Sample records for tiwanaku az-140 az-6

  1. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo


    The study of the human past needs the effort of different disciplines including history, archaeology and non invasive imaging techniques such geophysics whose application for cultural heritage has been dramatically increasing in the last two decades. The capability of geophysical techniques in identifying subsurface features of cultural interest depends on: 1) the nature of the physical interaction between the archaeological residues and its surrounding; 2) the performance of geophysical sensors, including Ground Penetrating radar (GPR), magnetometry, electrical resistivity along with other earth observation imaging systems (SAR, LiDAR, multispectral remote sensing); 3) the knowledge of the expected features of cultural interest to be detected. A correct approach must necessarily take into account these three factors on which depends the success of any preventive archaeological investigation based on geophysical prospecting techniques and remote sensing [1]. Such approach characterized the scientific researches performed by ITACA Mission of CNR in Southern America, since 2008, aimed at discovering unknown prehispanic sites, mapping historical settlements and monitoring archaeological heritage affected by man-made and natural risks [2-5]. One of the sites recently investigated by ITACA Mission is Tiwanaku, which is located on a valley at 3880 m above sea level, near the southern shoreline of the Titicaca Lake, in Bolivia. Tiwanaku was center of a prehispanic civilization which influenced large territories of south-central Andes from 500 to 1150 AD [6-7]. The available archaeological records attest a long human frequentation divided in three phases. In the first one (100 BC-AD 500), Tiwanaku emerged as major regional center. In the second one (AD 500-1150), it became a densely inhabited center with a political and economic leading role in the southern-central Andean region which ended around 1000 AD due to a long-term drought. Finally, in the third phase (AD 1150

  2. Evidence for the Intensification of Ritual Activity: State Strategy at the Tiwanaku Colony of Isla Esteves, Puno, Peru


    Hill, Kevin Bassett


    Ceramic evidence from the island site of Isla Esteves in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru sheds new light on the expansion of the Tiwanaku state during its regional period of selective colonization (CE 600-1000). As a Tiwanaku colony, Isla Esteves exhibits an intriguing mix of ceramics from the local Huaña tradition as well as both imported and locally manufactured Tiwanaku forms. Kero vessels, which played a central role in Tiwanaku communal ritual, are particularly abundant. While the da...

  3. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru. (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J


    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa


    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  5. The Location of Lake Titicaca's Coastal Area During the Tiwanaku and Inca Periods: Methodology and Strategies of Underwater Archaeology (United States)

    Delaere, Christophe


    For more than 30 years, numerous research projects have revealed the dense and complex human settlement of the lacustrine basin of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru. Physical evidence of such establishments has been discovered in plains, valleys, and highlands connected to the lake. These remains confirm human occupation and development in this environment, particularly during the Tiwanaku (AD 500-1150) and Inca (AD 1400-1532) Periods. The research project discussed in this paper includes consideration of submerged areas through underwater archaeology. This investigation involves analysis of two areas that have evidence of ancient human occupation but are poorly documented: the coastal and lacustrine regions. Due to its dominance in the landscape, Lake Titicaca has always been a major feature in the life and identity of populations of this vicinity. These inhabitants have developed socio-economic and ritual behaviours directly associated with the lake that have left cultural and material prints that are the foci of the present study.

  6. Tiwanaku influence and social inequality: A bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and contextual analysis of the Larache cemetery, San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Pestle, William J; Stovel, Emily M


    To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources. Radiogenic strontium isotope values show the presence of multiple first generation migrants at Larache. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data reveal significant differences among individuals. The mortuary context reveals a standard pattern for the oases but also includes a series of unusual burials with abundant gold and few other objects. Interestingly, both local and nonlocal individuals with different head shapes had access to the differentiated burial context; however nonlocal individuals appear to be the only ones with a heavily maize-based diet. Our evidence shows that Larache served as a burial place for a diverse, yet culturally integrated and potentially elite segment of the Atacameño population, but not a foreign enclave as had been postulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Tiwanaku ( Titikaka Lake, Bolivia ) and Alberite Dolmen (Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ritual ear” and another “ritual ears” observed in Alberite Dolmen (southern Spain, 7,000 years ago) are described. Functionality of these stone carved “ears” is related to amplifying voice and communication between shaman/priest and prayers.

  8. Tiwanaku (Titikaka Lake, Bolivia) and Alberite Dolmen (Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Antonio Arnaiz-Villena is presently Head of Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. He has been as Research Fellow in the Middlesex. Hospital and The London Hospital, London, UK for 9 years. He has published more than 300 papers in international magazines and 8 ...

  9. Multiethnicity, pluralism, and migration in the south central Andes: An alternate path to state expansion. (United States)

    Goldstein, Paul S


    The south central Andes is known as a region of enduring multiethnic diversity, yet it is also the cradle of one the South America's first successful expansive-state societies. Social structures that encouraged the maintenance of separate identities among coexistent ethnic groups may explain this apparent contradiction. Although the early expansion of the Tiwanaku state (A.D. 600-1000) is often interpreted according to a centralized model derived from Old World precedents, recent archaeological research suggests a reappraisal of the socio-political organization of Tiwanaku civilization, both for the diversity of social entities within its core region and for the multiple agencies behind its wider program of agropastoral colonization. Tiwanaku's sociopolitical pluralism in both its homeland and colonies tempers some of archaeology's global assumptions about the predominant role of centralized institutions in archaic states.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... No 5 (2012) - Articles Iberian-Tartessian scripts/graffiti in Iruna-Veleia (Basque Country, North Spain): findings in both Iberia and Canary Islands-Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 6 (2013) - Articles Tiwanaku (Titikaka Lake, Bolivia) and Alberite Dolmen (Southern Spain) ritual “ears” Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 7 (2014) - Articles

  11. Archaeological Geophysics for DoD Field Use: A Guide for New and Novice Users (United States)


    top image: imported andesite cobbles are scattered about the surface in this area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia), adding clutter to the data, but careful... Rubber mallet. A mallet or hammer makes pounding in stakes easier, and one made of rubber is less likely to damage them. Rubber mallets often include some

  12. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark


    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Set Convergences In Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization (Abstracts) (Convergences en Analyse Multivoque et Unilaterale (Resumes de Conferences), (United States)


    approximation, P.-L. Papini ed., Pitagora Editrice, Bologna, 90-110, 1989. [Az-P.2] D. Az6 and J.-P. Penot, Operations on convergent families of sets...Giorgi, E. Magenes, U. Mosco. Pitagora , Bologna, 131-188, 1979. [D-L] I. Del Prete et M.B. Lignola, On convergence of closed-valued multifunctions, Boll...Approximation", Bagni di Lucca, May 1988, P.L. Papini, ed. Pitagora , Bologna (1988). [6) D. Az6 and J.-P. Penot, Qualitative results about the convergence of

  14. Prehistoric psychotropic consumption in Andean Chilean mummies


    Juan P. Ogalde; Bernardo T. Arriaza; Elia Soto


    Hallucinogenic plants are often regarded as the main source of psychoactive drugs in antiquity to reach deep altered states of consciousness^1,2^. Many researchers believe this was particularly true during the Tiwanaku empire expansion, circa (500-1000 A.D.), along the Atacama Desert of Chile. Highly decorated snuffing tablets and tubes are often found as grave goods during this period^3,4,5,6,7,8^. Until now the type of drugs consumed in this paraphernalia has been unclear. From the modern c...

  15. Craniofacial chronological microdifferentiation of human prehistoric populations of the Azapa valley, northern Chile Microdiferenciación cronológica craneofacial de poblaciones humanas prehistóricas del Valle de Azapa, norte de Chile

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    Full Text Available Archeological evidence suggest that the cultural developments occurred in the highlands around lake Titicaca in the Central Andes, exerted influence on the cultural elaborations of the human groups that peopled the valley of Azapa, close to the city of Arica, and the Pacific coast of northern Chile. In this communication we show by means of a distance analysis, that a craniofacial differentiation accompanied the process of cultural evolution in the valley. The biological influence of Tiwanaku is partially reflected in craniofacial morphology, providing preliminary evidence that cultural changes were associated to intermittent gene flow from the highlands, specially during the Alto Ramírez and San Miguel phasesLos desarrollos culturales ocurridos en el altiplano en el área circumtiticaca en los Andes centrales, ejercieron influencia sobre las elaboraciones culturales de los grupos humanos que poblaban el Valle de Azapa cercano a la ciudad de Arica y la costa del norte de Chile. En esta comunicación presentamos un análisis de distancias que demostró que una diferenciación craniofacial acompaño en el valle el proceso de evolución cultural. La influencia biológica de Tiwanaku se refleja parcialmente en la morfología craniofacial, proporcionando evidencia preliminar de que los cambios culturales en el valle se realizaron acompañados de flujo génico intermitente desde el altiplano, especialmente durante las fases Alto Ramírez y San Miguel

  16. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V


    The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratio $A/Z$ being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17 $Z/A$ keV/m.u.

  17. Burning down the brewery: Establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E.; Nash, Donna J.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; deFrance, Susan D.; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario


    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  18. El Amaru como emblema de los Incas del Cusco (siglos XVI - XVII

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    Margarita E. Gentile


    Full Text Available Este artículo aporta a los estudios andinos de convergencia de creencias prehispánicas y europeas el estudio y análisis de dos casos, su continuidad y adaptación en espacio y tiempo. El tema central es la frontera Este de los Andes durante el Tahuantinsuyu, graficada mediante las boas que poblaban esa región. Los constantes intentos de paliar los cataclismos –que se creía producían con sus movimientos– datan de varios siglos antes que Pachacutec refundase el Cusco y el éxito de las tecnologías implementadas cada vez (Chavín, Tiwanaku, Inka y sus epígonos dejaron su marca en la línea del tiempo prehispánico.

  19. Arthur Posnansky y su Obsesion Milenaria. Biografia lntelectual de un Pionero, by Carlos Ponce Sangines, 1994, La Paz: Producciones Cima

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    David L. Browman


    Full Text Available Ponce proposes to develop an intellectual history of Posnansky, whom many view as the father of Bolivian archaeology, which he hopes will contribute to the establishment of context for the development of local prehistory. However, for the most part, the volume serves more as a foil for Ponce to refer to his own work and publications, as they update, contradict, and improve on the earlier archaeological reconstructions of Posnansky. Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946 was an important contributor to Bolivian culture history, being not only a pioneer in Bolivian archaeology, but also in Bolivian cinematography, in the development of the national park system, and in the introduction of the first automobile into Bolivia. He was trained as a naval engineer in his native Vienna, a skill which he quickly parlayed into a fortune in Bolivia in the rubber boom, in terms of transporting the latex by river transport. With the loss of Arce to Brazil in 1903, he shifted his focus to other fields. He brought the first gasoline-powered motorboat to Lake Titicaca that year, and while visiting the excavations of the French Crequi-Montfort and Senechal de La Grange Mission, under the direction of George Courty, during trips to the lake, he became very intrigued with the site of Tiwanaku and its place in Bolivian prehistory. Posnansky shortly thereafter began his extensive collection of material artifacts from Tiwanaku, constructing the -"Palacio Tihuanacu" in 1917-1918 to house the stela, ceramics and other materials which he collected. This structure and its collections were subsequently sold to the state, becoming the current Museo Nacional de Arqueologia.

  20. External ear canal exostosis and otitis media in temporal bones of prehistoric and historic chilean populations. A paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study. (United States)

    Castro, Mario; Goycoolea, Marcos; Silva-Pinto, Verónica


    External ear canal exostosis is more prevalent in northern coastal groups than in the highlands, suggesting that ocean activities facilitate the appearance of exostosis. However, southern coastal groups exposed to colder ocean water have a lesser incidence of exostosis, possibly due to less duration of exposure. There was a high incidence of otitis media in all groups of native population in Chile. One coastal group had a higher incidence, presumably due to racial factors. This is a paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study in temporal bones which assesses external ear canal exostosis and otitis media in prehistoric and historic native populations in Chile. A total of 460 temporal bones were evaluated for exostosis (ex) and 542 temporal bones were evaluated for otitis media (om). The study involved four groups: (1) Prehistoric Coastal (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (Pisagua-Tiwanaku) (22 temporal bones ex; 28 om); (2) Prehistoric Highland (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (292 temporal bones ex; 334 om); (3) Pisagua-Regional Developments (coastal) in Northern Chile (1000-1450 AD) (66 temporal bones ex; 82 om); and (4) Historic (1500-1800 AD) coastal populations in Southern Chile (80 temporal bones ex: 18 Chonos, 62 Fuegians. 98 om: 22 Chonos, 76 Fuegians). Skulls were evaluated visually and with an operating microscope. In addition, the otitis media group was evaluated with Temporal bone radiology - -lateral XRays-Schuller view - to assess pneumatization as evidence of previous middle ear disease. Prehistoric northern coastal groups had an incidence of exostosis of 15.91%, the northern highlands group 1.37%, and the southern coastal group 1.25%. There were changes suggestive of otitis media in: Pisagua/Tiwanaku 53.57%; Pisagua/Regional Developments 70.73%; Northern Highlands population 47.90%; Chonos 63.64%; and Fuegian tribes 64.47%.

  1. The Role of the Army in the War on Drugs. (United States)


    6uppte6,.on and itehdiction ej6o’.t,6 again6t ci~vitian miina etemen-th. It w&it aZ-6o exptote the 6eui~bitity o6 -that totCe i-n viLew o6 cuAv~ en -t...trafficking routes for drugs flowing from South America 9 across the southeast border of the United States. Mexico is a principal source or transit...Customs Service, S concerned and fully aware of its limitations in halting airborne 5 V 1%,. "The Colombian Connection" Colombian Marihuana Trafficking via

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

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    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  3. Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru. (United States)

    Schultze, Carol A; Stanish, Charles; Scott, David A; Rehren, Thilo; Kuehner, Scott; Feathers, James K


    Archaeological excavations at a U-shaped pyramid in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru have documented a continuous 5-m-deep stratigraphic sequence of metalworking remains. The sequence begins in the first millennium AD and ends in the Spanish Colonial period ca. AD 1600. The earliest dates associated with silver production are 1960 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. 40 BC to AD 120) and 1870 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. AD 60 to 240) representing the oldest known silver smelting in South America. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of production debris indicate a complex, multistage, high temperature technology for producing silver throughout the archaeological sequence. These data hold significant theoretical implications including the following: (i) silver production occurred before the development of the first southern Andean state of Tiwanaku, (ii) the location and process of silverworking remained consistent for 1,500 years even though political control of the area cycled between expansionist states and smaller chiefly polities, and (iii) that U-shaped structures were the location of ceremonial, residential, and industrial activities.

  4. Pre-Inca Astronomy in Peru (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Huacas (shrines) and ushnus (ceremonial platforms) are ever-present elements of millennia-old Andean cosmology extending backward to 3100 BCE. Major themes of Pan-Andean cosmology include sacred mountains, the power of water, the solstice sun, as well as shamanic-like movement across the three worlds of the cosmos. Common features of many pre-Inca sites are monumental platforms and sunken circular plazas, and stairways with axes established by bi-lateral symmetries oriented along solstice lines. This style of ritual architecture first appeared in Chupacigarro/Caral, other sites in the Norte Chico area, and Sechin Bajo in the Casma Valley. Ceremonial plazas provided opportunities for public viewing of ritual ceremonies on the tops of platforms, which may have been understood as sacred mountains. Mounds and temples of the Casma Valley, such as Sechin Alto, Sechin Bajo, and Chankillo, developed an explicit astronomy associated with June and December solstices. The ritualistic use of water, which is typically associated with visual astronomy at Inca sites, appeared at Chavin de Huantar and later in Tiwanaku.

  5. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru. (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus


    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  6. Le lac Titicaca: histoire perdue d'une mer intérieure

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    Full Text Available Cet article tente de reconstruire l’histoire de la région du lac Titicaca et de son peuplement pour la période précédant l’arrivée des espagnols. Á cet effet, nous avons utilisé une approche multidisciplinaire (sédimentologie, archéologie, mythologie qui autorise, depuis l’amont et dans la longue durée, un nouvel éclairage des données historiques du XVIe siècle. Malgré les changements climatiques et politiques ayant affecté les rives du Titicaca avant la Conquête espagnole, il existe une continuité historique qui va de la civilisation de Pukará à Hatuncolla en passant par Tiwanaku. Si la documentation espagnole ne rend pas compte de l’importance des anciennes populations riveraines et notamment des pukinas, c’est qu’il était de l’intérêt des envahisseurs successifs (aymaras, incas, espagnols de l’occulter. EL LAGO TITICACA: HISTORIA PERDIDA DE UN MAR INTERIOR. Este artículo constituye un intento de reconstrucción de la historia del lago Titicaca y de su poblamiento por el período que precede la llegada de los españoles. En esta perspectiva, hemos utilizado una aproximación multidisciplinaria (sedimentología, arqueología, mitología que autoriza una nueva lectura de las fuentes históricas del siglo XVI, a partir de datos remotos y en la larga duración. A pesar de los cambios climáticos y políticos que afectaron las orillas del Titicaca antes de la Conquista española, existe una continuidad histórica que va de la cultura de Pukará hasta Hatuncolla (pasando por Tiwanaku. Si la documentación española no toma en cuenta la importancia de las antiguas poblaciones lacustres, particularmente los pukinas, es porque el interés de sus sucesivos vencedores (aymara, incas, españoles era de ocultarla. THE TITICACA LAKE: HISTORY LOST IN THE CENTER OF A DEEP IMMENSITY. This article comprises an attempt to reconstruct the Titicaca Lake history and its colonization during the period preceding the Spanish arrival. On

  7. The genetic history of indigenous populations of the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano: the legacy of the Uros. (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Lacerda, Daniela R; Jota, Marilza S A; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R


    The Altiplano region of the South American Andes is marked by an inhospitable climate to which the autochthonous human populations adapted and then developed great ancient civilizations, such as the Tiwanaku culture and the Inca Empire. Since pre-Columbian times, different rulers established themselves around the Titicaca and Poopo Lakes. By the time of the arrival of Spaniards, Aymara and Quechua languages were predominant on the Altiplano under the rule of the Incas, although the occurrence of other spoken languages, such as Puquina and Uruquilla, suggests the existence of different ethnic groups in this region. In this study, we focused on the pre-Columbian history of the autochthonous Altiplano populations, particularly the Uros ethnic group, which claims to directly descend from the first settlers of the Andes, and some linguists suggest they might otherwise be related to Arawak speaking groups from the Amazon. Using phylogeographic, population structure and spatial genetic analyses of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data, we inferred the genetic relationships among Uros populations (Los Uros from Peru, Uru-Chipaya and Uru-Poopo from Bolivia), and compared their haplotype profiles with eight Aymara, nine Quechua and two Arawak (Machiguenga and Yanesha) speaking populations from Peru and Bolivia. Our results indicated that Uros populations stand out among the Altiplano populations, while appearing more closely related to the Aymara and Quechua from Lake Titicaca and surrounding regions than to the Amazon Arawaks. Moreover, the Uros populations from Peru and Bolivia are genetically differentiated from each other, indicating a high heterogeneity in this ethnic group. Finally, our results support the distinctive ancestry for the Uros populations of Peru and Bolivia, which are likely derived from ancient Andean lineages that were partially replaced during more recent farming expansion events and the establishment of complex civilizations in the Andes.

  8. The genetic history of indigenous populations of the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano: the legacy of the Uros.

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    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available The Altiplano region of the South American Andes is marked by an inhospitable climate to which the autochthonous human populations adapted and then developed great ancient civilizations, such as the Tiwanaku culture and the Inca Empire. Since pre-Columbian times, different rulers established themselves around the Titicaca and Poopo Lakes. By the time of the arrival of Spaniards, Aymara and Quechua languages were predominant on the Altiplano under the rule of the Incas, although the occurrence of other spoken languages, such as Puquina and Uruquilla, suggests the existence of different ethnic groups in this region. In this study, we focused on the pre-Columbian history of the autochthonous Altiplano populations, particularly the Uros ethnic group, which claims to directly descend from the first settlers of the Andes, and some linguists suggest they might otherwise be related to Arawak speaking groups from the Amazon. Using phylogeographic, population structure and spatial genetic analyses of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data, we inferred the genetic relationships among Uros populations (Los Uros from Peru, Uru-Chipaya and Uru-Poopo from Bolivia, and compared their haplotype profiles with eight Aymara, nine Quechua and two Arawak (Machiguenga and Yanesha speaking populations from Peru and Bolivia. Our results indicated that Uros populations stand out among the Altiplano populations, while appearing more closely related to the Aymara and Quechua from Lake Titicaca and surrounding regions than to the Amazon Arawaks. Moreover, the Uros populations from Peru and Bolivia are genetically differentiated from each other, indicating a high heterogeneity in this ethnic group. Finally, our results support the distinctive ancestry for the Uros populations of Peru and Bolivia, which are likely derived from ancient Andean lineages that were partially replaced during more recent farming expansion events and the establishment of complex civilizations in the Andes.

  9. Adapting to Population Growth: The Evolutionary Alternative to Malthus

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    Axel Kristinsson


    Full Text Available A long-standing debate on the dynamics of population growth in human history has become polarized between a Malthusian stance and a Boserupian one. The former tends to view population growth as limited by carrying capacity, dependent on environment and technology, whereas the latter sees population growth itself as a major inducement to social, economic and technological developments. In this paper the authors experiment with approaching this debate by using recent developments in evolutionary theory. According to these, evolutionary principles, as expounded by Charles Darwin and subsequent evolutionary scientists, apply not only to biological evolution but also to social or cultural evolution. Here, the role of genes is taken over by culture and, since culture is much more pliable than our DNA, evolution speeds up. As the only organisms on Earth whose evolution relies as heavily on culture as on genes, humans have become extremely adaptable. Their hyper-adaptability suggest that humans, through their cultural evolution, have managed increasingly to adapt to their own growing population, thus succeeding in accommodating ever-growing numbers. This hypothesis fits the Boserupian approach to population very well but less so the Malthusian one, perhaps indicating a gradual shift from a Malthusian regime to a Boserupian one in human history. The hypothesis is discussed and examined through four case studies: The beginning of farming around Göbekli Tepe in southeast Turkey, the productive farming systems of Tiwanaku in South America, the population crisis of late medieval and early modern Iceland, and the ‘collapse’ of Rapa Nui (Easter Island.

  10. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.


    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  11. Ethnoarchéologie du salar d'Uyuni: sel et cultures régionales inter salar

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    Full Text Available Le sel a toujours été l'une des denrées fondamentalement indispensables à la vie quotidienne des hommes. Abondant dans les hauts plateaux des Andes centrales, il constitue l'une des principales richesses des populations locales. Transporté par caravanes de lamas vers d'autres écozones où il est troqué, littoral pacifique, moyennes et basses vallées orientales, il permet à chaque communauté d'acquérir les matières premières complémentaires nécessaires à sa propre subsistance: maïs, piment, coca ou algues... En Bolivie, les grands salars d'Uyuni et de Coipasa sont les principaux centres d'approvisionnement en sel. Leur exploitation à l'échelle régionale semblerait remonter bien avant la colonisation espagnole? La zone 'inter salar,' comprise entre ces deux grandes salines proches de la frontière chilienne, est la mieux localisée pour essayer de déterminer l'exploitation dont elles ont pu faire l'objet par les diverses cultures régionales anciennes ou plus contemporaines. Cette interrogation est à la base du projet d'ethnoarchéologie commencé sur cette région. Cet article présente les premiers résultats de la prospection archéologique menée du 15 novembre au 15 décembre 1983 dans le cadre de ce programme. Il révèle l'existence de nombreux sites fortifiés ou d'inhumations pré-inca correspondant, dans leur ensemble, à des cultures ou grandes chefferies régionales ou 'señoríos' post-Tiwanaku, pouvant être liés au salar et au commerce du sel? Il met l'accent sur les problèmes soulevés par cette étude, les possibilités d'interprétation que nous pouvons avancer et les orientations souhaitées pour compléter ce projet. Siempre la sal ha sido uno de los productos fundamentalmente necesarios para la vida cotidiana del ser humano. Muy abundante en el altiplano de los Andes centrales, la sal constituye, para las poblaciones locales, una de sus riquezas más valiosas. Cargada y trasladada por caravanas de

  12. Traumatic brain injury and vestibulo-ocular function: current challenges and future prospects

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    Wallace B


    Full Text Available Bridgett Wallace,1–4 Jonathan Lifshitz4–8 1360 Balance and Hearing, Department of Physical Therapy, Austin, TX, 2Concussion Health, Department of Clinical Education, Austin, TX, 3Conquering Concussions, Scottsdale, AZ, 4Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 6The CACTIS Foundation, Scottsdale, 7Phoenix VA Healthcare System, Phoenix, AZ, 8Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Abstract: Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular canals of the inner ear to elicit compensatory eye movements, which maintain stability of images on the fovea during brief, rapid head motion, otherwise known as gaze stability. Normal VOR function is necessary in carrying out activities of daily living (eg, walking and riding in a car and is of particular importance in higher demand activities (eg, sports-related activities. Disruption or damage in the VOR can result in symptoms such as movement-related dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty maintaining balance with head movements, and even nausea. Dizziness is one of the most common symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI and is considered a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Assessment of the vestibular system is of particular importance following TBI, in conjunction with oculomotor control, due to the intrinsic neural circuitry that exists between the ocular and vestibular systems. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of the VOR and the visual-vestibular symptoms associated with TBI and to discuss assessment and treatment guidelines for TBI. Current challenges and future prospects will also be addressed. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, concussion, vestibular, ocular

  13. Saccadic eye movement metrics reflect surgical residents' fatigue. (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Macknik, Stephen L; Mankin, James A; Hooft, Nicole; Catena, Andrés; Martinez-Conde, Susana


    Little is known about the effects of surgical residents' fatigue on patient safety. We monitored surgical residents' fatigue levels during their call day using (1) eye movement metrics, (2) objective measures of laparoscopic surgical performance, and (3) subjective reports based on standardized questionnaires. Prior attempts to investigate the effects of fatigue on surgical performance have suffered from methodological limitations, including inconsistent definitions and lack of objective measures of fatigue, and nonstandardized measures of surgical performance. Recent research has shown that fatigue can affect the characteristics of saccadic (fast ballistic) eye movements in nonsurgical scenarios. Here we asked whether fatigue induced by time-on-duty (~24 hours) might affect saccadic metrics in surgical residents. Because saccadic velocity is not under voluntary control, a fatigue index based on saccadic velocity has the potential to provide an accurate and unbiased measure of the resident's fatigue level. We measured the eye movements of members of the general surgery resident team at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (Phoenix, AZ) (6 males and 6 females), using a head-mounted video eye tracker (similar configuration to a surgical headlight), during the performance of 3 tasks: 2 simulated laparoscopic surgery tasks (peg transfer and precision cutting) and a guided saccade task, before and after their call day. Residents rated their perceived fatigue level every 3 hours throughout their 24-hour shift, using a standardized scale. Time-on-duty decreased saccadic velocity and increased subjective fatigue but did not affect laparoscopic performance. These results support the hypothesis that saccadic indices reflect graded changes in fatigue. They also indicate that fatigue due to prolonged time-on-duty does not result necessarily in medical error, highlighting the complicated relationship among continuity of care, patient safety, and fatigued providers. Our data

  14. Behavior patterns of chemical and isotopic species (2006-2007) in the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, as a response to reinjection; Patrones de comportamiento de especies quimicas e isotopicas (2006-2007) en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en respuesta a la reinyeccion

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    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Martinez E, Ignacio; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Reyes D, Lisette; Gonzalez, Rubi [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    Chemical and isotopic ({delta}18 O y {delta}D) data from the Los Azufres geothermal field fluids for 2006 and 2007 were analyzed to investigate changes in their behavior patterns and their relation to reinjection. Total discharge chlorides, reservoir temperatures, excess steam in well feeding fluids, CO{sub 2} concentrations at reservoir and total discharge conditions, and liquid saturations were calculated. Contour lines of certain parameters were obtained for 2006 and 2007 to relate them to the contours obtained for 2005 and to the reinjection histories. Fluid isotopic compositions, including injection fluids, were correlated to estimate fluid mixing effects between the reservoir and reinjection fluids. Results suggest chemical parameters respond to the mass flow rate injected and to the isotopic composition of injection fluids. {delta}D vs {delta}18 O relationships show a number of wells produce different proportions of reinjection returns. In the northern zone, wells AZ-65D, AZ-13, AZ-32, AZ-9A, AZ-9AD, AZ-28A, AZ-69D and AZ-44 produce relatively high proportions, while wells AZ-5, AZ-28 and AZ-19, among others, produce lower proportions. Wells AZ-2A, AZ-16AD, AZ-46 and AZ-33 from the southern field zone produce higher proportions of reinjection returns while wells AZ-34, AZ-36 and AZ-37 produce lower proportions. The liquid saturation distribution in 2007 shows the maximum saturation zones have decreased compared with 2005 and 2006 data. In 2007, maximum liquid saturations were found around wells AZ-22 and AZ-23 (southern zone) and AZ-28, AZ-32, AZ-45 and AZ-48 (northern zone). Minimum saturations were found around wells AZ-6 and AZ-16 (southern zone) and AZ-56 (northern zone). The CO{sub 2} levels for the reservoir liquid were used to trace paths of reinjection fluids, considering these fluids are depleted in this gas. Thus the minimum CO{sub 2} contour lines indicate the movement of the reinjection fluids in the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos

  15. S-05: Düzenli Fiziksel Aktivitenin Dikkat Eksikliği ve Hiperaktivite Bozukluğu Olan Çocuklardaki Etkisinin Araştırılması

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    Abdülaziz Türksoylu


    Full Text Available AMAÇ: Düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin 8-12 yaş arası Dikkat Eksikliği ve Hiperaktivite Bozukluğu (DEHB tanısı alan ve en az 6 ay stimülan tedavi kullanan çocuklar üzerindeki etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır.YÖNTEM: Randomize kontrollü olarak planlanan çalışmaya DEHB tanısı alan, 8-12 yaş arası, 46 erkek çocuk dahil edildi. 23 olgu kontrol grubu, diğer 23 olgu ise düzenli fiziksel aktivite (DFA grubu olmak üzere randomize edildi. Tüm olgulara DuPaul DEHB Değerlendirme Ölçeği, Çocuk için Yaşam Kalitesi Ölçeği (ÇİYKÖ 8-12 yaş grubu Ebeveyn ve Çocuk Formu ve Güçler Güçlükler Anketi (GGA uygulandı. Kontrol grubu 10 hafta boyunca mevcut stimülan tedaviyi almaya devam etti ve herhangi bir ek müdahale yapılmadı. DFA grubuna ise en az 60 dakika süren futbol antrenmanı, haftada 3 gün, 10 hafta boyunca yaptırıldı. DFA grubunda, izlemde 19 olgu düzenli fiziksel aktiviteye devam edebilmiş ve çalışmayı tamamlamıştır. 10 hafta sonunda tüm olgulara DuPaul DEHB Değerlendirme Ölçeği, ÇİYKÖ 8-12 yaş grubu Ebeveyn ve Çocuk Formu ve GGA tekrar uygulandı.BULGULAR: Çalışmamızda DFA grubu ve kontrol grubu yaş ortalamaları, DEHB alt tipleri ve Komorbidite dağılımları birbirine benzerdi. DFA grubunun fiziksel aktivite öncesi ve sonrası testleri karşılaştırıldığında; GGA alt ölçeklerinde duygusal, davranış, dikkat eksikliği ve aşırı hareketlilik, akran ilişkileri ve toplam güçlük puanlarında anlamlı azalma (p0,05.SONUÇ: Çalışma sonuçları, düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin stimülan tedavi alan DEHB tanısı olan çocukların DEHB belirtilerini, hastalığın şiddetini ve davranışsal sorunlarını azalttığını, çocukların yaşam kalitesi üzerine olumlu etkileri olduğunu göstermektedir. DEHB olan çocuklarda, stimülan tedaviye ek olarak düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin yapılması iyileşmeye katkıda bulunabilir.

  16. Does Spanish instruction for emergency medicine resident physicians improve patient satisfaction in the emergency department and adherence to medical recommendations?

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    Stoneking LR


    Full Text Available LR Stoneking,1 AL Waterbrook,1 J Garst Orozco,2 D Johnston,1 A Bellafiore,1 C Davies,3 T Nuño,1 J Fatás-Cabeza,4 O Beita,5 V Ng,1 KH Grall,6 W Adamas-Rappaport7 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Sinai Health System, Chicago, IL, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Maricopa Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, 4Department of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 6Department of Emergency Medicine, Regions Hospital, St Paul, MN, 7Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: After emergency department (ED discharge, Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency are less likely than English-proficient patients to be adherent to medical recommendations and are more likely to be dissatisfied with their visit.Objectives: To determine if integrating a longitudinal medical Spanish and cultural competency curriculum into emergency medicine residency didactics improves patient satisfaction and adherence to medical recommendations in Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.Methods: Our ED has two Emergency Medicine Residency Programs, University Campus (UC and South Campus (SC. SC program incorporates a medical Spanish and cultural competency curriculum into their didactics. Real-time Spanish surveys were collected at SC ED on patients who self-identified as primarily Spanish-speaking during registration and who were treated by resident physicians from both residency programs. Surveys assessed whether the treating resident physician communicated in the patient’s native Spanish language. Follow-up phone calls assessed patient satisfaction and adherence to discharge instructions.Results: Sixty-three patients self-identified as primarily Spanish-speaking from August 2014 to July 2015 and were initially included in this pilot study

  17. The GalileoMobile starts its South American voyage - Astronomy education goes on tour through the Andes Mountains (United States)


    and November 2009, and will cover 5000 kilometres. The voyage will largely take place across the Altiplano, or high plateau, shared by Peru, Bolivia and Chile, which is among the poorest regions in these countries. South America and the Andes Mountains were particularly chosen for the GalileoMobile Project for several reasons. IYA2009 already has a strong presence in the region through national contacts, including three Cornerstone IYA2009 projects: Developing Astronomy Globally, Universe Awareness and the Galileo Teacher Training Programme, which are all official partners of the project. Most people in Peru, Bolivia and Chile speak the same language, Spanish [1], and have a rich astronomical heritage dating back to the pre-Columbian Inca and Tiwanaku civilisations that lived on the Altiplano. The region's high elevation and the quality of its skies for astronomical observations also made it an attractive candidate for the maiden voyage of the GalileoMobile. The journey starts today 5 October 2009 in Antofagasta, Chile, with a free, public inauguration event at 19:00 in the Berta González Square at the Universidad Católica del Norte. The event, which will include observations of the night sky, is organised by ESO in collaboration with Explora II Region and the Astronomy Institute of the University. From Antofagasta the GalileoMobile heads north through La Paz in Bolivia and on into Peru. The return trip to Antofagasta goes via the Panamericana coastal road, and passes near the home of ESO's world-class observatory, the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal. ESO Education and Outreach coordinator in Chile, Laura Ventura, will assist the GalileoMobile team as they greet communities throughout Chile's northern deserts. "The GalileoMobile is a wonderful initiative, and a unique opportunity to reinforce educational activities in the north of Chile and the neighbouring countries. It will promote greater awareness of astronomy and science", says Ventura. "We are looking