anion generation by NOX1 and amplification of singlet oxygen generation, which allowed singlet-oxygen-dependent inactivation of catalase. 4-HNE and singlet oxygen cooperate in complex autoamplificatory loops during this process. The finding of these novel anticancer pathways may be useful for understanding the role of 4-HNE in the control of malignant cells and for the optimization of ROS-dependent therapeutic approaches including antioxidant treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nox2 in regulatory T cells promotes angiotensin II-induced cardiovascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Amber; Trevelin, Silvia Cellone; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Becker, Pablo D; Ortiz, Carla; Smyth, Lesley A; Peng, Qi; Elgueta, Raul; Sawyer, Greta; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-04-24

    The superoxide-generating enzyme Nox2 contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling triggered by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Multiple Nox2-expressing cells are implicated in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced pathophysiology, but the importance of Nox2 in leukocyte subsets is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Nox2 in T cells, particularly Tregs. Mice globally deficient in Nox2 displayed increased numbers of Tregs in the heart at baseline whereas AngII-induced T-effector cell (Teffs) infiltration was inhibited. To investigate the role of Treg Nox2, we generated a mouse line with CD4-targeted Nox2 deficiency (Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+). These animals showed inhibition of AngII-induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling related to increased tissue-resident Tregs and reduction in infiltrating Teffs, including Th17 cells. The protection in Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+ mice was reversed by anti-CD25 Ab-depletion of Tregs. Mechanistically, Nox2-/y Tregs showed higher in vitro suppression of Teffs proliferation than WT Tregs, increased nuclear levels of FoxP3 and NF-κB, and enhanced transcription of CD25, CD39, and CD73. Adoptive transfer of Tregs confirmed that Nox2-deficient cells had greater inhibitory effects on AngII-induced heart remodeling than WT cells. These results identify a previously unrecognized role of Nox2 in modulating suppression of Tregs, which acts to enhance hypertension and cardiac remodeling.

  8. Characterization of NOx emission in the suburbs of Tokyo based on simultaneous and real-time observations of atmospheric Ox and NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    .1 ppbv for Ox and 0.5 ppbv for NOx (60-s integration, S/N = 3). The observation test in the suburbs of Tokyo was conducted in April 2013 at Tokorozawa Campus, Waseda University. During the campaign, 48 cases of ';NOx spikes', for which NOx levels significantly varied in the second time scale due to local NOx emission, were captured. NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gas was estimated as the slope of regression line between 1-s series data of Ox and those of NOx observed during each spike. The average of acquired NO2/NOx ratio was 0.10. Thus, as a result of observations of real atmosphere, the present NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gases in the suburbs of Tokyo was 0.10 as average, which was mainly due to exhausts of automobiles. However, when the individual cases were considered, NO2/NOx could vary from 0.00 to 0.30. Such a wide range of NO2/NOx ratio may be due to (1) difference of source types (eg. automobiles, power generator) and (2) difference of conditions of sources (eg. engines, filters of exhaust). For example, NO2/NOx ratio for hybrid electric vehicles may be different from those for conventional cars. When diffusion of such new model cars can change NOx emission in near future, the present method of simultaneous and real-time monitoring of Ox and NOx in the atmosphere can be useful and promising for characterization of NOx emission.

  9. Impact of mass generation for spin-1 mediator simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    In the simplified dark matter models commonly studied, the mass generation mechanism for the dark fields is not typically specified. We demonstrate that the dark matter interaction types, and hence the annihilation processes relevant for relic density and indirect detection, are strongly dictated by the mass generation mechanism chosen for the dark sector particles, and the requirement of gauge invariance. We focus on the class of models in which fermionic dark matter couples to a spin-1 vector or axial-vector mediator. However, in order to generate dark sector mass terms, it is necessary in most cases to introduce a dark Higgs field and thus a spin-0 scalar mediator will also be present. In the case that all the dark sector fields gain masses via coupling to a single dark sector Higgs field, it is mandatory that the axial-vector coupling of the spin-1 mediator to the dark matter is non-zero; the vector coupling may also be present depending on the charge assignments. For all other mass generation options, only pure vector couplings between the spin-1 mediator and the dark matter are allowed. If these coupling restrictions are not obeyed, unphysical results may be obtained such as a violation of unitarity at high energies. These two-mediator scenarios lead to important phenomenology that does not arise in single mediator models. We survey two-mediator dark matter models which contain both vector and scalar mediators, and explore their relic density and indirect detection phenomenology.

  10. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Hisao; Fukai, Tohru; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min. Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2-pY), EC migration and proliferation at the similar extent. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or overexpression of Nox4, which produces H 2 O 2 , increases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), which is prevented by Nox2 siRNA, suggesting that Nox2 senses Nox4-derived H 2 O 2 to promote mtROS production. Mechanistically, H 2 O 2 increases S36 phosphorylation of p66Shc, a key mtROS regulator, which is inhibited by siNox2, but not by siNox4. Moreover, Nox2 or Nox4 knockdown or overexpression of S36 phosphorylation-defective mutant p66Shc(S36A) inhibits VEGF-induced mtROS, VEGFR2-pY, EC migration, and proliferation. In summary, Nox4-derived H 2 O 2 in part activates Nox2 to increase mtROS via pSer36-p66Shc, thereby enhancing VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in ECs. This may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism of ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by the Nox4/Nox2/pSer36-p66Shc/mtROS axis, which drives sustained activation of angiogenesis signaling program. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Selemidis

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4 PFU influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3; BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-α was higher in Nox1(-/y lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear

  12. Ca2+-mediated generation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in pancreatic islets. Studies with K+, glucose, and carbamylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biden, T.J.; Peter-Riesch, B.; Schlegel, W.; Wollheim, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of Ca2+ in the generation of inositol phosphates was investigated using rat pancreatic islets after steady state labeling with myo-[2- 3 H]inositol. Depolarizing K+ concentrations (24 mM) evoked early (2 s) increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5-P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4,5-P4) as measured by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. The increase in Ins-1,4,5-P3 was transient and was followed by a more pronounced rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3. These effects were dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but were not secondary to release of either neurotransmitters or metabolites of arachidonic acid. K+ also promoted the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and of the other phosphoinositides. Glucose (16.7 mM) was less marked in its effects but still promoted rapid increases in Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) and Ins-1,4,5-P3 (10 s) and a slower rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3 (30 s). The levels of all three metabolites rose steadily over 10 min stimulation. These responses to glucose could be largely, although not entirely, inhibited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+ or by Ca2+ channel blockade with verapamil (20 microM). Carbamylcholine (0.5 mM) was the most potent stimulus used evoking early rises in Ins-1,4,5-P3 and Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) followed by Ins-1,3,4-P3 (10 s), effects which were only partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The results suggest that a Ca2+-mediated PtdIns-4,5-P2 hydrolysis accounts for most of the Ins-1,4,5-P3 generated in response to glucose but not carbamylcholine

  13. Loss of ferulate 5-hydroxylase leads to Mediator-dependent inhibition of soluble phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Nickolas; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh E.; Chapple, Clint

    2015-06-05

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  14. NOx Emissions Performance and Correlation Equations for a Multipoint LDI Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.; Follen, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    Lean Direct Injection (LDI) is a combustor concept that reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This paper looks at a 3-zone multipoint LDI concept developed by Parker Hannifin Corporation. The concept was tested in a flame-tube test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. Due to test facility limitations, such as inlet air temperature and pressure, the flame-tube test was not able to cover the full set of engine operation conditions. Three NOx correlation equations were developed based on assessing NOx emissions dependencies on inlet air pressure (P3), inlet air temperature (T3), and fuel air equivalence ratio (?) to estimate the NOx emissions at the unreachable high engine power conditions. As the results, the NOx emissions are found to be a strong function of combustion inlet air temperature and fuel air equivalence ratio but a weaker function of inlet air pressure. With these three equations, the NOx emissions performance of this injector concept is calculated as a 66% reduction relative to the ICAO CAEP-6 standard using a 55:1 pressure-ratio engine cycle. Uncertainty in the NOx emissions estimation increases as the extrapolation range departs from the experimental conditions. Since maximum inlet air pressure tested was less than 50% of the full power engine inlet air pressure, a future experiment at higher inlet air pressure conditions is needed to confirm the NOx emissions dependency on inlet air pressure.

  15. Formaldehyde production from isoprene oxidation across NOx regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical link between isoprene and formaldehyde (HCHO is a strong, nonlinear function of NOx (i.e., NO + NO2. This relationship is a linchpin for top-down isoprene emission inventory verification from orbital HCHO column observations. It is also a benchmark for overall photochemical mechanism performance with regard to VOC oxidation. Using a comprehensive suite of airborne in situ observations over the southeast US, we quantify HCHO production across the urban–rural spectrum. Analysis of isoprene and its major first-generation oxidation products allows us to define both a "prompt" yield of HCHO (molecules of HCHO produced per molecule of freshly emitted isoprene and the background HCHO mixing ratio (from oxidation of longer-lived hydrocarbons. Over the range of observed NOx values (roughly 0.1–2 ppbv, the prompt yield increases by a factor of 3 (from 0.3 to 0.9 ppbv ppbv−1, while background HCHO increases by a factor of 2 (from 1.6 to 3.3 ppbv. We apply the same method to evaluate the performance of both a global chemical transport model (AM3 and a measurement-constrained 0-D steady-state box model. Both models reproduce the NOx dependence of the prompt HCHO yield, illustrating that models with updated isoprene oxidation mechanisms can adequately capture the link between HCHO and recent isoprene emissions. On the other hand, both models underestimate background HCHO mixing ratios, suggesting missing HCHO precursors, inadequate representation of later-generation isoprene degradation and/or underestimated hydroxyl radical concentrations. Detailed process rates from the box model simulation demonstrate a 3-fold increase in HCHO production across the range of observed NOx values, driven by a 100 % increase in OH and a 40 % increase in branching of organic peroxy radical reactions to produce HCHO.

  16. Organizers and activators: Cytosolic Nox proteins impacting on vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Katrin; Weissmann, Norbert; Brandes, Ralf P

    2017-08-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiovascular system. Of the 7 members of the Nox family, at least three depend for their activation on specific cytosolic proteins. These are p47phox and its homologue NoxO1 and p67phox and its homologue NoxA1. Also the Rho-GTPase Rac is important but as this protein has many additional functions, it will not be covered here. The Nox1 enzyme is preferentially activated by the combination of NoxO1 with NoxA1, whereas Nox2 gains highest activity with p47phox together with p67phox. As p47phox, different to NoxO1 contains an auto inhibitory region it has to be phosphorylated prior to complex formation. In the cardio-vascular system, all cytosolic Nox proteins are expressed but the evidence for their contribution to ROS production is not well established. Most data have been collected for p47phox, whereas NoxA1 has basically not yet been studied. In this article the specific aspects of cytosolic Nox proteins in the cardiovascular system with respect to Nox activation, their expression and their importance will be reviewed. Finally, it will be discussed whether cytosolic Nox proteins are suitable pharmacological targets to tamper with vascular ROS production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2016-04-06

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser(727) (but not Tyr(701)) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  18. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  19. On-road NOx and CO2 investigations of Euro 5 Light commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    NOx emissions of vehicles contribute to the ambient NO2 concentration. To gain insight into those NOx emissions, TNO, commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, regularly performs real-world emission measurements on vehicles. The measurements mainly focus on vehicles

  20. NADPH oxidase-2 derived ROS dictates murine DC cytokine-mediated cell fate decisions during CD4 T helper-cell commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A Jendrysik

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2/gp91(phox and p47(phox deficient mice are prone to hyper-inflammatory responses suggesting a paradoxical role for Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS as anti-inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for this mode of control remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/--ROS deficient mouse dendritic cells (DC secrete more IL-12p70 than similarly treated wild type DC, and in an in vitro co-culture model IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/- DC bias more ovalbumin-specific CD4(+ T lymphocytes toward a Th1 phenotype than wild type (WT DC through a ROS-dependent mechanism linking IL-12p70 expression to regulation of p38-MAPK activation. The Nox2-dependent ROS production in DC negatively regulates proinflammatory IL-12 expression in DC by constraining p38-MAPK activity. Increasing endogenous H(2O(2 attenuates p38-MAPK activity in IFNγ/LPS stimulated WT and p47(phox-/- DC, which suggests that endogenous Nox 2-derived ROS functions as a secondary messenger in the activated p38-MAPK signaling pathway during IL-12 expression. These findings indicate that ROS, generated endogenously by innate and adaptive immune cells, can function as important secondary messengers that can regulate cytokine production and immune cell cross-talk to control during the inflammatory response.

  1. Obligatory Role of Intraluminal O2− in Acute Endothelin-1 and Angiotensin II Signaling to Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction and MAPK Activation in Guinea-Pig Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wojtera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, due to a cross-talk between cytoplasmic O2−-sources and intraluminally expressed xanthine oxidase (XO, intraluminal O2− is instrumental in mediating intraluminal (endothelial dysfunction and cytosolic (p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs phosphorylation manifestations of vascular oxidative stress induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1 and angiotensin II (AT-II. Isolated guinea-pig hearts were subjected to 10-min agonist perfusion causing a burst of an intraluminal O2−. ET-1 antagonist, tezosentan, attenuated AT-II-mediated O2−, indicating its partial ET-1 mediation. ET-1 and Ang-T (AT-II + tezosentan triggered intraluminal O2−, endothelial dysfunction, MAPKs and p47phox phosphorylation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox and XO activation. These effects were: (i prevented by blocking PKC (chelerythrine, Nox (apocynin, mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channel (5-HD, complex II (TTFA, and XO (allopurinol; (ii mimicked by the activation of Nox (NADH; and mitochondria (diazoxide, 3-NPA and (iii the effects by NADH were prevented by 5-HD, TTFA and chelerythrine, and those by diazoxide and 3-NPA by apocynin and chelerythrine, suggesting that the agonists coactivate Nox and mitochondria, which further amplify their activity via PKC. The effects by ET-1, Ang-T, NADH, diazoxide, and 3-NPA were opposed by blocking intraluminal O2− (SOD and XO, and were mimicked by XO activation (hypoxanthine. Apocynin, TTFA, chelerythrine, and SOD opposed the effects by hypoxanthine. In conclusion, oxidative stress by agonists involves cellular inside-out and outside-in signaling in which Nox-mitochondria-PKC system and XO mutually maintain their activities via the intraluminal O2−.

  2. Effect of NOx level on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the photooxidation of terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Flagan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the photooxidation of one monoterpene (α-pinene and two sesquiterpenes (longifolene and aromadendrene is investigated in the Caltech environmental chambers. The effect of NOx on SOA formation for these biogenic hydrocarbons is evaluated by performing photooxidation experiments under varying NOx conditions. The NOx dependence of α-pinene SOA formation follows the same trend as that observed previously for a number of SOA precursors, including isoprene, in which SOA yield (defined as the ratio of the mass of organic aerosol formed to the mass of parent hydrocarbon reacted decreases as NOx level increases. The NOx dependence of SOA yield for the sesquiterpenes, longifolene and aromadendrene, however, differs from that determined for isoprene and α-pinene; the aerosol yield under high-NOx conditions substantially exceeds that under low-NOx conditions. The reversal of the NOx dependence of SOA formation for the sesquiterpenes is consistent with formation of relatively low-volatility organic nitrates, and/or the isomerization of large alkoxy radicals leading to less volatile products. Analysis of the aerosol chemical composition for longifolene confirms the presence of organic nitrates under high-NOx conditions. Consequently the formation of SOA from certain biogenic hydrocarbons such as sesquiterpenes (and possibly large anthropogenic hydrocarbons as well may be more efficient in polluted air.

  3. Generation dependent cancer targeting potential of poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh K; Jain, Narendra K

    2014-07-01

    Dendrimer-mediated delivery of bioactive is a successful and widely explored concept. This paper desribes comparative data pertaining to generation dependent cancer targeting propensity of Poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers. This debut report reportsthe drug targeting and antciancer potential of different dendrimer generations. PPI dendrimers of different generations (3.0G, 4.0G and 5.0G) were synthesized and loaded with Melphalan. Results from loading, hemolysis, hematologic, cytotoxicty and flow cytometry assay depicted that as the generation of dendrimer increased from fourth to fifth, the only parameter i.e. toxicty is increased exponentionally. However, others parameters, i.e. loading, sustained release behavior, and targeting efficacy increased negligibly. Kaplan-Meier survival curves clearly depicted comparable therapeutic potential of PPI4M with PPI5M. In vivo investigations in Balb/c mice again favored 4.0G PPI dendrimer to be preferable nanocarrier for anticancer drug delivery owing to analogous anticancer potential. The outcomes of the investigation evidently projects 4.0G PPI dendrimer over 3.0G and 5.0G dendrimer in respect of its drug delivery benefit as well as superior biocompatibility. Thus, much against the common belief, 4.0G PPI dendrimers may be considered to be optimum in respect of drug delivery precluding the use of much more toxic 5.0G PPI dendrimer, which offers no benefit over 4.0G. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S.; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. Hybrid selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR)/selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal using low-temperature SCR with Mn-V2O5/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sang-Ki; Bae, Hun-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    A hybrid selective noncatalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction (SNCR/SCR) system that uses two types of technology, low-temperature SCR process and SNCR process, was designed to develop nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology. SCR was conducted with space velocity (SV)=2400 hr(-1) and hybrid SNCR/SCR with SV=6000 hr(-1), since the study focused on reducing the amount of catalyst and both achieved 98% NOx reduction efficiency. Characteristics of NOx reduction by NH3 were studied for low-temperature SCR system at 150 °C using Mn-V2O5/TiO2 catalyst. Mn-added V2O5/TiO2 catalyst was produced, and selective catalyst reduction of NOx by NH3 was experimented. NOx reduction rate according to added Mn content in Mn-V2O5/TiO2 catalyst was studied with varying conditions of reaction temperature, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR), SV, and O2 concentration. In the catalyst experiment according to V2O5 concentration, 1 wt.% V2O5 catalyst showed the highest NOx reduction rate: 98% reduction at temperature window of 200~250 °C. As a promoter of the V2O5 catalyst, 5 wt.% Mn was added, and the catalyst showed 47~90% higher efficiency even with low temperatures, 100~200 °C. Mn-V2O5/TiO2 catalyst, prepared by adding 5 wt.% Mn in V2O5/TiO2 catalyst, showed increments of catalyst activation at 150 °C as well as NOx reduction. Mn-V2O5/TiO2 catalyst showed 8% higher rate for NOx reduction compared with V2O5/TiO2 catalyst in 150 °C SCR. Thus, (5 wt.%)Mn-(1 wt.%)V2O5/TiO2 catalyst was applied in SCR of hybrid SNCR/SCR system of low temperature at 150 °C. Low-temperature SCR hybrid SNCR/SCR (150 °C) system and hybrid SNCR/SCR (350 °C) showed 91~95% total reduction rate with conditions of SV=2400~6000 hr(-1) SCR and 850~1050 °C SNCR, NSR=1.5~2.0, and 5% O2. Hybrid SNCR/SCR (150 °C) system proved to be more effective than the hybrid SNCR/SCR (350 °C) system at low temperature. NOx control is very important, since they are the part of greenhouse gases as well as the

  6. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  7. Effects of dark chocolate on NOX-2-generated oxidative stress in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, L; Del Ben, M; Perri, L; Carnevale, R; Nocella, C; Catasca, E; Baratta, F; Ceci, F; Polimeni, L; Gozzo, P; Violi, F; Angelico, F

    2016-08-01

    Activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is considered a pathogenetic mechanism determining fibrosis and disease progression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polyphenols exert antioxidant action and inhibit NADPH oxidase in humans. To analyse the effect of cocoa polyphenols on NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) activation, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in a population affected by NASH. In a cross-sectional study comparing 19 NASH and 19 controls, oxidative stress, as assessed by serum NOX2 activity and F2-isoprostanes, and hepatocyte apoptosis, as assessed by serum cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) levels, were measured. Furthermore, the 19 NASH patients were randomly allocated in a crossover design to 40 g/day of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g/day of milk chocolate (chocolate intake. Compared to controls, NASH patients had higher sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and CK-18 levels. A significant difference for treatments was found in subjects with respect to sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and serum CK-18. The pairwise comparisons showed that, compared to baseline, after 14 days of dark chocolate intake, a significant reduction in sNOX2-dp serum isoprostanes and CK-18 M30 was found. No change was observed after milk chocolate ingestion. A simple linear regression analysis showed that ∆ of sNOX2-dp was associated with ∆ of serum isoprostanes. Cocoa polyphenols exert an antioxidant activity via NOX2 down-regulation in NASH patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Delphinidin prevents high glucose-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by inhibition of NOX-1 and mitochondrial superoxide in mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of delphinidin on high glucose-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in mesangial cells. Glucose dose-dependently (5.6–25 mM increased cell proliferation and collagen I and IV mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with delphinidin (50 μM prevented cell proliferation and the increased collagen mRNA levels induced by high glucose (25 mM. High glucose increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and this was suppressed by pretreating delphinidin or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. NADPH oxidase (NOX 1 was upregulated by high glucose, but pretreatment with delphinidin abrogated this upregulation. Increased mitochondrial superoxide by 25 mM glucose was also suppressed by delphinidin. The NOX inhibitor apocynin and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito TEMPO inhibited ROS generation and cell proliferation induced by high glucose. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2 was increased by high glucose, which was suppressed by delphinidin, apocynin or Mito TEMPO. Furthermore, PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor prevented the high glucose-induced cell proliferation and increased collagen mRNA levels. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β protein levels were elevated by high glucose, and pretreatment with delphinidin or PD98059 prevented this augmentation. These results suggest that delphinidin prevents high glucose-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by inhibition of NOX-1 and mitochondrial superoxide in mesangial cells.

  9. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  10. Nuclear Nox4-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Guida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for intracellular ROS production has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neoplasias. ROS sources, such as NAD(PH oxidase (Nox complexes, are frequently activated in AML (acute myeloid leukemia blasts and strongly contribute to their proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, with an increased propensity to develop AML. The molecular basis for MDS progression is unknown, but a key element in MDS disease progression is the genomic instability. NADPH oxidases are now recognized to have specific subcellular localizations, this targeting to specific compartments for localized ROS production. Local Nox-dependent ROS production in the nucleus may contribute to the regulation of redox-dependent cell growth, differentiation, senescence, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We observed that Nox1, 2, and 4 isoforms and p22phox and Rac1 subunits are expressed in MDS/AML cell lines and MDS samples, also in the nuclear fractions. Interestingly, Nox4 interacts with ERK and Akt1 within nuclear speckle domain, suggesting that Nox4 could be involved in regulating gene expression and splicing factor activity. These data contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by nuclear ROS to drive MDS evolution to AML.

  11. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  12. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  13. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco H. Visser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating-type (or integrating-type NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s, the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed.

  14. A hybrid genetic algorithm and linear regression for prediction of NOx emission in power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyamin, Muhammad Afif; Yap, Keem Siah; Aziz, Nur Liyana Afiqah Abdul; Tiong, Sheih Kiong; Wong, Shen Yuong; Kamal, Md Fauzan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of gas emission estimation in power generation plant using a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Linear Regression (LR) (denoted as GA-LR). The LR is one of the approaches that model the relationship between an output dependant variable, y, with one or more explanatory variables or inputs which denoted as x. It is able to estimate unknown model parameters from inputs data. On the other hand, GA is used to search for the optimal solution until specific criteria is met causing termination. These results include providing good solutions as compared to one optimal solution for complex problems. Thus, GA is widely used as feature selection. By combining the LR and GA (GA-LR), this new technique is able to select the most important input features as well as giving more accurate prediction by minimizing the prediction errors. This new technique is able to produce more consistent of gas emission estimation, which may help in reducing population to the environment. In this paper, the study's interest is focused on nitrous oxides (NOx) prediction. The results of the experiment are encouraging.

  15. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Maraldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(PH oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4 depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage.

  16. Crucial roles of Nox2-derived oxidative stress in deteriorating the function of insulin receptors and endothelium in dietary obesity of middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junjie; Fan, Lampson M; Mai, Anna; Li, Jian-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Systemic oxidative stress associated with dietary calorie overload plays an important role in the deterioration of vascular function in middle-aged patients suffering from obesity and insulin resistance. However, effective therapy is still lacking. In this study, we used a mouse model of middle-aged obesity to investigate the therapeutic potential of pharmaceutical inhibition (apocynin, 5 mM supplied in the drinking water) or knockout of Nox2, an enzyme generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Littermates of C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and Nox2 knockout (KO) mice (7 months old) were fed with a HFD (45% kcal fat) or normal chow diet (NCD, 12% kcal fat) for 16 weeks and used at 11 months of age. Compared to NCD WT mice, HFD WT mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Aortic vessels from these mice showed significantly increased Nox2 expression and ROS production, accompanied by significantly increased ERK1/2 activation, reduced insulin receptor expression, decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and impaired endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation to acetylcholine. All these HFD-induced abnormalities (except the hyperinsulinaemia) were absent in apocynin-treated WT or Nox2 KO mice given the same HFD. In conclusion, Nox2-derived ROS played a key role in damaging insulin receptor and endothelial function in dietary obesity after middle-age. Targeting Nox2 could represent a valuable therapeutic strategy in the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Effects space velocity and gas velocity on DeNOx catalyst with HC reductant; HC tenka NOx kangen shokubai no kukan sokudo oyobi gas ryusoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, K.; Tsujimura, K.

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given on the hydrocarbon added reduction catalyst method to reduce NOx in diesel engine exhaust gas. An experiment was carried out with actual exhaust gas from a diesel engine by using a copper ion exchanged zeolite catalyst that has been coated on a honeycomb type substrate, and using propylene as a reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the exhaust gas space velocity kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased as the catalyst length is decreased, and the activity shifted to the lower temperature side. The NOx reduction efficiency increased if the faster the gas flow velocity. On the other hand, if the gas flow velocity is slow, the NOx reduction can be carried out with relatively small amount of the reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the passing gas amount kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased largely if the catalyst length is decreased. Further, the NOx reduction characteristics shift to the higher temperature side. In the catalyst length direction, the NOx reduction activity shows a relatively uniform action. However, a detailed observation reveals that the reaction heat in the catalyst is transmitted to the wake improving the activity, hence the further down the flow, the NOx conversion ratio gets higher in efficiency. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. NOX4-dependent neuronal autotoxicity and BBB breakdown explain the superior sensitivity of the brain to ischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana I; Geuss, Eva; Kleikers, Pamela W M; Mencl, Stine; Herrmann, Alexander M; Buendia, Izaskun; Egea, Javier; Meuth, Sven G; Lopez, Manuela G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Schmidt, Harald H H W

    2017-11-14

    Ischemic injury represents the most frequent cause of death and disability, and it remains unclear why, of all body organs, the brain is most sensitive to hypoxia. In many tissues, type 4 NADPH oxidase is induced upon ischemia or hypoxia, converting oxygen to reactive oxygen species. Here, we show in mouse models of ischemia in the heart, brain, and hindlimb that only in the brain does NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) lead to ischemic damage. We explain this distinct cellular distribution pattern through cell-specific knockouts. Endothelial NOX4 breaks down the BBB, while neuronal NOX4 leads to neuronal autotoxicity. Vascular smooth muscle NOX4, the common denominator of ischemia within all ischemic organs, played no apparent role. The direct neuroprotective potential of pharmacological NOX4 inhibition was confirmed in an ex vivo model, free of vascular and BBB components. Our results demonstrate that the heightened sensitivity of the brain to ischemic damage is due to an organ-specific role of NOX4 in blood-brain-barrier endothelial cells and neurons. This mechanism is conserved in at least two rodents and humans, making NOX4 a prime target for a first-in-class mechanism-based, cytoprotective therapy in the unmet high medical need indication of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA 1 and LPA 3 . •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA 1 and LPA 3 siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Shyue [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  1. The Human NADPH Oxidase, Nox4, Regulates Cytoskeletal Organization in Two Cancer Cell Lines, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Auer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase, where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide. Reducing this biochemical activity by downregulating Nox4 transcription leads to loss of F-actin stress fibers. This phenotype is reversible by adding hydrogen peroxide to the cells. The effect of the Nox4 silencer RNA is specific for this gene as it does not influence the expression of Nox2. In the case of the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line, Nox4 inhibition leads to loss of cell mobility as measured in scratch assays. We propose that inhibition of Nox4 (which is known to be strongly expressed in many tumors could be studied as a new target for cancer treatment, in particular for inhibition of metastasis.

  2. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2.) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. PMID:26225731

  3. TNF-α mediates choroidal neovascularization by upregulating VEGF expression in RPE through ROS-dependent β-catenin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Han, Xiaokun; Wittchen, Erika S; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    -catenin transcriptional inhibitors, XAV939 or JW67, or transfection with p22phox siRNA and compared to appropriate controls. Compared to the non-lasered control, TNF-α and VEGF protein were increased in the RPE/choroids in a murine laser-induced CNV model (pROS generation and increased activation of NOX4, an isoform of NADPH oxidase; both were prevented by pretreatment with the apocynin or VAS2870 or knockdown of p22phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase. TNF-α treatment increased VEGF expression (pROS-dependent activation of β-catenin signaling. These results provide mechanisms of crosstalk between inflammatory mediator, TNF-α, and ROS in RPE cells.

  4. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  5. Evolutionary origin and function of NOX4-art, an arthropod specific NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Ana Caroline Paiva; Torres, André; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Pedro L; Schama, Renata

    2017-03-29

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are ROS producing enzymes that perform essential roles in cell physiology, including cell signaling and antimicrobial defense. This gene family is present in most eukaryotes, suggesting a common ancestor. To date, only a limited number of phylogenetic studies of metazoan NOXes have been performed, with few arthropod genes. In arthropods, only NOX5 and DUOX genes have been found and a gene called NOXm was found in mosquitoes but its origin and function has not been examined. In this study, we analyzed the evolution of this gene family in arthropods. A thorough search of genomes and transcriptomes was performed enabling us to browse most branches of arthropod phylogeny. We have found that the subfamilies NOX5 and DUOX are present in all arthropod groups. We also show that a NOX gene, closely related to NOX4 and previously found only in mosquitoes (NOXm), can also be found in other taxonomic groups, leading us to rename it as NOX4-art. Although the accessory protein p22-phox, essential for NOX1-4 activation, was not found in any of the arthropods studied, NOX4-art of Aedes aegypti encodes an active protein that produces H 2 O 2 . Although NOX4-art has been lost in a number of arthropod lineages, it has all the domains and many signature residues and motifs necessary for ROS production and, when silenced, H 2 O 2 production is considerably diminished in A. aegypti cells. Combining all bioinformatic analyses and laboratory work we have reached interesting conclusions regarding arthropod NOX gene family evolution. NOX5 and DUOX are present in all arthropod lineages but it seems that a NOX2-like gene was lost in the ancestral lineage leading to Ecdysozoa. The NOX4-art gene originated from a NOX4-like ancestor and is functional. Although no p22-phox was observed in arthropods, there was no evidence of neo-functionalization and this gene probably produces H 2 O 2 as in other metazoan NOX4 genes. Although functional and present in the genomes of many

  6. Dithiothreitol activity by particulate oxidizers of SOA produced from photooxidation of hydrocarbons under varied NOx levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Yu, Zechen

    2017-08-01

    When hydrocarbons (HCs) are atmospherically oxidized, they form particulate oxidizers, including quinones, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). These particulate oxidizers can modify cellular materials (e.g., proteins and enzymes) and adversely modulate cell functions. In this study, the contribution of particulate oxidizers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) to the oxidative potential was investigated. SOAs were generated from the photooxidation of toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, and α-pinene under varied NOx levels. Oxidative potential was determined from the typical mass-normalized consumption rate (reaction time t = 30 min) of dithiothreitol (DTTt), a surrogate for biological reducing agents. Under high-NOx conditions, the DTTt of toluene SOA was 2-5 times higher than that of the other types of SOA. Isoprene DTTt significantly decreased with increasing NOx (up to 69 % reduction by changing the HC / NOx ratio from 30 to 5). The DTTt of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene SOA was insensitive to NOx under the experimental conditions of this study. The significance of quinones to the oxidative potential of SOA was tested through the enhancement of DTT consumption in the presence of 2,4-dimethylimidazole, a co-catalyst for the redox cycling of quinones; however, no significant effect of 2,4-dimethylimidazole on modulation of DTT consumption was observed for all SOA, suggesting that a negligible amount of quinones was present in the SOA of this study. For toluene and isoprene, mass-normalized DTT consumption (DTTm) was determined over an extended period of reaction time (t = 2 h) to quantify their maximum capacity to consume DTT. The total quantities of PANs and organic hydroperoxides in toluene SOA and isoprene SOA were also measured using the Griess assay and the 4-nitrophenylboronic acid assay, respectively. Under the NOx conditions (HC / NOx ratio: 5-36 ppbC ppb-1) applied in this study, the amount of organic hydroperoxides was

  7. Lack of dependence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated radiosensitization on cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.S.; Davis, M.A.; Chang, E.Y.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that fluoropyrimidine-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization are closely correlated. We have shown that HT29 human colon cancer cells transfected with the E. coli dUTPase gene are resistant to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd)-mediated cytotoxicity, presumably through more effective elimination of dUTP. We used these cells to assess the association between radiosensitization and cytotoxicity produced by FdUrd. The radiation sensitivities of the clones expressing elevated dUTPase activity (dutE clones) were similar to those of untransfected HT29 cells or HT29 cells which has been transfected with only the expression vector for the E. coli gene (con clones). We found that FdUrd produced similar increases in radiation sensitivity regardless of dUTPase activity. Levels of dUTPase in the dutE clones remained elevated during the entire period of FdUrd exposure, demonstrating that the lack of difference between dutE and Con clones was not a reflection of down-regulation of dUTPase activity by FdUrd, Flow cytometry showed that all clones progressed past the G 1 /S-phase boundary and into early S phase during FdUrd treatment. These data suggest that the mechanisms of FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization are not closely linked. These findings, combined with our previous investigations, are consistent with the hypothesis that radiosensitization occurs in cells which progress past the G 1 /S-phase boundary in the presence of FdUrd. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Experimental and Modeling Investigation of the Effect of Air Preheat on the Formation of NOx in an RQL Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, G. S.; Brouwer, J.; Vardakas, M. A.; Holderman, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    The Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept has been proposed to minimize the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in gas turbine systems. The success of this low-NOx combustor strategy is dependent upon the links between the formation of NOx, inlet air preheat temperature, and the mixing of the jet air and fuel-rich streams. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics modeling calculations and experiments were performed to further understand NOx emissions in an RQL combustor. The results indicate that as the temperature at the inlet to the mixing zone increases (due to preheating and/or operating conditions) the fuel-rich zone equivalence ratio must be increased to achieve minimum NOx formation in the primary zone of the combustor. The chemical kinetics model illustrates that there is sufficient residence time to produce NOx at concentrations that agree well with the NOx measurements. Air preheat was found to have very little effect on mixing, but preheating the air did increase NOx emissions significantly. By understanding the mechanisms governing NOx formation and the temperature dependence of key reactions in the RQL combustor, a strategy can be devised to further reduce NOx emissions using the RQL concept.

  9. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2- manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaowei; Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  10. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    completeness of the partial fuel oxidation reaction up to 100%. Nitrogen was found to be the most effective gas for the synthesis gas production by a plasmatron. The preliminary experiments of introducing the reformation products into a diesel engine resulted in ∼25% NOx cut in the exhaust gas flow. A simulation experiment with the pure hydrogen addition to the inlet of a diesel engine showed that both components of the synthesis gas H 2 and CO fed into the engine play significant role in cutting NOx content in the engine's emission. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with propylene and decane as reductants in the presence of excess air over (Fe, Co-Pt)/ZSM-5 catalyst was conducted to remove NOx from Diesel exhaust gases. The SO 2 effect and deactivation test over above catalyst were also executed. ZSM-5 supported Co, Pt, Fe mixed oxide catalyst showed about 80% of conversion in the presence of NO. However, the activity was decreased when the catalyst was wash coated onto the ceramic monolith. We found that the deNOx activity over the catalyst was strongly depended on the amount of reductant. Therefore, the amount reductant and how to feed the reductant into the system should be considered as important factors to remove NOx. In order to develop the high removal NOx activity at low temperature and maintain the stable activity at the real exhaust gases condition, metallosilicate and Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts have been used. In case of metallosilicate catalyst, the deNOx activity was low at the oxidation atmospheric condition. When the Pt was ion-exchanged with ZSM-5, the H-form of ZSM-5 catalyst showed high deNOx activity. The effect of reductant type on deNOx activity exhibited that the olefin system provided more higher activity than octane system. The methane conversion observed in the presence of NO and excess O 2 over alumina supported Pt catalyst. In order to improve the activity and durability, the Co metal ion was added. The result showed that the Co-Pt catalyst gave

  11. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  12. Modeling lightning-NOx chemistry on a sub-grid scale in a global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gressent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a plume-in-grid approach is implemented in a chemical transport model (CTM to parameterize the effects of the nonlinear reactions occurring within high concentrated NOx plumes from lightning NOx emissions (LNOx in the upper troposphere. It is characterized by a set of parameters including the plume lifetime, the effective reaction rate constant related to NOx–O3 chemical interactions, and the fractions of NOx conversion into HNO3 within the plume. Parameter estimates were made using the Dynamical Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC box model, simple plume dispersion simulations, and the 3-D Meso-NH (non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model. In order to assess the impact of the LNOx plume approach on the NOx and O3 distributions on a large scale, simulations for the year 2006 were performed using the GEOS-Chem global model with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5°. The implementation of the LNOx parameterization implies an NOx and O3 decrease on a large scale over the region characterized by a strong lightning activity (up to 25 and 8 %, respectively, over central Africa in July and a relative increase downwind of LNOx emissions (up to 18 and 2 % for NOx and O3, respectively, in July. The calculated variability in NOx and O3 mixing ratios around the mean value according to the known uncertainties in the parameter estimates is at a maximum over continental tropical regions with ΔNOx [−33.1, +29.7] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.56, +2.16] ppb, in January, and ΔNOx [−14.3, +21] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.18, +1.93] ppb, in July, mainly depending on the determination of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere and the initial NO mixing ratio injected by lightning. This approach allows us (i to reproduce a more realistic lightning NOx chemistry leading to better NOx and O3 distributions on the large scale and (ii to focus on other improvements to reduce remaining uncertainties from processes

  13. Methylcholanthrene-Induced Sarcomas Develop Independently from NOX2-Derived ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A Ligtenberg

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by the inducible NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX2 complex are essential for clearing certain infectious organisms but may also have a role in regulating inflammation and immune response. For example, ROS is involved in myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC- and regulatory T cell (T(reg mediated T- and NK-cell suppression. However, abundant ROS produced within the tumor microenvironment, or by the tumor itself may also yield oxidative stress, which can blunt anti-tumor immune responses as well as eventually leading to tumor toxicity. In this study we aimed to decipher the role of NOX2-derived ROS in a chemically (by methylcholanthrene (MCA induced sarcoma model. Superoxide production by NOX2 requires the p47(phox (NCF1 subunit to organize the formation of the NOX2 complex on the cell membrane. Homozygous mutant mice (NCF1*/* have a functional loss of their super oxide burst while heterozygous mice (NCF1*/+ retain this key function. Mice harboring either a homo- or a heterozygous mutation were injected intramuscularly with MCA to induce sarcoma formation. We found that NOX2 functionality does not determine tumor incidence in the tested MCA model. Comprehensive immune monitoring in tumor bearing mice showed that infiltrating immune cells experienced an increase in their oxidative state regardless of the NOX2 functionality. While MCA-induced sarcomas where characterized by a T(reg and MDSC accumulation, no significant differences could be found between NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice. Furthermore, infiltrating T cells showed an increase in effector-memory cell phenotype markers in both NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice. Tumors established from both NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice were tested for their in vitro proliferative capacity as well as their resistance to cisplatin and radiation therapy, with no differences being recorded. Overall our findings indicate that NOX2 activity does not play a key role in tumor development or immune cell

  14. NO_x reduction and N_2O emissions in a diesel engine exhaust using Fe-zeolite and vanadium based SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chong Pyo; Pyo, Young Dug; Jang, Jin Young; Kim, Gang Chul; Shin, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NO_x reduction and N_2O emission of urea-SCR catalysts with the oxidation precatalysts were investigated. • Fe-zeolite and V-based catalysts were noticeably affected by the NO_2/NOx ratio. • Remarkable N_2O formation was observed only for the Fe-zeolite catalyst. - Abstract: Among various approaches used to comply with strict diesel engine exhaust regulations, there is increasing interest in urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as a NO_x reduction technology, due to its high reduction and excellent fuel efficiencies. NO_x reduction by SCR catalysts is affected by variations in the NO_2/NO_x ratio, caused by oxidation catalysts such as the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) installed in diesel engines. Recently, it has been reported that the greenhouse gas (GHG) variant N_2O, which is a by-product of the NO_x conversion process in the after-treatment system, will be subject to regulation. Using a real diesel engine installed with DOC and DPF, the NO_x reduction and N_2O emission performances of commonly used Fe-zeolite and V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalysts were investigated under various operating conditions. The exhaust of the diesel engine used in this study had a NO_2/NO_x ratio of over 50% for temperatures below 400 °C due to the oxidation catalysts, while the NO_2/NO_x ratio was significantly lower for temperatures above 400 °C. Under such conditions, it was found that the Fe-zeolite and V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalysts were noticeably affected by the NO_2/NOx ratio and exhaust temperature. Although both catalysts showed satisfactory NO conversions, the V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalyst showed decreasing NO_2 conversion rates between 250 °C and 320 °C. The V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalyst exhibited NH_3 slip relatively frequently because of its low NH_3 storage capacity. For the Fe-zeolite catalyst, a significant increase in the amount of generated N_2O was observed for high NO_x conversion conditions due to side

  15. Effects of NOx and SO2 on the secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Defeng; Schmitt, Sebastian H.; Wang, Mingjin; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Tillmann, Ralf; Tan, Zhaofeng; Novelli, Anna; Fuchs, Hendrik; Pullinen, Iida; Wegener, Robert; Rohrer, Franz; Wildt, Jürgen; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Mentel, Thomas F.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions such as NOx and SO2 influence the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but detailed mechanisms and effects are still elusive. We studied the effects of NOx and SO2 on the SOA formation from the photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene at ambient relevant NOx and SO2 concentrations (NOx: leading to a lack of particle surface for the organics to condense on and thus a significant influence of vapor wall loss on SOA mass yield. By compensating for the suppressing effect on nucleation of NOx, SO2 also compensated for the suppressing effect on SOA yield. Aerosol mass spectrometer data show that increasing NOx enhanced nitrate formation. The majority of the nitrate was organic nitrate (57-77 %), even in low-NOx conditions (nitrate contributed 7-26 % of total organics assuming a molecular weight of 200 g mol-1. SOA from α-pinene photooxidation at high NOx had a generally lower hydrogen to carbon ratio (H / C), compared to low NOx. The NOx dependence of the chemical composition can be attributed to the NOx dependence of the branching ratio of the RO2 loss reactions, leading to a lower fraction of organic hydroperoxides and higher fractions of organic nitrates at high NOx. While NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation, SO2 can compensate for such effects, and the combining effect of SO2 and NOx may have an important influence on SOA formation affected by interactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with anthropogenic emissions.

  16. Rise and fall of the NOx emissions trade; Opkomst en ondergang van NOx-emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Velde, R. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van der Kolk, J. [Van der Kolk Advies, Soest (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2005, the Netherlands started NOx emission trading. In 2014 they are terminating these activities. Are they stopping because the targets have been realized? This article provides an overview of the developments and experiences that have ultimately led to the termination of the NOx emission trade in the Netherlands [Dutch] In 2005 is Nederland begonnen in NOx-emissiehandel. In 2014 stoppen we er weer mee. Stoppen we omdat de doelen zijn gehaald? Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de ontwikkelingen en ervaringen die uiteindelijk hebben geleid tot beeindiging van de NOx-emissiehandel in Nederland.

  17. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  18. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dithiothreitol activity by particulate oxidizers of SOA produced from photooxidation of hydrocarbons under varied NOx levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When hydrocarbons (HCs are atmospherically oxidized, they form particulate oxidizers, including quinones, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs. These particulate oxidizers can modify cellular materials (e.g., proteins and enzymes and adversely modulate cell functions. In this study, the contribution of particulate oxidizers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs to the oxidative potential was investigated. SOAs were generated from the photooxidation of toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, and α-pinene under varied NOx levels. Oxidative potential was determined from the typical mass-normalized consumption rate (reaction time t =  30 min of dithiothreitol (DTTt, a surrogate for biological reducing agents. Under high-NOx conditions, the DTTt of toluene SOA was 2–5 times higher than that of the other types of SOA. Isoprene DTTt significantly decreased with increasing NOx (up to 69 % reduction by changing the HC ∕ NOx ratio from 30 to 5. The DTTt of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene SOA was insensitive to NOx under the experimental conditions of this study. The significance of quinones to the oxidative potential of SOA was tested through the enhancement of DTT consumption in the presence of 2,4-dimethylimidazole, a co-catalyst for the redox cycling of quinones; however, no significant effect of 2,4-dimethylimidazole on modulation of DTT consumption was observed for all SOA, suggesting that a negligible amount of quinones was present in the SOA of this study. For toluene and isoprene, mass-normalized DTT consumption (DTTm was determined over an extended period of reaction time (t =  2 h to quantify their maximum capacity to consume DTT. The total quantities of PANs and organic hydroperoxides in toluene SOA and isoprene SOA were also measured using the Griess assay and the 4-nitrophenylboronic acid assay, respectively. Under the NOx conditions (HC ∕ NOx ratio: 5–36 ppbC ppb−1 applied in

  20. Tetraspanin is required for generation of reactive oxygen species by the dual oxidase system in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Moribe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are toxic but essential molecules responsible for host defense and cellular signaling. Conserved NADPH oxidase (NOX family enzymes direct the regulated production of ROS. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generated by dual oxidases (DUOXs, a member of the NOX family, is crucial for innate mucosal immunity. In addition, H(2O(2 is required for cellular signaling mediated by protein modifications, such as the thyroid hormone biosynthetic pathway in mammals. In contrast to other NOX isozymes, the regulatory mechanisms of DUOX activity are less understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we demonstrate that the tetraspanin protein is required for induction of the DUOX signaling pathway in conjunction with the dual oxidase maturation factor (DUOXA. In the current study, we show that genetic mutation of DUOX (bli-3, DUOXA (doxa-1, and peroxidase (mlt-7 in C. elegans causes the same defects as a tetraspanin tsp-15 mutant, represented by exoskeletal deficiencies due to the failure of tyrosine cross-linking of collagen. The deficiency in the tsp-15 mutant was restored by co-expression of bli-3 and doxa-1, indicating the involvement of tsp-15 in the generation of ROS. H(2O(2 generation by BLI-3 was completely dependent on TSP-15 when reconstituted in mammalian cells. We also demonstrated that TSP-15, BLI-3, and DOXA-1 form complexes in vitro and in vivo. Cell-fusion-based analysis suggested that association with TSP-15 at the cell surface is crucial for BLI-3 activation to release H(2O(2. This study provides the first evidence for an essential role of tetraspanin in ROS generation.

  1. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT for NOx storage catalysts (NSC enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD. The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1 time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2 during the short-term thermal NOx release.

  2. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2− manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  3. SEMS operating as a proven system for screening real-world NOx and NH3 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.J.; Goethem, S. van; Baarbe, H.L.; Zuidgeest, L.W.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Vonk, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    NOx emissions of heavy-duty and light-duty diesel vehicles depend strongly on the driving conditions. The introduction of combined emission reduction technologies in Euro VI vehicles have demonstrated that NOx emissions become less predictable when the data is based on relatively short test cycles.

  4. Defects in Nicotinamide-adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Genes NOX1 and DUOX2 in Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti Hayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Defects in intestinal innate defense systems predispose patients to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases in the mucosal barrier maintain gut homeostasis and defend against pathogenic attack. We hypothesized that molecular genetic defects in intestinal NADPH oxidases might be present in children with IBD. Methods: After targeted exome sequencing of epithelial NADPH oxidases NOX1 and DUOX2 on 59 children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD, the identified mutations were validated using Sanger Sequencing. A structural analysis of NOX1 and DUOX2 variants was performed by homology in silico modeling. The functional characterization included ROS generation in model cell lines and in in vivo transduced murine crypts, protein expression, intracellular localization, and cell-based infection studies with the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Results: We identified missense mutations in NOX1 (c.988G>A, p.Pro330Ser; c.967G>A, p.Asp360Asn and DUOX2 (c.4474G>A, p.Arg1211Cys; c.3631C>T, p.Arg1492Cys in 5 of 209 VEOIBD patients. The NOX1 p.Asp360Asn variant was replicated in a male Ashkenazi Jewish ulcerative colitis cohort. Patients with both NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed abnormal Paneth cell metaplasia. All NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed reduced ROS production compared with wild-type enzymes. Despite appropriate cellular localization and comparable pathogen-stimulated translocation of altered oxidases, cells harboring NOX1 or DUOX2 variants had defective host resistance to infection with C. jejuni. Conclusions: This study identifies the first inactivating missense variants in NOX1 and DUOX2 associated with VEOIBD. Defective ROS production from intestinal epithelial cells constitutes a risk factor for developing VEOIBD. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, NADPH Oxidase

  5. Investigation of NOx Reduction by Low Temperature Oxidation Using Ozone Produced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Irimiea, Cornelia; Salewski, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    NOx reduction by low temperature oxidation using ozone produced by a dielectric barrier discharge generator is investigated for different process parameters in a 6m long reactor in serpentine arrangement using synthetic dry flue gas with NOx levels below 500 ppm, flows up to 50 slm and temperatures...

  6. Recombinant Nox4 cytosolic domain produced by a cell or cell-free base systems exhibits constitutive diaphorase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong, E-mail: mvchuong@yahoo.fr [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Zhang, Leilei [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lhomme, Stanislas; Mouz, Nicolas [PX' Therapeutics, MINATEC/Batiment de Haute Technologie, Grenoble (France); Lenormand, Jean-Luc [HumProTher Laboratory, TheReX/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525 CNRS UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, UFR de Medecine, Domaine de la Merci, 38706 La Tronche (France); Lardy, Bernard; Morel, Francoise [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparison of two bacterial cell and cell-free protein expression systems is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins are produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nox4 has a constitutive diaphorase activity which is independent of cytosolic factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isoform Nox4B is unable to initiate the first electronic transfer step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of Nox4 oxidase activity. -- Abstract: The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 which needs a stimulus to be active. Although the precise mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species by Nox2 is well characterized, the electronic transfer throughout Nox4 remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the initial electronic transfer step (diaphorase activity) of the cytosolic tail of Nox4. For this purpose, we developed two different approaches to produce soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins. We synthesized soluble recombinant proteins either by in vitro translation or by bacteria induction. While proteins obtained by bacteria induction demonstrate an activity of 4.4 {+-} 1.7 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 20.5 {+-} 2.8 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c, the soluble proteins produced by cell-free expression system exhibit a diaphorase activity with a turn-over of 26 {+-} 2.6 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 48 {+-} 20.2 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c. Furthermore, the activity of the soluble proteins is constitutive and does not need any stimulus. We also show that the cytosolic tail of the isoform Nox4B lacking the first NADPH binding site is unable to demonstrate any diaphorase activity pointing out the

  7. Photooxidation of farnesene mixtures in the presence of NOx: Analysis of reaction products and their implication to ambient PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical analysis of SOA produced from the irradiation of a mixture of α/β-farnesene/NOx was conducted in a 14.5 cubic meter smog chamber. SOA collected on...

  8. Sphingosine kinase 1 deficiency confers protection against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a murine model: role of S1P signaling and Nox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Narsa M; Bai, Tao; Usatyuk, Peter V; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Gorshkova, Irina; Huang, Long Shuang; Mohan, Vijay; Garzon, Steve; Kanteti, Prasad; Reddy, Sekhar P; Raj, J Usha; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature newborn is characterized by lung injury, resulting in alveolar simplification and reduced pulmonary function. Exposure of neonatal mice to hyperoxia enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in lung tissues; however, the role of increased S1P in the pathobiological characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been investigated. We hypothesized that an altered S1P signaling axis, in part, is responsible for neonatal lung injury leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To validate this hypothesis, newborn wild-type, sphingosine kinase1(-/-) (Sphk1(-/-)), sphingosine kinase 2(-/-) (Sphk2(-/-)), and S1P lyase(+/-) (Sgpl1(+/-)) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (75%) from postnatal day 1 to 7. Sphk1(-/-), but not Sphk2(-/-) or Sgpl1(+/-), mice offered protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, with improved alveolarization and alveolar integrity compared with wild type. Furthermore, SphK1 deficiency attenuated hyperoxia-induced accumulation of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 protein expression in lung tissue. In vitro experiments using human lung microvascular endothelial cells showed that exogenous S1P stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, whereas SphK1 siRNA, or inhibitor against SphK1, attenuated hyperoxia-induced S1P generation. Knockdown of NOX2 and NOX4, using specific siRNA, reduced both basal and S1P-induced ROS formation. These results suggest an important role for SphK1-mediated S1P signaling-regulated ROS in the development of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a murine neonatal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimates of the changes in tropospheric chemistry which result from human activity and their dependence on NO(x) emissions and model resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Crutzen, Paul J.; Zimmermann, Peter H.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of the non-linear behavior of the chemistry of the atmosphere and because of the short lifetime of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), two-dimensional models do not give an adequate description of the production and destruction rates of NO(x) and their effects on the distributions of the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radical. In this study, we use a three-dimensional model to evaluate the contribution of increasing NO(x) emissions from industrial activity and biomass burning to changes in the chemical composition of the troposphere. By comparing results obtained from longitudinally-uniform and longitudinally-varying emissions of NO(x), we demonstrate that the geographical representation of the NO(x) emissions is crucial in simulating tropospheric chemistry.

  10. Regulation of Nox enzymes expression in vascular pathophysiology: Focusing on transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Adriana Manea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (Nox represent a family of hetero-oligomeric enzymes whose exclusive biological function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Nox-derived ROS are essential modulators of signal transduction pathways that control key physiological activities such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune responses, and biochemical pathways. Enhanced formation of Nox-derived ROS, which is generally associated with the up-regulation of different Nox subtypes, has been established in various pathologies, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The detrimental effects of Nox-derived ROS are related to alterations in cell signalling and/or direct irreversible oxidative damage of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Thus, understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanisms of Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to find ways to counteract the excessive formation of Nox-derived ROS in various pathological states. Despite the numerous existing data, the molecular pathways responsible for Nox up-regulation are not completely understood. This review article summarizes some of the recent advances and concepts related to the regulation of Nox expression in the vascular pathophysiology. It highlights the role of transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms in this process. Identification of the signalling molecules involved in Nox up-regulation, which is associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  12. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  13. NOx reduction using biomass as reburning fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Sheng-li; Lu Chun-mei; Gao Pan; Han Kui-hua; Geng Ping; Cheng Zhong-jie [Shandong University, Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a multiple-functional combustion test bed with several kinds of biomass as reburning fuel to reduce NOx. The character and experimental parameters are, emphasized to examine the influences on NOx reduction. The results show that biomass could get about 55% to 70% NOx reduction. Within a certain range of the parameters tested, NOx reduction increases with the increasing temperature of reburning zone and initial concentration of NOx and with decreasing excess air ratio and diameter of fuel particle. Under the same test conditions, cornstalk gets the highest NOx reduction and wheat straw, peanut shell, wood chip follow in turn. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age

  15. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  16. Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22phox NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Isabelle; Lalucque, Hervé; Siegmund, Ulrike; Silar, Philippe; Brun, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are membrane complexes that produce O2(-). Researches in mammals, plants and fungi highlight the involvement of Nox-generated ROS in cell proliferation, differentiation and defense. In mammals, the core enzyme gp91(phox)/Nox2 is associated with p22(phox) forming the flavocytochrome b558 ready for activation by a cytosolic complex. Intriguingly, no homologue of the p22(phox) gene has been found in fungal genomes, questioning how the flavoenzyme forms. Using whole genome sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and structural studies, we identify the fungal p22(phox) homologue as being mutated in the Podospora anserina mutant IDC(509). Functional studies show that the fungal p22(phox), PaNoxD, acts along PaNox1, but not PaNox2, a second fungal gp91(phox) homologue. Finally, cytological analysis of functional tagged versions of PaNox1, PaNoxD and PaNoxR shows clear co-localization of PaNoxD and PaNox1 and unravel a dynamic assembly of the complex in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the vacuolar system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  18. Contribution of the NADH-oxidase (Nox) to the aerobic life of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, André; Freiding, Simone; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the key bacterium in traditional sourdough fermentation. The molecular background of its oxygen tolerance was investigated by comparison of wild type and NADH-oxidase (Nox) knock out mutants. The nox gene of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) coding for a NADH-oxidase (Nox) was inactivated by single crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451Δnox. By inactivation of the native NADH-oxidase gene, it was ensured that besides fructose, O(2) can react as an electron acceptor. In aerated cultures the mutant strain was only able to grow in MRS media supplemented with fructose as electron acceptor, whereas the wild type strain showed a fructose independent growth response. The use of oxygen as an external electron acceptor enables L. sanfranciscensis to shift from acetyl-phosphate into the acetate branch and gain an additionally ATP, while the reduced cofactors were regenerated by Nox-activity. In aerated cultures the wild type strain formed a fermentation ratio of lactate to acetate of 1.09 in MRS supplemented with fructose after 24 h of fermentation, while the mutant strain formed a fermentation ratio of 3.05. Additionally, L. sanfranciscensis showed manganese-dependent growth response in aerated cultures, the final OD and growth velocity was increased in media supplemented with manganese. The expression of two predicted Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transporters MntH1 and MntH2 in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) was verified by amplification of a 318 bp fragment of MntH1 and a 239 bp fragment of MntH2 from cDNA library obtained from aerobically, exponentially growing cells of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) in MRS. Moreover, the mutant strain DSM20451Δnox was more sensitive to the superoxide generating agent paraquat and showed inhibition of growth on diamide-treated MRS-plates without fructose supplementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gαs regulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-mediated cyclic AMP generation at Rab5 endosomal compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Bele, Shilpak; Zhu, Zhimeng; Chakravarthi, N R; DiMarchi, Richard D; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2017-10-01

    Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined. Cyclic AMP generation from internalized Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) has previously been reported from our laboratory. This study aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanism by which internalized GLP-R supports sustained cyclic AMP generation upon receptor activation in pancreatic beta cells. We studied the time course of cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation with particular emphasis on defining the location where cyclic AMP is generated. Detection involved a novel GLP-1 conjugate coupled with immunofluorescence using specific endosomal markers. Finally, we employed co-immunoprecipitation as well as immunofluorescence to assess the protein-protein interactions that regulate GLP-1R mediated cyclic AMP generation at endosomes. Our data reveal that prolonged association of G protein α subunit Gαs with activated GLP-1R contributed to sustained cyclic AMP generation at Rab 5 endosomal compartment. The findings provide the mechanism of endosomal cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation. We identified the specific compartment that serves as an organizing center to generate endosomal cyclic AMP by internalized activated receptor complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  1. Myeloid-specific deletion of NOX2 prevents the metabolic and neurologic consequences of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Pepping

    Full Text Available High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells. C57Bl/6 control (NOX2-FL and myeloid-deficient NOX2 (mNOX2-KO mice were given high fat diet for 16 weeks, and subject to comprehensive metabolic, behavioral, and biochemical analyses. Data show that mNOX2-KO mice had lower body weight, delayed adiposity, attenuated visceral inflammation, and decreased macrophage infiltration and cell injury in visceral adipose relative to control NOX2-FL mice. Moreover, the effects of high fat diet on glucose regulation and circulating lipids were attenuated in mNOX2-KO mice. Finally, memory was impaired and markers of brain injury increased in NOX2-FL, but not mNOX2-KO mice. Collectively, these data indicate that NOX2 signaling in macrophages participates in the pathogenesis of obesity, and reinforce a key role for macrophage inflammation in diet-induced metabolic and neurologic decline. Development of macrophage/immune-specific NOX-based therapies could thus potentially be used to preserve metabolic and neurologic function in the context of obesity.

  2. Strain- and Substrate-Dependent Redox Mediator and Electricity Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosire, Erick M; Blank, Lars M; Rosenbaum, Miriam A

    2016-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important, thriving member of microbial communities of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) through the production of versatile phenazine redox mediators. Pure culture experiments with a model strain revealed synergistic interactions of P. aeruginosa with fermenting microorganisms whereby the synergism was mediated through the shared fermentation product 2,3-butanediol. Our work here shows that the behavior and efficiency of P. aeruginosa in mediated current production is strongly dependent on the strain of P. aeruginosa We compared levels of phenazine production by the previously investigated model strain P. aeruginosa PA14, the alternative model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1, and the BES isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain KRP1 with glucose and the fermentation products 2,3-butanediol and ethanol as carbon substrates. We found significant differences in substrate-dependent phenazine production and resulting anodic current generation for the three strains, with the BES isolate KRP1 being overall the best current producer and showing the highest electrochemical activity with glucose as a substrate (19 μA cm(-2) with ∼150 μg ml(-1) phenazine carboxylic acid as a redox mediator). Surprisingly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed very low phenazine production and electrochemical activity under all tested conditions. Microbial fuel cells and other microbial bioelectrochemical systems hold great promise for environmental technologies such as wastewater treatment and bioremediation. While there is much emphasis on the development of materials and devices to realize such systems, the investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying microbiology and ecology are lagging behind. Physiological investigations focus on microorganisms exhibiting direct electron transfer in pure culture systems. Meanwhile, mediated electron transfer with natural redox compounds produced by, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa might enable an entire microbial

  3. Effects of NOx and SO2 on the secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions such as NOx and SO2 influence the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation, but detailed mechanisms and effects are still elusive. We studied the effects of NOx and SO2 on the SOA formation from the photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene at ambient relevant NOx and SO2 concentrations (NOx: < 1to 20 ppb, SO2: < 0.05 to 15 ppb. In these experiments, monoterpene oxidation was dominated by OH oxidation. We found that SO2 induced nucleation and enhanced SOA mass formation. NOx strongly suppressed not only new particle formation but also SOA mass yield. However, in the presence of SO2 which induced a high number concentration of particles after oxidation to H2SO4, the suppression of the mass yield of SOA by NOx was completely or partly compensated for. This indicates that the suppression of SOA yield by NOx was largely due to the suppressed new particle formation, leading to a lack of particle surface for the organics to condense on and thus a significant influence of vapor wall loss on SOA mass yield. By compensating for the suppressing effect on nucleation of NOx, SO2 also compensated for the suppressing effect on SOA yield. Aerosol mass spectrometer data show that increasing NOx enhanced nitrate formation. The majority of the nitrate was organic nitrate (57–77 %, even in low-NOx conditions (<  ∼  1 ppb. Organic nitrate contributed 7–26 % of total organics assuming a molecular weight of 200 g mol−1. SOA from α-pinene photooxidation at high NOx had a generally lower hydrogen to carbon ratio (H ∕ C, compared to low NOx. The NOx dependence of the chemical composition can be attributed to the NOx dependence of the branching ratio of the RO2 loss reactions, leading to a lower fraction of organic hydroperoxides and higher fractions of organic nitrates at high NOx. While NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation, SO2 can compensate for such effects, and the

  4. Myocardial fibrosis induced by exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide is associated with decreased miR-29c and enhanced NOX2 expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available Exposure to subclinical levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs commonly and is seemingly well tolerated. However, recurrent LPS exposure induces cardiac fibrosis over 2 to 3 months in a murine model, not mediated by the renin-angiotensin system. Subclinical LPS induces cardiac fibrosis by unique mechanisms.In C57/Bl6 mice, LPS (10 mg/kg or saline (control were injected intraperitoneally once a week for 1-4 weeks. Mice showed no signs of distress, change in activity, appetite, or weight loss. Mice were euthanized after 3 days, 1, 2, or 4 weeks to measure cardiac expression of fibrosis-related genes and potential mediators (measured by QRT-PCR, including micro-RNA (miR and NADPH oxidase (NOX. Collagen fraction area of the left ventricle was measured with picrosirius red staining. Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from adult mouse hearts were incubated with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 ng/ml LPS for 48 hours.Cardiac miR expression profiling demonstrated decreased miR-29c after 3 and 7 days following LPS, which were confirmed by QRT-PCR. The earliest changes in fibrosis-related genes and mediators that occurred 3 days after LPS were increased cardiac expression of TIMP-1 and NOX-2 (but not of NOX-4. This persisted at 1 and 2 weeks, with additional increases in collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and periostin. There was no change in TGF-β or connective tissue growth factor. Collagen fraction area of the left ventricle increased after 2 and 4 weeks of LPS. LPS decreased miR-29c and increased NOX-2 in isolated cardiac fibroblasts.Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS induces cardiac fibrosis after 2-4 weeks. Early changes 3 days after LPS were decreased miR-29c and increased NOX2 and TIMP1, which persisted at 1 and 2 weeks, along with widespread activation of fibrosis-related genes. Decreased miR-29c and increased NOX2, which induce cardiac fibrosis in other conditions, may uniquely mediate LPS-induced cardiac fibrosis.

  5. Lagrangian Hotspots of In-Use NOX Emissions from Transit Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Andrew J; Kittelson, David B; Northrop, William F

    2016-06-07

    In-use, spatiotemporal NOX emissions were measured from a conventional powertrain transit bus and a series electric hybrid bus over gradients of route kinetic intensity and ambient temperature. This paper introduces a new method for identifying NOX emissions hotspots along a bus route using high fidelity Lagrangian vehicle data to explore spatial interactions that may influence emissions production. Our study shows that the studied transit buses emit higher than regulated emissions because on-route operation does not accurately represent the range of engine operation tested according to regulatory standards. Using the Lagrangian hotspot detection, we demonstrate that NOX hotspots occurred at bus stops, during cold starts, on inclines, and for accelerations. On the selected routes, bus stops resulted in 3.3 times the route averaged emissions factor in grams/km without significant dependence on bus type or climate. The buses also emitted 2.3 times the route averaged NOX emissions factor at the beginning of each route due to cold selective catalytic reduction aftertreatment temperature. The Lagrangian hotspot detection technique demonstrated here could be employed in future connected vehicles empowered by advances in computational power, data storage capability, and improved sensor technology to optimize emissions as a function of spatial location.

  6. Fundamental limits on gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the plasma, the electrons do not react directly with the NOx molecules. The electrons collide mainly with the background gas molecules like N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron impact on these molecules result partly in dissociation reactions that produce reactive species like N, O and OH. The NOx in the engine exhaust gas initially consist mostly of NO. The ground state nitrogen atom, N, is the only species that could lead to the chemical reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The O radical oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2} leaving the same amount of NOx. The OH radical converts NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. Acid products in the plasma can easily get adsorbed on surfaces in the plasma reactor and in the pipes. When undetected, the absence of these oxidation products can often be mistaken for chemical reduction of NOx. In this paper the authors will examine the gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx. They will show that under the best conditions, the plasma can chemically reduce 1.6 grams of NOx per brake-horsepower-hour [g(NOx)/bhp-hr] when 5% of the engine output energy is delivered to the plasma.

  7. NADH oxidase activity (NOX) and enlargement of HeLa cells oscillate with two different temperature-compensated period lengths of 22 and 24 minutes corresponding to different NOX forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NOX proteins are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone (NADH) oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. A defining characteristic of NOX proteins is that the two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. HeLa cells exhibit at least two forms of NOX. One is tumor-associated (tNOX) and is inhibited by putative quinone site inhibitors (e.g., capsaicin or the antitumor sulfonylurea, LY181984). Another is constitutive (CNOX) and refractory to inhibition. The periodic alternation of activities and drug sensitivity of the NADH oxidase activity observed with intact HeLa cells was retained in isolated plasma membranes and with the solubilized and partially purified enzyme. At least two activities were present. One had a period length of 24 min and the other had a period length of 22 min. The lengths of both the 22 and the 24 min periods were temperature compensated (approximately the same when measured at 17, 27 or 37 degrees C) whereas the rate of NADH oxidation approximately doubled with each 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The rate of increase in cell area of HeLa cells when measured by video-enhanced light microscopy also exhibited a complex period of oscillations reflective of both 22 and 24 min period lengths. The findings demonstrate the presence of a novel oscillating NOX activity at the surface of cancer cells with a period length of 22 min in addition to the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells and tissues with a period length of 24 min.

  8. NOx Binding and Dissociation: Enhanced Ferroelectric Surface Chemistry by Catalytic Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    NOx molecules are regulated air pollutants produced during automotive combustion. As part of an effort to design viable catalysts for NOx decomposition operating at higher temperatures that would allow for improved fuel efficiency, we examine NOx chemistry on ferroelectric perovskite surfaces. Changing the direction of ferroelectric polarization can modify surface electronic properties and may lead to switchable surface chemistry. Here, we describe our recent work on potentially enhanced surface chemistry using catalytic RuO2 monolayers on perovskite ferroelectric substrates. In addition to thermodynamic stabilization of the RuO2 layer, we present results on the polarization-dependent binding of NO, O2, N2, and atomic O and N. We present results showing that one key problem with current catalysts, involving the difficulty of releasing dissociation products (especially oxygen), can be ameliorated by this method. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  9. O3, VOC, NOx, PM2.5 and Meteorological Measurements during an Inversion Episode in Utah's Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. D.; Martin, R. S.; Hill, S.; Shorthill, H.

    2011-12-01

    Recent measurements found high winter ozone (O3) at several locations in northeastern Utah's Uinta Basin. Similar to Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, the area has seen recent growth in the gas/oil sector. As a part of a more comprehensive project, a study was conducted examining the relationships between O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and meteorology during an inversion episode. The study took place February 21-25, 2011 at the area's population center (Vernal) and at an area within the gas/oil fields (Red Wash). At both sites, O3 and NOx, displayed expected diurnal behaviors. The 1-hr O3 concentrations ranged from 10-90 ppb at Vernal and 34-107 ppb at Red Wash. Average diurnal O3 maximums (±95% CI) were 70.4±12.1 ppb and 76.8±12.6 ppb at Vernal and Red Wash, respectively. The Red Wash average O3 diurnal curve was broader than that at Vernal and did not titrate out as rapidly in the evening and morning hours. In contrast, higher NOx was observed at Vernal, with hourly averaged values ranging from 4.5-80.2 ppb, compared to 1.5-29.7 ppb at Red Wash. The NOx tended to follow traffic patterns at both sites, with morning maximum 1-hr averages of 40.8±12.1 ppb and 20.2±8.7 ppb, respectively. A portable O3 monitor attached to a tethered balloon found high ground level O3 (70-80 ppb) and a decrease to relatively constant levels (50-60 ppb) by 150 m agl. Methane and non-methane hydrocarbons (NHMC) were collected at least twice per day using whole vial and sorbent cartridges, followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The gas/oil field samples (Red Wash) found significantly higher CH4 levels (2.71±0.32 ppm) compared to the Vernal samples (1.82±0.14 ppm). The NMHC were likewise higher at the Red Wash location. Calculation of the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) estimated that methane, ethane, propane, acetylene, remaining alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 7.9%, 18.5%, 4.7%, 1.0%, 20.6%, 46

  10. Comparison of wintertime CO to NOx ratios to MOVES and MOBILE6.2 on-road emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H. W.; Jobson, B. T.; Erickson, M. H.; McCoskey, J. K.; VanReken, T. M.; Lamb, B. K.; Vaughan, J. K.; Hardy, R. J.; Cole, J. L.; Strachan, S. M.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CO-to-NOx molar emission ratios from the US EPA vehicle emissions models MOVES and MOBILE6.2 were compared to urban wintertime measurements of CO and NOx. Measurements of CO, NOx, and volatile organic compounds were made at a regional air monitoring site in Boise, Idaho for 2 months from December 2008 to January 2009. The site is impacted by roadway emissions from a nearby busy urban arterial roads and highway. The measured CO-to-NOx ratio for morning rush hour periods was 4.2 ± 0.6. The average CO-to-NOx ratio during weekdays between the hours of 08:00 and 18:00 when vehicle miles travelled were highest was 5.2 ± 0.5. For this time period, MOVES yields an average hourly CO-to-NOx ratio of 9.1 compared to 20.2 for MOBILE6.2. Off-network emissions are a significant fraction of the CO and NOx emissions in MOVES, accounting for 65% of total CO emissions, and significantly increase the CO-to-NOx molar ratio. Observed ratios were more similar to the average hourly running emissions for urban roads determined by MOVES to be 4.3.

  11. IR and UV gas absorption measurements during NOx reduction on an industrial natural gas fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Jørgensen, L.

    2010-01-01

    NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma-generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments on an industrial power plant running on natural gas. Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx slightly below two. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet absorption...... spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled. Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The operation costs for NOx reduction were estimated...

  12. Evolutionary origin and function of NOX4-art, an arthropod specific NADPH oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Gandara, Ana Caroline Paiva; Torres, Andr?; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Schama, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Background NADPH oxidases (NOX) are ROS producing enzymes that perform essential roles in cell physiology, including cell signaling and antimicrobial defense. This gene family is present in most eukaryotes, suggesting a common ancestor. To date, only a limited number of phylogenetic studies of metazoan NOXes have been performed, with few arthropod genes. In arthropods, only NOX5 and DUOX genes have been found and a gene called NOXm was found in mosquitoes but its origin and function has not b...

  13. Prediction of the production of nitrogen oxide (NOx) in turbojet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsague, Louis; Tsogo, Joseph; Tatietse, Thomas Tamo

    Gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx) are known as atmospheric trace constituent. These gases remain a big concern despite the advances in low NOx emission technology because they play a critical role in regulating the oxidization capacity of the atmosphere according to Crutzen [1995. My life with O 3, NO x and other YZO x S; Nobel Lecture; Chemistry 1995; pp 195; December 8, 1995] . Aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides ( NOx) are regulated by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The prediction of NOx emission in turbojet engines by combining combustion operational data produced information showing correlation between the analytical and empirical results. There is close similarity between the calculated emission index and experimental data. The correlation shows improved accuracy when the 2124 experimental data from 11 gas turbine engines are evaluated than a previous semi empirical correlation approach proposed by Pearce et al. [1993. The prediction of thermal NOx in gas turbine exhausts. Eleventh International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Tokyo, 1993, pp. 6-9]. The new method we propose predict the production of NOx with far more improved accuracy than previous methods. Since a turbojet engine works in an atmosphere where temperature, pressure and humidity change frequently, a correction factor is developed with standard atmospheric laws and some correlations taken from scientific literature [Swartwelder, M., 2000. Aerospace engineering 410 Term Project performance analysis, November 17, 2000, pp. 2-5; Reed, J.A. Java Gas Turbine Simulator Documentation. pp. 4-5]. The new correction factor is validated with experimental observations from 19 turbojet engines cruising at altitudes of 9 and 13 km given in the ICAO repertory [Middleton, D., 1992. Appendix K (FAA/SETA). Section 1: Boeing Method Two Indices, 1992, pp. 2-3]. This correction factor will enable the prediction of cruise NOx emissions of turbojet engines at cruising speeds. The ICAO

  14. Numerical simulation of flow in De-NOx catalyst honeycomb with NOx reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, K.; Makino, H. [Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan). Energy Engineering Research Lab.; Kurose, R.; Komori, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Science

    2013-07-01

    The effect of flow behavior in a De-NOx honeycomb with NOx reduction reaction is investigated by direct numerical simulation (DNS). As the inlet flow, fully developed turbulent or laminar flow is given. The results show that the surface reaction is strongly affected by inner flow behavior. The surface reaction rate for the turbulent flow is higher than that for the laminar flow. This is due to the difference of inner flow behavior that the diffusion of NOx in the vicinity of the wall is dominated only by molecular diffusion for the laminar flow, whereas it is enhanced by turbulent motions for the turbulent flow. Moreover, surface reaction is suppressed towards downstream even though inlet flow is turbulent. This is due to the flow transition from turbulent to laminar.

  15. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  16. 7 CFR 785.5 - Fees for mediation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for mediation services. 785.5 Section 785.5... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS CERTIFIED STATE MEDIATION PROGRAM § 785.5 Fees for mediation services. A requirement that non-USDA parties who elect to participate in mediation pay a fee for mediation services will...

  17. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  18. Erk5 inhibits endothelial migration via KLF2-dependent down-regulation of PAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaravolu, Ravi K; Adam, Christian; Moonen, Jan-Renier A J; Harmsen, Martin C; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The MEK5/Erk5 pathway mediates beneficial effects of laminar flow, a major physiological factor preventing vascular dysfunction. Forced Erk5 activation induces a protective phenotype in endothelial cell (EC) that is associated with a dramatically decreased migration capacity of those cells. Transcriptional profiling identified the Krüppel-like transcription factors KLF2 and KLF4 as central mediators of Erk5-dependent gene expression. However, their downstream role regarding migration is unclear and relevant secondary effectors remain elusive. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying Erk5-dependent migration arrest in ECs. Our experiments reveal KLF2-dependent loss of the pro-migratory Rac/Cdc42 mediator, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), as an important mechanism of Erk5-induced migration inhibition. We show that endothelial Erk5 activation by expression of a constitutively active MEK5 mutant, by statin treatment, or by application of laminar shear stress strongly decreased PAK1 mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of KLF2 but not of KLF4 prevented Erk5-mediated PAK1 mRNA inhibition, revealing KLF2 as a novel PAK1 repressor in ECs. Importantly, both PAK1 re-expression and KLF2 knockdown restored the migration capacity of Erk5-activated ECs underscoring their functional relevance downstream of Erk5. Our data provide first evidence for existence of a previously unknown Erk5/KLF2/PAK1 axis, which may limit undesired cell migration in unperturbed endothelium and lower its sensitivity for migratory cues that promote vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Chang, Lingling; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Xingchen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Ruizhen; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L., has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and primary porcine derived alveolar macrophage. It remarkably increased the expression and secretion of the two cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) in a dose-dependent manner with the concomitant enhancement of phagocytosis, which are the indicators of macrophage activation. ARG also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating NOX2-based NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyliodonium and apocynin significantly suppressed ARG-induced cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase, indicating the requirement of ROS for the porcine alveolar macrophage activation. In addition, TLR6-My88 excitation, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all involved in the process. As blocking TLR6 receptor dramatically attenuated the NOX2 oxidase activation, cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase. Inhibiting ROS generation almost abolished p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the cytokine secretion could also be remarkably reduced by p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors (SB203580 and UO126). Our finding gave a new insight of understanding that ARG could improve the immune-function of porcine alveolar macrophages through TLR6-NOX2 oxidase-MAPKs signaling pathway.

  20. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (ARG, one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L., has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21 and primary porcine derived alveolar macrophage. It remarkably increased the expression and secretion of the two cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1 in a dose-dependent manner with the concomitant enhancement of phagocytosis, which are the indicators of macrophage activation. ARG also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production by activating NOX2-based NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyliodonium and apocynin significantly suppressed ARG-induced cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase, indicating the requirement of ROS for the porcine alveolar macrophage activation. In addition, TLR6-My88 excitation, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all involved in the process. As blocking TLR6 receptor dramatically attenuated the NOX2 oxidase activation, cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase. Inhibiting ROS generation almost abolished p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the cytokine secretion could also be remarkably reduced by p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors (SB203580 and UO126. Our finding gave a new insight of understanding that ARG could improve the immune-function of porcine alveolar macrophages through TLR6-NOX2 oxidase-MAPKs signaling pathway.

  1. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Chang, Lingling; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Xingchen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Ruizhen; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L. , has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and primary porcine derived alveolar macrophage. It remarkably increased the expression and secretion of the two cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) in a dose-dependent manner with the concomitant enhancement of phagocytosis, which are the indicators of macrophage activation. ARG also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating NOX2-based NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyliodonium and apocynin significantly suppressed ARG-induced cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase, indicating the requirement of ROS for the porcine alveolar macrophage activation. In addition, TLR6-My88 excitation, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all involved in the process. As blocking TLR6 receptor dramatically attenuated the NOX2 oxidase activation, cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase. Inhibiting ROS generation almost abolished p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the cytokine secretion could also be remarkably reduced by p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors (SB203580 and UO126). Our finding gave a new insight of understanding that ARG could improve the immune-function of porcine alveolar macrophages through TLR6-NOX2 oxidase-MAPKs signaling pathway.

  2. Tacrolimus increases Nox4 expression in human renal fibroblasts and induces fibrosis-related genes by aberrant TGF-beta receptor signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Kern

    Full Text Available Chronic nephrotoxicity of immunosuppressives is one of the main limiting factors in the long-term outcome of kidney transplants, leading to tissue fibrosis and ultimate organ failure. The cytokine TGF-β is considered a key factor in this process. In the human renal fibroblast cell line TK-173, the macrolide calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK-506 induced TGF-β-like effects, manifested by increased expression of NAD(PH-oxidase 4 (Nox4, transgelin, tropomyosin 1, and procollagen α1(V mRNA after three days. The macrolide mTOR inhibitor rapamycin had similar effects, while cyclosporine A did not induce fibrose-related genes. Concentration dependence curves were sigmoid, where mRNA expression was induced already at low nanomolar levels of tacrolimus, and reached saturation at 100-300 nM. The effects were independent of extracellular TGF-β as confirmed by the use of neutralizing antibodies, and thus most likely caused by aberrant TGF-β receptor signaling, where binding of tacrolimus to the regulatory FKBP12 protein results in a "leaky" TGF-β receptor. The myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin was neither induced by tacrolimus nor by TGF-β1, indicating an incomplete activation of TK-173 fibroblasts under culture conditions. Tacrolimus- and TGF-β1-induced Nox4 protein upregulation was confirmed by Western blotting, and was accompanied by a rise in intracellular H2O2 concentration. Si-RNA mediated knock-down of Nox4 expression prevented up-regulation of procollagen α1(V mRNA in tacrolimus-treated cells, but induced procollagen α1(V expression in control cells. Nox4 knock-down had no significant effect on the other genes tested. TGF-β is a key molecule in fibrosis, and the constant activation of aberrant receptor signaling by tacrolimus might contribute to the long-term development of interstitial kidney fibrosis in immunosuppressed patients. Nox4 levels possibly play a regulatory role in these processes.

  3. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  4. NOx from lightning: 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Penner, Joyce; Prather, Michael

    1997-03-01

    This paper begins a study on the role of lightning in maintaining the global distribution of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the troposphere. It presents the first global and seasonal distributions of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) based on the observed distribution of electrical storms and the physical properties of lightning strokes. We derive a global rate for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes of 20-30 flashes/s with a mean energy per flash of 6.7×109 J. Intracloud (IC) flashes are more frequent, 50-70 flashes/s but have 10% of the energy of CG strokes and, consequently, produce significantly less NOx. It appears to us that the majority of previous studies have mistakenly assumed that all lightning flashes produce the same amount of NOx, thus overestimating the NOx production by a factor of 3. On the other hand, we feel these same studies have underestimated the energy released in CG flashes, resulting in two negating assumptions. For CG energies we adopt a production rate of 10×1016 molecules NO/J based on the current literature. Using a method to simulate global lightning frequencies from satellite-observed cloud data, we have calculated the LNOx on various spatial (regional, zonal, meridional, and global) and temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and interannual). Regionally, the production of LNOx is concentrated over tropical continental regions, predominantly in the summer hemisphere. The annual mean production rate is calculated to be 12.2 Tg N/yr, and we believe it extremely unlikely that this number is less than 5 or more than 20 Tg N/yr. Although most of LNOx, is produced in the lowest 5 km by CG lightning, convective mixing in the thunderstorms is likely to deposit large amounts of NOx, in the upper troposphere where it is important in ozone production. On an annual basis, 64% of the LNOx, is produced in the northern hemisphere, implying that the northern hemisphere should have natural ozone levels as much as 2 times greater than the southern hemisphere

  5. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  6. Gaseous ligand selectivity of the H-NOX sensor protein from Shewanella oneidensis and comparison to those of other bacterial H-NOXs and soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Wen; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2017-09-01

    To delineate the commonalities and differences in gaseous ligand discrimination among the heme-based sensors with Heme Nitric oxide/OXygen binding protein (H-NOX) scaffold, the binding kinetic parameters for gaseous ligands NO, CO, and O 2 , including K D , k on , and k off , of Shewanella oneidensis H-NOX (So H-NOX) were characterized in detail in this study and compared to those of previously characterized H-NOXs from Clostridium botulinum (Cb H-NOX), Nostoc sp. (Ns H-NOX), Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), Vibrio cholera (Vc H-NOX), and human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an H-NOX analogue. The K D (NO) and K D (CO) of each bacterial H-NOX or sGC follow the "sliding scale rule"; the affinities of the bacterial H-NOXs for NO and CO vary in a small range but stronger than those of sGC by at least two orders of magnitude. On the other hand, each bacterial H-NOX exhibits different characters in the stability of its 6c NO complex, reactivity with secondary NO, stability of oxyferrous heme and autoxidation to ferric heme. A facile access channel for gaseous ligands is also identified, implying that ligand access has only minimal effect on gaseous ligand selectivity of H-NOXs or sGC. This comparative study of the binding parameters of the bacterial H-NOXs and sGC provides a basis to guide future new structural and functional studies of each specific heme sensor with the H-NOX protein fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. NOx processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines, traitement des nox sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France). Service TAG

    1997-12-31

    The Solar Company, in cooperation with Tuma Turbomach, has developed the SoLoNOx combustion system with a dry, lean, premixed compound, allowing for reduced NOx and CO emission levels (respectively 42 ppmv and 50 ppmv at 15 pc O{sub 2}). The combustor size is larger than a conventional combustor in order to maintain combustion efficiency and reduce carbon monoxide levels. Leaner combustion occurs at lower temperatures which produce less nitrogen oxides but require more volume to complete the combustion process. New developments should allow for a further reduction of NOx level at 25 ppmv

  8. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    The present thesis entitled Alternative deNOx Catalysts and technologies revolves around the topic of removal of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, are unwanted byproducts formed during combustion (e.g. in engines or power plants). If emitted to the atmosphere, they are involved...... in the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Some basic concepts and reactions regarding the formation and removal of NOx are presented in chapter 1 and 2. Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NOx: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids....... The commercial catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides exhibits high activity and selectivity towards N2. However, the vanadia-titania-based catalyst used is very sensitive to deactivation by alkali-species (primarily potassium), which are typically present in high amounts...

  9. Decitabine induces delayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in leukemia cells and induces the expression of ROS generating enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandy, Tamer E; Jiemjit, Anchalee; Thakar, Manjusha; Rhoden, Paulette; Suarez, Lauren; Gore, Steven D

    2014-03-01

    Azanucleoside DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. The relative contributions of DNMT inhibition and other off-target effects to their clinical efficacy remain unclear. Data correlating DNA methylation reversal and clinical response have been conflicting. Consequently, it is necessary to investigate so-called off-target effects and their impact on cell survival and differentiation. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation analysis. Gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. DNA methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using JC-1 dye staining. Western blotting was used for quantitative protein expression analysis. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells. p53 expression was dispensable for DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced delayed ROS accumulation in leukemia cells but not in solid tumor cells and p53 expression was dispensable for ROS increase. ROS increase was deoxycytidine kinase dependent, indicating that incorporation of DAC into nuclear DNA is required for ROS generation. ROS accumulation by DAC was caspase-independent and mediated the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Concordantly, ROS scavengers diminished DAC-induced apoptosis. DAC induced the expression of different NADPH oxidase isoforms and upregulated Nox4 protein expression in an ATM-dependent manner, indicating the involvement of DNA damage signaling in Nox4 upregulation. These data highlight the importance of mechanisms other than DNA cytosine demethylation in modulating gene expression and suggest investigating the relevance of ROS accumulation to the clinical activity of DAC. ©2014 AACR

  10. Caspase-dependant activation of chymotrypsin-like proteases mediates nuclear events during Jurkat T cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, A.R.; Lee, B.W.; Stenson-Cox, C.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis involves a cascade of biochemical and morphological changes resulting in the systematic disintegration of the cell. Caspases are central mediators of this process. Supporting and primary roles for serine proteases as pro-apoptotic mediators have also been highlighted. Evidence for such roles comes largely from the use of pharmacological inhibitors; as a consequence information regarding their apoptotic function and biochemical properties has been limited. Here, we circumvented limitations associated with traditional serine protease inhibitors through use of a fluorescently labelled inhibitor of serine proteases (FLISP) that allowed for analysis of the specificity, regulation and positioning of apoptotic serine proteases within a classical apoptotic cascade. We demonstrate that staurosporine triggers a caspase-dependant induction of chymotrypsin-like activity in the nucleus of apoptotic Jurkat T cells. We show that serine protease activity is required for the generation of late stage nuclear events including condensation, fragmentation and DNA degradation. Furthermore, we reveal caspase-dependant activation of two chymotrypsin-like protein species that we hypothesize mediate cell death-associated nuclear events

  11. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H+-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, Marco; Ponti, Cristina; Sosa, Silvio; Gibellini, Davide; Florio, Chiara; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na + influx due to the transformation of Na + /K + ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na + overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na + intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O 2 − production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na + -mediated H + -imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O 2 − production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O 2 − production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H + intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na + accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O 2 − production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O 2 − ) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of O 2 − production is dependent on PLTX-induced ionic imbalance. ► The results led to the

  12. Airborne emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles from individual ships using sniffer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    A dedicated system for airborne ship emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles has been developed and used from several small aircrafts. The system has been adapted for fast response measurements at 1 Hz and the use of several of the instruments is unique. The uncertainty of the given data is about 20.3% for SO2 and 23.8% for NOx emission factors. Multiple measurements of 158 ships measured from the air on the Baltic and North Sea during 2011 and 2012 show emission factors of 18.8 ± 6.5 g kgfuel-1, 66.6 ± 23.4 g kgfuel-1, and 1.8 ± 1.3 × 1016 particles kgfuel-1 for SO2, NOx and particle number respectively. The particle size distributions were measured for particle diameters between 15 and 560 nm. The mean sizes of the particles are between 50 and 62 nm dependent on the distance to the source and the number size distribution is mono-modal. Concerning the sulfur fuel content 85% of the ships comply with the IMO limits. The sulfur emission has decreased compared to earlier measurements from 2007 to 2009. The presented method can be implemented for regular ship compliance monitoring.

  13. 40 CFR 96.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit...

  14. 40 CFR 97.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit will contain all elements...

  15. Ratio-of-Mediator-Probability Weighting for Causal Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Treatment-by-Mediator Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guanglei; Deutsch, Jonah; Hill, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods for mediation analysis generate biased results when the mediator--outcome relationship depends on the treatment condition. This article shows how the ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting (RMPW) method can be used to decompose total effects into natural direct and indirect effects in the presence of treatment-by-mediator…

  16. CRMP5 regulates generation and survival of newborn neurons in olfactory and hippocampal neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Veyrac

    Full Text Available The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate gyrus (DG. During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/- mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  17. Dynamic trafficking of STAT5 depends on an unconventional nuclear localization signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ha Youn; Reich, Nancy C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is crucial for physiological processes that include hematopoiesis, liver metabolism and mammary gland development. However, aberrant continual activity of STAT5 has been causally linked to human leukemias and solid tumor formation. As a regulated transcription factor, precise cellular localization of STAT5 is essential. Conventional nuclear localization signals consist of short stretches of basic amino acids. In this study, we provide evidence that STAT5 nuclear import is dependent on an unconventional nuclear localization signal that functions within the conformation of an extensive coiled-coil domain. Both in vitro binding and in vivo functional assays reveal that STAT5 nuclear import is mediated by the importin-α3/β1 system independently of STAT5 activation by tyrosine phosphorylation. The integrity of the coiled-coil domain is essential for STAT5 transcriptional induction of the β-casein gene following prolactin stimulation as well as its ability to synergize with the glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid receptor accumulates in the nucleus in response to prolactin and this nuclear import is dependent on STAT5 nuclear import. STAT5 continually shuttles in and out of the nucleus and live cell imaging demonstrates that STAT5 nuclear export is mediated by both chromosome region maintenance 1 (Crm1)-dependent and Crm1-independent pathways. A Crm1-dependent nuclear export signal was identified within the STAT5 N-terminus. These findings provide insight into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate STAT5 nuclear trafficking and cooperation with the glucocorticoid receptor and provide a basis for clinical intervention of STAT5 function in disease. PMID:23704351

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNA miR-BART20-5p Suppresses Lytic Induction by Inhibiting BAD-Mediated caspase-3-Dependent Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoji; Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2016-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gammaherpesvirus associated with a variety of tumor types. EBV can establish latency or undergo lytic replication in host cells. In general, EBV remains latent in tumors and expresses a limited repertoire of latent proteins to avoid host immune surveillance. When the lytic cycle is triggered by some as-yet-unknown form of stimulation, lytic gene expression and progeny virus production commence. Thus far, the exact mechanism of EBV latency maintenance and the in vivo triggering signal for lytic induction have yet to be elucidated. Previously, we have shown that the EBV microRNA miR-BART20-5p directly targets the immediate early genes BRLF1 and BZLF1 as well as Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. In this study, we found that both mRNA and protein levels of BRLF1 and BZLF1 were suppressed in cells following BAD knockdown and increased after BAD overexpression. Progeny virus production was also downregulated by specific knockdown of BAD. Our results demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent apoptosis is a prerequisite for BAD-mediated EBV lytic cycle induction. Therefore, our data suggest that miR-BART20-5p plays an important role in latency maintenance and tumor persistence of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma by inhibiting BAD-mediated caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, which would trigger immediate early gene expression. EBV has an ability to remain latent in host cells, including EBV-associated tumor cells hiding from immune surveillance. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of EBV latency maintenance remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that miR-BART20-5p inhibited the expression of EBV immediate early genes indirectly, by suppressing BAD-induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, in addition to directly, as we previously reported. Our study suggests that EBV-associated tumor cells might endure apoptotic stress to some extent and remain latent with the aid of miR-BART20-5p. Blocking the

  19. NoxO1 Controls Proliferation of Colon Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Moll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AimReactive oxygen species (ROS produced by enzymes of the NADPH oxidase family serve as second messengers for cellular signaling. Processes such as differentiation and proliferation are regulated by NADPH oxidases. In the intestine, due to the exceedingly fast and constant renewal of the epithelium both processes have to be highly controlled and balanced. Nox1 is the major NADPH oxidase expressed in the gut, and its function is regulated by cytosolic subunits such as NoxO1. We hypothesize that the NoxO1-controlled activity of Nox1 contributes to a proper epithelial homeostasis and renewal in the gut.ResultsNoxO1 is highly expressed in the colon. Knockout of NoxO1 reduces the production of superoxide in colon crypts and is not subsidized by an elevated expression of its homolog p47phox. Knockout of NoxO1 increases the proliferative capacity and prevents apoptosis of colon epithelial cells. In mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and azoxymethane/DSS induced colon cancer, NoxO1 has a protective role and may influence the population of natural killer cells.ConclusionNoxO1 affects colon epithelium homeostasis and prevents inflammation.

  20. Experience from performance testing of low NOx burners for refinery heaters; Tests de performance avec des bruleurs de raffinerie a basse emission de NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, J.C. [Refining Technology, BP Oil International, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Developments in low NOx burner technology have resulted in major reductions in NOx emissions from refinery process heaters. However, the techniques used in low NOx burners to reduce NOx emissions can potentially affect other key aspects of burner performance, particularly flame stability and completeness of combustion. BP has evaluated many of the currently available low and ultra-low NOx burners, both natural and forced draught, in its purpose-built test furnace. This extensive test programme has shown that to be a reliable predictor of actual performance a test rig must recreate accurately the real furnace conditions, particularly with respect to furnace and hearth temperatures. The testing has demonstrated the NOx emissions to be expected in practice from different generic types of burner, conventional, low NOx and ultra-low NOx, and has highlighted the sets of conditions most likely to lead to combustion performance problems. (authors)

  1. Experimental investigation of N2O formation in selective non-catalytic NOx reduction processes performed in stoker boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stoker fired boiler plants are common throughout Eastern Europe. Increasingly strict emission standards will require application of secondary NOx abatement systems on such boilers. Yet operation of such systems, in addition to reducing NOx emissions, may also lead to emission of undesirable substances, for example N2O. This paper presents results of experimental tests concerning N2O formation in the selective non-catalytic NOx emission reduction process (SNCR in a stoker boiler (WR 25 type. Obtained results lead to an unambiguous conclusion that there is a dependency between the NOx and N2O concentrations in the exhaust gas when SNCR process is carried out in a coal-fired stoker boiler. Fulfilling new emission standards in the analysed equipment will require 40–50% reduction of NOx concentration. It should be expected that in such a case the N2O emission will be approximately 55–60 mg/m3, with the NOx to N2O conversion factor of about 40%.

  2. Influence of Co or Ce addition on the NOx storage and sulfur-resistance performance of the lean-burn NOx trap catalyst Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Zhiqiang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Meng, Ming, E-mail: mengm@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tsubaki, Noritatsu [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama city, Toyama 930 8555 (Japan); He Junjun; Wang Gang; Li Xingang; Zhou Xiaoyan [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts promoted by Co or Ce were prepared by successive impregnation or mechanically mixing method. The influence of Co or Ce addition on the NOx storage and sulfur-resistance performance of the catalyst was investigated carefully. The techniques of XRD, FT-IR, in-situ DRIFTS, H{sub 2}-TPR and XPS were employed for catalyst characterization. The Co or Ce addition can greatly improve the NOx storage capacity of Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} due to the enhanced oxidation ability and the release of more K sites. Ce addition induces higher K/Ti atomic ratio and larger NOx storage capacity as compared with Co addition. After sulfation and regeneration, the promoted catalysts shows more or less decreased NSC than Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} due to the formation of more sulfates, especially for the Co-promoted catalysts, which possess better oxidation ability and facilitate the formation of large sulfates. The effect of Ce addition on Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} largely depends on the addition mode. The high oxidation ability and the high K/Ti ratio of the mechanically prepared Ce-promoted catalyst make it still possess considerable NOx storage capacity (NSC) of 142 {mu}mol/g after sulfation and regeneration. With the decrease of sulfur content in fuels, the Co- and Ce-promoted catalysts possessing large NOx storage capacity, will be applicable to the purification of lean-burn NOx.

  3. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  4. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  5. Effect of Ca-Fe oxides additives on NOx reduction in iron ore sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yuan Yu; Xiao-hui Fan; Min Gan; Xu-ling Chen

    2017-01-01

    As the emission control regulations get stricter, the NOx reduction in the sintering process becomes an important environmental concern owing to its role in the formation of photochemical smog and acid rain. The NOx emissions from the sintering machine account for 48% of total amount from the iron and steel industry.Thus, it is essential to reduce NOx emissions from the sintering machine, for the achievement of clean production of sinter.Ca-Fe oxides, serving as the main binding phase in the sinter, are therefore used as additives into the sintering mixture to reduce NOx emissions.The results show that the NOx re-duction ratio achieves 27.76% with 8% Ca-Fe oxides additives since the Ca-Fe oxides can advance the ig-nition and inhibit the nitrogen oxidation compared with the conventional condition.Meanwhile, the exist-ence of Ca-Fe oxides was beneficial to the sinter quality since they were typical low melting point com-pounds.The optimal mass fraction of Ca-Fe oxides additives should be less than 8% since the permeability of sintering bed was significantly decreased with a further increase of the Ca-Fe oxides fines, inhibiting the mineralization reaction of sintering mixture.Additionally, the appropriate particle size can be obtained when mixing an equal amount of Ca-Fe oxides additives of -0.5 mm and 0.5-3.0 mm in size.

  6. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Siang Lau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE, also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase, wortmannin (30 nM and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3-Kinase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity.

  7. Serotonin disturbs colon epithelial tolerance of commensal E. coli by increasing NOX2-derived superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskota, Suhrid; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Gautam, Jaya; Gurung, Pallavi; Lee, Yu-Jeong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Park, Sang Joon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2017-05-01

    Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933). Without inducing bacterial virulence, such as, biofilm formation, 5-HT enhanced BW-induced signaling in colon epithelial cells, that is, NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent superoxide production, the up-regulations of IL-8, TLR2, TLR4, and ICAM-1, and the down-regulations of E-cadherin and claudin-2. In a manner commensurate with these gene modulations, BW induced an increase in NF-κB and a decrease in GATA reporter signals in colon epithelial cells. However, 5-HT-enhanced BW adhesion and colon epithelial responses were blocked by knock-down of NOX2, TLR2, or TLR4. In normal mice, 5-HT induced the invasion of BW into gut submucosa, and the observed molecular changes were similar to those observed in vitro, except for significant increases in TNFα and IL-1β, and resulted in death. In dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice (an IBD disease model), in which colonic 5-HT levels were markedly elevated, BW administration induced death in along with large amount of BW invasion into colon submucosa, and time to death was negatively related to the amount of BW injected. Taken together, our results demonstrate that 5-HT induces the invasion of commensal E. coli into gut submucosa by amplifying commensal bacteria-induced epithelial signaling (superoxide production and the inductions of NOX2 and TLR2/TLR4). The authors suggest that these changes may constitute the molecular basis for the

  8. Airborne emission measurements of SO2 , NOx and particles from individual ships using a sniffer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    A dedicated system for airborne ship emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles has been developed and used from several small aircraft. The system has been adapted for fast response measurements at 1 Hz, and the use of several of the instruments is unique. The uncertainty of the given data is about 20% for SO2 and 24% for NOx emission factors. The mean values with one standard deviation for multiple measurements of 158 ships measured from the air on the Baltic and North Sea during 2011 and 2012 show emission factors of 18.8 ± 6.5 g kg-1 fuel , 66.6 ± 23.4 g kg-1 fuel and 1.8 ± 1.3 1016 particles kg-1 fuel for SO2, NOx and particle number, respectively. The particle size distributions were measured for particle diameters between 15 and 560 nm. The mean sizes of the particles are between 45 and 54 nm dependent on the distance to the source, and the number size distribution is monomodal. Concerning the sulfur fuel content, around 85% of the monitored ships comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) limits. The reduction of the sulfur emission control area (SECA) limit from 1.5 to 1% in 2010 appears to have contributed to reduction of sulfur emissions that were measured in earlier studies from 2007 to 2009. The presented method can be implemented for regular ship compliance monitoring.

  9. Supported Metal Zeolites as Environmental Catalysts for Reduction of NOx Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Nwe Win; Tin Tin Aye; Kyaw Myo Naing; Nyunt Wynn; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    The NOx contamination of air is a major pollutant due to its reaction with the volatile organic compounds, which give rise to ground level (tropospheric) ozone. It is a conventional fact that NOx are one of the major components of car exhaust. In view of that fact, to sustain the tropospheric ozone is to reduce the amount of NOx in the air. Therefore, this paper is concerned with the catalytic activity of Fe-loaded zeolite and Cu-loaded zeolite used to decompose NIOx by SCR (selective catalytic reduction) reaction with very high activity have been studied. Their preparations, characterization by XRD, FT-IR and SEM were also studied. Fe and Cu containig were prepared by soild state ion-exchange method under ambient presure and at the temperature of 600C for 4 hours. From this study, selective catalytic reduction rection was observed, showing about 87% conversion of the NOx molecule with the corresponding optimum amount of catalyst (1.0+-0.5)g working under the reactor space volume of 30cm3 at ambient temperature (30-32)C

  10. Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx by microwave with potassium permanganate over zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zai-shan Wei; He-jingying Niu; Yong-feng Ji [Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2009-02-15

    Simultaneous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas can be achieved with high efficiency by microwave with potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) over zeolite. The experimental results showed that the microwave reactor could be used to oxidation of SO{sub 2} to sulfate with the best desulfurization efficiency of 96.8% and oxidize NOx to nitrates with the best NOx removal efficiency of 98.4%. Microwave accentuates catalytic oxidation treatment, and microwave addition can increase the SO{sub 2} and NOx removal efficiency by 7.2% and 12.2% separately. The addition of zeolite to microwave potassium permanganate increases from 16.5% to 43.5% the microwave removal efficiency for SO{sub 2}, and the NOx removal efficiency from 85.6% to 98.2%. The additional use of potassium permanganate to the microwave zeolite leads to the enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency up from 53.9% to 95%, and denitrification efficiency up from 85.6% to 98.2%. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification are 259 W and 0.357 s, respectively. SO{sub 2} and NOx were rapidly oxidized in microwave induced catalytic oxidation reaction using potassium permanganate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Stereodynamics in NO(X) + Ar inelastic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouard, M., E-mail: mark.brouard@chem.ox.ac.uk; Chadwick, H.; Gordon, S. D. S.; Hornung, B.; Nichols, B. [The Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Aoiz, F. J., E-mail: aoiz@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stolte, S., E-mail: s.stolte@vu.nl [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The effect of orientation of the NO(X) bond axis prior to rotationally inelastic collisions with Ar has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A modification to conventional velocity-map imaging ion optics is described, which allows the orientation of hexapole state-selected NO(X) using a static electric field, followed by velocity map imaging of the resonantly ionized scattered products. Bond orientation resolved differential cross sections are measured experimentally for a series of spin-orbit conserving transitions and compared with quantum mechanical calculations. The agreement between experimental results and those from quantum mechanical calculations is generally good. Parity pairs, which have previously been observed in collisions of unpolarized NO with various rare gases, are not observed due to the coherent superposition of the two j = 1/2, Ω = 1/2 Λ-doublet levels in the orienting field. The normalized difference differential cross sections are found to depend predominantly on the final rotational state, and are not very sensitive to the final Λ-doublet level. The differential steric effect has also been investigated theoretically, by means of quantum mechanical and classical calculations. Classically, the differential steric effect can be understood by considering the steric requirement for different types of trajectories that contribute to different regions of the differential cross section. However, classical effects cannot account quantitatively for the differential steric asymmetry observed in NO(X) + Ar collisions, which reflects quantum interference from scattering at either end of the molecule. This quantum interference effect is dominated by the repulsive region of the potential.

  12. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To...

  13. Role of focal adhesion tyrosine kinases in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and reactive oxygen species formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naadiya Carrim

    Full Text Available We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, α-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P surface expression and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk and upstream of Rac1, PLCγ2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and αIIbβ3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.

  14. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal using FeCu/zeolite as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z.S. Wei; G.H. Zeng; Z.R. Xie; C.Y. Ma; X.H. Liu; J.L. Sun; L.H. Liu [Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma technology is a promising process for flue gas treatment. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal simultaneously has been investigated using FeCu/zeolite as catalyst. The experimental results showed that a microwave reactor with FeCu/zeolite only could be used to microwave catalytic oxidative 91.7% NOx to nitrates and 79.6% SO{sub 2} to sulfate; the reaction efficiencies of microwave catalytic reduction of NOx and SO{sub 2} in a microwave reactor with FeCu/zeolite and ammonium bicarbonate (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) as a reducing agent could be up to 95.8% and 93.4% respectively. Microwave irradiation accentuates catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} and NOx treatment, and microwave addition can increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency from 14.5% to 18.7%, and NOx removal efficiency from 13.4% to 18.7%, separately. FeCu/zeolite catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) method. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal follows Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetics. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 40 CFR 96.24 - Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of initial NOX Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.24 Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit. The initial NOX Budget permit...

  16. 40 CFR 96.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting...

  17. Potential of using stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements to resolve fuel and thermal NOx in coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenggong Sun; Janos Lakatos; Colin E. Snape; Tony Fallick [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)

    2003-07-01

    In order to examine the potential of applying isotopic analysis to apportion NOx formation from different mechanisms, stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements have been conducted on a number of thermal/prompt (diesel) and actual (coal) PF NO samples generated from a 1MW test facility at Powergen (UK), together with measurements on a range of pyrolysis and combustion chars obtained from a drop-tube reactor. A highly effective nitrogen-free sorbent, derived from white sugar with Mn as promoter, has been developed using an innovative procedure. This adsorbent has facilitated, for the first time, the determination of {delta}{sup 15}N values without background corrections. The isotopic data indicate that the thermal/prompt NOx collected during start-up with diesel as fuel has a {delta}{sup 15}N of close to 6.5(per thousand) compared to +15(per thousand) for the actual PF sample analysed. Thus, differences of up to ca. 20(per thousand) have been found to exist between thermal and PF fuel (char) NOx isotopic values. This augurs very well for the further development of the approach in order to help quantify the extent of thermal/prompt NOx formation in PF combustion. Measurements on chars have indicated that the extent of isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal-N and NOx from char is related to the reactivity of coals. Further, it would appear that much of the isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal nitrogen and fuel NO arises in the formation of char, although further fractionation can be inferred to occur during char combustion. In contrast, a lesser degree of isotopic fractionation is associated with the formation of thermal NO (ca. 6(per thousand)), atmospheric nitrogen having a value of 0(per thousand). 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. High gas dependence for power generation in Thailand: The vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2007-01-01

    Thailand uses 74% of its natural gas supply for power generation and 70% of its power comes from gas-based technology. High dependence on natural gas in power generation raises concerns about security of electricity supply that could affect competitiveness of Thai manufacturing and other industries at the global level. The effect of fuel dependence on security of electricity supply has received less emphasis in the literature. Given this gap, this research examines the economic impact of high dependence on natural gas for power generation in Thailand by analyzing the effect of changes in fuel prices (including fuel oil and natural gas) on electricity tariff in Thailand. At the same time, the research quantifies the vulnerability of the Thai economy due to high gas dependence in power generation. Our research shows that for every 10% change in natural gas price, electricity tariff in Thailand would change by 3.5%. In addition, we found that the gas bill for power generation consumed between 1.94% and 3.05% of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2000 and 2004 and in terms of GDP share per unit of energy, gas dependence in power generation is almost similar to that of crude oil import dependence. We also found that the basic metal industry, being an electricity intensive industry, is the most affected industry. Additionally, we find that volatility of gas price is the main factor behind the vulnerability concern. The research accordingly simulates two mitigation options of the problem, namely reducing gas dependence and increasing efficiency of gas-fired power plants, where the results show that these methods can reduce the vulnerability of the country from high gas dependence in power generation

  19. Top-down NOx and SO2 emissions simultaneously estimated from different OMI retrievals and inversion frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying emissions trends of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for improving understanding of air pollution and the effectiveness of emission control strategies. We estimate long-term (2005-2016) global (2° x 2.5° resolution) and regional (North America and East Asia at 0.5° x 0.667° resolution) NOx emissions using a recently developed hybrid (mass-balance / 4D-Var) method with GEOS-Chem. NASA standard product and DOMINO retrievals of NO2 column are both used to constrain emissions; comparison of these results provides insight into regions where trends are most robust with respect to retrieval uncertainties, and highlights regions where seemingly significant trends are retrieval-specific. To incorporate chemical interactions among species, we extend our hybrid method to assimilate NO2 and SO2 observations and optimize NOx and SO2 emissions simultaneously. Due to chemical interactions, inclusion of SO2 observations leads to 30% grid-scale differences in posterior NOx emissions compared to those constrained only by NO2 observations. When assimilating and optimizing both species in pseudo observation tests, the sum of the normalized mean squared error (compared to the true emissions) of NOx and SO2 posterior emissions are 54-63% smaller than when observing/constraining a single species. NOx and SO2 emissions are also correlated through the amount of fuel combustion. To incorporate this correlation into the inversion, we optimize seven sector-specific emission scaling factors, including industry, energy, residential, aviation, transportation, shipping and agriculture. We compare posterior emissions from inversions optimizing only species' emissions, only sector-based emissions, and both species' and sector-based emissions. In situ measurements of NOx and SO2 are applied to evaluate the performance of these inversions. The impacts of the inversion on PM2.5 and O3 concentrations and premature deaths are also evaluated.

  20. NOX2-Induced Activation of Arginase and Diabetes-Induced Retinal Endothelial Cell Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Rojas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS and decreases in nitric oxide (NO have been linked to vascular dysfunction during diabetic retinopathy (DR. Diabetes can reduce NO by increasing ROS and by increasing activity of arginase, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS for their commons substrate l-arginine. Increased ROS and decreased NO can cause premature endothelial cell (EC senescence leading to defective vascular repair. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2-derived ROS, decreased NO and overactive arginase in DR. Here, we investigated their impact on diabetes-induced EC senescence. Studies using diabetic mice and retinal ECs treated with high glucose or H2O2 showed that increases in ROS formation, elevated arginase expression and activity, and decreased NO formation led to premature EC senescence. NOX2 blockade or arginase inhibition prevented these effects. EC senescence was also increased by inhibition of NOS activity and this was prevented by treatment with a NO donor. These results indicate that diabetes/high glucose-induced activation of arginase and decreases in NO bioavailability accelerate EC senescence. NOX2-generated ROS contribute importantly to this process. Blockade of NOX2 or arginase represents a strategy to prevent diabetes-induced premature EC senescence by preserving NO bioavailability.

  1. Enhancement of removal of SO2 and NOx by powdery materials in radiation treatment of exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Namba, Hideki; Suzuki, Nobutake

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effect of powdery silica on radiation removal of SO 2 and NOx from mixtures of SO 2 , NOx, water vapour, oxygen and nitrogen under irradiation by electron beams of 1.5 MeV at 120 0 C. The SO 2 and NOx concentrations decreased when powdery silica was fed without irradiation. Decrements of SO 2 and NOx concentrations were markedly enhanced when powdery silica was fed together with the irradiation. The enhancement of SO 2 - and NOx-removal is attributed to the adsorption of SO 2 and NO on the water-covered surface of powdery silica, and the effective removal of NO 2 due to the reaction with water adsorbed on the surface of powdery silica. The results obtained show that the addition of powdery silica under irradiation is an effective method of enhancing the removal of SO 2 and NOx. (author)

  2. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  3. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Boersma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3-D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parameterizations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parameterizations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parameterizations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by downregulating NADPH oxidase 4 in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, T; Ham, S A; Hwang, J S; Lee, W J; Paek, K S; Oh, J W; Kim, J H; Do, J T; Han, C W; Kim, J H; Seo, H G

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS)-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). In human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, inhibited Pg-LPS-induced activation of MMP-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4). These effects were significantly smaller in the presence of small interfering RNA targeting PPARδ or the specific PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660, indicating that PPARδ is involved in these events. In addition, modulation of Nox4 expression by small interfering RNA influenced the effect of PPARδ on MMP-2 activity, suggesting a mechanism in which Nox4-derived ROS modulates MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mediated PPARδ-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity in HGFs treated with Pg-LPS. Concomitantly, PPARδ-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activity was associated with the restoration of types I and III collagen to levels approaching those in HGFs not treated with Pg-LPS. These results indicate that PPARδ-mediated downregulation of Nox4 modulates cellular redox status, which in turn plays a critical role in extracellular matrix homeostasis through ROS-dependent regulation of MMP-2 activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of arachidonic versus eicosapentaenoic acid on exotonin-induced lung vascular leakage: relation to 4-series versus 5-series leukotriene generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, F; Wahn, H; Mayer, K; Kiss, L; Walmrath, D; Seeger, W

    1997-02-01

    Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) is a proteinaceous pore-forming exotoxin that is implicated as a significant pathogenicity factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections including sepsis. In perfused rabbit lungs, subcytolytic concentrations of the toxin evoke thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction and prostanoid-independent protracted vascular permeability increase (11). In the present study, the influence of submicromolar concentrations of free arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the HlyA-induced leakage response was investigated. HlyA at concentration from 0.02 to 0.06 hemolytic units/ml provoked a dose-dependent, severalfold increase in the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), accompanied by the release of leukotriene(LT)B4, LTC4, and LTE4 into the recirculating buffer fluid. Simultaneous application of 100 nmol/L AA markedly augmented the HlyA-elicited leakage response, concomitant with an amplification of LTB4 release and a change in the kinetics of cysteinyl-LT generation. In contrast, 50 to 200 nmol/L EPA suppressed in a dose-dependent manner the HlyA-induced increase in Kfc values. This was accompanied by a blockage of 4-series LT generation and a dose-dependent appearance of LTB5, LTC5, and LTE5. In addition, EPA fully antagonized the AA-induced amplification of the HlyA-provoked Kfc increase, again accompanied by a shift from 4-series to 5-series LT generation. We conclude that the vascular leakage provoked by HlyA in rabbit lungs is differentially influenced by free AA versus free EPA, related to the generation of 4- versus 5-series leukotrienes. The composition of lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition may thus influence inflammatory capillary leakage.

  6. Determination of the NOx Loading of an Automotive Lean NOx Trap by Directly Monitoring the Electrical Properties of the Catalyst Material Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that the degree of loading of several types of automotive exhaust aftertreatment devices can be directly monitored in situ and in a contactless way by a microwave-based method. The goal of this study was to clarify whether this method can also be applied to NOx storage and reduction catalysts (lean NOx traps in order to obtain further knowledge about the reactions occurring in the catalyst and to compare the results with those obtained by wirebound NOx loading sensors. It is shown that both methods are able to detect the different catalyst loading states. However, the sensitivity of the microwave-based method turned out to be small compared to that previously observed for other exhaust aftertreatment devices. This may limit the practical applicability of the microwave-based NOx loading detection in lean NOx traps.

  7. Measurement of NOx and CO Fluxes from a Tall Tower in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, F. A.; Drysdale, W. S.; Hamilton, J.; Lee, J. D.; Vaughan, A. R.; Wild, O.; Mullinger, N.; Nemitz, E.; Metzger, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    China's air quality problems are well publicised; in 2010, 1.2 million premature deaths were attributed to outdoor air pollution in China. One of the major air quality issues is high concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). China is the largest NOx emitter, contributing an estimated 18 % to global NOx emissions. Beijing itself is reported to have NO2 concentrations 42 % higher than the annual national standard. Given the high levels of pollution, increased focus has been placed on improving emissions estimates which are typically developed using a `bottom-up' approach where emissions are predicted from their sources. Emission inventories in China have large uncertainties and are rapidly changing with time in response to economic development, environmental regulation and new technologies. In fact, China is the largest contributor to the uncertainty in the source and the magnitude of air pollutants in air quality models. Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between NOx inventories and measured NOx emissions for UK cities, highlighting the limitations of bottom-up emissions inventories and the importance of accurate measurement data to improve the estimates. 5 Hz measurements of NOx and CO concentration were made as part of the Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) project during two field campaigns in Nov-Dec 2016 and May-June 2017. Sampling took place from an inlet co-located with a sonic anemometer at 102 m on a meteorological tower in central Beijing. Analysis of the covariance between vertical wind speed and concentration enabled the calculation of emission flux, with an estimated footprint of between 2 - 5 km from the tower (which typically included some major ring roads and expressways). Fluxes were quantified using the continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) method, which enabled one minute resolved fluxes to be calculated. These data were compared to existing emissions estimates from the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). It is

  8. A risk allele for nicotine dependence in CHRNA5 is a protective allele for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Stitzel, Jerry A; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Cloninger, C Robert; Neuman, Rosalind J; Budde, John P; Fox, Louis; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kramer, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Tischfield, Jay; Nurnberger, John I; Almasy, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A; Edenberg, Howard J; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    A nonsynonymous coding polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene that encodes the alpha-5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been found to be associated with nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the association of this variant with cocaine dependence. Genetic association analysis was performed in two independent samples of unrelated case and control subjects: 1) 504 European Americans participating in the Family Study on Cocaine Dependence (FSCD) and 2) 814 European Americans participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). In the FSCD, there was a significant association between the CHRNA5 variant and cocaine dependence (odds ratio = .67 per allele, p = .0045, assuming an additive genetic model), but in the reverse direction compared with that previously observed for nicotine dependence. In multivariate analyses that controlled for the effects of nicotine dependence, both the protective effect for cocaine dependence and the previously documented risk effect for nicotine dependence were statistically significant. The protective effect for cocaine dependence was replicated in the COGA sample. In COGA, effect sizes for habitual smoking, a proxy phenotype for nicotine dependence, were consistent with those observed in FSCD. The minor (A) allele of rs16969968, relative to the major G allele, appears to be both a risk factor for nicotine dependence and a protective factor for cocaine dependence. The biological plausibility of such a bidirectional association stems from the involvement of nAChRs with both excitatory and inhibitory modulation of dopamine-mediated reward pathways.

  9. 40 CFR 96.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.186 Section 96.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Opt-in Units § 96.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading...

  10. Neural networks prove effective at NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, B.J. [Pegasus Technologies, Mentor, OH (USA)

    2000-05-01

    The availability of low cost computer hardware and software is opening up possibilities for the use of artificial intelligence concepts, notably neural networks, in power plant control applications, delivering lower costs, greater efficiencies and reduced emissions. One example of a neural network system is the NeuSIGHT combustion optimisation system, developed by Pegasus Technologies, a subsidiary of KFx Inc. It can help reduce NOx emissions, improve heat rate and enable either deferral or elimination of capital expenditures. on other NOx control technologies, such as low NOx burners, SNCR and SCR. This paper illustrates these benefits using three recent case studies. 4 figs.

  11. A review of NOx formation mechanisms in recovery furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Thompson, L.M.; Empie, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NOx formation studies shows that NO forms in recovery furnaces primarily by two independent mechanisms, thermal and fuel. Thermal NO formation is extremely temperature-sensitive. However, theoretical predictions indicate that recovery furnace temperatures are not high enough to form significant thermal NO. Fuel NO formation is less temperature-sensitive, and is related to fuel nitrogen content. Black liquors are shown to contain 0.05 to 0.24 weight percent fuel nitrogen. Conversion of just 20% of this would yield approximately 25-120 ppm NOx (at 8% 0 2 ) in the flue gas, enough to represent the majority of the total NOx. Data from operating recovery furnaces show NOx emissions ranging from near zero to over 100 ppm at 8% 0 2 . An apparent increase in recovery furnace NOx emissions was observed with increasing solids. This increase is much less than predicted by thermal NO formation theory, indicating that other NO formation/destruction mechanisms, such as fuel NO formation, are important. No data are available to show the relative importance of thermal and fuel NO to total NOx during black liquor combustion

  12. 40 CFR 97.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.186 Section 97.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Opt-In Units § 97.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program. Except as provided...

  13. Characterization of LSM/CGO Symmetric Cells Modified by NOx Adsorbents for Electrochemical NOx Removal with Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    in the resistance of the low-frequency processes, which were ascribed to adsorption, diffusion, and transfer of O2 species and NOx species at or near the triple phase boundary (TPB) region and the formation of the reaction intermediate NO2. The BaO impregnation improved the adsorption of NOx on the LSM....../CGO electrode by selectively trapping NO2 in the form of nitrate over the BaO sites and provided availability for a direct reduction of the stored nitrate. The BaO-Pt-Al2O3 layer enhanced the NOx adsorption and promoted the formation of NO2 due to the NO oxidation ability of the Pt catalyst, but hindered...... the gas diffusion to the reaction sites....

  14. Environmental impact of the nox and results in Mexico of the technologies for its control; Impacto ambiental de los NOx y resultados en Mexico de tecnologias de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera Flores, Marco Antonio [Nissan Mexicana S. A. de C. V. Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the experience gained in the project development for the installation of three burners for industrial boilers with low nitrogen oxides emission technology. The paper begins with a short reference to the effects on the environment, derived from the generation of these gases in combustion equipment and the reasons why this thermal NOx and the associated NOx are generated. A revision is made of the existing regulations to limit the emissions of these pollutants in industrial equipment in different countries, including Mexico. Mention is made of the existing control technologies and in particular indicating the emission reduction method determined for the burners in functional tests, using propane gas and diesel, before and after installing the control technology, to demonstrate the important reductions obtained. The other results such as the thermal efficiency are also plotted as well as other important pollutant emissions such as CO and CO{sub 2} for the observation of their behavior. [Espanol] El presente trabajo expone la experiencia obtenida en el desarrollo del proyecto de instalacion de tres quemadores para calderas industriales con tecnologia de baja emision de oxidos de nitrogeno. Se inicia haciendo una breve mencion de las repercusiones al medio ambiente que se derivan de la generacion de estos gases en equipos de combustion y las razones por las cuales se generan los NOx termicos y los NOx asociados a los combustibles. Se hace una revision sobre las regulaciones existentes para limitar las emisiones de estos contaminantes en equipos industriales en diferentes paises incluyendo a Mexico. Se mencionan las tecnologias de control existentes y en particular indicando el metodo de reduccion de emisiones determinadas para los quemadores en pruebas funcionales utilizando como combustibles gas propano y diesel antes y despues de instalar la tecnologia de control para demostrar las fuertes reducciones obtenidas, se grafican tambien otros resultados

  15. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, M J; Galleher, C; Curtis, B; Clark, D S; Graves, D B; Ono, T; Machala, Z

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NO x at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  10 16 NO x molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NO x in 10 min. Around 90% of the NO x is in the form of NO 2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO 2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NO x mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NO x mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NO x (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature. (paper)

  16. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX intake...

  17. AMMONOX-Ammonia for enhancing biogas yield & reducing NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Kristensen, P.G.; Paamand, K.

    2013-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However...... of innovative ammonia recovery technology and c) the coupling of the excess ammonia obtained from manure with the catalytic elimination of NOx emissions when the biogas is used for subsequent electricity generation with gas engines.......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However......, biogas plants digesting liquid manure alone are not economically viable due to the relatively low organic content of the manure, usually 3-5%.Thus, their economical profitable operation relies partly on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction, usually called...

  18. Interrelationship between family history of alcoholism and generational status in the prediction of alcohol dependence in US Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, K G; Thomas, N S; Kendler, K S

    2017-01-01

    Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Subjects self-identified Hispanic ethnicity (N = 4122; n = 1784 first, n = 1169 second, and n = 1169 third or later generation) and reported ever consuming ⩾12 drinks in a 1-year period. A family history of alcoholism was assessed in first- and second-degree relatives. Analyses predicting the number of alcohol dependence symptoms were path models. Alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with a stronger family history of alcoholism and later generational status. There was a significant interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status; the relationship of familial alcoholism with alcohol dependence symptoms increased significantly with successive generations in the United States, more strongly in women than men. Acculturation partially mediated the interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status on alcohol dependence, although not in the expected direction. Familial alcoholism interacted with generational status in predicting alcohol dependence symptoms in US Hispanic drinkers. This relationship suggests that heritability for alcoholism is influenced by a higher-order environmental factor, likely characterized by a relaxing of social restrictions on drinking.

  19. NADPH Oxidase Isoform 2 (NOX2 Is Involved in Drug Addiction Vulnerability in Progeny Developmentally Exposed to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela L. Contreras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol. We developed a FASD rat model which was evaluated during adolescence (P21 and adulthood (P70. We first studied whether redox homeostasis is affected in PEE animals, by analyzing mRNA expression of SOD1, CAT, and Gpx1. We found that PEE reduced the mRNA levels of these three anti-oxidant enzymes in PFC and HIPP at P21 and in the VTA at P70. We also analyzed basal mRNA and protein expression of NOX2 subunits such as gp91phox, p22 phox, and p47 phox, in mesocorticolimbic brain areas of PEE rat brains. At P21, gp91 phox, and p47 phox levels in the VTA were decreased. At P70, gp91 phox mRNA levels was decreased in HIPP and both mRNA and protein levels were decreased in PFC. Since NOX2 is regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR, we analyzed NMDAR mRNA expression and found differential expression of NMDAR subunits (NR1 and NR2B in the PFC that was age dependent, with levels decreased at P21 and increased at P70. The analysis also revealed decreased NR2B mRNA expression in HIPP and VTA at P70. Offspring from maternal ethanol users consumed 25% more ethanol in a free choice alcohol consumption test than control rats, and showed place preference for an alcohol-paired compartment. In vivo inhibition of NOX2 using apocynin in drinking water, or infusion of blocked peptide gp91 phox ds in the VTA normalized alcohol place preference

  20. NADPH Oxidase Isoform 2 (NOX2) Is Involved in Drug Addiction Vulnerability in Progeny Developmentally Exposed to Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marcela L; de la Fuente-Ortega, Erwin; Vargas-Roberts, Sofía; Muñoz, Daniela C; Goic, Carolina A; Haeger, Paola A

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS)-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol. We developed a FASD rat model which was evaluated during adolescence (P21) and adulthood (P70). We first studied whether redox homeostasis is affected in PEE animals, by analyzing mRNA expression of SOD1, CAT, and Gpx1. We found that PEE reduced the mRNA levels of these three anti-oxidant enzymes in PFC and HIPP at P21 and in the VTA at P70. We also analyzed basal mRNA and protein expression of NOX2 subunits such as gp91phox, p22 phox, and p47 phox, in mesocorticolimbic brain areas of PEE rat brains. At P21, gp91 phox, and p47 phox levels in the VTA were decreased. At P70, gp91 phox mRNA levels was decreased in HIPP and both mRNA and protein levels were decreased in PFC. Since NOX2 is regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR), we analyzed NMDAR mRNA expression and found differential expression of NMDAR subunits (NR1 and NR2B) in the PFC that was age dependent, with levels decreased at P21 and increased at P70. The analysis also revealed decreased NR2B mRNA expression in HIPP and VTA at P70. Offspring from maternal ethanol users consumed 25% more ethanol in a free choice alcohol consumption test than control rats, and showed place preference for an alcohol-paired compartment. In vivo inhibition of NOX2 using apocynin in drinking water, or infusion of blocked peptide gp91 phox ds in the VTA normalized alcohol place preference, suggesting that NOX

  1. Capsaicin Inhibits Multiple Bladder Cancer Cell Phenotypes by Inhibiting Tumor-Associated NADH Oxidase (tNOX and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among males, and its poor survival rate reflects problems with aggressiveness and chemo-resistance. Recent interest has focused on the use of chemopreventatives (nontoxic natural agents that may suppress cancer progression to induce targeted apoptosis for cancer therapy. Capsaicin, which has anti-cancer properties, is one such agent. It is known to preferentially inhibit a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX that is preferentially expressed in cancer/transformed cells. Here, we set out to elucidate the correlation between tNOX expression and the inhibitory effects of capsaicin in human bladder cancer cells. We showed that capsaicin downregulates tNOX expression and decreases bladder cancer cell growth by enhancing apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin was found to reduce the expression levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle progression, in association with increases in the cell doubling time and enhanced cell cycle arrest. Capsaicin was also shown to inhibit the activation of ERK, thereby reducing the phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK, which leads to decreased cell migration. Finally, our results indicate that RNA interference-mediated tNOX depletion enhances spontaneous apoptosis, prolongs cell cycle progression, and reduces cell migration and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also observed a downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 in these tNOX-knockdown cells, a deacetylase that is important in multiple cellular functions. Taken together, our results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells by inhibiting tNOX and SIRT1 and thereby reducing proliferation, attenuating migration, and prolonging cell cycle progression.

  2. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  3. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer

  4. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can

  5. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisuls, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Among the existing proposed solutions to reduce emission of NOx there is a promising alternative, the so-called (HC-SCR) selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons as reductant. This thesis is part of a worldwide effort devoted to gain knowledge on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons with the final goal to contribute to the development of suitable catalysts for the above mentioned process. Chapter 2 describes the details of the experimental set-up and of the analytical methods employed. Among the catalyst for HC-SCR, Co-based catalyst are known to be active and selective, thus, a study on a series of Co-based catalysts, supported on zeolites, was undertaken and the results are presented in Chapter 3. Correlation between catalytic characteristics and kinetic results are employed to understand the working catalyst and this is used as a basis for catalyst optimization. With the intention to prepare a multi-functional catalyst that will preserve the desired characteristics of the individual components, minimizing their negative aspects, catalysts based on Co-Pt, supported on ZSM-5, were investigated. In Chapter 4 the results of this study are discussed. A bimetallic Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts with low Pt contents (0.1 wt %) showed a synergistic effect by combining high stability and activity of Pt catalysts with the high N2 selectivity of Co catalysts. Furthermore, it was found to be sulfur- and water-tolerant. Its positive qualities brought us to study the mechanism that takes place over this catalyst during HC-SCR. The results of an in-situ i.r mechanistic study over this catalyst is reported in Chapter 5. From the results presented in Chapter 5 a mechanism operating over the Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst is proposed. The modification of Co catalyst with Pt improved the catalysts. However, further improvement was found to be hindered by high selectivity to N2O. Since Rh catalysts are generally less selective to N2O, the modification of Co

  6. Trading our health: Ontario Power Generation's plan to violate its air pollution reduction commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S.

    1999-01-01

    Amid growing concerns about nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions, the Ontario Clean Air Alliance is recommending in this report that the Ontario government restrict Nox emissions from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in the year 2000 and not let the corporation meet its emissions cap by on a net basis by retiring Pilot Emission Reduction Trading (PERT) Nox emission reduction credits. Instead the alliance believes the Ontario government should require OPG to achieve emissions compliance by curtailing coal-fired electricity exports, purchasing renewable and natural-gas electricity and promoting energy efficiency. OPG's inventory of PERT Nox reduction credits are assessed against whether they will cause an increase in the year 2000 as a result of trading. Ontario Power Generation's Nox emissions are a central chemical component of acid rain and smog and are produced from its coal-fired electricity generators. The utility would like to achieve Nox reductions by establishing demand management programs which would reduce the demand for electricity by 5200 megawatts (MW), by purchasing 3100 MW of non-utility generation and by undertaking combustion process modifications at its Lambton and Nanticoke coal-fired generating stations. It has not met its 2000 demand management and non-utility generation targets, and specifically, as of December 31, 1998, Ontario Hydro's successor companies demand management programs have only reduced electricity demand by approximately 1300 MW. Furthermore, the successor companies will have only approximately 1700 MW of non-utility generation capacity under contract by December 31, 1999. The report describes the criteria for ensuring that Nox emissions trading will not lead to a net increase in Ontario's emissions in any given year, and a description is included of why the 'Draft Rules for Emission Trading in Ontario' rules do not meet these criteria. Permitting OPG to use its PERT credits to meet its Nox cap, will allow them to increase coal

  7. Control and reduction of NOx emissions on light hydrocarbons combustion in fluidized bed combustors: a technological prospection surveys; Controle e reducao de emissoes de NOx durante queima de hidrocarbonetos leves em combustores a leito fluidizado: um estudo de prospeccao tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Douglas Alves; Winter, Eduardo [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims a technological prospecting study of the main technological agents involved in industrial light hydrocarbons combustion process. More specifically, the work approaches technologies applied to nitrogen oxides emissions control and reduction. Nitrogen oxides are typically known as 'NOx' (NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}). 'NOx' are byproducts from fuel burning in combustion systems, including also in fluidized bed combustion systems. The technological prospecting study employed 'technology foresight' as tool for evaluating the technological perspectives of the thermal generation, basis on environment protection. Such technological perspectives of the thermal generation were evaluated through invention patent documents. The query methodology for obtaining of patent documents employed a free patent base, known as ESPACENET. Additionally, the documents obtained were evaluated, considering beyond the countries and the publication dates, technological perspectives employed to 'NOx' emissions control and reduction. It is very important to highlight around 70% of the industrial technological information are just found in invention patent documents. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 96.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for...

  9. Nox4 Is Dispensable for Exercise Induced Muscle Fibre Switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Vogel

    Full Text Available By producing H2O2, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is involved in differentiation of mesenchymal cells. Exercise alters the composition of slow and fast twitch fibres in skeletal. Here we hypothesized that Nox4 contributes to exercise-induced adaptation such as changes in muscle metabolism or muscle fibre specification and studied this in wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Exercise, as induced by voluntary running in a running wheel or forced running on a treadmill induced a switch from fast twitch to intermediate fibres. However the induced muscle fibre switch was similar between Nox4-/- and wildtype mice. The same held true for exercise-induced expression of PGC1α or AMPK activation. Both are increased in response to exercise, but with no difference was observed between wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Thus, exercise-induced muscle fibre switch is Nox4-independent.

  10. Characteristics of fundamental combustion and NOx emission using various rank coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Su; Kang, Youn Suk; Lee, Hyun Dong; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Hong, Sung Chang

    2011-03-01

    Eight types of coals of different rank were selected and their fundamental combustion characteristics were examined along with the conversion of volatile nitrogen (N) to nitrogen oxides (NOx)/fuel N to NOx. The activation energy, onset temperature, and burnout temperature were obtained from the differential thermogravimetry curve and Arrhenius plot, which were derived through thermo-gravimetric analysis. In addition, to derive the combustion of volatile N to NOx/fuel N to NOx, the coal sample, which was pretreated at various temperatures, was burned, and the results were compared with previously derived fundamental combustion characteristics. The authors' experimental results confirmed that coal rank was highly correlated with the combustion of volatile N to NOx/fuel N to NOx.

  11. Reexamination of mood-mediation hypothesis of background-music-dependent effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Toshiko K; Kubota, Takayuki; Nakajima, Saki; Isarida, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The present study reexamined the mood-mediation hypothesis for explaining background-music-dependent effects in free recall. Experiments 1 and 2 respectively examined tempo- and tonality-dependent effects in free recall, which had been used as evidence for the mood-mediation hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, undergraduates (n = 75 per experiment) incidentally learned a list of 20 unrelated words presented one by one at a rate of 5 s per word and then received a 30-s delayed oral free-recall test. Throughout the study and test sessions, a piece of music was played. At the time of test, one third of the participants received the same piece of music with the same tempo or tonality as at study, one third heard a different piece with the same tempo or tonality, and one third heard a different piece with a different tempo or tonality. Note that the condition of the same piece with a different tempo or tonality was excluded. Furthermore, the number of sampled pieces of background music was increased compared with previous studies. The results showed neither tempo- nor tonality-dependent effects, but only a background-music-dependent effect. Experiment 3 (n = 40) compared the effects of background music with a verbal association task and focal music (only listening to musical selections) on the participants' moods. The results showed that both the music tempo and tonality influenced the corresponding mood dimensions (arousal and pleasantness). These results are taken as evidence against the mood-mediation hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  12. Tachykinin: recent developments and novel roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Takenori

    2014-06-01

    Over 80 years has passed since the discovery of substance P (SP), and a variety of peptides of the tachykinin (TK) family have been found and investigated. SP, neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB) are representative peptides in mammalian species. SP and NKA are major excitatory neurotransmitters in the peripheral nervous system, while NKB is primarily involved in the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, TK peptides play roles not only as neurotransmitters but also as local factors and are involved in almost all aspects of the regulation of physiological functions and pathophysiological processes. The role of SP as a mediator of pain processing and inflammation in peripheral tissues in coordination with transient receptor potential channels is well established, while novel aspects of TKs in relation to hematopoiesis, venous thromboembolism, tendinopathy, and taste perception have been clarified. In the CNS, the NKB signaling system in the hypothalamus has been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of gonadotropin hormone secretion and the onset of puberty, and molecular biological studies have elucidated novel prophylaxic activities of TKs against neurogenic movement disorders based on their molecular structure. This review provides an overview of the novel aspects of TKs reported around the world in the last 5 years, with particular focus on nociception, inflammation, hemopoiesis, gonadotropin secretion, and CNS diseases.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Loss of Synaptic Akt1 Signaling Leads to Deficient Activity-Dependent Protein Translation Early in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faraz; Singh, Kunal; Das, Debajyoti; Gowaikar, Ruturaj; Shaw, Eisha; Ramachandran, Arathy; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Bennett, David A; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic deficits are known to underlie the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by β-amyloid has also been implicated in AD pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether ROS contributes to synaptic dysfunction seen in AD pathogenesis and, therefore, we examined whether altered redox signaling could contribute to synaptic deficits in AD. Activity dependent but not basal translation was impaired in synaptoneurosomes from 1-month old presymptomatic APP Swe /PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and this deficit was sustained till middle age (MA, 9-10 months). ROS generation leads to oxidative modification of Akt1 in the synapse and consequent reduction in Akt1-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, leading to deficiency in activity-dependent protein translation. Moreover, we found a similar loss of activity-dependent protein translation in synaptoneurosomes from postmortem AD brains. Loss of activity-dependent protein translation occurs presymptomatically early in the pathogenesis of AD. This is caused by ROS-mediated loss of pAkt1, leading to reduced synaptic Akt1-mTOR signaling and is rescued by overexpression of Akt1. ROS-mediated damage is restricted to the synaptosomes, indicating selectivity. We demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidative modification of Akt1 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD, seen as loss of activity-dependent protein translation that is essential for synaptic plasticity and maintenance. Therapeutic strategies promoting Akt1-mTOR signaling at synapses may provide novel target(s) for disease-modifying therapy in AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1269-1280.

  14. 40 CFR 97.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for initial NO X Budget opt...

  15. Impact of FCC regenerator design in the NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Hugo Borges; Sandes, Emanuel Freire; Gilbert, William Richard; Roncolatto, Rodolfo Eugenio; Gobbo, Rodrigo; Casavechia, Luiz Carlos; Candido, William Victor Carlos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bridi, Patricia Elaine [Possebon Engenharia, Sao Mateus do Sul, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is the main point source of NOx in the refinery and it is responsible for at least 20% of the total NOx emissions from the refineries. The thermal NOx formation in the FCC regenerator is negligible. However, half of the feed nitrogen is converted to coke, and is burned in the regenerator. The majority of coke nitrogen is reduced to N2 and less than 10% is converted to NOx. This number may vary significantly with the oxygen excess in the flue gas and other operational conditions. With the purpose of evaluating the impact of different regenerator designs in NOx formation, several tests were carried out in the PETROBRAS FCC prototype unit. The test unit is equipped with adiabatic insulation and a CO boiler, allowing it to reproduce the heat balance of a commercial FCC and to operate either in full combustion or partial combustion. Two different designs of FCC regenerators were evaluated: single stage regenerator (the existing configuration) and two stage regenerator, with the catalyst bed divided into two sections by a structured packing baffle. It was observed in the tests that the combustion regime had a very strong effect on NOx formation. In full combustion, the effect of the FCC operating variables: excess oxygen, combustion promoter content in catalyst and regenerator design could be identified. The two stage configuration was capable of decreasing NOx emissions by 30%. In partial combustion, the effect of the CO-boiler variables on NOx emissions was overwhelming, but the use of the structured packing baffle was able to improve the catalyst regeneration.(author)

  16. Host cell virus entry mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus G envelope glycoprotein occurs through a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway that requires actin and Rab5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Laing, Eric D; Smith, Ina L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-27

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), a rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus which circulates in both pteropid fruit bats and insectivorous bats in mainland Australia, has caused three fatal human infections, the most recent in February 2013, manifested as acute neurological disease indistinguishable from clinical rabies. Rhabdoviruses infect host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion mediated by their single envelope glycoprotein (G), but the specific host factors and pathways involved in ABLV entry have not been determined. ABLV internalization into HEK293T cells was examined using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) that express ABLV G glycoproteins. A combination of chemical and molecular approaches was used to investigate the contribution of different endocytic pathways to ABLV entry. Dominant negative Rab GTPases were used to identify the endosomal compartment utilized by ABLV to gain entry into the host cell cytosol. Here we show that ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells was significantly inhibited by the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore, chlorpromazine, a drug that blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and the actin depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. Over expression of dominant negative mutants of Eps15 and Rab5 also significantly reduced ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells. Chemical inhibitors of caveolae-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis and dominant negative mutants of Rab7 and Rab11 had no effect on ABLV entry. The predominant pathway utilized by ABLV for internalization into HEK293T cells is clathrin-and actin-dependent. The requirement of Rab5 for productive infection indicates that ABLV G-mediated fusion occurs within the early endosome compartment.

  17. Study on the Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen Into NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminta Plečkaitienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate NOx regularities combusting fuels having high concentration of nitrogen and to develop methods that will reduce the conversion of fuel nitrogen into NOx. There are three solutions to reducing NOx concentration: the combustion of fuel mixing it with other types of “clean” fuel containing small amounts of nitrogen, laundering fuel and the combustion of fuel using carbon additives. These solutions can help with reducing the amount of nitrogen in the wood waste of furniture by about 30% by washing fuel with water. Therefore, NOx value may decrease by about 35%.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Lightning-Generated NO(x) Seen By OMI during NASA's TC-4 Experiment: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsela, Eric; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Huntemann, Tabitha; Cohen, Ronald; Perring, Anne; Gleason, James; Blakeslee, Richard; Navarro, Dylana Vargas; Segura, Ileana Mora; Hernandez, Alexia Pacheco; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present here case studies identifying upper-tropospheric NO2 produced in convective storms during NASA's Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TCi)n July and August 2007. DC8 aircraft missions, flown from the mission base in Costa Rica, recorded in situ NO2 profiles near active storms and in relatively quiet areas. We combine these data with measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite to estimate the amount of NO2 produced by lightning (LN02) above background levels in the regions influenced by storms. In our analysis, improved off-line processing techniques are employed to minimize known artifacts in the OM1 data. Information on lightning flashes (primarily CG) observed by the surface network operated by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad are examined upwind of regions where OM1 indicates enhanced LNO2. Comparisons of the observed flash data with measurements by the TRMM/LIS satellite instrument are used to obtain the lightning detection efficiency for total flashes. Finally, using the NO/NO2 ratio estimated from DC-8 observations, we estimate the average NO(x) production per lightning flash for each case in this study. The magnitudes of the measured NO(x) enhancements are compared with those observed by the DC-8 and with similar OM1 measurements analyzed in mid-latitude experiments.

  19. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit... the first such 5 years. (2)(i) A unit's control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with...

  20. Impaired compensation to femoral artery ligation in diet-induced obese mice is primarily mediated via suppression of collateral growth by Nox2 and p47phox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStasi, Matthew R; Mund, Julie A; Bohlen, H Glenn; Miller, Steven J; Ingram, David A; Dalsing, Michael C; Unthank, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in impaired vascular compensation to arterial occlusion that occurs in the presence of risk factors associated with oxidative stress. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice characterized by multiple comorbidities including diabetes and hyperlipidemia were used as a preclinical model. Arterial occlusion was induced by distal femoral artery ligation in lean and DIO mice. Proximal collateral arteries were identified as the site of major (∼70%) vascular resistance to calf perfusion by distal arterial pressures, which decreased from ∼80 to ∼30 mmHg with ligation in both lean and DIO mice. Two weeks after ligation, significant vascular compensation occurred in lean but not DIO mice as evidenced by increased perfusion (147 ± 48% vs. 49 ± 29%) and collateral diameter (151 ± 30% vs. 44 ± 17%). Vascular mRNA expression of p22(phox), Nox2, Nox4, and p47(phox) were all increased in DIO mice. Treatment of DIO mice with either apocynin or Nox2ds-tat or with whole body ablation of either Nox2 or p47(phox) ameliorated the impairment in both collateral growth and hindlimb perfusion. Multiparametric flow cytometry analysis demonstrated elevated levels of circulating monocytes in DIO mice without impaired mobilization and demargination after femoral artery ligation. These results establish collateral resistance as the major limitation to calf perfusion in this preclinical model, demonstrate than monocyte mobilization and demarginatin is not suppressed, implicate Nox2-p47(phox) interactions in the impairment of vascular compensation to arterial occlusion in DIO mice, and suggest that selective Nox component suppression/inhibition may be effective as either primary or adjuvant therapy for claudicants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Influence of satellite-derived photolysis rates and NOx emissions on Texas ozone modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Cohan, D. S.; Pour-Biazar, A.; Lamsal, L. N.; White, A. T.; Xiao, X.; Zhou, W.; Henderson, B. H.; Lash, B. F.

    2015-02-01

    Uncertain photolysis rates and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3) regulatory modeling. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the model-predicted photolysis rates, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in bottom-up NOx emissions. However, the joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve O3 state implementation plan (SIP) modeling has rarely been explored. In this study, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations of clouds are applied to derive the photolysis rates, replacing those used in Texas SIP modeling. This changes modeled O3 concentrations by up to 80 ppb and improves O3 simulations by reducing modeled normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean error (NME) by up to 0.1. A sector-based discrete Kalman filter (DKF) inversion approach is incorporated with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx)-decoupled direct method (DDM) model to adjust Texas NOx emissions using a high-resolution Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 product. The discrepancy between OMI and CAMx NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) is further reduced by increasing modeled NOx lifetime and adding an artificial amount of NO2 in the upper troposphere. The region-based DKF inversion suggests increasing NOx emissions by 10-50% in most regions, deteriorating the model performance in predicting ground NO2 and O3, while the sector-based DKF inversion tends to scale down area and nonroad NOx emissions by 50%, leading to a 2-5 ppb decrease in ground 8 h O3 predictions. Model performance in simulating ground NO2 and O3 are improved using sector-based inversion-constrained NOx emissions, with 0.25 and 0.04 reductions in NMBs and 0.13 and 0.04 reductions in NMEs, respectively. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together reduces modeled NMB and NME by 0.05, increases the model

  2. Association between NOx exposure and deaths caused by respiratory diseases in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. G. César

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx emitted by burning fossil fuels has been associated with respiratory diseases. We aimed to estimate the effects of NOx exposure on mortality owing to respiratory diseases in residents of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil, of all ages and both sexes. This time-series ecological study from August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012 used information on deaths caused by respiratory diseases obtained from the Health Department of Taubaté. Estimated daily levels of pollutants (NOx, particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide were obtained from the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These environmental variables were used to adjust the multipollutant model for apparent temperature. To estimate association between hospitalizations owing to asthma and air pollutants, generalized additive Poisson regression models were developed, with lags as much as 5 days. There were 385 deaths with a daily mean (±SD of 1.05±1.03 (range: 0-5. Exposure to NOx was significantly associated with mortality owing to respiratory diseases: relative risk (RR=1.035 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.008-1.063 for lag 2, RR=1.064 (95%CI: 1.017-1.112 lag 3, RR=1.055 (95%CI: 1.025-1.085 lag 4, and RR=1.042 (95%CI: 1.010-1.076 lag 5. A 3 µg/m3 reduction in NOx concentration resulted in a decrease of 10-18 percentage points in risk of death caused by respiratory diseases. Even at NOx concentrations below the acceptable standard, there is association with deaths caused by respiratory diseases.

  3. Cr(VI) induces mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated p53 activation in JB6 Cl41 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young-Ok; Hitron, J. Andrew; Wang Xin; Chang Qingshan; Pan Jingju; Zhang Zhuo; Liu Jiankang; Wang Shuxia; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known to cause serious toxic and carcinogenic effects. Cr(VI) exposure can lead to a severe damage to the skin, but the mechanisms involved in the Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the skin are unclear. The present study examined whether Cr(VI) induces cell death by apoptosis or necrosis using mouse skin epidermal cell line, JB6 Cl41 cells. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced cell death. This study showed that Cr(VI) induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by the appearance of cell shrinkage, the migration of cells into the sub-G1 phase, the increase of Annexin V positively stained cells, and the formation of nuclear DNA ladders. Cr(VI) treatment resulted in the increases of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspases activation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and fluorescence analysis revealed that Cr(VI) increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical in dose-dependent manner. Blockage of p53 by si-RNA transfection suppressed mitochondrial changes of Bcl-2 family composition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and PARP cleavage, leading to the inhibition of Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Further, catalase treatment prevented p53 phosphorylation stimulated by Cr(VI) with the concomitant inhibition of caspase activation. These results suggest that Cr(VI) induced a mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in skin epidermal cells through activation of p53, which are mainly mediated by reactive oxidants generated by the chemical.

  4. Lifetime and production rate of NOx in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere in the polar spring/summer after the solar proton event in October–November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Friederich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present altitude-dependent lifetimes of NOx, determined with MIPAS/ENVISAT (the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding/the European Environment Satellite, for the Southern polar region after the solar proton event in October–November 2003. Between 50° S and 90° S and decreasing in altitude they range from about two days at 64 km to about 20 days at 44 km. The lifetimes are controlled by transport, mixing and photochemistry. We infer estimates of dynamical lifetimes by comparison of the observed decay to photochemical lifetimes calculated with the SLIMCAT 3-D Model. Photochemical loss contributes to the observed NOx depletion by 0.1% at 44 km, increasing with altitude to 45% at 64 km. In addition, we show the correlation of modelled ionization rates and observed NOx densities under consideration of the determined lifetimes of NOx, and calculate altitude-dependent effective production rates of NOx due to ionization. For that we compare ionization rates of the AIMOS data base with the MIPAS measurements from 15 October–31 December 2003. We derive effective NOx-production rates to be applied to the AIMOS ionization rates which range from about 0.2 NOx-molecules per ion pair at 44 km to 0.7 NOx-molecules per ion pair at 62 km. These effective production rates are considerably lower than predicted by box model simulations which could hint at an overestimation of the modelled ionization rates.

  5. Congruence between PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase during root growth: a necessary probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2018-07-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O 2 ˙ - , respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H + -ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H + -ATPase inhibitor). Conversely, H + -ATPase activity retarded in response to different ROS scavengers [CuCl 2 , N, N' -dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and catalase] and NOX inhibitors [ZnCl 2 and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)], while H 2 O 2 promoted PM H + -ATPase activity at lower concentrations. Repressing effects of Ca +2 antagonists (La +3 and EGTA) on the activity of both the enzymes indicate its possible mediation. Since, unlike animal NOX, the plant versions do not possess proton channel activity, harmonized functioning of PM H + -ATPase and NOX appears to be justified. Plasma membrane NADPH oxidase and H + -ATPase are functionally synchronized and they work cooperatively to maintain the membrane electrical balance while mediating plant cell growth through wall relaxation.

  6. Source apportionment and health effect of NO_x over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C.H.; Lau, Alexis K.H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NO_x not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NO_x and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NO_x from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NO_x sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NO_x sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NO_x in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NO_x on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0–4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0–2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NO_x in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NO_x emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NO_x emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources. - Highlights: • WRF-CAMx modeling system with OSAT was used to study the source of NO_x over Pearl River Delta region in China. • The results indicated that local emission and regional transportation are important contributors for NO_x in this region. • Heavy duty diesel vehicle, marine emission and industrial point source are three important contribution sectors. • Long-term exposure to NO_x is estimated to cause 2119 respiratory deaths and 991 lung cancer deaths in PRD during 2011. - Result indicated that heavy duty

  7. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  8. Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleskog Carina

    2012-05-01

    Thus, WNT-5A-induced and G protein-dependent signaling to ERK1/2 is important for the regulation of proinflammatory responses in mouse primary microglia cells. We show for the first time that WNT-5A/G protein signaling mediates physiologically important processes in primary mammalian cells with natural receptor and G protein stochiometry. Consequently, WNT-5A emerges as an important means of astrocyte-microglia communication and we, therefore, suggest WNT-5A as a new player in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease, hypoxia, stroke, injury and infection.

  9. Enhanced Oxidation of Isoprene and Monoterpenes in High and Low NOx Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, T. W.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Taha, Y. M.; Osthoff, H. D.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the troposphere, the photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is primarily initiated by their reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) which yields peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2). Concentrations of OH and the rates of VOC oxidation depend on the efficiency of peroxy radical recycling to OH. Radical recycling mainly occurs through reaction of HO2 with NO to produce NO2 and, ultimately, ozone (O3). Hence, the rate of VOC oxidation is dependent on NOx (=NO+NO2) concentration. The Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign was conducted from March 17 to April 29, 2015 with the main goal of identifying and quantifying industrial sources of pollutants throughout the United States, in particular those associated with the production of oil and natural gas. In this work, a case study of biogenic VOC oxidation within and outside a power plant plume in the Haynesville basin near the border of Texas and Louisiana is presented. Isoprene, monoterpenes and their oxides were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry (H3O+ CIMS) in high time resolution (1 s). Further, an improved Whole Air Sampler (iWAS) was used to collect samples for post-flight analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) and yielded speciated quantification of biogenic VOCs. The monoterpene oxide to monoterpene ratio follows the spatial extent of the plume as judged by another tracer (NOx), tracking the enhancement of oxidation rates by NOx. The observations are rationalized with the aid of box modeling using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM).

  10. Oxidative stress induced by palytoxin in human keratinocytes is mediated by a H{sup +}-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelin, Marco, E-mail: marco.pelin@phd.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Ponti, Cristina, E-mail: cponti@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Sosa, Silvio, E-mail: silvio.sosa@econ.units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Gibellini, Davide, E-mail: davide.gibellini@unibo.it [Department of Haematology and Oncological Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Florio, Chiara, E-mail: florioc@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Tubaro, Aurelia, E-mail: tubaro@units.it [Department of Life Science, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 7/9, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, massive blooms of palytoxin (PLTX)-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been observed along Mediterranean coasts, usually associated to human respiratory and cutaneous problems. At the molecular level, PLTX induces a massive intracellular Na{sup +} influx due to the transformation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase in a cationic channel. Recently, we have demonstrated that Na{sup +} overload is the crucial step in mediating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in human HaCaT keratinocytes, tentatively explaining PLTX-induced skin irritant effects. In the present study the molecular mechanisms of ROS production induced by PLTX-mediated Na{sup +} intracellular overload have been investigated. In HaCaT cells, PLTX exposure caused accumulation of superoxide anion, but not of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite/hydroxyl radicals. Even if RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed an early NOX-2 and iNOS gene and protein over-expressions, their active involvement seemed to be only partial since selective inhibitors did not completely reduce O{sub 2}{sup −} production. A significant role of other enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, XO) was not evidenced. Nigericin, that counteracts Na{sup +}-mediated H{sup +}-imbalance, dissipating ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, and the uncouplers DNP significantly reduced O{sub 2}{sup −} production. These inhibitions were synergistic when co-exposed with complex-I inhibitor rotenone. These results suggest a novel mechanism of O{sub 2}{sup −} production induced by PLTX-mediated ionic imbalance. Indeed, the H{sup +} intracellular overload that follows PLTX-induced intracellular Na{sup +} accumulation, could enhance ΔpH across mitochondrial inner membrane, that seems to be the driving force for O{sub 2}{sup −} production by reversing mitochondrial electron transport. Highlights: ► PLTX induces superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup −}) production by reversing mitochondrial transport chain. ► The mechanism of

  11. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  12. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  13. Oxidative burst-dependent NETosis is implicated in the resolution of necrosis-associated sterile inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Helena Biermann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrosis is associated with a profound inflammatory response. The regulation of necrosis-associated inflammation, particularly the mechanisms responsible for resolution of inflammation are incompletely characterized. Nanoparticles are known to induce plasma membrane damage and necrosis followed by sterile inflammation. We observed that injection of metabolically inert nanodiamonds resulted in paw edema in WT and Ncf1** mice. However, while inflammation quickly resolved in WT mice, it persisted over several weeks in Ncf1** mice indicating failure of resolution of inflammation. Mechanistically, NOX2-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS production and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs were essential for the resolution of necrosis-induced inflammation: Hence, by evaluating the fate of the particles at the site of inflammation, we observed that Ncf1** mice deficient in NADPH-dependent ROS failed to generate granulation tissue therefore being unable to trap the nanodiamonds. These data suggest that NOX2-dependent NETosis is crucial for preventing the chronification of the inflammatory response to tissue necrosis by forming NETosis-dependent barriers between the necrotic and healthy surrounding tissue.

  14. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.386 Section 97.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program...

  15. Phosphorylation of a splice variant of collapsin response mediator protein 2 in the nucleus of tumour cells links cyclin dependent kinase-5 to oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Nicola J; Coates, Philip J; Woods, Yvonne L; Bray, Susan E; Morrice, Nicholas A; Hastie, C James; Lamont, Douglas J; Carey, Francis A; Sutherland, Calum

    2015-11-10

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase-5 (CDK5) is an unusual member of the CDK family as it is not cell cycle regulated. However many of its substrates have roles in cell growth and oncogenesis, raising the possibility that CDK5 modulation could have therapeutic benefit. In order to establish whether changes in CDK5 activity are associated with oncogenesis one could quantify phosphorylation of CDK5 targets in disease tissue in comparison to appropriate controls. However the identity of physiological and pathophysiological CDK5 substrates remains the subject of debate, making the choice of CDK5 activity biomarkers difficult. Here we use in vitro and in cell phosphorylation assays to identify novel features of CDK5 target sequence determinants that confer enhanced CDK5 selectivity, providing means to select substrate biomarkers of CDK5 activity with more confidence. We then characterize tools for the best CDK5 substrate we identified to monitor its phosphorylation in human tissue and use these to interrogate human tumour arrays. The close proximity of Arg/Lys amino acids and a proline two residues N-terminal to the phosphorylated residue both improve recognition of the substrate by CDK5. In contrast the presence of a proline two residues C-terminal to the target residue dramatically reduces phosphorylation rate. Serine-522 of Collapsin Response Mediator-2 (CRMP2) is a validated CDK5 substrate with many of these structural criteria. We generate and characterise phosphospecific antibodies to Ser522 and show that phosphorylation appears in human tumours (lung, breast, and lymphoma) in stark contrast to surrounding non-neoplastic tissue. In lung cancer the anti-phospho-Ser522 signal is positive in squamous cell carcinoma more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally we demonstrate that it is a specific and unusual splice variant of CRMP2 (CRMP2A) that is phosphorylated in tumour cells. For the first time this data associates altered CDK5 substrate phosphorylation with

  16. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  17. NOx removal characteristics of corona radical shower with ammonia and methylamine radical injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urashima, K.; Ara, M.; Chang, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Uchida, Y. [Aichi Inst. of Technology, (Japan). Dept. of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) are the major cause of acid rain. There are different types of NOx and SOx conversion techniques such as wet scrubber, selective catalytic reactor, sorbent injection, and low NOx burner. Non-thermal plasma techniques have also been utilized in commercial plants, but the energy efficiency of the non-thermal plasma reactors have not yet been optimized. The direct plasma treatments of flue gases including, the electron beam, barrier discharge and pulsed corona reactors, may lose input energy to activate unwanted components of flue gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}). The corona discharge ammonia radical shower system has demonstrated significant NOx removal with higher energy efficiency for large bench scale and pilot plant tests for combustion exhausts. An experiment has also demonstrated that methane can replace ammonia as an injection gas with less NOx removal efficiency. This paper presented an experimental investigation that compared methylamine radical injection with traditional ammonia and methane radical injections. The paper discussed the bench scale test facilities and corona radical shower plasma reactor. It was concluded that the processes to form ammonium nitrate could be observed from trace white solid particles deposited on the reactor wall as observed by scanning electron microscopy pictures. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  18. Design and implementation of mixing chambers to improve thermal decomposition of urea for NOX abatement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil

    2012-10-01

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been reported as the most promising technique for adherence to NOX emissions regulations. In the urea-SCR process, NH3 is generated by urea thermal decomposition and hydrolysis and is then used as a reductant of NOX in the SCR catalyst. Therefore, improving the NOX conversion efficiency of urea-SCR requires enhancement of thermal decomposition upstream of the SCR catalyst. In the present work, two types of mixing chambers were designed and fabricated to improve urea thermal decomposition, and experiments with and without a mixing chamber were carried out to analyze thermal-decomposition characteristics of urea in the exhaust pipe with respect to inlet velocity (4-12μm/s) and temperature (350°C-500°C). Urea thermal decomposition is greatly enhanced at higher gas temperatures. At an inlet velocity of 6μm/s in the A-type mixing chamber, NH3 concentrations generated along the exhaust pipe were about 171% and 157% greater than those without the mixing chamber for inlet temperatures of 400°C and 500°C, respectively. In the case of the B-type mixing chamber, NH3 concentrations generated at inlet temperatures of 400°C and 500°C were about 147% and 179% greater than those without the mixing chamber, respectively. Note that the implementation of mixing chambers significantly enhanced conversion of urea to NH3 because it increased the residence time of urea in the exhaust pipe and improved mixing between urea and exhaust gas. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. Impacts of the abolition of NOx emission trade; Effecten van de afschaffing van NOx- emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The consequences of abolishing the NOx emission trade have been analyzed for the installations that are covered by BEMS legislation (Dutch decree on emission limits for medium-sized combustion plants). The following aspects have been analyzed: What are the enforcement costs if these installations need to comply with BEMS requirements as of 2014?; How are these costs distributed across the various sectors and in particular for the sectors of onshore/offshore gas and oil extraction, greenhouse horticulture and hospitals?; To what extent can costs be lowered by allowing a 2-,3- or 5-year delay of the implementation date for existing installations in BEMS? To answer the above questions, data were used from the NEA (Netherlands Emission Authority) at sector level. Model calculations were conducted to determine the costs and effects [Dutch] De gevolgen van de afschaffing van NOx-emissiehandel zijn geanalyseerd voor het installatiepark dat terugvalt op BEMS-wetgeving (Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties). De volgende zaken zijn geanalyseerd: Wat zijn de nalevingskosten indien vanaf 2014 deze installaties aan de BEMS-eisen moeten voldoen?; Hoe zijn deze kosten verdeeld over de verschillende sectoren en in het bijzonder voor de sectoren offshore/onshore gas- en oliewinning, de glastuinbouw en ziekenhuizen?; In hoeverre zijn de kosten te verlagen door 2, 3 of 5 jaar uitstel te geven ten opzichte van de implementatiedatum voor bestaande installaties in BEMS? Voor het beantwoorden van de bovenstaande vragen is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van de NEa (Nederlandse Emissie autoriteit) op sectorniveau. Met modelberekeningen zijn hiermee kosten en effecten bepaald.

  20. NADPH oxidase 4 mediates insulin-stimulated HIF-1α and VEGF expression, and angiogenesis in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Meng

    Full Text Available Acute intensive insulin therapy causes a transient worsening of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes patients and is related to VEGF expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been shown to be involved in HIF-1α and VEGF expression induced by insulin, but the role of specific ROS sources has not been fully elucidated. In this study we examined the role of NADPH oxidase subunit 4 (Nox4 in insulin-stimulated HIF-1α and VEGF expression, and angiogenic responses in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Here we demonstrate that knockdown of Nox4 by siRNA reduced insulin-stimulated ROS generation, the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-β and IRS-1, but did not change the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Nox4 gene silencing had a much greater inhibitory effect on insulin-induced AKT activation than ERK1/2 activation, whereas it had little effect on the expression of the phosphatases such as MKP-1 and SHIP. Inhibition of Nox4 expression inhibited the transcriptional activity of VEGF through HIF-1. Overexpression of wild-type Nox4 was sufficient to increase VEGF transcriptional activity, and further enhanced insulin-stimulated the activation of VEGF. Downregulation of Nox4 expression decreased insulin-stimulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1α, but did not change the rate of HIF-1α degradation. Inhibition of Nox4 impaired insulin-stimulated VEGF expression, cell migration, cell proliferation, and tube formation in HMVECs. Our data indicate that Nox4-derived ROS are essential for HIF-1α-dependent VEGF expression, and angiogenesis in vitro induced by insulin. Nox4 may be an attractive therapeutic target for diabetic retinopathy caused by intensive insulin treatment.

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Denis M; Gately, Kathy; Hughes, Clare; Edwards, Connla; Davies, Anthony; Madden, Stephen F; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John

    2017-09-01

    Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy capable of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and used in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Through interactions with FcƴR+ immune cell subsets, trastuzumab functions as a passive immunotherapy. The EGFR/HER2-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib and the next generation TKIs afatinib and neratinib, can alter HER2 levels, potentially modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab. Using LDH-release assays, we investigated the impact of antigen modulation, assay duration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) activity on trastuzumab-mediated ADCC in breast cancer models of maximal (SKBR3) and minimal (MCF-7) target antigen expression to determine if modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab using TKIs may be a viable approach for enhancing tumor immune reactivity. HER2 levels were determined in lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib-treated SKBR3 and MCF-7 using high content analysis (HCA). Trastuzumab-mediated ADCC was assessed following treatment with TKIs utilising a colorimetric LDH release-based protocol at 4 and 12h timepoints. PBMC activity was assessed against non-MHC-restricted K562 cells. A flow cytometry-based method (CFSE/7-AAD) was also used to measure trastuzumab-mediated ADCC in medium-treated SKBR3 and MCF-7. HER2 antigen levels were significantly altered by the three TKIs in both cell line models. The TKIs significantly reduced LDH levels directly in SKBR3 cells but not MCF-7. Lapatinib and neratinib augment trastuzumab-related ADCC in SKBR3 but the effect was not consistent with antigen expression levels and was dependent on volunteer PBMC activity (vs. K562). A 12h assay timepoint produced more consistent results. Trastuzumab-mediated ADCC (PBMC:target cell ratio of 10:1) was measured at 7.6±4.7% (T12) by LDH assay and 19±3.2 % (T12) using the flow cytometry-based method in the antigen-low model MCF-7. In the presence of effector cells with high

  2. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-10-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases.

  4. Robust Replication Control Is Generated by Temporal Gaps between Licensing and Firing Phases and Depends on Degradation of Firing Factor Sld2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Uwe Reusswig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal separation of DNA replication initiation into licensing and firing phases ensures the precise duplication of the genome during each cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK is known to generate this separation by activating firing factors and at the same time inhibiting licensing factors but may not be sufficient to ensure robust separation at transitions between both phases. Here, we show that a temporal gap separates the inactivation of firing factors from the re-activation of licensing factors during mitosis in budding yeast. We find that gap size critically depends on phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the firing factor Sld2 mediated by CDK, DDK, Mck1, and Cdc5 kinases and the ubiquitin-ligases Dma1/2. Stable mutants of Sld2 minimize the gap and cause increased genome instability in an origin-dependent manner when combined with deregulation of other replication regulators or checkpoint mechanisms. Robust separation of licensing and firing phases therefore appears indispensable to safeguard genome stability.

  5. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  6. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  7. Evaluation on nitrogen oxides and nanoparticle removal and nitrogen monoxide generation using a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Kotaro; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from power plants and combustion sources cause air pollution problems. Selective catalytic reduction technology is remarkably useful for NOx removal. However, there are several drawbacks such as preparation of reducing agents, usage of harmful heavy metals, and higher cost. On the other hand, trace NO is a vasodilator agent and employed in inhalation therapies for treating pulmonary hypertension in humans. Considering these factors, in the present study, a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor, which can control NOx and nanoparticle emissions and generate NO, is investigated. The fundamental characteristics of the reactor are investigated. First, the experiment of nanoparticle removal is carried out. Collection efficiencies of over 99% are achieved for nanoparticles at 50 and 100 ml min‑1 of liquid flow rates. Second, experiments of NOx removal under air atmosphere and NOx generation under nitrogen atmosphere are carried out. NOx-removal efficiencies of over 95% under the air plasma are achieved in 50–200 ml min‑1 liquid flow rates. Moreover, under nitrogen plasma, NOx is generated, of which the major portion is NO. For example, NO concentration is 25 ppm, while NOx concentration is 31 ppm at 50 ml min‑1 liquid flow rate. Finally, experiments of NO generation under the nitrogen atmosphere with or without flowing water are carried out. When water flows on the inner surface of the reactor, approximately 14 ppm of NO is generated. Therefore, NO generation requires flowing water. It is considered that the reaction of N and OH, which is similar to the extended Zeldovich mechanism, could occur to induce NO formation. From these results, it is verified that the wet-type plasma reactor is useful for NOx removal and NO generation under nitrogen atmosphere with flowing water.

  8. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene - Part II. Influence of elevated NOx concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klotz, B; Volkamer, R; Hurley, MD

    2002-01-01

    The present work represents a continuation of part I of this series of papers, in which we investigated the phenol yields in the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene under conditions of low to moderate concentrations of NOx, to elevated NOx levels. The products of the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene...... concentrations of NOx, the phenol yield increases with increasing O-2 partial pressure. The rate constant of the reaction of hydroxycyclohexadienyl peroxyl radicals with NO was determined to be (1.7 +/- 0.6) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). This reaction leads to the formation of E, E-2,4-hexadienedial...... as the main identiable product (29 +/- 16. The reaction of the hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical with NO2 gave phenol (5.9 +/- 3.4 and E,E-2,4-hexadienedial (3.4 +/- 1.9, no other products could be identified. The residual FTIR product spectra indicate the formation of unknown nitrates or other nitrogen...

  9. On the export of reactive nitrogen from Asia: NOx partitioning and effects on ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of reactive nitrogen (NOy was measured over the remote North Pacific during spring 2006. Aircraft observations of NO, NO2, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, total alkyl and multi-functional nitrates (ΣANs and nitric acid (HNO3, made between 25° and 55° N, confirm a controlling role for peroxyacyl nitrates in NOx production in aged Asian outflow. ΣPNs account for more than 60% of NOy above 5 km, while thermal dissociation limits their contribution to less than 10% in the lower troposphere. Using simultaneous observations of NOx, ΣPNs, ΣANs, HNO3 and average wind speed, we calculate the flux of reactive nitrogen through the meridional plane of 150° W (between 20° and 55° N to be 0.007 ± 0.002 Tg N day−1, which provides an upper limit of 23 ± 6.5% on the transport efficiency of NOy from East Asia. Observations of NOx, and HOx are used to constrain a 0-D photochemical box model for the calculation of net photochemical ozone production or tendency (Δ O3 as a function of aircraft altitude and NOx concentrations. The model analysis indicates that the photochemical environment of the lower troposphere (altitude 3 destruction, with an experimentally determined crossover point between net O3 destruction and net O3 production of 60 pptv NOx. Qualitative indicators of integrated net O3 production derived from simultaneous measurements of O3 and light alkanes (Parrish et al., 1992, also indicate that the north Pacific is, on average, a region of net O3 destruction.

  10. Role of the mitochondria in immune-mediated apoptotic death of the human pancreatic β cell line βLox5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaíma L Lightfoot

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are indispensable in the life and death of many types of eukaryotic cells. In pancreatic beta cells, mitochondria play an essential role in the secretion of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Unregulated blood glucose is a hallmark symptom of diabetes. The onset of Type 1 diabetes is preceded by autoimmune-mediated destruction of beta cells. However, the exact role of mitochondria has not been assessed in beta cell death. In this study, we examine the role of mitochondria in both Fas- and proinflammatory cytokine-mediated destruction of the human beta cell line, βLox5. IFNγ primed βLox5 cells for apoptosis by elevating cell surface Fas. Consequently, βLox5 cells were killed by caspase-dependent apoptosis by agonistic activation of Fas, but only after priming with IFNγ. This beta cell line undergoes both apoptotic and necrotic cell death after incubation with the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα. Additionally, both caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms that require proper mitochondrial function are involved. Mitochondrial contributions to βLox5 cell death were analyzed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depleted βLox5 cells, or βLox5 ρ(0 cells. βLox5 ρ(0 cells are not sensitive to IFNγ and TNFα killing, indicating a direct role for the mitochondria in cytokine-induced cell death of the parental cell line. However, βLox5 ρ(0 cells are susceptible to Fas killing, implicating caspase-dependent extrinsic apoptotic death is the mechanism by which these human beta cells die after Fas ligation. These data support the hypothesis that immune mediators kill βLox5 cells by both mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic and caspase-dependent extrinsic pathways.

  11. [Characterizing spatial patterns of NO(x), SO2 and O3 in Pearl River Delta by passive sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shao, Min; Wang, Chen; Wang, Bo-Guang; Lu, Si-Hua; Zhong, Liu-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Concentrations of NO(x), SO2 and O3 were measured by passive sampling within 200km x 200km grid in Pearl River Delta (PRD). Sampling period was two weeks in November, 2009. Spatial distributions of NO(x), SO2 and O3 were obtained by Kriging interpolation method. The results were compared with emission inventories and modeling results. The transportations of O3 were evaluated by using backward trajectories of air parcels. During the sampling period, the mean concentrations of NO(x), SO2 and O3 were 75.9 microg/m3, 37.3 microg/m3 and 36.2 microg/m3, respectively. And the highest concentrations of NO(x), SO2 and O3 were 195.7 microg/m3, 95.9 microg/m3 and 81.8 microg/m3. Comparing with routine measurements from the regional monitoring network in PRD, the results by passive method were 18.6%, 33.5% and 37.5% lower for NO(x), SO2 and O3, respectively. The spatial patterns demonstrated that higher NO(x) concentrations often appeared in cities such as Guangzhou, Foshan and Shenzhen. SO2 concentrations were higher in west and lower in east. High SO2 concentrations are mainly from emission of power plants and industrial sources. Concentrations of O3 showed the highest levels in the south of PRD. Backward trajectory analysis for higher ozone areas indicated that 53% of the air masses were from the region with high concentration of NO(x). The horizontal transportation caused higher ozone in the south while lower in north in PRD.

  12. Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefer, Robert W [Alamo, CA; Keller, Jay O [Oakland, CA

    2007-01-16

    A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

  13. The Effect of Air Preheat at Atmospheric Pressure on the Formation of NO(x) in the Quick-Mix Sections of an Axially Staged Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakas, M. A.; Leong, M. Y.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept has been proposed to minimize the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in gas turbine systems. The success of this combustor strategy is dependent upon the efficiency of the mixing section bridging the fuel-rich and fuel-lean stages. Note that although these results were obtained from an experiment designed to study an RQL mixer, the link between mixing and NOx signatures is considerably broader than this application, in that the need to understand this link exists in most advanced combustors. The experiment reported herein was designed to study the effects of inlet air temperature on NO(x) formation in a mixing section. The results indicate that NO(x) emission is increased for all preheated cases compared to non-preheated cases. When comparing the various mixing modules, the affect of jet penetration is important, as this determines where NO(x) concentrations peak, and affects overall NO(x) production. Although jet air comprises 70 percent of the total airflow, the impact that jet air preheat has on overall NO(x) emissions is small compared to preheating both main and jet air flow.

  14. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  15. Low-level NOx removal in ambient air by pulsed corona technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although removal of NOx by (pulsed) corona discharges has been thoroughly investigated for high concentrations of NOx in flue gas, removal of low levels in ambient air proves to be a difficult task. (Sub) ppm NOx levels exist in traffic tunnels due to accumulation of exhaust gases. The application

  16. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-07

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin.

  17. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  18. GNMT Expression Increases Hepatic Folate Contents and Folate-Dependent Methionine Synthase-Mediated Homocysteine Remethylation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Yan-Jun; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chiang, En-Pei Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a major hepatic enzyme that converts S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine while generating sarcosine from glycine, hence it can regulate mediating methyl group availability in mammalian cells. GNMT is also a major hepatic folate binding protein that binds to, and, subsequently, may be inhibited by 5-methyltetrafolate. GNMT is commonly diminished in human hepatoma; yet its role in cellular folate metabolism, in tumorigenesis and antifolate therap...

  19. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input...

  20. Reduction of NOx and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers by modification of coal nozzles and combustion tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Mugenstein, A.; Shpon, G.; Vikhansky, A.; Elperin, T.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Bockelie, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.F. [Israel Electric Corporation, Haifa (Israel). Engineering Division

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper two issues are discussed: the effect of the burner replacement on boiler performance and NOx emissions and the effect of the burner replacement on performance and efficiency of electrostatic precipitators (ESP). We also have experimented with different coal types and found the coals that together with combustion tuning met commonly accepted emission limits for NOx (less than 600 mg/dNm{sup 3}) and levels of carbon in fly ash (LOI) (approximately 5-6%) for existing boilers without low NOx burners. Our measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion of the combustion process in the boiler. Special attention was paid to detailed simulation of the flow and ignition in the near-burner zone. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Lixia; Liu, Chunxiang; Li, Xing; Wang, Shuyun; Xu, Qing; Teng, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    In view of the limitations of vortex generators with polarization dependence at present, we propose a plasmonic vortex generator composed of rectangular holes etched in silver film, in which the optical vortex can be generated under arbitrary linearly polarized light illumination. Two sets of rectangular holes are arranged equidistantly on a circle and rotate in postulate directions. Theoretical analysis provides the design principle for the vortex generator, and numerical simulations give guidance on designating the vortex generator parameters. Experimental measurements verify the performance of the proposed vortex generator. Moreover, two alternative structures for the generation of a plasmonic vortex are also provided in this paper. The resulting perfect vortex, compact structure and flexible illumination conditions will lead to wide applications of this plasmonic vortex generator.

  2. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Wolter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i Quantum cascade lasers (QCL based photoacoustic (PA systems; ii gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET sensors, and iii functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

  3. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Cinzia; Elia, Angela; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Bruno, Giovanni; Losurdo, Maria; Garcia, Michael A.; Wolter, Scott D.; Brown, April; Ricco, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling. PMID:22412315

  4. NOx removal enhancement by a Jerks - and - Jumps type electrode in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Cabrera, A; Villar, E L del; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Lopez-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Pena-Eguiluz, R; Munozoz-Castro, A; Jaramillo-Sierra, B; Piedad-Beneitez, A de la

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the electrode surface of a NOx removal treatment reactor has been modified in order to reduce its electric potential level and, at the same time, to increase its removal capacity by generating a cold plasma using a non-homogenous electric field on the electrode surface. This electric field has been achieved by means of a jerks and jumps-like electrode profile. The other electrode conserves the original flat form. Then, experiments on the removal of NOx were carried out in this 22.4 cm 3 reactor. Concentrations of 30-80 μmol/mol of NOx in nitrogen were used with 1 SLPM flows. The exhaust gases were analysed as well as characterised by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additional experiments were also carried out in a second reactor of the same reaction volume but where two conventional flat and parallel electrodes were used, in order to compare the results. The NO removal efficiency in the two flat electrode case approached 87% while ∼98% in the jerks and jumps reactor

  5. Hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries is mediated by intracellular methylglyoxal levels in a pathway dependent on oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, O; Niessen, P M; Haenen, G

    2010-01-01

    -hydro-5-methylimidazolone (MG-H1) was detected with an antibody against MG-H1 and quantified with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. Reactive oxygen species formation was measured with a 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester probe...... for AGE ligand S100b did (p cells and adventitia by fivefold accompanied by an eightfold increase in the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine. Antioxidant pre-incubation prevented methylglyoxal......-induced impairment of vasoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data show that hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation is mediated by increased intracellular methylglyoxal levels in a pathway dependent on oxidative stress....

  6. Reburning technology - a means to reduce NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, H.; Lorra, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide emission control technologies can be classified as either combustion modifications to minimize the NO production or post-combustion flue gas treatment to reduce the NO concentration afterwards. The techniques for minimizing NOx Production includes the use of low-NOx burners, overfire air (staged combustion) and boiler combustion optimization. Procedures for flue gas treatment can be subdivided into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The re burning process is a selective non-catalytic technology which is applicable to a wide variety of boilers and can be implemented within a relatively short period of time. The NOx reduction potential of this technique is in the range of 50 % up to 70 %. (author)

  7. Unique role of NADPH oxidase 5 in oxidative stress in human renal proximal tubule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases are the major sources of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular, neural, and kidney cells. The NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5 gene is present in humans but not rodents. Because Nox isoforms in renal proximal tubules (RPTs are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that NOX5 is differentially expressed in RPT cells from normotensive (NT and hypertensive subjects (HT. We found that NOX5 mRNA, total NOX5 protein, and apical membrane NOX5 protein were 4.2±0.7-fold, 5.2±0.7-fold, and 2.8±0.5-fold greater in HT than NT. Basal total NADPH oxidase activity was 4.5±0.2-fold and basal NOX5 activity in NOX5 immunoprecipitates was 6.2±0.2-fold greater in HT than NT (P=<0.001, n=6–14/group. Ionomycin increased total NOX and NOX5 activities in RPT cells from HT (P<0.01, n=4, ANOVA, effects that were abrogated by pre-treatment of the RPT cells with diphenylene-iodonium or superoxide dismutase. Silencing NOX5 using NOX5-siRNA decreased NADPH oxidase activity (−45.1±3.2% vs. mock-siRNA, n=6–8 in HT. D1-like receptor stimulation decreased NADPH oxidase activity to a greater extent in NT (−32.5±1.8% than HT (−14.8±1.8. In contrast to the marked increase in expression and activity of NOX5 in HT, NOX1 mRNA and protein were minimally increased in HT, relative to NT; total NOX2 and NOX4 proteins were not different between HT and NT, while the increase in apical RPT cell membrane NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 proteins in HT, relative to NT, was much less than those observed with NOX5. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that NOX5 is expressed in human RPT cells and to greater extent than the other Nox isoforms in HT than NT. We suggest that the increased expression of NOX5, which may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress in RPT cells in human essential hypertension, is caused, in part, by a defective renal dopaminergic system.

  8. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  9. Development of the Aqueous Processes for Removing NOx from Flue Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Gilford A.

    A screening study was conducted to evaluate the capability of aqueous solutions to scrub NOx from the flue gases emitted by stationary power plants fired with fossil fuels. The report summarizes the findings of this laboratory program. The experimental program studied the following media for absorption of NOx from flue gases containing no NOx:…

  10. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  11. ShenFu Preparation Protects AML12 Cells Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury Through Inhibition of Both JNK/Nox4 and JNK/NFκB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis includes steatosis along with liver inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role and the potential mechanisms of a traditional Chinese medicine ShenFu (SF preparation in an in vitro hepatic steatosis model. Methods: In palmitic acid (PA-induced murine hepatic AML12 cell injury, effects of SF preparation on cellular apoptosis and intracellular triglyceride (iTG level were assessed using TUNEL and TG Colorimetric Assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP levels were measured using DCF and JC-1 assay. Cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA assay. Immunoblot was used to compare the activation level of c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK, NADPH oxidase (Nox4, and NFκB pathways. Results: Addition of SF preparation prevented PA-mediated increase of apoptosis and iTG as well as IL-8 and IL-6. In PA-treated cell, SF preparation reduced the level of Nox4 and ROS, while increasing the level of MMP and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and catalase, indicating emendation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Nox4 inhibitor GKT137381 prevented PA-induced increase of ROS and apoptosis, while decreasing iTG slightly and not influencing the level of IL-8 and IL-6. SF preparation prevented PA-induced upregulation of phospho-JNK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented PA-mediated increase of Nox4, IL-8, IL-6 and iTG. Nuclear translocation of NFκB/p65 was detected in PA-treated cells, which was prevented by SF preparation. An IκB degradation inhibitor, BAY11-7082, prevented PA-induced increase of IL-8 and IL-6 as well as iTG, whereas it only decreased ROS levels slightly and showed no influence on cellular apoptosis. Conclusion: SF preparation shows a beneficial role in prevention of hepatocyte injury by attenuating oxidative stress and cytokines production at least partially through inhibition of JNK/Nox4 and JNK

  12. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Phosphorylation of a splice variant of collapsin response mediator protein 2 in the nucleus of tumour cells links cyclin dependent kinase-5 to oncogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Nicola J.; Coates, Philip J.; Woods, Yvonne L.; Bray, Susan E.; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Hastie, C. James; Lamont, Douglas J.; Carey, Francis A.; Sutherland, Calum

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase-5 (CDK5) is an unusual member of the CDK family as it is not cell cycle regulated. However many of its substrates have roles in cell growth and oncogenesis, raising the possibility that CDK5 modulation could have therapeutic benefit. In order to establish whether changes in CDK5 activity are associated with oncogenesis one could quantify phosphorylation of CDK5 targets in disease tissue in comparison to appropriate controls. However the identity of physiological and pathophysiological CDK5 substrates remains the subject of debate, making the choice of CDK5 activity biomarkers difficult. Here we use in vitro and in cell phosphorylation assays to identify novel features of CDK5 target sequence determinants that confer enhanced CDK5 selectivity, providing means to select substrate biomarkers of CDK5 activity with more confidence. We then characterize tools for the best CDK5 substrate we identified to monitor its phosphorylation in human tissue and use these to interrogate human tumour arrays. The close proximity of Arg/Lys amino acids and a proline two residues N-terminal to the phosphorylated residue both improve recognition of the substrate by CDK5. In contrast the presence of a proline two residues C-terminal to the target residue dramatically reduces phosphorylation rate. Serine-522 of Collapsin Response Mediator-2 (CRMP2) is a validated CDK5 substrate with many of these structural criteria. We generate and characterise phosphospecific antibodies to Ser522 and show that phosphorylation appears in human tumours (lung, breast, and lymphoma) in stark contrast to surrounding non-neoplastic tissue. In lung cancer the anti-phospho-Ser522 signal is positive in squamous cell carcinoma more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally we demonstrate that it is a specific and unusual splice variant of CRMP2 (CRMP2A) that is phosphorylated in tumour cells. For the first time this data associates altered CDK5 substrate phosphorylation with

  14. Quantifying the isotopic composition of NOx emission sources: An analysis of collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D.; Hastings, M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze various collection methods for nitrogen oxides, NOx (NO2 and NO), used to evaluate the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N). Atmospheric NOx is a major contributor to acid rain deposition upon its conversion to nitric acid; it also plays a significant role in determining air quality through the production of tropospheric ozone. NOx is released by both anthropogenic (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, aircraft emissions) and natural (lightning, biogenic production in soils) sources. Global concentrations of NOx are rising because of increased anthropogenic emissions, while natural source emissions also contribute significantly to the global NOx burden. The contributions of both natural and anthropogenic sources and their considerable variability in space and time make it difficult to attribute local NOx concentrations (and, thus, nitric acid) to a particular source. Several recent studies suggest that variability in the isotopic composition of nitric acid deposition is related to variability in the isotopic signatures of NOx emission sources. Nevertheless, the isotopic composition of most NOx sources has not been thoroughly constrained. Ultimately, the direct capture and quantification of the nitrogen isotopic signatures of NOx sources will allow for the tracing of NOx emissions sources and their impact on environmental quality. Moreover, this will provide a new means by which to verify emissions estimates and atmospheric models. We present laboratory results of methods used for capturing NOx from air into solution. A variety of methods have been used in field studies, but no independent laboratory verification of the efficiencies of these methods has been performed. When analyzing isotopic composition, it is important that NOx be collected quantitatively or the possibility of fractionation must be constrained. We have found that collection efficiency can vary widely under different conditions in the laboratory and fractionation does not vary

  15. Transgenerational plasticity of reproduction depends on rate of warming across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Wong, Marian; Booth, David J; Munday, Philip L

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults. We found that more gradual warming over two generations, +1.5°C in the first generation and then +3.0°C in the second generation, resulted in greater plasticity of reproductive attributes, compared to fish that experienced the same increase in one generation. Reproduction ceased at the projected future summer temperature (31.5°C) when fish experienced +3.0°C for two generations. Additionally, we found that transgenerational plasticity to +1.5°C induced full restoration of thermally affected reproductive and offspring attributes, which was not possible with developmental plasticity alone. Our results suggest that transgenerational effects differ depending on the absolute thermal change and in which life stage the thermal change is experienced.

  16. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone–temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx. The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥  60 ppb by 10–20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (<  40 ppb by 5–15 ppb, resulting in a misleading good agreement with the observations for average ozone. The model also underestimates the ozone–temperature regression slope by about a factor of 2 for most of the measurement stations. To investigate the impact of emissions, four scenarios were tested: (i increased volatile organic compound (VOC emissions by a factor of 1.5 and 2 for the anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions, respectively, (ii increased nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions by a factor of 2, (iii a combination of the first two scenarios and (iv increased traffic-only NOx emissions by a factor of 4. For southern, eastern, and central (except the Benelux area Europe, doubling NOx emissions seems to be the most efficient scenario to reduce the underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios without significant degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone–temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario

  17. A new process for NOx reduction in combustion systems for the generation of energy from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Oliver; Weber, Toralf; Seguin, Philippe; Laborel, Yann

    2010-07-01

    In the EU, emissions from energy from waste plants are largely reduced by applying the Waste Incineration Directive with its limit of 200 mg/m3(s) for NO(x) emissions. The need for further improvement is reflected by new German legislation effective as of 27 January 2009, requiring 100 mg/m3(s). Other countries are expected to follow this example due to the national emission ceilings of the Gothenburg protocol and the concluding EU directive 2001/81/EC. On the other hand, an increase in energy efficiency will be encouraged by the EU Waste Framework Directive. This is why there is a need for new technologies that make it possible to reconcile both requirements: reduced emissions and increased energy efficiency. A new process combining the internal recirculation of flue gas with ammonia or urea injection in order to achieve less then 80 mg/m3(s) of NO(x) is described. Important additional features of the process are an R1 efficiency above the required 0.65 of the EU Waste Framework Directive even with standard steam parameters of 40 bar/380 degrees C as well as low ammonia slip in the flue gas at the boiler outlet of below 10 mg/m3(s). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  19. Structural plasticity mediates distinct GAP-dependent GTP hydrolysis mechanisms in Rab33 and Rab5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Soneya; Acharya, Abhishek; Prakash, Balaji

    2017-12-01

    The classical GTP hydrolysis mechanism, as seen in Ras, employs a catalytic glutamine provided in cis by the GTPase and an arginine supplied in trans by a GTPase activating protein (GAP). The key idea emergent from a large body of research on small GTPases is that GTPases employ a variety of different hydrolysis mechanisms; evidently, these variations permit diverse rates of GTPase inactivation, crucial for temporal regulation of different biological processes. Recently, we unified these variations and argued that a steric clash between active site residues (corresponding to positions 12 and 61 of Ras) governs whether a GTPase utilizes the cis-Gln or the trans-Gln (from the GAP) for catalysis. As the cis-Gln encounters a steric clash, the Rab GTPases employ the so-called dual finger mechanism where the interacting GAP supplies a trans-Gln for catalysis. Using experimental and computational methods, we demonstrate how the cis-Gln of Rab33 overcomes the steric clash when it is stabilized by a residue in the vicinity. In effect, this demonstrates how both cis-Gln- and trans-Gln-mediated mechanisms could operate in the same GTPase in different contexts, i.e. depending on the GAP that regulates its action. Interestingly, in the case of Rab5, which possesses a higher intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate, a similar stabilization of the cis-Gln appears to overcome the steric clash. Taken together with the mechanisms seen for Rab1, it is evident that the observed variations in Rab and their GAP partners allow structural plasticity, or in other words, the choice of different catalytic mechanisms. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Numerical simulation of urea based selective non-catalytic reduction deNOx process for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleta, Jakov; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Petranović, Zvonimir; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SNCR is a simple method for the NOx reduction from large industrial facilities. • Capabilities of the developed mathematical framework for SNCR simulation were shown. • Model was used on the geometry of experimental reactor and municipal incinerator. • Results indicate suitability of the developed model for real industrial cases. - Abstract: Industrial processes emit large amounts of diverse pollutants into the atmosphere, among which NOx takes a significant portion. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is a relatively simple method for the NOx reduction in large industrial facilities such as power plants, cement plants and waste incinerator plants. It consists of injecting the urea-water solution in the hot flue gas stream and its reaction with the NOx. During this process flue gas enthalpy is used for the urea-water droplet heating and for the evaporation of water content. After water evaporates, thermolysis of urea occurs, during which ammonia, a known NO_x reductant, and isocyanic acid are generated. In order to cope with the ever stringent environmental norms, equipment manufacturers need to develop energy efficient products that are at the same time benign to environment. This is becoming increasingly complicated and costly, and one way to reduce production costs together with the maintaining the same competitiveness level is to employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool, in a process today commonly known under the term “virtual prototyping”. The aim of this paper is to show capabilities of the developed mathematical framework implemented in the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, to simulate physical processes of all relevant phenomena occurring during the SNCR process. First, mathematical models for description of SNCR process are presented and afterwards, models are used on the 3D geometry of an industrial reactor and a real industrial case to predict SNCR efficiency, temperature and velocity field. Influence of the main

  1. Photocatalytic NO_x abatement. Theory, applications, current research, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloh, Jonathan Z.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides are one of the major air pollutants that threaten our air quality and health. As a consequence, increasingly stricter regulations are in place forcing action to reduce the concentration of these dangerous compounds. Conventional methods of reducing the NO_x pollution level are reducing the emission directly at the source or restrictive measures such as low emission zones. However, there are recent reports questioning the efficacy of the strategy to reduce ambient NO_x levels solely by reducing their emissions and existing threshold values are still frequently exceeded in many European cities. Semiconductor photocatalysis presents an appealing alternative capable of removing NO_x and other air pollutants from the air once they have already been released and dispersed. Recent field tests have shown that a reduction of a few percent in NO_x values is possible with available photocatalysts. Current research focuses on further increasing the catalysts' efficacy as well as their selectivity to suppress the formation of undesired by-products. Especially using these improved materials, photocatalytic NO_x abatement could prove a very valuable contributor to better air quality.

  2. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisuls, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The combustion of fuels, to meet the society demands for energy, result in the emissi of large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the environment. These pollutants cause severe environmental problems and present a serious hazard to the health. Nowadays, two methods for the control of NOx

  3. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  4. NOx Direct Decomposition: Potentially Enhanced Thermodynamics and Kinetics on Chemically Modified Ferroelectric Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2014-03-01

    NOx are regulated pollutants produced during automotive combustion. As part of an effort to design catalysts for NOx decomposition that operate in oxygen rich environment and permit greater fuel efficiency, we study chemistry of NOx on (001) ferroelectric surfaces. Changing the polarization at such surfaces modifies electronic properties and leads to switchable surface chemistry. Using first principles theory, our previous work has shown that addition of catalytic RuO2 monolayer on ferroelectric PbTiO3 surface makes direct decomposition of NO thermodynamically favorable for one polarization. Furthermore, the usual problem of blockage of catalytic sites by strong oxygen binding is overcome by flipping polarization that helps desorb the oxygen. We describe a thermodynamic cycle for direct NO decomposition followed by desorption of N2 and O2. We provide energy barriers and transition states for key steps of the cycle as well as describing their dependence on polarization direction. We end by pointing out how a switchable order parameter of substrate,in this case ferroelectric polarization, allows us to break away from some standard compromises for catalyst design(e.g. the Sabatier principle). This enlarges the set of potentially catalytic metals. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  5. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  6. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.386 Section 96.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR... Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  7. Response of Atmospheric Biomarkers to NOx-Induced Photochemistry Generated by Stellar Cosmic Rays for Earth-like Planets in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O3). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NOx production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O3 formation proceeds via the reaction O+O2+M→O3+M. At high NOx abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO2 photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O2). For the flaring case, O3 is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O3→NO2+O2, and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O3, Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O2, N2, and CO2) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O3 survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong case, whereas the biomarker

  8. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCount, R.

    1999-01-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  9. Evolution of coupled lives' dependency across generations and pricing impact

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Luciano; Jaap Spreeuw; Elena Vigna

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the dependence between coupled lives - both within and across generations - and its effects on prices of reversionary annuities in the presence of longevity risk. Longevity risk is represented via a stochastic mortality intensity. Dependence is modelled through copula functions. We consider Archimedean single and multi-parameter copulas. We find that dependence decreases when passing from older generations to younger generations. Not only the level of dependence but also it...

  10. OZONE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND NOX DEPLETION IN AN URBAN PLUME: INTERPRETATION OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EVALUATING O3-NOX-VOC SENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone production efficiency (OPE) can be defined as the number of ozone (O3) molecules photochemically produced by a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2) before it is lost from the NOx - O3 cycle. Here, we consider observational and modeling techniques to evaluate various operational defi...

  11. 40 CFR 76.12 - Phase I NOX compliance extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase I NOX compliance extension. 76.12 Section 76.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.12 Phase I NOX compliance extension. (a...

  12. NOx photocatalytic degradation employing concrete pavement containing titanium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, M.M.; Hunger, Martin; Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the degradation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by concrete paving stones containing TiO2 to be applied in road construction is studied. A kinetic model is proposed to describe the photocatalytic reaction of NOx (combining the degradation of NO and the appearance and disappearance of

  13. Inhibition of NAPDH Oxidase 2 (NOX2 Prevents Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Abnormalities Caused by Saturated Fat in Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy C Joseph

    Full Text Available Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity.

  14. Air Pollution Inequality and Its Sources in SO2 and NOX Emissions among Chinese Provinces from 2006 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Azimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates inequality in SO2 and NOX emissions, by observing their extraordinary levels and uneven distribution in China during the period of the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans (FYPs, 2006–2015. This provincial and regional analysis utilizing the Theil index and Kaya factors help us to find the trajectory of inequality and its primary sources. Based on our analysis, we conclude the driving factors behind emissions inequalities are as follows. There are four economic factors of per capita SO2 emission: SO2 emission intensity of coal consumption, coal intensity of power generation, power intensity of GDP, and per capita GDP. Additionally, there are four urban development factors of per capita NOX emission: NOX emission intensity of gasoline consumption, proportion of gasoline vehicles, vehicle use in urban population, and urbanization rate. The SO2 emission results represent an increase of 6% in overall inequality where the inequality of power intensity of GDP is the main contributor. In terms of NOX emission, the 3% growth in total inequality is related to the high effect of NOX emission intensity of gasoline consumption. We also examine the effect of other factors affecting the trajectory of inequalities. To apply these results in practice, we compare the 11th and 12th FYPs and give some policy suggestions.

  15. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-07-22

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets.

  16. Spouses’ Dependence across Generations and Pricing Impact on Reversionary Annuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Luciano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the dependence between coupled lives, i.e., the spouses’ dependence, across different generations, and its effects on prices of reversionary annuities in the presence of longevity risk. Longevity risk is represented via a stochastic mortality intensity. We find that a generation-based model is important, since spouses’ dependence decreases when passing from older generations to younger generations. The independence assumption produces quantifiable mispricing of reversionary annuities, with different effects on different generations. The research is conducted using a well-known dataset of double life contracts.

  17. Combination of two anti-CD5 monoclonal antibodies synergistically induces complement-dependent cytotoxicity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitgaard, Josephine L; Koefoed, Klaus; Geisler, Christian; Gadeberg, Ole V; Frank, David A; Petersen, Jørgen; Jurlander, Jesper; Pedersen, Mikkel W

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has been improved by introduction of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exert their effect through secondary effector mechanisms. CLL cells are characterized by expression of CD5 and CD23 along with CD19 and CD20, hence anti-CD5 Abs that engage secondary effector functions represent an attractive opportunity for CLL treatment. Here, a repertoire of mAbs against human CD5 was generated and tested for ability to induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) both as single mAbs and combinations of two mAbs against non-overlapping epitopes on human CD5. The results demonstrated that combinations of two mAbs significantly increased the level of CDC compared to the single mAbs, while no enhancement of ADCC was seen with anti-CD5 mAb combinations. High levels of CDC and ADCC correlated with low levels of Ab-induced CD5 internalization and degradation. Importantly, an anti-CD5 mAb combination enhanced CDC of CLL cells when combined with the anti-CD20 mAbs rituximab and ofatumumab as well as with the anti-CD52 mAb alemtuzumab. These results suggest that an anti-CD5 mAb combination inducing CDC and ADCC may be effective alone, in combination with mAbs against other targets or combined with chemotherapy for CLL and other CD5-expressing haematological or lymphoid malignancies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  19. NOx PREDICTION FOR FBC BOILERS USING EMPIRICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štefanica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable prediction of NOx emissions can provide useful information for boiler design and fuel selection. Recently used kinetic prediction models for FBC boilers are overly complex and require large computing capacity. Even so, there are many uncertainties in the case of FBC boilers. An empirical modeling approach for NOx prediction has been used exclusively for PCC boilers. No reference is available for modifying this method for FBC conditions. This paper presents possible advantages of empirical modeling based prediction of NOx emissions for FBC boilers, together with a discussion of its limitations. Empirical models are reviewed, and are applied to operation data from FBC boilers used for combusting Czech lignite coal or coal-biomass mixtures. Modifications to the model are proposed in accordance with theoretical knowledge and prediction accuracy.

  20. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Paul C; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H; Rao, Feng

    2016-03-29

    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular "glue," increasing cullin-CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL-CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL-CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924.

  1. Transport of nuclear materials as an international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartejsova, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The following companies are involved in this project: CEZ a.s., ALTA a.s., ALTA 32 s.r.o., DMS s.r.o., TVEL (RF), and NUKLON (RF). Transport containers are TK-S5 (for Temelin) and TK-S55 (for Dukovany) types. Details of fuel supplies for the 2 Czech NPPs are described and the fresh fuel element transport procedure is highlighted. (P.A.)

  2. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  3. Modeling of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) concentrations resulting from ships at berth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A; Elkamel, Ali; Al Balushi, Abdullah S; Al-Damkhi, Ali M; Siddiqui, Rafiq A

    2008-12-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from ships (marine vessels) contribute to poor air quality that negatively impacts public health and communities in coastal areas and far inland. These emissions often excessively harm human health, environment, wildlife habituates, and quality of life of communities and indigenous of people who live near ports. This study was conducted to assess the impact of NO(x) emissions origination from ships at berth on a nearby community. It was undertaken at Said Bin Sultan Naval base in Wullayat Al-Mussana (Sultanate of Oman) during the year 2005. The Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST) model was adopted to determine the dispersion of NO(x) into port and beyond into surrounding urban areas. The hourly and monthly contours (isopleths) of NO(x) concentrations in and around the port were plotted. The results were analyzed to determine the affected area and the level of NO(x) concentrations. The highest concentration points in the studied area were also identified. The isopleths of NO(x) indicated that most shipping emissions of NO(x) occur at the port can be transported over land. The output results can help to derive advice of recommendations ships operators and environmentalists to take the correct decision to prevent workers and surrounded environment from pollution.

  4. Assessing the influence of NOx concentrations and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol yields from α-pinene photo-oxidation through smog chamber experiments and modelling calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnweis, Lisa; Marcolli, Claudia; Dommen, Josef; Barmet, Peter; Frege, Carla; Platt, Stephen M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Krapf, Manuel; Slowik, Jay G.; Wolf, Robert; Prévôt, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad

    2017-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene were investigated in smog chamber (SC) experiments at low (23-29 %) and high (60-69 %) relative humidity (RH), various NOx / VOC ratios (0.04-3.8) and with different aerosol seed chemical compositions (acidic to neutralized sulfate-containing or hydrophobic organic). A combination of a scanning mobility particle sizer and an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to determine SOA mass concentration and chemical composition. We used a Monte Carlo approach to parameterize smog chamber SOA yields as a function of the condensed phase absorptive mass, which includes the sum of OA and the corresponding bound liquid water content. High RH increased SOA yields by up to 6 times (1.5-6.4) compared to low RH. The yields at low NOx / VOC ratios were in general higher compared to yields at high NOx / VOC ratios. This NOx dependence follows the same trend as seen in previous studies for α-pinene SOA. A novel approach of data evaluation using volatility distributions derived from experimental data served as the basis for thermodynamic phase partitioning calculations of model mixtures in this study. These calculations predict liquid-liquid phase separation into organic-rich and electrolyte phases. At low NOx conditions, equilibrium partitioning between the gas and liquid phases can explain most of the increase in SOA yields observed at high RH, when in addition to the α-pinene photo-oxidation products described in the literature, fragmentation products are added to the model mixtures. This increase is driven by both the increase in the absorptive mass and the solution non-ideality described by the compounds' activity coefficients. In contrast, at high NOx, equilibrium partitioning alone could not explain the strong increase in the yields with RH. This suggests that other processes, e.g. reactive uptake of semi-volatile species into the liquid phase, may occur and be

  5. NOx emission trade. What is the state-of-the-art?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkamp, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Leiden, Netherlands, 28 November 2002, a symposium was organized on the subject of NOx emission trade in preparation of a NOx emission trade system. In this article an overview is given of the developments so far [nl

  6. From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: second-generation ion-mediated nucleation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ions, which are generated in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays and other ionization sources, may play an important role in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In the paper, a new second-generation ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model is presented. The new model explicitly treats the evaporation of neutral and charged clusters and it describes the evolution of the size spectra and composition of both charged and neutral clusters/particles ranging from small clusters of few molecules to large particles of several micrometers in diameter. Schemes used to calculate the evaporation coefficients for small neutral and charged clusters are consistent with the experimental data within the uncertainty range. The present IMN model, which is size-, composition-, and type-resolved, is a powerful tool for investigating the dominant mechanisms and key parameters controlling the formation and subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. This model can be used to analyze simultaneous measurements of the ion-mobility spectra and particle size distributions, which became available only recently. General features of the spectra for ions smaller than the critical size, size-dependent fractions of charged nanoparticles, and asymmetrical charging of freshly nucleated particles predicted by the new IMN model are consistent with recent measurements. Results obtained using the second generation IMN model, in which the most recent thermodynamic data for neutral and charged H2SO4-H2O clusters were used, suggest that ion-mediated nucleation of H2SO4-H2O can lead to a significant production of new particles in the lower atmosphere (including the boundary layer under favorable conditions. It has been shown that freshly nucleated particles of few nanometers in size can grow by the condensation of low volatile organic compounds to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. In such cases, the chemical composition of nucleated particles larger than ~10 nm is dominated

  7. Influence of enhanced Asian NOx emissions on ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in chemistry–climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roy

    2017-01-01

    78.5 mW m−2 respectively. These elevated NOx emissions produce significant warming over the Tibetan Plateau and increase precipitation over India due to a strengthening of the monsoon Hadley circulation. However, increase in NOx emissions over India by 73 % (similar to the observed increase over China results in large ozone production over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Tibetan Plateau. The higher ozone concentrations, in turn, induce a reversed monsoon Hadley circulation and negative precipitation anomalies over India. The associated subsidence suppresses vertical transport of NOx and ozone into the ASM anticyclone.

  8. Heteropoly acid promoted catalyst for SCR of NOx with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gases. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a highly alkali metal resistant heteropoly acid promoted catalyst and the use of said catalyst for removal of NOx from exhaust or flue gases, said gases...... comprising alkali or earth alkali metals. Such gases comprise for example flue gases arising from the burning of biomass, combined biomass and fossil fuel, and from waste incineration units. The process comprises the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen...

  9. Ambient NOx concentrations in the UK, 1976-84: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.L.; Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.S.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes NOx concentration data obtained at Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) sites up to and including 1984. The statistics of NO and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed, and an extreme value analysis of upper-percentile NO/sub 2/ concentrations is presented. The seasonal behavior, diurnal averages, and weekday/weekend differences of NO and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in terms of the more-important sources of NOx and the mechanisms for the production and loss of NO/sub 2/. An investigation of the NO/sub 2//NOx relationship is presented.

  10. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  11. Iron mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent stimulation of calcium-induced pathways and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2011-04-15

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP.

  12. Blockage of NOX2/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway Protects Photoreceptors against Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute energy failure is one of the critical factors contributing to the pathogenic mechanisms of retinal ischemia. Our previous study demonstrated that glucose deprivation can lead to a caspase-dependent cell death of photoreceptors. The aim of this study was to decipher the upstream signal pathway in glucose deprivation- (GD- induced cell death. We mimicked acute energy failure by using glucose deprivation in photoreceptor cells (661W cells. GD-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring ROS with the DCFH-DA assay and HO-1 expression by Western blot analysis. The activation of NOX2/MAPK/NF-κB signal was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. The roles of these signals in GD-induced cell death were measured by using their specific inhibitors. Inhibition of Rac-1 and NOX2 suppressed GD-induced oxidative stress and protected photoreceptors against GD-induced cell death. NOX2 was an upstream signal in the caspase-dependent cell death cascade, yet the downstream MAPK pathways were activated and blocking MAPK signals rescued 661W cells from GD-induced death. In addition, GD caused the activation of NF-κB signal and inhibiting NF-κB significantly protected 661W cells. These observations may provide insights for treating retinal ischemic diseases and protecting retinal neurons from ischemia-induced cell death.

  13. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-05-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. Bacterial nitric oxide (NO) signaling via heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) proteins regulates biofilm formation, playing an important role in protecting bacteria from oxidative stress and other environmental stresses. Biofilms are also an important part of symbiosis, allowing the organism to remain in a

  14. Conventional kinesin KIF5B mediates adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ju, E-mail: juzi.cui@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Pang, Jing; Lin, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Ping; Gong, Huan [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Wang, Zai [Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jian; Cai, Jian-Ping [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Huang, Jian-Dong, E-mail: jdhuang@hku.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences and Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); The Centre for Synthetic Biology Engineering Research, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Tie-Mei, E-mail: tmzhang126@126.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China)

    2016-08-05

    Insulin stimulates adiponectin secretion and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in adipocyte to regulate metabolism homeostasis. Similar to GLUT4 translocation, intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the trans-Golgi network and endosomal system. Recent studies show that the heavy chain of conventional kinesin (KIF5B) mediates GLUT4 translocation in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, the motor machinery involved in mediating intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin is unknown. Here, we examined the role of KIF5B in the regulation of adiponectin secretion. The KIF5B level was up-regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This increase in cytosolic KIF5B was synchronized with the induction of adiponectin. Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colocalized at the peri-nuclear and cytosolic regions. In addition, adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. Knockdown of KIF5B resulted in a marked inhibition of adiponectin secretion and overexpression of KIF5B enhanced adiponectin release, whereas leptin secretion was not affected by changes in KIF5B expression. These data suggest that the secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B. - Highlights: • The KIF5B level was up regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. • Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colicalized. • Adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. • The secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B.

  15. Conventional kinesin KIF5B mediates adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ju; Pang, Jing; Lin, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Ping; Gong, Huan; Wang, Zai; Li, Jian; Cai, Jian-Ping; Huang, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin stimulates adiponectin secretion and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in adipocyte to regulate metabolism homeostasis. Similar to GLUT4 translocation, intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the trans-Golgi network and endosomal system. Recent studies show that the heavy chain of conventional kinesin (KIF5B) mediates GLUT4 translocation in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, the motor machinery involved in mediating intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin is unknown. Here, we examined the role of KIF5B in the regulation of adiponectin secretion. The KIF5B level was up-regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This increase in cytosolic KIF5B was synchronized with the induction of adiponectin. Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colocalized at the peri-nuclear and cytosolic regions. In addition, adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. Knockdown of KIF5B resulted in a marked inhibition of adiponectin secretion and overexpression of KIF5B enhanced adiponectin release, whereas leptin secretion was not affected by changes in KIF5B expression. These data suggest that the secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B. - Highlights: • The KIF5B level was up regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. • Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colicalized. • Adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. • The secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B.

  16. 29 CFR 1403.5 - Relations with State and local mediation agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relations with State and local mediation agencies. 1403.5 Section 1403.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.5 Relations with State and local mediation agencies. (a) If under State or local...

  17. The role of exercise dependence for the relationship between exercise behavior and eating pathology: mediator or moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian J; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2008-05-01

    Our study examined the potential mediating or moderating effect of exercise dependence on the exercise-eating pathology relationship. Female university students (N = 330) completed Internet-based self-report measures of exercise behavior, exercise dependence, and eating pathology. Exercise dependence served as a mediator for the relationship between exercise and eating pathology. This unidirectional causal model suggests that an individual's pathological motivation or compulsion to exercise is the critical mediating component in the exercise-eating pathology relationship. The best target for removing the link between exercise behavior and eating pathology may be reformulating exercise dependence symptoms.

  18. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. → However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. → Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tumor-associated, growth-related, and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase (tNOX) of the HeLa cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Cho, NaMi; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit prion-like properties. The two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. Here we report the expression, cloning, and characterization of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX). The cDNA sequence of 1830 bp is located on gene Xq25-26 with an open reading frame encoding 610 amino acids. The activities of the bacterially expressed tNOX oscillate with a period length of 22 min as is characteristic of tNOX activities in situ. The activities are inhibited completely by capsaicin, which represents a defining characteristic of tNOX activity. Functional motifs identified by site-directed mutagenesis within the C-terminal portion of the tNOX protein corresponding to the processed plasma membrane-associated form include quinone (capsaicin), copper and adenine nucleotide binding domains, and two cysteines essential for catalytic activity. Four of the six cysteine to alanine replacements retained enzymatic activity, but the period lengths of the oscillations were increased. A single protein with two alternating enzymatic activities indicative of a time-keeping function is unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

  20. Ultraviolet B preconditioning enhances the hair growth-promoting effects of adipose-derived stem cells via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kwack, Mi Hee; Yoon, Insoo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia induces the survival and regenerative potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), but there are tremendous needs to find alternative methods for ASC preconditioning. Therefore, this work investigated: (1) the ability of low-dose ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation to stimulate the survival, migration, and tube-forming activity of ASCs in vitro; (2) the ability of UVB preconditioning to enhance the hair growth-promoting capacity of ASCs in vivo; and (3) the mechanism of action for ASC stimulation by UVB. Although high-dose UVB decreased the proliferation of ASCs, low-dose (10 or 20 mJ/cm(2)) treatment increased their survival, migration, and tube-forming activity. In addition, low-dose UVB upregulated the expression of ASC-derived growth factors, and a culture medium conditioned by UVB-irradiated ASCs increased the proliferation of dermal papilla and outer root sheet cells. Notably, injection of UVB-preconditioned ASCs into C(3)H/HeN mice significantly induced the telogen-to-anagen transition and increased new hair weight in vivo. UVB treatment significantly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured ASCs, and inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) significantly attenuated UVB-induced ASC stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression was induced in ASCs by UVB irradiation, and Nox4 silencing by small interfering RNA, like DPI, significantly reduced UVB-induced ROS generation. These results suggest that the primary involvement of ROS generation in UVB-mediated ASC stimulation occurs via the Nox4 enzyme. This is the first indication that a low dose of UVB radiation and/or the control of ROS generation could potentially be incorporated into a novel ASC preconditioning method for hair regeneration.

  1. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation.

  2. Optical and Electronic NO(x) Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Cinzia; Elia, Angela; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Bruno, Giovanni; Losurdo, Maria; Garcia, Michael A; Wolter, Scott D; Brown, April; Ricco, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current production and emerging NO(x) sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NO(x) show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

  3. Nitric oxide signaling depends on biotin in Jurkat human lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2009-03-01

    Biotin affects gene expression through a diverse array of cell signaling pathways. Previous studies provided evidence that cGMP-dependent signaling also depends on biotin, but the mechanistic sequence of cGMP regulation by biotin is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effects of biotin in cGMP-dependent cell signaling are mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Human lymphoid (Jurkat) cells were cultured in media containing deficient (0.025 nmol/L), physiological (0.25 nmol/L), and pharmacological (10 nmol/L) concentrations of biotin for 5 wk. Both levels of intracellular biotin and NO exhibited a dose-dependent relationship in regard to biotin concentrations in culture media. Effects of biotin on NO levels were disrupted by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-monomethyl-arginine. Biotin-dependent production of NO was linked with biotin-dependent expression of endothelial and neuronal NOS, but not inducible NOS. Previous studies revealed that NO is an activator of guanylate cyclase. Consistent with these previous observations, biotin-dependent generation of NO increased the abundance of cGMP in Jurkat cells. Finally, the biotin-dependent generation of cGMP increased protein kinase G activity. Collectively, the results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that biotin-dependent cGMP signaling in human lymphoid cells is mediated by NO.

  4. Composite TiO{sub 2}/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Vaimakis, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, 451 10, Ioannina (Greece); Trapalis, C., E-mail: trapalis@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clays-supported TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are prepared by simple, scalable method. • Visible light active TiO{sub 2} is incorporated in hydrotalcite, talk and kunipia clays. • The alkali substrates facilitate the NOx adsorption to the photocatalytic surface. • Low-content TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts demonstrated high NOx oxidation activity. • Titania/hydrotalcite photocatalyst exhibited remarkable NOx removal activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO{sub 2} in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO{sub 2} and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania

  5. Assessment and identification of some novel NOx reducing reagents for SNCR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Javed, M.T.; Irfan, N.; Hamid, A. and K.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one of the most hazardous air pollutants arising from the combustion processes. Because of the implementation of strict emission limits many NOx removal technologies have been developed. In the present work post combustion NOx removal technique that is Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) has been investigated in a pilot scale 150 kW combustion rig facility. Investigation has been performed using some novel NOx reducing reagents like urea, ammonium carbonate and mixture of their 50%-50% aqueous solution within the temperature range of 700 to 1200 deg. C., at 1.1% excess oxygen and background NOx level of 500 ppm. The effects of these reagents were determined in term of their temperature characteristics and molar ratio. Among the reducing reagents used urea solution gave the highest NOx removal efficiency (81%) and was attractive due to its superior high temperature (1000 to 1150 deg. C) performance, ammonium carbonate was more effective at lower temperature range (850 to 950 deg. C) though its efficiency (32%) was lower than urea, while 50-50% solution of urea and ammonium carbonate gave higher efficiency than ammonium carbonate but slightly lesser than urea within a wide temperature range (875 to 1125 deg. C). It was also observed that the NOx removal efficiency was increased with increasing the molar ratio. (author)

  6. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naozumi eAraragi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert -/- and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2 -/- mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2 -/- mice and Sert -/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2 -/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert -/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, neurons from both Tph2 -/- and Sert -/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  7. BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L Miguel; Krönke, Martin; Kufer, Thomas A; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Kashkar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti-apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase-mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP-mediated immune response by inducing the BID-dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain-dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization. PMID:25056906

  8. Variability in operation-based NO(x) emission factors with different test routes, and its effects on the real-driving emissions of light diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Park, Junhong; Kwon, Sangil; Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the differences in NO(x) emissions between standard and non-standard driving and vehicle operating conditions, and to estimate by how much NO(x) emissions exceed the legislative emission limits under typical Korean road traffic conditions. Twelve Euro 3-5 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) manufactured in Korea were driven on a chassis dynamometer over the standard New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a representative Korean on-road driving cycle (KDC). NO(x) emissions, average speeds and accelerations were calculated for each 1-km trip segment, so called averaging windows. The results suggest that the NO(x) emissions of the tested vehicles are more susceptible to variations in the driving cycles than to those in the operating conditions. Even under comparable operating conditions, the NO(x) control capabilities of vehicles differ from each other, i.e., NO(x) control is weaker for the KDC than for the NEDC. The NO(x) emissions over the KDC for given vehicle operating conditions exceed those over the NEDC by more than a factor of 8. Consequently, on-road NO(x) emission factors are estimated here to exceed the Euro 5 emission limit by up to a factor of 8, 4 and 3 for typical Korean urban, rural, and motorway road traffic conditions, respectively. Our findings support the development of technical regulations for supplementary real-world emission tests for emission certification and the corresponding research actions taken by automotive industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ASCR{trademark}: lower NOx removal costs without sacrificing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, S.; Rummenhohl, V.; Siebeking, M.; Thomas, R.; Triece, C. [Fuel Tech (United States)

    2011-05-15

    With recent regulatory initiatives, the new Industrial Emissions Directive in Europe, and new rules being proposed by EPA in the USA, the question for power plants is now whether they will be required to reduce NOx emissions in the future to stay in operation, but when. What is needed is a low-capital-cost but high-performance NOx removal technology. 7 figs.

  11. Evaluation of an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sp. C2 for biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Weixian; Qiao, Yaqin; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-02

    NOx, a significant portion of fossil fuel flue gases, are among the most serious environmental issues in the world and must be removed in an additional costly gas treatment step. This study evaluated the growth of the green alga Chlorella sp. C2 under a nitrite-simulated NOx environment and the removal rates of actual flue gas fixed salts (FGFSs) from Sinopec's Shijiazhuang refinery along with lipid production. The results showed that nitrite levels lower than 176.5 mM had no significant adverse effects on the cell growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella sp. C2, demonstrating that this green alga could utilize nitrite and NOx as a nitrogen source. High concentrations of nitrite (88.25-176.5 mM) also resulted in the accumulation of neutral lipids. A 60% nitrite removal efficiency was obtained together with the production of 33% algae lipids when cultured with FGFS. Notably, the presence of nitrate in the FGFS medium significantly enhanced the nitrite removal capability, biomass and lipid production. Thus, this study may provide a new insight into the economically viable application of microalgae in the synergistic combination of biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases and biodiesel production.

  12. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, Noortje; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Novianti, Peppy; Hadiyono, Johana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-constr...

  13. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Noortje eVriends; Noortje eVriends; Monique C Pfaltz; Peppy eNovianti; Johana eHadiyono

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-const...

  14. Experiments and simulations of NOx formation in the combustion of hydroxylated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO2, CO, and CO2 and flame temperature profiles utilizing a rake of thermocouples were obtained in globally lean, swirling, liquid atomized spray flames inside a refractory-lined combustion chamber as a function of the atomizing air flow rate and swirl number. These experiments show significantly lower NOx formation with increasing fuel oxygen content despite similarities in the flame temperature profiles. By controlling the temperature profiles, the contribution to NOx formation through the thermal mechanism were matched, and variations in the contribution through non-thermal NOx formation pathways are observed. Simulations in a perfectly stirred reactor, at conditions representative of those measured within the combustion region, were conducted as a function of temperature and equivalence ratio. The simulations employed a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic model for NOx formation from hydroxylated fuels developed based on recent alcohol combustion models and extended to include polyol combustion chemistry. These simulations provide a qualitative comparison to the range of temperatures and equivalence ratios observed in complex swirling flows and provide insight into the influence of variations in the fuel decomposition pathways on NOx formation. It is observed that increasing the fuel bound oxygen concentration ultimately reduces the formation of NOx by increasing the proportion of fuel oxidized through formaldehyde, as opposed to acetylene or acetaldehyde. The subsequent

  15. NOx results from two combustors tested on medium BTU coal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, T. P.; Carl, D. E.; Vermes, G.; Schwab, J.; Notardonato, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of tests of two combustor configurations using coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are reported. The trials were run with a ceramic-lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannular swirl burner (MASB) using a range of temperatures and pressures representative of industrial turbine inlet conditions. A lean mixture was examined at 104, 197, and 254 Btu/Scf, yielding NO(x) emissions of 5, 20, and 70 ppmv, respectively. The MASB was employed only with a gas rated at 220-270 Btu/Scf, producing 80 ppmv NO(x) at rated engine conditions. The results are concluded to be transferrable to current machines. Further tests on the effects of gas composition, the scaling of combustors to utility size, and the development of improved wall cooling techniques and variable geometry are indicated.

  16. Global NOx emission estimates derived from an assimilation of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sudo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A data assimilation system has been developed to estimate global nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions using OMI tropospheric NO2 columns (DOMINO product and a global chemical transport model (CTM, the Chemical Atmospheric GCM for Study of Atmospheric Environment and Radiative Forcing (CHASER. The data assimilation system, based on an ensemble Kalman filter approach, was applied to optimize daily NOx emissions with a horizontal resolution of 2.8° during the years 2005 and 2006. The background error covariance estimated from the ensemble CTM forecasts explicitly represents non-direct relationships between the emissions and tropospheric columns caused by atmospheric transport and chemical processes. In comparison to the a priori emissions based on bottom-up inventories, the optimized emissions were higher over eastern China, the eastern United States, southern Africa, and central-western Europe, suggesting that the anthropogenic emissions are mostly underestimated in the inventories. In addition, the seasonality of the estimated emissions differed from that of the a priori emission over several biomass burning regions, with a large increase over Southeast Asia in April and over South America in October. The data assimilation results were validated against independent data: SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 columns and vertical NO2 profiles obtained from aircraft and lidar measurements. The emission correction greatly improved the agreement between the simulated and observed NO2 fields; this implies that the data assimilation system efficiently derives NOx emissions from concentration observations. We also demonstrated that biases in the satellite retrieval and model settings used in the data assimilation largely affect the magnitude of estimated emissions. These dependences should be carefully considered for better understanding NOx sources from top-down approaches.

  17. Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R. Mullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated.

  18. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  19. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  20. Exercise dependence as a mediator of the exercise and eating disorders relationship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Hausenblas, Heather; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exercise is a common feature of eating disorders (ED) and is associated with earlier ED onset, more ED symptoms, and higher persistence of ED behavior. Research indicates that exercise amount alone is not associated with ED. The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological attitudes and behaviors related to exercise (e.g., exercise dependence) as a mediator of the exercise and ED relationship. Participants were 43 women with an ED who completed measures of ED symptoms, exercise behavior, and exercise dependence. Analyses were conducted using the indirect bootstrapping method for examining mediation. Exercise dependence mediated the relationship between exercise and ED. This mediation model accounted for 14.34% of the variance in the relationship. Our results extend the literature by offering preliminary evidence of a psychological variable that may be a candidate for future interventions on the exercise and ED relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on diesel engine NOx emissions and cotton wick flame temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Zhing Sim Shu; Bilong Bugik Clarence

    2017-01-01

    As compared with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel has better lubricity and lower particulate matter (PM) emissions however nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generally increase in biodiesel-fuelled diesel engine. Strict regulation on NOx emissions is being implemented in current Euro 6 standard and it is expected to be tighter in next standard, thus increase of NOx cannot be accepted. In this study, biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on NOx emissions are investigated. Canola, palm and coco...

  2. NOx lifetimes and emissions of cities and power plants in polluted background estimated by satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to quantify NOx emissions and corresponding atmospheric lifetimes from OMI NO2 observations together with ECMWF wind fields without further model input for sources located in a polluted background. NO2 patterns under calm wind conditions are used as proxy for the spatial patterns of NOx emissions, and the effective atmospheric NOx lifetime is determined from the change of spatial patterns measured at larger wind speeds. Emissions are subsequently derived from the NO2 mass above the background, integrated around the source of interest. Lifetimes and emissions are estimated for 17 power plants and 53 cities located in non-mountainous regions across China and the USA. The derived lifetimes for the ozone season (May–September are 3.8 ± 1.0 h (mean ± standard deviation with a range of 1.8 to 7.5 h. The derived NOx emissions show generally good agreement with bottom-up inventories for power plants and cities. Regional inventory shows better agreement with top-down estimates for Chinese cities compared to global inventory, most likely due to different downscaling approaches adopted in the two inventories.

  3. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner Negatively Regulates Growth Hormone-mediated Induction of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through Inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) Transactivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Deuk; Li, Tiangang; Ahn, Seung-Won; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, In-Kyu; Chiang, John Y. L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key metabolic regulator mediating glucose and lipid metabolism. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase superfamily and regulates cell cycle progression. The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP: NR0B2) plays a pivotal role in regulating metabolic processes. Here, we studied the role of ATM on GH-dependent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the liver. GH induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase gene expression in primary hepatocytes. GH treatment and adenovirus-mediated STAT5 overexpression in hepatocytes increased glucose production, which was blocked by a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, dominant negative STAT5, and STAT5 knockdown. We identified a STAT5 binding site on the PEPCK gene promoter using reporter assays and point mutation analysis. Up-regulation of SHP by metformin-mediated activation of the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase pathway led to inhibition of GH-mediated induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was abolished by an ATM inhibitor, KU-55933. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that SHP physically interacted with STAT5 and inhibited STAT5 recruitment on the PEPCK gene promoter. GH-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis was decreased by either metformin or Ad-SHP, whereas the inhibition by metformin was abolished by SHP knockdown. Finally, the increase of hepatic gluconeogenesis following GH treatment was significantly higher in the liver of SHP null mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Overall, our results suggest that the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase-SHP network, as a novel mechanism for regulating hepatic glucose homeostasis via a GH-dependent pathway, may be a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. PMID:22977252

  4. Mediator-dependent Nuclear Receptor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Roeder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As gene-specific transcription factors, nuclear hormone receptors are broadly involved in many important biological processes. Their function on target genes requires the stepwise assembly of different coactivator complexes that facilitate chromatin remodeling and subsequent preinitiation complex (PIC) formation and function. Mediator has proved to be a crucial, and general, nuclear receptor-interacting coactivator, with demonstrated functions in transcription steps ranging from chromatin remodeling to subsequent PIC formation and function. Here we discuss (i) our current understanding of pathways that nuclear receptors and other interacting cofactors employ to recruit Mediator to target gene enhancers and promoters, including conditional requirements for the strong NR-Mediator interactions mediated by the NR AF2 domain and the MED1 LXXLLL motifs and (ii) mechanisms by which Mediator acts to transmit signals from enhancer-bound nuclear receptors to the general transcription machinery at core promoters to effect PIC formation and function. PMID:21854863

  5. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Decadal changes in global surface NOx emissions from multi-constituent satellite data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miyazaki

    2017-01-01

    underestimation of soil NOx sources in the emission inventories. Despite the large trends observed for individual regions, the global total emission is almost constant between 2005 (47.9 Tg N yr−1 and 2014 (47.5 Tg N yr−1.

  7. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  8. A hot-spot mutation in CDC42 (p.Tyr64Cys) and novel phenotypes in the third patient with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Midori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakatomi, Akiko; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Morifuji, Kanako; Sawada, Hirotake; Nishimura, Toyoki; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Dateki, Sumito

    2018-03-01

    Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome (TKS) is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by severe developmental delay, macrothrombocytopenia, camptodactyly, sensorineural hearing loss, and dysmorphic facial features. Recently, a heterozygous de novo mutation (p.Tyr64Cys) in the CDC42 gene, which encodes a key small GTP-binding protein of the Rho-subfamily, was identified in two unrelated patients with TKS. We herein report a third patient with TKS who had the same heterozygous CDC42 mutation. The phenotype of the patient was very similar to those of the two previously reported patients with TKS; however, she also demonstrated novel clinical manifestations, such as congenital hypothyroidism and immunological disturbance. Thus, despite the heterozygous mutation of CDC42 (p.Tyr64Cys) likely being a hot-spot mutation for TKS, its phenotype may be variable. Further studies and the accumulation of patients with CDC42 mutations are needed to clarify the phenotype in patients with TKS and the pathophysiological roles of the CDC42 mutation.

  9. Measurements and simulation for design optimization for low NOx coal-firing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bar-Ziv; Y. Yasur; B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker [Ben-Gurion University of Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    The information required to design a utility steam generator is the heat balance, fuel analysis and emission. These establish the furnace wall configuration, the heat release rates, and the firing technology. The furnace must be sized for (1) residence time for complete combustion with low NOx, and (2) reduction of flue gas temperature to minimize ash deposition. To meet these, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the combustion process in the furnace were performed and proven to be a powerful tool for this purpose. Still, reliable numerical simulations require careful interpretation and comparison with measurements. We report numerical results and measurements for a 575 MW pulverized coal tangential firing boiler of the Hadera power plant of Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). Measured and calculated values were found to be in reasonable agreement. We used the simulations for optimization and investigated temperature distribution, heat fluxes and concentration of chemical species. We optimized both the furnace flue gas temperature entering the convective path and the staged residence time for low NOx. We tested mass flow rates through close-coupled and separate overfire air ports and its arrangement and the coal powder fineness. These parameters can control the mixing rate between the fuel and the oxidizer streams and can affect the most important characteristics of the boiler such as temperature regimes, coal burning rate and nitrogen oxidation/reduction. From this effort, IEC started to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing typical tangential burners to low NOx firing system to ensure the current regulation requirements of emission pollutions.

  10. Regulation of basal and reserve cardiac pacemaker function by interactions of cAMP mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling with surface membrane channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Decades of intensive research of primary cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, have established potential roles of specific membrane channels in the generation of the diastolic depolarization, the major mechanism allowing sinoatrial node cells generate spontaneous beating. During the last three decades, multiple studies made either in the isolated sinoatrial node or sinoatrial node cells have demonstrated a pivotal role of Ca2+ and, specifically Ca2+-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, for spontaneous beating of cardiac pacemaker. Recently, spontaneous, rhythmic local subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases from ryanodine receptors during late half of the diastolic depolarization have been implicated as a vital factor in the generation of sinoatrial node cells spontaneous firing. Local Ca2+ releases are driven by a unique combination of high basal cAMP production by adenylyl cyclases, high basal cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases and a high level of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent phosphorylation. These local Ca2+ releases activate an inward Na+-Ca2+ exchange current which accelerates the terminal diastolic depolarization rate and, thus, controls the spontaneous pacemaker firing. Both the basal primary pacemaker beating rate and its modulation via β-adrenergic receptor stimulation appear to be critically dependent upon intact RyR function and local subsarcolemmal sarcoplasmic reticulum generated Ca2+ releases. This review aspires to integrate the traditional viewpoint that has emphasized the supremacy of the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels in spontaneous firing of the primary cardiac pacemaker, and these novel perspectives of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling in regulation of the heart pacemaker clock, both in the basal state and during β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. PMID:19573534

  11. Composite TiO2/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D.; Vaimakis, T.; Trapalis, C.

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO2 in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO2). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al3+ and Ca2+ intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO2 and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania under both types of irradiation. Significant visible light activity was recorded for the composites containing urea-modified titania that was accredited to the N-doping of the semiconductor. Among the different substrates, the hydrotalcite caused highest increase in the NOx removal, while among the intercalation ions the Ca2+ was more efficient. The results were related to the improved dispersion of the TiO2 and the synergetic activity of the substrates as NOx adsorbers.

  12. The effect of coal-fired power-plant SO2 and NOx control technologies on aerosol nucleation in the source plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2012-12-01

    the cleaner test day in 2000. Finally, we calculate particle-formation statistics of 330 coal-fired power plants in the US in 1997 and 2010, and the model results show a median decrease of 19% in particle formation rates from 1997 to 2010 (whereas the W. A. Parish case study showed an increase. Thus, the US power plants, on average, show a different result than was found for the W. A. Parish plant specifically, and it shows that the strong NOx controls (90% reduction implemented at the W. A. Parish plant (with relatively weak SO2 emissions reductions, 30% are not representative of most power plants in the US during the past 15 yr. These results suggest that there may be important climate implications of power-plant controls due to changes in plume chemistry and microphysics, but the magnitude and sign of the aerosol changes depend greatly on the relative reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions in each plant. More extensive plume measurements for a range of emissions of SO2 and NOx and in varying background aerosol conditions are needed, however, to better quantify these effects.

  13. Kinetics of the membrane current mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijt, H.C.; Plomp, J.J.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    1. Ionic currents mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors were studied in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115, using suction pipettes for intracellular perfusion and voltage clamp recording. The dependence of the kinetics of the membrane current on serotonin concentration was investigated. 2. At

  14. Zinc-Dependent Protection of Tobacco and Rice Cells From Aluminum-Induced Superoxide-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cun; Hara, Ayaka; Comparini, Diego; Bouteau, François; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Al3+ toxicity in growing plants is considered as one of the major factors limiting the production of crops on acidic soils worldwide. In the last 15 years, it has been proposed that Al3+ toxicity are mediated with distortion of the cellular signaling mechanisms such as calcium signaling pathways, and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative damages. On the other hand, zinc is normally present in plants at high concentrations and its deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in plants. Earlier studies suggested that lack of zinc often results in ROS-mediated oxidative damage to plant cells. Previously, inhibitory action of Zn2+ against lanthanide-induced superoxide generation in tobacco cells have been reported, suggesting that Zn2+ interferes with the cation-induced ROS production via stimulation of NADPH oxidase. In the present study, the effect of Zn2+ on Al3+-induced superoxide generation in the cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cell-line, BY-2) and rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Nipponbare), was examined. The Zn2+-dependent inhibition of the Al3+-induced oxidative burst was observed in both model cells selected from the monocots and dicots (rice and tobacco), suggesting that this phenomenon (Al3+/Zn2+ interaction) can be preserved in higher plants. Subsequently induced cell death in tobacco cells was analyzed by lethal cell staining with Evans blue. Obtained results indicated that presence of Zn2+ at physiological concentrations can protect the cells by preventing the Al3+-induced superoxide generation and cell death. Furthermore, the regulation of the Ca2+ signaling, i.e., change in the cytosolic Ca2+ ion concentration, and the cross-talks among the elements which participate in the pathway were further explored. PMID:26648960

  15. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  16. The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zatko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use observations of the absorption properties of black carbon and non-black carbon impurities in near-surface snow collected near the research stations at South Pole and Dome C, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland, combined with a snowpack actinic flux parameterization to estimate the vertical profile and e-folding depth of ultraviolet/near-visible (UV/near-vis actinic flux in the snowpack at each location. We have developed a simple and broadly applicable parameterization to calculate depth and wavelength dependent snowpack actinic flux that can be easily integrated into large-scale (e.g., 3-D models of the atmosphere. The calculated e-folding depths of actinic flux at 305 nm, the peak wavelength of nitrate photolysis in the snowpack, are 8–12 cm near the stations and 15–31 cm away (>11 km from the stations. We find that the e-folding depth is strongly dependent on impurity content and wavelength in the UV/near-vis region, which explains the relatively shallow e-folding depths near stations where local activities lead to higher snow impurity levels. We calculate the lifetime of NOx in the snowpack interstitial air produced by photolysis of snowpack nitrate against wind pumping (τwind pumping from the snowpack, and compare this to the calculated lifetime of NOx against chemical conversion to HNO3 (τchemical to determine whether the NOx produced at a given depth can escape from the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere. Comparison of τwind pumping and τchemical suggests efficient escape of photoproduced NOx in the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere throughout most of the photochemically active zone. Calculated vertical actinic flux profiles and observed snowpack nitrate concentrations are used to estimate the potential flux of NOx from the snowpack. Calculated NOx fluxes of 4.4 × 108–3.8 × 109 molecules cm−2 s−1 in remote polar locations and 3.2–8.2 × 108 molecules cm−2 s−1 near polar stations for January at Dome C and

  17. A rate based reactor model for BiodeNOx absorber units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, J. G. M.; Gambardella, F.; Heeres, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    The reactive absorption of NO in aqueous solutions of Fe-II(EDTA), resulting in the formation of a nitrosyl complex, Fe-II(EDTA)(NO), is a key step of the BiodeNOx process for the removal of NOx from industrial flue gas. Oxygen present in the flue gas will also absorb and oxidize Fe-II(EDTA). This

  18. Type approval and real-world CO_2 and NO_x emissions from EU light commercial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharof, Nikiforos; Tietge, Uwe; Franco, Vicente; Mock, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, light duty vehicles (LDVs) are subject to emission targets for carbon dioxide (CO_2) and limits for pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NO_x). CO_2 emissions are regulated for both passenger vehicles (PV) and light commercial vehicles (LCV), as individual manufacturers are required to reach fleet averages of 130 g/km by 2015 and 175 g/km by 2017, respectively. In the case of PVs, it has been found that there is a significant divergence between real-world and type-approval CO_2 emissions, which has been increasing annually, reaching 40% in 2014. On-road exceedances of regulated NO_x emission limits for diesel passenger cars have also been documented. The current study investigated the LCV characteristics and CO_2 and NO_x emissions in the European Union. A vehicle market analysis found that LCVs comprise 17% of the diesel LDV market and while there were some data for CO_2 emissions, there were hardly any data publicly available for NO_x emissions. Monitoring the divergence in CO_2 emissions revealed that it increased from 14% in 2006 to 33% in 2014, posing an additional annual fuel cost from 120€ in 2006 to 305€ in 2014, while a significant percentage of Euro 5 vehicles exceeded NO_x emission standards. - Highlights: • Light commercial vehicles comprise 17% of diesel light duty vehicle market. • On-road CO_2 emissions were found to be on average 33% higher than compared to type approval measurements. • The annual additional fuel cost due to the on-road and type approval divergence is estimated at 400€. • Data indicates exceedances in on-road NO_x emissions. • Little attention has been given to light commercial vehicles compared to passenger vehicles.

  19. Photocatalytic removal of nitrogen oxides from ambient air using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita taikichu no NOx no hikari shokubai jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, M; Taoda, H; Watanabe, E; Nonami, T; Iseda, K; Kato, K [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan); Kunieda, S [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Kato, S

    1997-11-25

    Experiment was made on removal of NOx from ambient air using ceramic blocks coated with a newly developed easy-to- handle TiO2 film photocatalyst. After TiO2 sol was prepared by hydrolyzing titanium tetraisopropoxide, the photocatalytic blocks were prepared through drying and sintering after immersing the blocks in TiO2 sol. The effect of the number of coating on catalytic performance was studied using the single-coated and triple-coated blocks. Artificial solar light of 1mW/cm{sup 2} was used as light source for flowing reaction experiment of air (containing NOx) in a laboratory. NOx concentration rapidly decreased with irradiation, and 94% and 98% of NOx were removed by the single- and triple-coated blocks, respectively. NOx was completely oxidized to HNO3 through NO2 by triple-coated blocks. The demonstration test of removal of NOx from ambient air in Okazaki city showed a removal rate of nearly 90% in noonday and 40% or more in average, while not 0% but 5-20% even in the nighttime. The latter is probably derived from adsorption by the porous photocatalytic blocks. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  1. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  2. Toluene decomposition performance and NOx by-product formation during a DBD-catalyst process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Liao, Xiaobin; Fu, Mingli; Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of toluene decomposition and formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by-products were investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with/without catalyst at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Four kinds of metal oxides, i.e., manganese oxide (MnOx), iron oxide (FeOx), cobalt oxide (CoOx) and copper oxide (CuO), supported on Al2O3/nickel foam, were used as catalysts. It was found that introducing catalysts could improve toluene removal efficiency, promote decomposition of by-product ozone and enhance CO2 selectivity. In addition, NOx was suppressed with the decrease of specific energy density (SED) and the increase of humidity, gas flow rate and toluene concentration, or catalyst introduction. Among the four kinds of catalysts, the CuO catalyst showed the best performance in NOx suppression. The MnOx catalyst exhibited the lowest concentration of O3 and highest CO2 selectivity but the highest concentration of NOx. A possible pathway for NOx production in DBD was discussed. The contributions of oxygen active species and hydroxyl radicals are dominant in NOx suppression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mutagenic atmospheres resulting from the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbon and NOx mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Theran P.; DeMarini, David M.; Zavala, Jose; Warren, Sarah H.; Corse, Eric W.; Offenberg, John H.; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Lewandowski, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Although many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated to limit air pollution and the consequent health effects, the photooxidation products generally are not. Thus, we examined the mutagenicity in Salmonella TA100 of photochemical atmospheres generated in a steady-state atmospheric simulation chamber by irradiating mixtures of single aromatic VOCs, NOx, and ammonium sulfate seed aerosol in air. The 10 VOCs examined were benzene; toluene; ethylbenzene; o-, m-, and p-xylene; 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene; m-cresol; and naphthalene. Salmonella were exposed at the air-agar interface to the generated atmospheres for 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h. Dark-control exposures produced non-mutagenic atmospheres, illustrating that the gas-phase precursor VOCs were not mutagenic at the concentrations tested. Under irradiation, all but m-cresol and naphthalene produced mutagenic atmospheres, with potencies ranging from 2.0 (p-xylene) to 11.4 (ethylbenzene) revertants m3 mgC-1 h-1. The mutagenicity was due exclusively to direct-acting late-generation products of the photooxidation reactions. Gas-phase chemical analysis showed that a number of oxidized organic chemical species enhanced during the irradiated exposure experiments correlated (r ≥ 0.81) with the mutagenic potencies of the atmospheres. Molecular formulas assigned to these species indicated that they likely contained peroxy acid, aldehyde, alcohol, and other functionalities.

  4. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD

  5. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  6. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines.