Sample records for tityus pusillus pocock

  1. Escorpionismo por Tityus pusillus Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado de Pernambuco Scorpionism caused by Tityus pusillus Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones; Buthidae in State of Pernambuco

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    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available Apresentamos neste trabalho os primeiros relatos de acidente escorpiônico causado pela espécie Tityus pusillus (Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente doméstico, na área rural situada nas cidades de Paudalho e São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os dois casos descritos, uma criança e uma mulher grávida, foram classificados como leve e moderado, respectivamente. Os sintomas clínicos apresentados foram distúrbios locais (dor e parestesia e distúrbios sistêmicos (calafrios, tontura, cefaléia e vômito. Esses registros permitem incluir Tityus pusillus como uma espécie de importância médica no Brasil.This paper presents the first reports on scorpion accidents caused by Tityus pusillus (Buthidae. The accidents took place within the home environment, in rural areas located in the municipalities of Paudalho and São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil. The two cases described (a child and a pregnant woman were classified as mild and moderate, respectively. The clinical symptoms presented were local disorders (pain and paresthesia and systemic disorders (chills, dizziness, headache and vomiting. These records make it possible to including Tityus pusillus as a species of medical importance in Brazil.

  2. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock. (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel


    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diet of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet composition of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus was investigated from three breeding colonies in Namibia between January 1994 and April 2002 using scat analysis. Otolith numbers were corrected for those lost during digestion before determining the percentage numerical abundance of prey in each ...

  4. A Revision of the genus Ceratogyrus Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    J.I. De Wet


    Full Text Available The African genus Ceratogyrus of the family Theraphosidae is revised, with notes of its natural history. Seven species are recognised and distinguished in a key. Six species, namely C. bechuanicus Pocock, C. brachycephalus Hewitt, C. darlingii Pocock, C. dolichocephalus Hewitt, C. marshalli Pocock and C. sanderi Strand are redescribed and figured, C. cornuatus is newly described and figured and C. schultzei Pocock is synonymized with C. bechuanicus. Lectotypes are designated for four species namely, C. brachycephalus, C. darlingii, C. dolichocephalus and C. marshalli. Distributional data is given for all seven species.

  5. leonina and Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cows or yearling/subadult individuals from size and ap- pearance. .... The penis was then everted and rubbed across the rump and hindflip- pers of the fur seal: successful intromission was never observed (Fig. 2H). Pelvic thrusts followed, and were timed on three ... the smaller size of A. p. pusillus cows (averaging 70 kg as.

  6. Aromaticine, a sesquiterpene lactone from Amblyopappus pusillus

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    Matías López-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Aromaticine (systematic name: 4a,8-dimethyl-3-methylene-3,3a,4,4a,7a,8,9,9a-octahydroazuleno[6,5-b]furan-2,5-dione, C15H18O3, is a natural lactone isolated from Amblyopappus pusillus. The molecular structure and conformation agree with the results of Romo, Joseph-Nathan & Díaz [(1964. Tetrahedron, 20, 79–85]. The fused-ring system contains a seven-membered ring in a twist-boat conformation and two five-membered rings trans fused in envelope conformations.

  7. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen


    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous...... keratopathy was not identified antemortem. An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore, appropriate...... diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful. Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized. Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa...

  8. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). (United States)

    Bertani, Rogério


    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.

  9. Pembuatan keju dengan menggunakan enzim renin Mucor pusillus amobil

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    Mustakim Mustakim


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to understand the goog condition of temperature and pH in the cheese making with immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusillus. Rennin from M. pusillus was produced using corn starch as substrate, incubated at 37 0C for 116 hours. Immobilization was conducted with entrapment method using alginate. Proteolytic and milk-clotting activities of enzyme was measured. Furthemore, the immobilized enzyme was used in the cheese production with defferent temperatures (32, 37 and 420C and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 using Split Plot Design. It was conducted a test of pH, titratable acidity and texture for produced cheese. The result showed that the alginate matrix can be used to immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusillus. Immobilization of rennin enxyme from M. pusillus has proteolitic activity value 0.1395 unit/ml/minute and milk-clotting activity value 6090 unit/mg protein/minute. The temperatures (32, 37 and 42 0C in the cheese making using immobilized rennin enzyme M. pusillus gave a highly significant different effect (P<0,01 on texture and pH of fresh cheese. The pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 gave a highly significant different effect (P<0,01 on pH and titratable acidity of fresh cheese. It is concluded that alginate can be used in the rennin enzyme immobilization. Temperature and pH gave a highly significant different effect on texture, pH and titratable acidity of fresh cheese. The temperature of 37 0C and pH 6.0 can be used to make a good quality cheese with immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusilus using alginate with characters as follows : texture 1.1866 N, pH 4.94 – 5.21 and titratable acidity 1.409%.

  10. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail. (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani


    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus novel putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins.

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    Jimmy A Guerrero-Vargas

    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na(+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species.cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na(+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups.This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the NaScTxs is proposed.

  12. New species of Southeast Asian Dwarf Tarantula from Thailand: Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae

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    Narin Chomphuphuang


    Full Text Available A new record of the tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 from Thailand is described. Distributional data, natural history, morphological characters, and illustrations of male and female are provided. The Thai specimens belong to a new species, Phlogiellus longipalpus sp. n. The diagnosis of the new species and related species are discussed.

  13. Presencia de Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890) (Crustacea: Alpheidae) en el Caribe colombiano


    Navas-S., G.R.; Lattig, P.; Moreno-Forero, S.K.


    Samples of skeletons of the coral Acropora palmata obtained on the reef crest of Isla Grande, Islas del Rosario (colombian Caribbean),were found to contain two specimens of the family Alpheidae, Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890). This shrimp species is reported for the first time from the colombian Caribbean.

  14. Enhanced phytoextraction of chromium by the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus in presence of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monferrán, Magdalena V.; Pignata, María L.; Wunderlin, Daniel A.


    The aquatic macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus was evaluated for the removal of Cu 2+ and Cr +6 from aqueous solutions during 15 days phytoextraction experiments. Results show that P. pusillus is capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cu and Cr from individual solutions (either Cu 2+ or Cr +6 ). Significant correlations between metal removal and bioaccumulation were obtained. Roots and leaves accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Cr followed by stems. The bioaccumulation of Cr was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu, showing a synergic effect on Cr +6 removal, presenting a good alternative for the removal of these metals from polluted aquifers. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report on both enhanced phytoextraction of Cr +6 in presence of Cu +2 and bioaccumulation of these heavy metals by P. pusillus. - Highlights: ► First report on enhanced phytoextraction of Cr +6 in the presence of Cu +2 by P. pusillus. ► P. pusillus can be a good candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. ► Roots and leaves presented higher accumulation, suggesting that they are in charge of metal uptake. - We report enhanced effect of Cu +2 upon phytoextraction of Cr +6 by Potamogeton pusillus from water. Metals accumulation occurs mainly in roots and leaves of this aquatic plant.

  15. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

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    Ruquaeya Bano


    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India. 

  16. Feeding ecology of the deep-sea lanternshark Etmopterus pusillus (Elasmobranchii: Etmopteridae in the northeast Atlantic

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    José C. Xavier


    Full Text Available This study provides the first description of the feeding ecology of the smooth lanternshark Etmopterus pusillus based on stomach contents of specimens caught as bycatch in the Algarve (southern Portugal with bottom trawling and bottom longline. The diet of E. pusillus consists mainly of fish (dry weight (% W=87.1%; frequency of occurrence (%FO=28.6%; number (%N=30.3%, crustaceans (%W=7.7%; %FO=36.7%; %N=3.4% and cephalopods (%W=4.7%; %FO=11.3%; %N=11.1%. The diet did not vary between sexes. Ontogenic changes were detected: crustaceans decreased in importance as the sharks increased in size and fish became dominant in the diet of adults. Combining two fishing methods provided broad information on the diet of E. pusillus, as bottom trawling caught smaller specimens and longlines caught larger individuals. E. pusillus feeds mainly on non-commercial species, and therefore does not compete directly with commercial fisheries. Finally, E. pusillus feeds in various parts of the water column and thus it can access a wide range of prey; however, this also means that it can be caught by both gears, making it more vulnerable in terms of conservation.

  17. Morphometric variation in the pusillus group of the genus Rhinolophus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in East Asia. (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun


    Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.

  18. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

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    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva


    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  19. New records of Lophoproctuscoecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae) extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus. (United States)

    Short, Megan


    The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctuscoecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctuslucidus (Chalande, 1888). Lophoproctuscoecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as Lophoproctuscoecus with the exception of one specimen of Lophoproctusjeanneli (Brölemann, 1910) from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctuscoecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species Lophoproctuslucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. Lophoproctusjeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species Lophoproctuspagesi (Condé, 1982) has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  20. Production of rennin-like acid protease by Mucor pusillus through submerged fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudi, S.; Mukhtar, H.; Rehman, A.U.; Haq, I.U.


    The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU. (author)

  1. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

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    A. A. S. Barão


    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  2. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

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    MK Chaubey


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  3. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela Escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae na Ilha de Margarita, Nordeste da Venezuela

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    Leonardo De Sousa


    Full Text Available The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school, in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.Descrevem se os dois primeiros casos de escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente antrópico (um no domicilio e outro na escola na aldeia de La Sierra, Ilha de Margarita, Estado de Nueva Esparta, nordeste da Venezuela. Os dois acidentes, moderadamente graves, cursaram com acometimento pancreático e alterações eletrocardiografias. Este reporte permite incluir à Ilha de Margarita entre as áreas endêmicas de escorpionismo na Venezuela.

  4. Technetium-99m labeling of tityustoxin and venom from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunan, E.A.; Cardoso, V.N.; Moraes-Santos, T.


    The tityustoxin, the most toxic fraction from scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom, has been used as a tool in several neurochemical and neuropharmacological studies. Biological activities of labeled and unlabeled tityustoxin and venom were compared. The samples were labeled in the presence of stannous chloride and sodium borohydride with a yield of 60-70% for the venom and 75-85% for tityustoxin and then chromatographed in Sephadex G-10. Biological activities of tityustoxin and venom were preserved after labeling

  5. Cryptic Rhinolophus pusillus Temminck, 1834 (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae): a new distribution record from the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh


    Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul


    Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation. 

  6. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

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    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  7. Robust Trapdoor Tarantula Haploclastus validus Pocock, 1899: notes on taxonomy, distribution and natural history (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Thrigmopoeinae

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    Z.A. Mirza


    Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.

  8. Envenenamiento de Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia: Testudines por Tityus trivittatus (Scorpionida: Buthidae Envenomation of Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia: Testudines by Tityus trivittatus (Scorpionida: Buthidae

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    Adolfo R de Roodt


    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un ejemplar de tortuga mordedora (Chelydra serpentina que fue hallada con los miembros tetanizados en extensión, midriasis y poca respuesta a estímulos externos, en cuyo recinto se encontró un ejemplar de escorpión Tityus trivittatus. Ante el claro cuadro de envenenamiento, se trató al quelonio con antiveneno escorpiónico específico retornando a un estado de relajación muscular a las seis horas y encontrándoselo totalmente normal a las 24 horas sin mostrar secuelas posteriores. Este es el primer comunicado sobre el envenenamiento de quelonios por escorpiones. Se discuten algunos aspectos de este envenenamiento escorpiónico y su tratamiento con antiveneno específico.We report the case of a snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina found tetanized, with the limbs in extension, mydriasis and poor response to external stimuli, in whose terrarium was found a Tityus trivittatus scorpion. Based on the clear clinical picture of envenoming, the turtle was treated with a specific scorpion antivenin, returning to a state of muscle relaxation after six hours of treatment and it was found totally normal at 24 hours, without envenoming sequelae. This is the first report on turtle envenomation by scorpion. The scorpion envenomation in reptiles and the treatment with specific antivenom is discussed.

  9. Redescription, distribution and status of the Karwar Large Burrowing Spider Thrigmopoeus truculent us Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, a Western Ghats endemic ground mygalomorph

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    M. Siliwal


    Full Text Available The genus Thrigmopoeus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and is so far represented by two species: Thrigmopoeus truculentus Pocock, 1899 and T. insignis Pocock, 1899. The distribution of T. truculentus was considered to be restricted to its type locality until a few populations were identified in other places. In this paper we provide detail morphometry and characters used in modern-day taxonomy to redescribe the female of T. truculentus, with additional notes on its distribution, range extension, burrow and habitat.

  10. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). (United States)

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto


    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.

  11. New records of Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus

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    Megan Short


    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctus lucidus (Chalande, 1888. L. coecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as L. coecus with the exception of one specimen of L. jeanneli (Brölemann, 1910 from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctus coecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species L. lucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. L. jeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species L. pagesi (Condé, 1982 has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  12. The Striated Parachute Spider Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: a note on taxonomy, distribution and conservation status

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    M. Siliwal


    Full Text Available The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. striata are also provided from various surveys carried out in the last 10 years. Based on these new records, the IUCN Red List status of P. striata is recommended to be reassessed as Near Threatened. Additional information on the morphology and natural history of P. striata is provided in the paper.

  13. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

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    Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt


    Full Text Available Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom.

  14. Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: In Vitro Tests and Their Correlation with In Vivo Lethal Dose Assay

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    Daniela Cajado-Carvalho


    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are the main cause of human envenomation in Brazil and, for the treatment of victims, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of antivenoms. The first step to achieve effective antivenom is to use a good quality venom pool and to evaluate it, with LD50 determination as the most accepted procedure. It is, however, time-consuming and requires advanced technical training. Further, there are significant ethical concerns regarding the number of animals required for testing. Hence, we investigated the correspondence between LD50 results, in vitro assays, and a strong correlation with proteolytic activity levels was observed, showing, remarkably, that proteases are potential toxicity markers for Tityus serrulatus venom. The comparison of reversed-phase chromatographic profiles also has a potential application in venoms’ quality control, as there were fewer neurotoxins detected in the venom with high LD50 value. These results were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Therefore, these methods could precede the LD50 assay to evaluate the venom excellence by discriminating—and discarding—poor-quality batches, and, consequently, with a positive impact on the number of animals used. Notably, proposed assays are fast and inexpensive, being technically and economically feasible in Tityus serrulatus venom quality control to produce effective antivenoms.

  15. Scorpion envenoming in Morona Santiago, Amazonian Ecuador: Molecular phylogenetics confirms involvement of the Tityus obscurus group. (United States)

    Román, Juan P; García, Fernanda; Medina, Doris; Vásquez, Manolo; García, José; Graham, Matthew R; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Pardal, Pedro P de Oliveira; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Borges, Adolfo


    Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) (United States)

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.


    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  17. [Mixed invasive fungal infection due to Rhizomucor pusillus and Aspergillus niger in an immunocompetent patient]. (United States)

    Pozo-Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes-Moreno, Antonio; Robles-Arista, Juan Carlos; Bautista-Rodriguez, M Dolores; Candau-Alvarez, Alberto; Caro-Cuenca, Maria Teresa; Linares-Sicilia, María José


    Mucormycosis infections are rare in immunocompetent patients, and very few cases of mucormycosis associated with aspergillosis in non-haematological patients have been reported. A 17-year-old male, immunocompetent and without any previously known risk factors, was admitted to hospital due to a seizure episode 11 days after a motorcycle accident. He had a complicated clinical course as he had a mixed invasive fungal infection with pulmonary involvement due to Aspergillus niger and disseminated mucormycosis due to Rhizomucor pusillus (histopathological and microbiological diagnosis in several non-contiguous sites). He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B for 7 weeks (total cumulative dose >10 g) and required several surgical operations. The patient survived and was discharged from ICU after 5 months and multiple complications. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgical management achieved the eradication of a mixed invasive fungal infection. However, we emphasise the need to maintain a higher level of clinical suspicion and to perform microbiological techniques for early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in non-immunocompromised patients, in order to prevent spread of the disease and the poor prognosis associated with it. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemograma de cães submetidos ao envenenamento experimental por Tityus serrulatus Canine blood profile after experimental envenomation by Tityus serrulatus

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    E.L. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma de 12 cães adultos, saudáveis (14,2±5,4kg após a inoculação de veneno do escorpião amarelo (Tityus serrulatus. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G, com seis em cada: os do GI foram usados como controle e receberam 0,5mL de salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS por via subcutânea (SC na face medial da coxa esquerda (FMCE, e os do GII receberam veneno liofilizado do T. serrulatus (250µg/kg diluído em PBS por via SC na FMCE. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue com anticoagulante EDTA a 10% antes da inoculação do veneno (T0 e após 2h, (T1, 6h (T2, 12h (T3, 24h (T4, 48h (T5 e 72h (T6, para contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos e plaquetas em aparelho contador eletrônico e esfregaços sanguíneos para contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Houve aumento significativo (PThe canine blood profile after scorpion envenomation was evaluated using 12 healthy mongrel male dogs (14.2±5.4kg distributed in two groups, with six animals in each: group I (control group and group II (venom group. The lyophilized yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus venom (250µg/kg diluted in 0.5mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS was given to group II animals by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Group I animals received only 0.5mL of PBS, by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Blood samples were collected with EDTA before (T0 and 2 (T1, 6 (T2, 12 (T3, 24 (T4, 48 (T5, and 72h (T6 after envenomation. Significant increases (P<0.05 in erythrocytes counting, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, 2 and 6h after envenomation were observed. Leukocytosis with significant increases (P<0.05 of neutrophils and lymphocytes 2 and 6h after envenomation was found. Then, T. serrulatus venom may induce alterations in blood profile in dogs, probably due to spleen contraction evoked by pain and catecholamines releasing.

  19. Post-embryonic development stages of Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846, (Scorpiones, Buthidae: morphometric estimation approach

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    Matías Gómez C.


    Full Text Available Poca información existe sobre el ciclo de vida y número de mudas por los cuales pasa Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846 para alcanzar la madurez. En este studio, el número de estados de desarrollo posembriónico fue determimnado usando herramientas de morfometría geométrica y a través de las ecuaciones clàsicas de Pzibram & Megusâr (1984. Los análisis incluyeron digitalización de imagenes, definición de puntos de referencia homólogos (o “landmarks” y derivación de matrices basadas en distancias Euclidianas. Los análisis permiten esatablecer que T. columbianus pasa por seis a siete estados (mudas en su desarrollo post-embrionario.

  20. Histopathological changes and inflammatory response induced by Tityus discrepans scorpion venom in rams. (United States)

    D'Suze, G; Salazar, V; Díaz, P; Sevcik, C; Azpurua, H; Bracho, N


    Anesthetized rams envenomed s.c. with 40 microg/kg Tityus discrepans scorpion venom developed fasciculation, hypothermia, polyuria, pulmonary wet rales, tachypnea, respiratory distress and arrhythmia. Rams developed a cascade of inflammation reactions, characterized by activation of macrophages, fibroblasts and neutrophils, neutrophil infiltration and aggregation, vasculitis, arteritis and abundant fibrin deposition. At the inoculation site, venom was detected by immunohistochemistry in the extra cellular matrix, lymphatic vessels' and venules' lumen, inside macrophages and surrounding nerves. Extra cellular matrix was degraded at the inoculation site perhaps by activated neutrophils. Envenoming produced hepatocytes with Mallory body-like vacuoles which may be due to the increased plasmatic levels of TNF-alpha and IL6. Venom produced degranulation and vacuolization of acinary cells as well as interstitial swelling and necrosis. Necrosis of the Langerhan's islets occurred occasionally. Lungs showed the most deleterious effects developing wall collapse and necrosis, diffuse injury of the alveolar capillary barrier, interstitial and alveolar fibrin deposits with strong neutrophil infiltration. Massive infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophage occurred in the intestinal submucose, to the point that it modified villi and intestinal folding morphology. Envenomation developed a marked leukocyte aggregation surrounding nerves at the inoculation site. This study reveals that beyond its neurotoxicity, Tityus venom produces a severe and widespread inflammatory syndrome, expressed as histopathological changes at the site of inoculation, as well as in remote organs such as pancreas, lungs, intestine and liver. Our results suggest that not all remote targets are directly affected by the venom but that, as proposed earlier, are modified by inflammation by products produced elsewhere.

  1. To4, the first Tityus obscurus β-toxin fully electrophysiologically characterized on human sodium channel isoforms. (United States)

    Duque, Harry Morales; Mourão, Caroline Barbosa Farias; Tibery, Diogo Vieira; Barbosa, Eder Alves; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni


    Many scorpion toxins that act on sodium channels (NaScTxs) have been characterized till date. These toxins may act modulating the inactivation or the activation of sodium channels and are named α- or β-types, respectively. Some venom toxins from Tityus obscurus (Buthidae), a scorpion widely distributed in the Brazilian Amazon, have been partially characterized in previous studies; however, little information about their electrophysiological role on sodium ion channels has been published. In the present study, we describe the purification, identification and electrophysiological characterization of a NaScTx, which was first described as Tc54 and further fully sequenced and renamed To4. This toxin shows a marked β-type effect on different sodium channel subtypes (hNa v 1.1-hNa v 1.7) at low concentrations, and has more pronounced activity on hNa v 1.1, hNa v 1.2 and hNa v 1.4. By comparing To4 primary structure with other Tityus β-toxins which have already been electrophysiologically tested, it is possible to establish some key amino acid residues for the sodium channel activity. Thus, To4 is the first toxin from T. obscurus fully electrophysiologically characterized on different human sodium channel isoforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Tityus serrulatus venom on cytokine production and the activity of murine macrophages

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    Vera L. Petricevich


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (TSV on murine peritoneal macrophages evaluated in terms of activation. The effects of crude TSV were analysed by detection of cytokines, oxygen intermediate metabolites (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO in supernatants of peritoneal macrophages. Several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for envenomating: cytotoxicity of TSV was assessed using the lyses percentage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF activity was assayed by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L-929 cells, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas NO levels were detected by Griess colorimetric reactions in culture supernatant of macrophages incubated with TSV and subsequently exposed to either lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ. Incubation of macrophages with TSV increased production of IL-6 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. TNF production was not detected in supernatants treated with TSV at any concentration. The increase in IL-6 secretion was not associated with concentration-dependent cytoxicity of TSV on these cells. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity does not appear to be the main cause of an increased cytokine production by these cells. Although NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the inducing potential of the test compounds for its release was found to be very moderate, ranging from 125 to 800 mM. Interestingly, NO levels of peritoneal macrophages were increased after IFN-γ. Moreover, NO production had an apparent effect on macrophage activity. The results obtained here also shown that the TSV induces an important elevation in H2O2 release. These results combined with NO production suggest that TSV possesses significant immunomodulatory activities capable of stimulating immune functions in vitro.

  3. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

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    L.E.A. Troncon


    Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

  4. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

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    F. Bucaretchi


    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  5. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

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    MCL Pinto


    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  6. Experimental Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation: age- and sex-related differences in symptoms and mortality in mice

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    Pucca MB


    Full Text Available Among the various methods for evaluating animal venom toxicity, the calculation of the median lethal dose (LD50 is the most widely used. Although different protocols can be used to calculate the LD50, the source of the venom and the method of extraction, as well as the strain, age, and sex of the animal model employed, should be taken into consideration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sex and age on the toxicity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in Swiss mice. Although the symptoms of envenomation were similar in male and female animals, female mice proved to be more resistant to the venom. In females, age had no impact on the susceptibility to scorpion envenomation. Male mice were more sensitive to T. serrulatus venom. Moreover, in males, age was an important parameter since sensitivity to the venom increased with age.

  7. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus as validated by animal-borne video

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    Beth L. Volpov


    Full Text Available Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR to predict attempted prey capture events (APC that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11. The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94% of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68% contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54% and only successful APC (52%. Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species.

  8. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus use raptorial biting and suction feeding when targeting prey in different foraging scenarios.

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    David P Hocking

    Full Text Available Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging.

  9. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan. (United States)

    Souza Lima, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Ferreira Rocha, Keyla Borges; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas


    Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry with Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD-MS) showed one major chemical component, the flavonoid rutin and phenolics compounds. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan. For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. serrulatus venom and were, simultaneously, treated with extracts, antivenom, rutin or saline. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs. This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. pyrifolium against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom and carrageenan, revealing that this extract and its bioactive molecules, specifically rutin, may present potential anti-inflammatory application.

  10. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

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    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt


    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  11. [Partial purification of peptides present in the Tityus macrochirus (Buthidae) scorpion venom and preliminary assessment of their cytotoxicity]. (United States)

    Rincón-Cortés, Clara Andrea; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Vega-Castro, Nohora Angélica


    Scorpion venom contains peptides with neurotoxic action primarily active on ion channels in the nervous system of insects and mammals. They are also characterized as cytolytic and anticancer, biological characteristics that have not yet been reported for the Tityus macrochirus venom. To assess if the total T. macrochirus venom and the fraction of partially purified peptides decrease the viability of various tumor-derived cell lines. The scorpion venom was collected by electrical stimulation and, subsequently, subjected to chromatography, electrophoresis, and ultrafiltration with Amicon Ultra 0.5® membranes for the partial identification and purification of its peptides. The cytotoxic activity of the venom and the peptides fraction trials on tumor-derived cell lines were carried out by the MTT method. The T. macrochirus scorpion venom has peptides with molecular weights ranging between 3 and 10 kDa. They were partially purified using the ultrafiltration technique, and assessed by the RP-HPLC method. Cytotoxicity trials with the whole T. macrochirus venom showed a higher viability decrease on the PC3 cell line compared to the other cell lines assessed, while the partially purified peptides decreased the HeLa cell line viability. Peptides in the T. macrochirus scorpion venom showed cytotoxic activity on some tumorderived cell lines. We observed some degree of selectivity against other cell lines assessed.

  12. Potential effects of climate change on the risk of accidents with poisonous species of the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Argentina. (United States)

    Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Andrade, Mayane Alves; Bidau, Claudio Juan


    The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions. We also created maps that allow the detection of temporal shifts in the distribution patterns of each Tityus species. Finally, we developed risk maps for the analyzed species. Our results predict that climate change will have an impact on the distribution of Tityus species which will clearly expand to more southern latitudes, with the exception of T. argentinus. T. bahiensis, widely distributed in Brazil, showed a considerable increase of its potential area (ca. 37%) with future climate change. The species T. confluens and T. trivittatus that cause the highest number of accidents in Argentina are expected to show significant changes of their distributions in future scenarios. The former fact is worrying because Buenos Aires province is the more densely populated district in Argentina thus iable to become the most affected by T. trivittatus. These alterations of distributional patterns can lead to amplify the accident risk zones of venomous species, becoming an important subject of concern for public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.


    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  14. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on insects infesting rice during storage. Part III. Oryzaephylus surinamensis L., Cryptolestes pusillus S. and Cryptolestes ferrugineus S. (Cucujidae; Coleoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, P.


    Losses in rice grain in quantity and quality during storage are caused by insects infestations. In this paper the effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on the mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., Cryptolestes pusillus S. and Cryptolestes ferrugineus S. adults was study. Insects were irradiated with doses from 0,20 to 1,00 kGy at dose rates from 0,97 to 0,94 kGy.h -1 . After the treatment, the radiation damages were evaluated taking in consideration the sterility and mortality produced in the irradiated populations. According to the experimental results it was confirmed that irradiation doses from 0,40 to 0,60 kGy were effective to control the insects pests of stored rice in Cuba [es

  15. Biochemical Characterization, Thermal Stability, and Partial Sequence of a Novel Exo-Polygalacturonase from the Thermophilic Fungus Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 Obtained by Submerged Cultivation

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    Lucas Vinícius Trindade


    Full Text Available This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC in a shaker at 45°C for 96 h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5–47 kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca2+, and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE of 26%. Ea(d for irreversible denaturation was 125.5 kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ΔG(d values were around 50 kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo. The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot.

  16. Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. (United States)

    Sevcik, C; D'Suze, G; Díaz, P; Salazar, V; Hidalgo, C; Azpúrua, H; Bracho, N


    Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')(2) extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. We measured pharmacokinetic parameters for T. discrepans venom in rams. Forty, 75 or 100 microg/kg venom were injected subcutaneously in the inner side of the thigh. Plasma venom content (venenemia) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 0 to 300 min after injecting venom. Venenemia was fit to a three-compartment model (inoculation site, plasma and extra vascular extracellular space), it was assumed that the venom may also be irreversibly removed from plasma. Calculated time course of venom content shows that at any time no more that 30% of the venom is present in plasma. Venenemia peaks at 1h and decays afterwards. Fluorescently labelled antivenom [horse anti-TityusF(ab')(2) or fraction antigen binding, immuglobulin without Fc chain covalently bound to fluorescine or fluorescamine] pharmacokinetics was determined. Although F(ab')(2) molecular weight is >/=10 times bigger that toxin's, the rate of outflow of F(ab')(2) from blood to tissues was approximately 4 times faster than the venom's outflow. Venom content in the injection site decays exponentially for >6h, this prediction was confirmed immunohistochemically. Only approximately 5% of the venom is eliminated in 10h; approximately 80% of the venom is in the tissues after 2h and remains there for >10h.

  17. Proteínas do soro sanguíneo de cães inoculados com veneno de Tityus serrulatus

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    E.L. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Protein profile of twelve healthy adult dogs averaging 14.2±5.4kg was evaluated after the inoculation of yellow scorpion venom (Tityus serrulatus. The animals were randomly divided in two experimental groups (G (n= 6: GI control, which received 0.5mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS subcutaneously in the medial side of the left thigh (MSLT, and GII which received T. serrulatus venom (250μg/kg, diluted in 0.5mL of PBS subcutaneously in the MSLT. Blood samples were collected before the venom inoculation (time zero and after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h to obtain serum for measurement of total proteins. The fractionated protein profile was done by electrophoresis on agarose films using Tris and Amido Black staining and quantification of albumin and globulin fractions by software. The results showed no changes in the levels of total proteins, albumin and α, β and γ globulin or reversal of the albumin:globulin ratio between the groups, concluding that the dose of 250μg/kg of Tityus serrulatus venom did not induce acute phase proteins in dogs.

  18. The millipede family Paradoxosomatidae in the Philippines, with a description of Eustrongylosoma penevi sp.n., and notes on Anoplodesmus anthracinus Pocock, 1895, recorded in Malaysia and Sri Lanka for the first time (Diplopoda, Polydesmida

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    Sergei Golovatch


    Full Text Available The Philippine fauna of the family Paradoxosomatidae is reviewed and shown to comprise only 12 certain species (+ one dubious, definitely only a fraction of the real diversity to be expected from such a large tropical archipelago. Two new combinations are proposed: Euphyodesmus philippina (Nguyen Duc & Sierwald, 2010, comb. n. ex Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, and Luzonomorpha polilloensis (San Juan & Lit, 2010, comb. n. ex Prionopeltis Pocock, 1895. The first representative of the large, basically Papuan genus Eustrongylosoma Silvestri, 1896 is described from Luzon, Philippines: E. penevi sp. n. It differs from the other congeners in certain details of gonopod structure, as well as by the particularly long legs. Based on a restudy of the types of Strongylosoma luzoniense Peters, 1864, from Luzon, the species is shown to be a new senior subjective synonym of Helicorthomorpha orthogona (Silvestri, 1898, syn. n. This formally results also in Helicorthomorpha luzoniensis (Peters, 1864, comb. n. Anoplodesmus anthracinus Pocock, 1895 is illustrated and briefly redescribed, based on material from State Pulau Penang, Malaysia, which represents the first formal record of the species in that country. This species is also new to the fauna of Sri Lanka. A review of the Anoplodesmus species reported from Sri Lanka, nearly all of them dubious, is presented.

  19. The millipede family Paradoxosomatidae in the Philippines, with a description of Eustrongylosomapenevi sp.n., and notes on Anoplodesmusanthracinus Pocock, 1895, recorded in Malaysia and Sri Lanka for the first time (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei; Stoev, Pavel


    The Philippine fauna of the family Paradoxosomatidae is reviewed and shown to comprise only 12 certain species (+ one dubious), definitely only a fraction of the real diversity to be expected from such a large tropical archipelago. Two new combinations are proposed: Euphyodesmusphilippina (Nguyen Duc & Sierwald, 2010), comb. n. ex Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, and Luzonomorphapolilloensis (San Juan & Lit, 2010), comb. n. ex Prionopeltis Pocock, 1895. The first representative of the large, basically Papuan genus Eustrongylosoma Silvestri, 1896 is described from Luzon, Philippines: Eustrongylosomapenevi sp. n. It differs from the other congeners in certain details of gonopod structure, as well as by the particularly long legs. Based on a restudy of the types of Strongylosomaluzoniense Peters, 1864, from Luzon, the species is shown to be a new senior subjective synonym of Helicorthomorphaorthogona (Silvestri, 1898), syn. n. This formally results also in Helicorthomorphaluzoniensis (Peters, 1864), comb. n. Anoplodesmusanthracinus Pocock, 1895 is illustrated and briefly redescribed, based on material from State Pulau Penang, Malaysia, which represents the first formal record of the species in that country. This species is also new to the fauna of Sri Lanka. A review of the Anoplodesmus species reported from Sri Lanka, nearly all of them dubious, is presented.

  20. Maintenance of scorpions of the genus Tityus Koch (Scorpiones, Buthidae for venom obtention at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil

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    D. M. Candido


    Full Text Available This work presents the experience of the Laboratory of Arthropods at Instituto Butantan, which maintains scorpions in captivity in order to obtain the venom used in the production of anti-arachnid serum. Between 1993 and 2000, the laboratory received 24.781 specimens of Tityus serrulatus in order to obtain poison for the production of anti-scorpion serum. In the first extraction, performed by electrical stimulation, the animals gave an average quantity of 0.4 mg venom per specimen. Animal acquisition and involved professional safety are considered. In addition, the captivity, handling and feeding techniques are described, as well as the method and equipment used for venom extraction. It shows the importance of regular campaigns, offering information to the general population in order to motivate these to catch and send alive scorpions to the Institute to assuring a regular entrance of scorpions.

  1. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod. (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R


    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  2. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope. (United States)

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus


    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds.

  3. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  4. Perfis clínico e hematológico de camundongos submetidos ao envenenamento escorpiônico experimental por Tityus fasciolatus

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    P.T.C. Guimarães


    Full Text Available Estudou-se o quadro clínico do veneno decorrente do envenenamento por Tityus fasciolatus e sua ação refletida nos componentes hematológicos no modelo murino. Para o estudo do perfil hematológico, foram utilizados 54 camundongos Swiss CF1, machos, com 30g, distribuídos em três grupos (G (n=18 inoculados via subcutânea com: 50µL de PBS (G1; 24µg de veneno de T. fasciolatus (G2 e 8µg de veneno de T. serrulatus (G3. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos (n=6 de acordo com o momento da coleta de sangue que foi estipulada em uma, oito e 24h após a inoculação do veneno, e foram realizados o hemograma e a dosagem de proteínas totais e fracionadas. O veneno de T. fasciolatus na dose de 24µg causou piloereção, comportamento nociceptivo, secreção nasal e oral acentuada, dispneia, prurido na face e reflexos exacerbados. No exame hematológico, foram observadas policitemia relativa e leucocitose com linfocitose.

  5. Acute cerebellar dysfunction with neuromuscular manifestations after scorpionism presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Santarém, Pará / Brazil. (United States)

    Torrez, Pasesa P Q; Quiroga, Mariana M M; Abati, Paulo A M; Mascheretti, Melissa; Costa, Walter Silva; Campos, Luciana P; França, Francisco O S


    Scorpionism is a public health problem in many tropical countries, especially in North Africa, South India, Latin America and the Middle East. In Brazil, patients with severe scorpion envenoming have mainly cardiovascular events, including acute heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock, death is rare. We described 58 accidents presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Brazilian Amazonia. Patients reported a sensation of "electric shocks" which could last hours. The vast majority of patients presented a clinical picture compatible with acute cerebellar dysfunction, beginning minutes and lasting up to 2 days after the accident. They presented cerebellar ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetry, dysarthria, dyslalia, nausea and vomiting. Besides, some patients presented myoclonus and fasciculation which can also be attributed to cerebellar dysfunction or maybe the result of direct action on skeletal muscle. Two patients had evidence of intense rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. The clinical picture in this scorpion envenoming is mainly characterized by an acute dysfunction of cerebellar activities and abnormal neuromuscular manifestations and in some cases muscle injury which are not described in any other region of the world. This work presents clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory and treatment aspects of this unmatched scorpion envenoming in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz


    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of

  7. Los escorpiones (chelicerata) de colombia. i. la fauna de la isla gorgona. aproximación biogeográfica


    Lourenco, Wilson R.; Flores, Eduardo


    Este artículo es el resultado del estudio de los escorpiones de la Isla Gorgona, Colombia. Se encontraron dos especies pertenecientes a la familia Buthidae: Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893, ya conocida para la ciencia, y Ananteris Gorgona,. una especie nueva que se describe aquí. Se adicionan también algunos comentarios biogeográficos.

  8. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego, southern California—2016 data summary (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.


    Executive SummaryWe surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2016. Surveys were done from March 30 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 18 to July 30 (SWFL). We found 142 LBVI territories, at least 106 of which were occupied by pairs. Six additional transient LBVIs were detected. Of 20 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 9 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2016, although we were unable to determine the exact color combination of 1 female LBVI. Seven other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2016. Four vireos with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River could not be recaptured for identification.Three SFWL territories were observed in the survey area in 2016. Two territories were occupied by pairs and one by a male of unknown breeding status. Both pairs attempted to nest at least once, and both pairs were successful, fledging three young each. Nesting began in early June and continued into July. Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs were not observed in either nest. An additional 12 transient Willow Flycatchers of unknown subspecies were detected in 2016.Two of the five resident SWFLs were originally banded as nestlings on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. One male and one female were banded as nestlings on Camp Pendleton in 2009 and 2011, respectively. One natal male of unknown breeding status, originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2015, was recaptured and given a unique color combination in 2016. This male was later detected on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

  9. Estudio bioquímico del veneno de Tityus kaderkai(Scorpiones: Buthidae con notas sobre su distribución y hábitat en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Escobar


    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado bioquímicamente el veneno del escorpión Tityus kaderkai Kovařik, 2005 del departamento de Madre de Dios. El veneno soluble contiene 47.6% de proteína y por PAGESDS muestra cinco bandas proteicas. Las proteínas del veneno fueron separadas, a partir de 12.9 mg de veneno, mediante cromatografía de intercambio catiónico en CM Sephadex C-25 con buffer acetato de amonio 0.05 M pH 7, obteniéndose 7 picos proteicos (I – VII. Los ensayos de toxicidad han permitido identificar tres toxinas que afectan a Mus musculus y que se encuentran asociadas a los picos IV, V y VII; asimismo, se ha detectado toxicidad sobre Gryllus sp. en los picos IV, V, VI y VII. Entre las actividades enzimáticas ensayadas, se ha encontrado actividad proteolítica sobre caseína en el pico I y actividad de hialuronidasa en el pico IV con una actividad específica de 205.6 μg/min/mg. Tanto en el veneno soluble como en las fracciones colectadas no se encontró actividad de fosfolipasa, anticoagulante ni hemolítica. El trabajo incluye notas sobre la distribución y el hábitat de la especie.

  10. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego County, southern California—2017 data summary (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.


    We surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2017. Surveys were conducted from April 13 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 16 to July 28 (SWFL). We found 146 LBVI territories, at least 107 of which were occupied by pairs. Five additional transient LBVIs were detected. LBVIs used five different habitat types in the survey area: mixed willow, willow-cottonwood, willow-sycamore, riparian scrub, and upland scrub. Forty-four percent of the LBVIs occurred in habitat characterized as mixed willow and 89 percent of the LBVI territories occurred in areas with greater than 50 percent native plant cover. Of 16 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 8 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2017. Four other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2017. Three LBVIs with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River and one LBVI with a single gold federal band indicating that it was banded as a nestling on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP) could not be recaptured for identification. One banded LBVI emigrated from the middle San Luis Rey River to the lower San Luis Rey River in 2017.One resident SWFL territory and one transient Willow Flycatcher of unknown subspecies (WIFL) were observed in the survey area in 2017. The resident SWFL territory, which was comprised of mixed willow habitat (5–50 percent native plant cover), was occupied by a single male from May 22 to June 21, 2017. No evidence of pairing or nesting activity was observed. The SWFL male was banded with a full color-combination indicating that he was originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2014 and successfully bred in the survey area in 2016

  11. Los escorpiones (Chelicerata de Colombia. I. La fauna de la Isla Gorgona. Aproximación biogeográfica Los escorpiones (Chelicerata de Colombia. I. La fauna de la Isla Gorgona. Aproximación biogeográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Wilson R.


    Full Text Available This paper is the result of the study of the scorpions collected in Gorgona Island, Colombia. Two species belonging to the buthidae family were collected; one already known to science: Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893. The second one, a new species is described in this paper, Ananteris gorgonae. Some comments on the biogeography are also added. Este artículo es el resultado del estudio de los escorpiones de la Isla Gorgona, Colombia. Se encontraron dos especies pertenecientes a la familia Buthidae: Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893, ya conocida para la ciencia, y Ananteris Gorgona,. una especie nueva que se describe aquí. Se adicionan también algunos comentarios biogeográficos.

  12. Cephalopod diet of the Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sepia australis proved to be numerically the most important cephalopod in the diet of seals from Possession Island and Van Reenen Bay, while Octopus magnificus dominated at these colonies in terms of wet mass. Contrary to previous findings it is suggested that seals from Van Reenen Bay and Possession Island forage ...

  13. Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500-1600 m·h(-1 and a reduction in postdive duration (111-90 s. This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (2.9 d effort increased up to 2-3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips between 4-5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species.

  14. 99mTc labeling of the scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, D.S.; Nunan, E.A.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Moraes-Santos, T.; Cardoso, V.N.


    F(ab') 2 is the fragment involved in the immunotherapy for scorpion stings and it would be convenient to label it with 99m Tc for organ distribution and pharmacokinetics studies. The aim of the present study was to label scorpion antivenom F(ab') 2 with 99m Tc keeping its biological activity, integrity and stability. High labeling yield was obtained using stannous chloride and sodium borohydride. Stability, immunoreactivity and integrity of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 was preserved. It was not observed any difference between potencies of unlabeled and labeled antivenom. 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 can be a useful tool for use in biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on the evaluation of the efficacy of the antivenom against scorpion envenomation. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Mônico Magalhães


    Full Text Available The scorpion toxin induces a number of physiological parameters alterations, as disturbance of cardiac rhythm, heart failure, shock, pancreatic hypersecretion, abortion, respiratory arrhytmias and pulmonary edema. As the purification of the venom fractions is a laborious process, one alternative for this would be the utilization of small animals. We utilized in the present study thity-six mice that received progressive doses of scorpion toxin TsTX, i.p. or i.v., and were observed for three hours or sacrificed, and the pulmonary alterations were determined by the lung-body index and by histological analysis of the lungs in order to determine if the mouse can be an esperimental model for scorpion envenomation. The data were analyzed by One Way analysis of variance with pA toxina do escorpião induz a várias alterações fisiológicas, como disturbio do ritmo cardíaco, insuficiência cardíaca, choque, hipersecreção pancreática, aborto, arritmias respiratórias e edema pulmonar. A purificação de frações do veneno é um processo trabalhoso. Como alternativa utilizam-se animais pequenos. No presente estudo utilizou-se 36 camundongos que receberam doses progressivas de toxinas do escorpião (TsTX, intraperitoneal ou intravenosa e foram observados por tres horas ou sacrificados. As alteraçòes pulmonares foram determinadas pela fórmula peso do pulmão x 100/ peso corporal e pela análise hitológica dos pulmões a fim de determinar que o camundongo pode ser um modelo experimental do envenenamento pelo escorpião. Os dados foram analizados pela análise de variância considerando-se p<0,05 indicando significancia. Os experimentos não mostraram diferença nos sinais clínicos do envenenamento comparando-se o camundongo com outros mamíferos. Os efeitos foram dose-dependente e que pela via venosa necessita-se menos quantidade para produzir as mesmas alterações. Nos aspectos histológicos pulmonares observou-se edema septal e não alveolar. Presume-se que as diferenças observadas são devidas a variações específicas das espécies.

  16. The existence of Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 and their prey in different forest habitat types in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A study on the relationships between prey animals and the occurence of sumatran tiger was conducted in Kerinci Seblat National Park, western Sumatra from May up to September 2001. The data have been collected from eight study sites based on the forest habitat types and its threats. The results showed that frequency of encounters with prey animals in different forest habitats were no difference. This might indicates that the prey animals were distributed fairly in all types of forest habitat. The frequency encounters of the sumatran tiger signs, however, have shown differently between locations. The encounters of tiger signs were more frequent in the forest habitats that close to the streams; in forest habitats with few animal huntings; and in forest habitats with no logging activities. This findings support the hypotheses that the existence of sumatran tiger as a predator is determined by the dense vegetations surrounding streams as hiding place used in an ambush; availability of prey animals as food, and habitat disturbances as shown by logging.

  17. Aspectos toxicológicos e inmunológicos del veneno del escorpión Tityus pachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Valderrama


    Full Text Available

    Actualmente se han descrito 1.500 especies de escorpiones, representadas en 12 familias. La familia Buthidae es la de mayor importancia médica, representada en Colombia por cuatro géneros. El veneno está compuesto por proteínas (neurotoxinas, aisladas e identificadas por cromatografía, electroforesis y ensayos de competición, las cuales actúan sobre canales iónicos, liberando neurotransmisores, que determinan el cuadro clínico del envenenamiento. Mediante ELISA, Western Blot e IEF, se ha demostrado que hay reactividad cruzada entre los venenos de un mismo género. En Colombia, los aspectos del escorpionismo se desconocían completamente. Un estudio adelantado por Otero y col. (2001, demostró que el Tolima tiene alta incidencia, y que la principal especie responsable es T. pachyurus. Este hallazgo fomentó el interés por conocer los aspectos toxinológicos e inmunológicos del veneno de este escorpión, objeto del presente estudio.


  18. 21 CFR 173.150 - Milk-clotting enzymes, microbial. (United States)


    ...; family, Bacillaceae; genus, Bacillus; species, cereus (Frankland and Frankland). (3) Mucor pusillus Lindt...; genus, Mucor; species, pusillus; variety, Lindt. (4) Mucor miehei Cooney et Emerson classified as follows: Class, Phycomycetes; subclass, Zygomycetes; order, Mucorales; family, Mucoraceae; genus, Mucor...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krakstad, J-O. Vol 32, No 2 (2010) - Articles Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus: fatty acid composition of their blubber and prey species. Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  20. Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of the blubber of five dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and five Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from the northern Benguela ecosystem (South-East Atlantic) and their main prey was determined. Differences in fatty acid composition of the inner and outer blubber layer of the ...

  1. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 32, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus: fatty acid composition of their blubber and prey species · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O Grahl-Nielsen, J-O Krakstad, L Nøttestad, BE Axelsen.

  2. Recolonisation of the Robberg Peninsula (Plettenberg Bay, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus colony at Robberg Peninsula, Plettenberg Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was driven to extinction by indiscriminate harvesting by the late 1800s. Seals only began to recolonise this site in the 1990s. This study describes the recolonisation process from 2000 to ...

  3. Do inter-colony differences in Cape fur seal foraging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated how such environmental variability may impact foraging behaviour of the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, using satellite telemetry on animals in northern, central and southern Namibia. We expected that seal foraging behaviour would reflect a gradient of deteriorating feeding conditions from ...

  4. Streptococcus phocae infections associated with starvation in Cape fur seals : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton


    Full Text Available Mortalities and abortions associated with starvation occurred at Cape Cross, Namibia, in Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. Affected seals showed lethargy and emaciation, and the most common pathological signs were those of a respiratory infection, both in adults and offspring. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from adult seals, a cub and aborted foetuses.

  5. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the marine plankton and Pocock (1969) identified one benthic ... date, there is no report on benthic marine cyanophytes from other parts ... extend knowledge of this group of algae from the. Moçambique .... The Cuban material was periphytic in.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these studies, there is limited research on the effects of exotic plant species on local biodiversity in ... Species order, taxonomy and common names follow Sinclair & Ryan (2010). Results. In total 71 .... Little Bee-eater. Merops pusillus.

  7. Response and Commentary. (United States)

    Pocock, J G A


    Barbarism and Religion, the first half of J. G. A. Pocock's study of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, was designed to set Gibbon's work in context, using a method developed in Cambridge, by juxtaposing his narrative to many others-to some but not all of which he explicitly referred. Helena Rosenblatt has misunderstood Pocock's intent, which was to show that Gibbon's work took much of its inspiration for its treatment of Christianity from a world of ecclesiastical scholarship. Though Pierre Force shows that Voltaire's erudition was richer than has been thought, he and Gibbon pursued very different forms of learning. And though Pocock agrees with Jonathan Israel that many thinkers challenged traditional Christian theology, their efforts were far more varied than Israel holds. Brief studies of Jean LeClerc and Ralph call Israel's vision of radical Enlightenment into question.

  8. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  9. Is the Zanzibar leopard ( Panthera pardus adersi ) extinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zanzibar leopard, Panthera pardus adersi (Pocock, 1932), is a little-known island endemic assumed by some authorities to be extinct. In 1996 a survey of local practices, beliefs and knowledge about the leopard was conducted on Unguja Island. Data were collected through interviews with Zanzibaris in villages across ...

  10. Shifting Sands, Firm Foundations: Proceedings of the 2009 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Auckland, New Zealand, November 18-20, 2009). Volume 5 (United States)

    van der Ham, Vanessa, Ed.; Sevillano, Lilia, Ed.; George, Lily, Ed.


    The 15 articles in this volume comprise the refereed proceedings of the 2009 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. The first three chapters focus on collaborative work. In Chapter 1, Ann Pocock shares her experiences of working with other university support services. In Chapter 2, Berni Cooper and…

  11. Revalidating the taxonomic position of the Indian Ischnocolus spp. (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    M. Siliwal


    Full Text Available The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.

  12. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 11, 2014 ... Short communication. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different moisture content. SM Woolley1, RS Cottingham1, J Pocock1 and CA Buckley1*. 1Pollution Research Group, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, King George V Avenue, Berea 4041, South Africa.

  13. Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Dutra, Alexandre A A; León, Ileana R


    Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteo...

  14. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges


    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  15. The Upper Santa Ynez River as Habitat for a Diverse Riparian Flora and Fauna (United States)

    M. Violet Gray; James M. Greaves; Thomas E. Olson


    The upper Santa Ynez River, Santa Barbara County, provides habitats for a relatively large population of least Bell's vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus), as well as diverse riparian flora and fauna. Of particular interest is the richness of the species within particular guilds. Four species of vireos: least Bell's, warbling (Vireo...

  16. Vorläufige Beschreibungen neuer papuanischer Ericaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.


    Fruticulus pusillus, 6—17 cm. altus, ramulis tenuibus, densius angulato-lepidotis. Folia minima, alterna, oblongo-ovata, utrinque obtusa, crenulata, sparse lepidota, rigide carnosa, 0.37—0.75 cm. longa, 0.2—0.3 cm. lata; petiolus lepidotus, 0.1—0.225 cm. longus. Inflorescentiae 1—2 florae, ramentis

  17. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Decker


    Full Text Available A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876, Epinannolene cf. trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulus gridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulus sorornus (Butler, 1876, Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894, Cryptops doriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctes coeculus (Brölemann, 1889 and Tygarrup javanicus (Attems, 1907. The millipedes Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847 and Amphitomeus attemsi (Schubart, 1934 and the centipedes Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810 are the species most frequently found in greenhouses.

  18. Nueva especie de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae from the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce Saavedra


    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides mascota sp. nov. de Mascota, Estado de Jalisco, México. Se hace una comparación con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Es una especie de importancia médica que no se había recolectado o reconocido previamente.Centruroides mascota sp. nov. from Mascota, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared with C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, which are morphologically and geographically nearest to it. This medically important species had not been collected or recognized previously

  19. Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga , from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)


    Cifuentes, Yeimy; Estrada-Gomez, Sebastián; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Perafán, Carlos


    ABSTRACT A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901, is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor ) has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male o...

  20. The Chinese Air Force: Evolving Concepts, Roles, and Capabilities (United States)


    improvements were for the most part cosmetic (the lengthening of a fuselage, relocation of components, etc.) and though Chinese writings are...Security Developments Involving the PRC, 62. 10 Chris Pocock with Clarence Fu, The Black Bats: CIA Spy Flights over China from Taiwan (Atglen, PA...development, 276 to avoid R&D investments, 277 RF–100A, 74 RF–84F, 74 RF–86A/F, 74 Rice , Donald, 19 Right Sizing the People’s Liberation Army: Exploring the

  1. The Lens of Power: Aerial Reconnaissance and Diplomacy in the Airpower Century (United States)


    comments at Burrows , By Any Means Necessary, 321. These comments are echoed by Larry Tart at Burrows , By Any Means Necessary, xvi. 1143 As if to make this...For example: William Burrows , Paul Lashmar, L. Parker Temple, Chris Pocock, Gregory Pedlow, and Donald Welzenbach. Their works are covered more...reconnaissance. For example, Larry Tart and Robert Keefe’s 2001 The Price of Vigilance was written to raise awareness about reconnaissance crews who never

  2. Opposing roles of LTB4 and PGE2 in regulating the inflammasome-dependent scorpion venom-induced mortality


    Zoccal, Karina F.; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Hori, Juliana I.; Paula-Silva, Francisco W. G.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Faccioli, L?cia H.


    Tityus serrulatus sting causes thousands of deaths annually worldwide. T. serrulatus-envenomed victims exhibit local or systemic reaction that culminates in pulmonary oedema, potentially leading to death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T. serrulatus venom (TsV) activity remain unknown. Here we show that TsV triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation via K+ efflux. Mechanistically, TsV triggers lung-resident cells to release PGE2, which induces IL-1? production via E prostanoid recep...

  3. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M


    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  4. Distribution of Studied Insectivorous Bat Species of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyo Nyo


    Fourty-five species of insectivourous bats; Craseonycteris thonglongyai, Emballonura monticola, Taphozous melenopongon, T. theobaldi, T. longimanus, Megaderma lyra, M. spasma, Rhinolophus affinis, R. rouxii, R. pusillus, R. lepidus, R. macrotis, R. trifoliatus, R. pearsoni, R. malayanus, R. stheno, R. thomasi, R. shameli, R. acuminatus, R. marshalli, Rhinolophus sp., Hipposideros pomona, H. larvatus, H. armiger, H. lylei, H. ater, H. fulvus, Aselliscus stoliczkanus, Tadarida plicata, Myotis siligorensis, M. muricola, M. horsfieldii, M. hasseltii, M. chinensis, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Ia io, Pipistrellus javanicus, P. coromandra, P. pulveratus, P. paterculus, P. affinis, P. ceylonicus, Miniopterus pusillus and M. magnater were distributed in 7 Divisions; Yangon, Bago, Ayeyawady, Taninthayi, Magway, Mandalay and Sagaing Division, and 7 States; Mon, Kayin, Shan, Chin, Kayah, Kachin and Rakhine States of Myanmar.

  5. 2475-IJBCS-Article-Dr Traoré Mamoudou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 9(5): 2334-2345, 2015. 2340. Tableau 1 : Macrofaune sous différents types de traitements de la variété F0. Traitements. Ordre. Famille. Genre. Espèce. Nombre par unité de surface. T1. Hyménoptères. Termitidae. Microtermes pusillus. 20±1,2. Coléoptères. Carabidae. Feronia sp. 1±0,06. Hémiptères.

  6. Dirofilaria immitis in pinnipeds and a new host record. (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Marcelino, Inês; Colella, Vito; Flanagan, Carla; Silva, Nuno; Correia, Jorge Jesus; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís


    Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is spreading worldwide, and the associated infection (i.e. dirofilariosis) is becoming a threat to animals and humans living in endemic areas. Little is known about the occurrence and risk of infection of D. immitis in pinnipeds. Here we report dirofilariosis by D. immitis in several pinniped species kept in captivity in Portugal. Animals were housed in an oceanographic park located in Algarve, southern Portugal, a geographical area endemic for canine dirofilariosis. To assess the occurrence of D. immitis, blood was collected from the park's resident pinniped population, which consisted of 16 animals (5 common seals Phoca vitulina, 2 grey seals Halichoerus grypus, 3 California sea lions Zalophus californianus and 6 South African fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). Dirofilaria immitis nematodes were detected by real-time PCR and by the presence of circulating antigens. In addition, modified Knott's technique was performed to detect circulating microfilariae. Necropsies and histopathological examination of two animals which died during the study were also conducted. Out of the 16 pinnipeds housed at the park, seven (43.8%) were positive for D. immitis by real-time PCR (3 P. vitulina, 2 Z. californianus and 2 A. p. pusillus), two of which (P. vitulina) were also positive for the nematode's antigen. Additionally, D. immitis microfilariae were detected in one A. p. pusillus. Furthermore, several D. immitis specimens were retrieved from the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries at the necropsy of one P. vitulina and one A. p. pusillus. This study provides new epidemiological data on D. immitis infection in pinnipeds diagnosed through clinical, molecular and pathological findings. Additionally, the South African fur seal is herein reported as a new host for this zoonotic filarioid. The situation herein described could also occur in other parks located in areas where canine dirofilariosis is endemic. Active

  7. Bothriurus pichicuy, nuevo escorpión chileno del grupo vittatus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae

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    Mattoni Camilo I.


    Full Text Available Bothriurus pichicuy, a new scorpion species from the center coast of Chile, is described. It belongs to the vittatus species-group, and differs from the others species in the group by the pigmentation patterns of the prosoma, mesosoma and venter of metasoma, by the development and arrangement of the ventral keels of caudal segment V, and for its small size. The species is the only representative of the vittatus species-group that lives in sympatry with another Bothriurus species: B. coriaceus Pocock, 1893, from the coastal desert of Chile. Records of B. pichicuy came from the provinces of Petorca and Choapa.

  8. Two flat-backed polydesmidan millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-amber Lagerstätte, Mexico.

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    Francisco Riquelme

    Full Text Available Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture.

  9. Two Flat-Backed Polydesmidan Millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-Amber Lagerstätte, Mexico (United States)

    Riquelme, Francisco; Hernández-Patricio, Miguel; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Montejo-Cruz, Maira; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José L.; Zúñiga-Mijangos, Luis


    Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture. PMID:25162220

  10. The whip spider collection (Arachnida, Amblypygi held in the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

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    Seiter, Michael


    Full Text Available We present data and remarks on the history and contents of the whip spider collection housed in the Natural History Museum of Vienna, Austria. The collection comprises a total of 167 specimens from 4 families, 10 genera and 27 species. It includes types of four species: Charinus ioanniticus (Kritscher, 1959, Damon brachialis Weygoldt, 1999, Phrynus parvulus (Pocock, 1902 and Paraphrynus mexicanus (Bilimek, 1867. Short notes on interesting objects and former curators are provided as well as an appendix with a list of species kept alive by Michael Seiter.

  11. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica. (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Ormond, Meghann


    Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua's previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua's framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua's policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. The framework

  12. On the genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 with the first record of the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 from India (Araneae: Tetragnathidae, Leucauginae). (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A


    The tetragnathid spider genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 is reviewed in India. The relationship of Tylorida with Orsinome Thorell, 1890 is discussed and illustrated. The taxonomic significance of male chelicerae of Tylorida spp. is discussed and an identification key based on the features of male chelicerae to separate Indian Tylorida spp. is provided. A new species, Tylorida flava sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Two new transfers and four new synonyms are proposed: Orsinome marmorea Pocock, 1901 and Tylorida culta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) are transferred to Tylorida and Mesida Kulczyn'ski, 1911 respectively, Tylorida cylindrata (Wang, 1991) and Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 are synonymised with Tylorida marmorea (Pocock, 1901) comb. nov., Tylorida nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977) is synonymised with Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and Leucauge pondae Tikader, 1970 is synonymised with Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877). The biology, natural history and intraspecific variations of T. marmorea comb. nov. are noted. The occurrence of intraspecific variations and colour polymorphism in T. ventralis is discussed and two colour morphs (Silver and Yellow morphs) and three varieties (varieties I, II & III) for the species are recognised. Additionally, the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 is recorded for the first time from India and provided the description and illustration of Atelidea nona sp. nov.. The current distribution of Atelidea is mapped.

  13. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento


    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  14. Especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae de la costa del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the coast of the state of Jalisco, Mexico

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    Javier Ponce-Saavedra


    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides chamela sp. nov. de Chamela en el estado de Jalisco, México. Se compara con C. elegans (Thorell, especie con la que es simpátrida. También se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra y Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra y Francke y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Además, con C. meisei Hoffmann, que habita en las costas de Guerrero, porque este taxón se había considerado como subespecie de C. elegans. En la comparación se incluyen C. infamatus (C.L. Koch y C. ornatus (Pocock, por ser especies "rayadas" registradas para el estado de Jalisco.Centruroides chamela sp. nov. from Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared primarily with C. elegans Thorell, because both species are sympatric. It is also compared with C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra et Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra et Francke and C. tecomanus Hoffmann which are morphologically and geographically nearest to the new species. Centruroides meisei Hoffmann, which inhabits the coast of Guerrero is compared because this species was previously classified as a subspecies of C. elegans. Finally, C. infamatus (C.L. Koch and C. ornatus (Pocock are included in the comparisons because they are also present in the state of Jalisco, and belong to the "striped" section of the genus.

  15. Clinical update on scorpion envenoming

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    Palmira Cupo


    Full Text Available Abstract: Scorpion stings are currently the leading cause of venom-related injury to humans in Brazil and are a significant public health problem globally. Only scorpions of the Tityus genus are of medical importance in Brazil, and Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most serious envenomations and deaths. The toxic effects of scorpion envenomation are due to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters; the severity is related to cardiac and hemodynamic changes, with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema contributing to the main causes of death. The pathophysiology of cardiac involvement has been discussed for decades and has been attributed to adrenergic discharge and a possible toxic effect of venom on the myocardium, while acute pulmonary edema may have a cardiogenic and/or non-cardiogenic origin. Currently, the clinical data point to catecholamine excess as the cause for reversible scorpion cardiomyopathy . These data include electrocardiographic changes, profiling of cardiac enzymes and troponin I, echocardiographic data with global or regional left ventricle dysfunction, and myocardial perfusion alterations compatible with spasm in the coronary microcirculation. Furthermore, recent data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings, which are similar to those observed for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, have also been linked to catecholamine excess. The efficiency of antivenom serum treatment is controversial in the literature. Our experience in Brazil is that the management of patients with systemic manifestations of scorpion stings is based on three approaches, all of which are extremely important. These include symptomatic treatment, antivenom serum, and cardiorespiratory support.

  16. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system. (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado


    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  17. Karyology of eight species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Hainan Island, China. (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong


    Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time.

  18. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup


    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  19. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

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    WIRTZ, P.


    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  20. Gamma-irradiation induced mutagenesis on some microbial strains of interest in food biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.; Ferdes, M.; Dumitru, E.; Mencinicopschi, G.


    In this paper there were presented the results concerning gamma-ray effects on some microbial strains which are of interest in food biotechnologies. The irradiations are performed to a Co-60 source, under several condition, at dose rates between 0.1-2.0 kGy/h and in a dose range between 0.1-20.0 kGy. The microbial strains are of Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus and Monascus rubens from IFC collection. There were established the survival curves and the optimum irradiation doses for mutagenic effects. There were isolated, analysed and characterised some mutant strains, with better properties in obtaining food enzymes and pigments. (orig.)

  1. Métodos alternativos para la preservación de hongos filamentosos


    Godínez, S.; Calderón, M.


    En este trabajo se utilizaron las especies Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger y Mucor pusillus conservadas durante ocho años por los métodos de suelo, gel de sílice y liofilización, durante siete años por el método de suelo tradicional y modificado y por seis años en agua destilada, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de estas técnicas de preservación sobre las características de dichas cepas al cabo de un larg...

  2. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi (United States)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  3. Aportaciones al conocimiento faunístico de los géneros Limnebius Leach, 1815 y Ochthebius Leach, 1815 en la Península Ibérica (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae

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    Delgado, J. A.


    Full Text Available New records on the distributional range of 3 species of the genus Limnebius Leach and 9 species of Ochthebius Leach belonging to the subgenera Asiobates Thomson and Ochthebius Leach in the Iberian Peninsula are given. Three new records are specially relevant to the knowledge of the Iberian hydraenid fauna: Ochthebius (Asiobates bicolon Germar, 1824, collected in the provinces of Soria and Cuenca, which represent the first confirmed records for this species in Spain, Ochthebius (Asiobates figueroi Garrido, 1990 reported for Cuenca and, finally, the confirmation of the presence in the Iberian Peninsula of Ochthebius (Ochthebius pusillus Stephens, 1835.Se amplía el conocimiento del área de distribución de 3 especies de Limnebius Leach y 9 especies de Ochthebius Leach de los subgéneros Asiobates Thomson y Ochthebius Leach en la Península Ibérica. Entre estas citas destacan las capturas en las provincias de Cuenca y Soria de Ochthebius (Asiobates bicolon Germar, 1824 que suponen el primer registro ibérico de la especie y de Ochthebius (Asiobates figueroi Garrido, 1990 en la provincia de Cuenca. Igualmente se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Ochthebius (Ochthebius pusillus Stephens, 1835.

  4. Stress response in medically important Mucorales. (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K


    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Characterization of thermophilic fungal community associated with pile fermentation of Pu-erh tea. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ruijuan; Fang, Wenjun; Yan, Liang; Lu, Jun; Sheng, Jun; Lv, Jie


    This study aimed to characterize the thermophilic fungi in pile-fermentation process of Pu-erh tea. Physicochemical analyses showed that the high temperature and low pH provided optimal conditions for propagation of fungi. A number of fungi, including Blastobotrys adeninivorans, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rasamsonia emersonii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rasamsonia byssochlamydoides, Rasamsonia cylindrospora, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium graminearum were isolated as thermophilic fungi under combination of high temperature and acid culture conditions from Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation. The fungal communities were analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Results revealed that those fungi are closely related to Debaryomyces hansenii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, A. tubingensis, R. emersonii, R. pusillus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, and the last four presented as dominant species in the pile process. These four preponderant thermophilic fungi reached the order of magnitude of 10(7), 10(7), 10(7) and 10(6)copies/g dry tea, respectively, measured by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The results indicate that the thermophilic fungi play an important role in Pu-erh tea pile fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A revision of the purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 (Araneae, Atypidae in the Afrotropical Region

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    Rene Fourie


    Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.

  7. A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

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    Ruttapon Srisonchai


    , comb. n., H. simplipodus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n., H. specialis (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005, comb. n., H. spectabilis (Attems, 1937, comb. n., H. spinitergus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n., H. spinissimus (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012, comb. n. and H. variabilis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016, comb. n. Desmoxytes s.s. includes the following species: D. breviverpa Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. cervina (Pocock,1895; D. delfae (Jeekel, 1964; D. des Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. pinnasquali Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. planata (Pocock, 1895; D. purpurosea Enghoff, Sutcharit & Panha, 2007; D. takensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. taurina (Pocock, 1895; D. terae (Jeekel, 1964, all of which are re-described based mainly on type material. Two new synonyms are proposed: Desmoxytes pterygota Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes cervina (Pocock, 1895, Desmoxytes rubra Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes delfae (Jeekel, 1964. Six new species are described from Thailand: D. aurata Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. corythosaurus Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. euros Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. flabella Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. octoconigera Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., as well as one from Malaysia: D. perakensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., and one from Myanmar: D. waepyanensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n. The species can mostly be easily distinguished by gonopod structure in combination with other external characters; some cases of particularly similar congeners are discussed. All species of Desmoxytes s.s. seem to be endemic to continental Southeast Asia (except the ‘tramp’ species D. planata. Some biological observations (relationship with mites, moulting are recorded for the first time. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key

  8. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae). (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas


    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  9. Professor José Roberto Giglio and toxinnology in Brazil: 48 years in research

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    A. M. Soares


    Full Text Available This work succinctly describes the professional and scientific life of Dr. José R. Giglio, one of the most outstanding Brazilian researchers in the field of Toxinology. During his long and successful career, he has made major contributions, especially in elucidating the function, structure, and mechanisms of action of animal venom proteins (from snakes, scorpions and spiders as well as the characterization of antibodies and several inhibitors of venoms and toxins. We present here a brief history of Dr. Giglio’s personal and professional life, also reporting some of his numerous published scientific articles on venoms from snakes (Bothrops, Crotalus, and other genera, scorpions (Tityus sp, spiders (Phoneutria sp, their isolated toxins and natural inhibitors. Thus, this work is a tribute to Dr. Giglio in his 73rd birthday, having devoted 48 years of his life studying animal venoms, an effort that has continued even after his formal retirement from university duties.

  10. Escorpionismo: presentación de un posible caso grave ocurrido en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

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    Patricia C Docampo


    Full Text Available El escorpionismo, en su aspecto clínico es un envenenamiento de causa accidental producido por la inoculación del veneno de un alacrán o escorpión, que en Argentina ocurre predominantemente en áreas urbanas, en el ámbito domiciliario o peridomiciliario. En nuestro país son tres las especies de escorpiones de interés médico-sanitario: Tityus (T. trivittatus, T. confluens y T. bahiensis. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza por presentar dolor agudo con escaso compromiso cutáneo y manifestaciones sistémicas que, sin tratamiento pueden provocar la muerte, principalmente en niños. El objetivo de esta comunicación es dar a conocer el primer caso de escorpionismo grave, ocurrido en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, en una niña de 4 años de edad y describir el cuadro clínico característico y la necesidad del tratamiento precoz en los casos moderados y severos.Scorpionism in its clinical aspect is an envenoming caused by accidental sting and inoculation of venom from a scorpion, which in Argentina occurs predominantly in urban areas, in the home environment or peridomiciliary. In our country there are three species of scorpions of medical-health concern: Tityus (T. trivittatus, T. confluens and T. bahiensis. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain with limited cutaneous and systemic manifestations, that without treatment can cause death, especially in children. The aim of this communication is to present the first case of severe scorpionism occurred in the City of Buenos Aires, in a 4 years old girl, and to describe the characteristic clinical picture and the need for early treatment in moderate and severe cases of scorpionism.

  11. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima


    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  12. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera. (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério


    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n. , Caribena gen. n. , and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n. , Avicularia lynnae sp. n. , and Avicularia caei sp. n. . Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to

  13. Toxic micromycetes in grain raw material during its processing. (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Railiene, Marija; Raudoniene, Vita


    In 2003-2005 micromycetes were isolated and identified from wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat grain brought into mills or from processing enterprises. Contamination of the produced flour with micromycete propagules (cfu g(-1)), changes in micromycete diversity and abundance in the course of flour storage, preparation and baking of bread, production of groats or other food products and fodder were determined. Most attention was given to widely distributed micromycetes, known producers of toxins: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. (=Eurotium) repens, Fusarium culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum, P. cyclopium, P. daleae, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. roqueforti, P. urticae, P. verruculosum, P. viridicatum, Phoma exiqua, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichothecium roseum. Abilities of these micromycetes to produce secondary toxic metabolites were determined as well as possible hazard caused to people consuming the contaminated products.

  14. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

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    Sychra O.


    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  15. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

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    Marcos Patrício Macedo


    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  16. Characterization of selected strains of mucorales using fatty acid profiles Caracterização de linhagens de mucorales através do perfil de ácidos graxos

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    Manuela da Silva


    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of several fungi of the order Mucorales (Zygomycetes, including Backusella lamprospora (Lendner Benny and R.K. Benj., Benjaminiella youngii P.M. Kirk, Circinella simplex van Tieghem, Cunninghamella blakesleeana Lendner, Mortierella ramanniana (Möller Linnem., Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii (Lendner Schipper, Mycotypha microspora Fenner, Rhizomucor miehei (Cooney and R. Emerson Schipper and Rhizomucor pusillus (Lindt Schipper, and of Volutella sp. Fr., from the class Ascomycetes, were qualitatively analysed by gas-liquid chromatography in order to determine the taxonomic value of these chemotaxonomic markers. The fatty acids present in all strains were palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1, linoleic (18:2 and g-linolenic (18:3 acid, with the exception that the latter was not found in Volutella sp. Chemotaxonomic markers for some species and genera were obtained, including a non-identified fatty acid, FAME8 (minimum and maximum retention times of 27.92 and 28.28 minutes for Rhizomucor miehei CCT 2236 and Rhizomucor pusillus CCT 4133, and FAME3 (minimum and maximum of 16.53 and 16.61 minutes for Benjaminiella youngii CCT 4121. The chemotaxonomic marker of the order Mucorales was the fatty acid 18:3w6, confirming previous data from literature. The results of the present study suggest that qualitative fatty acid analysis can be an important chemotaxonomic tool for the classification of fungi assigned to the order Mucorales (Zygomycetes.O perfil de ácidos graxos de Backusella lamprospora (Lendner Benny e R.K. Benj., Benjaminiella youngii P.M. Kirk, Circinella simplex van Tieghem, Cunninghamella blakesleeana Lendner, Mortierella ramanniana (Möller Linnem., Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii (Lendner Schipper, Mycotypha microspora Fenner, Rhizomucor miehei (Cooney e R. Emerson Schipper e Rhizomucor pusillus (Lindt Schipper, da ordem Mucorales (Zygomycetes, e Volutella sp. Fr., da classe Ascomycetes, foram analisados qualitativamente

  17. A new Oriental genus of bostrichid beetle (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae: Xyloperthini, a new synonym and a lectotype designation for Octodesmus episternalis (Lesne, 1901

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    Lan-Yu Liu


    Full Text Available A new genus and species of bostrichid beetle, Octomeristes gen. nov. and Octomeristes pusillus gen. et sp. nov., in the tribe Xyloperthini is described from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. wood in Thailand. The genus is compared to Octodesmus Lesne, 1901, the only other xyloperthine genus with eight-segmented antennae, and to the xyloperthine genera, Xylion Lesne, 1901, Xylionulus Lesne, 1901 and Xylobosca Lesne, 1901. A new combination, Octomeristes minutissimus (Lesne, 1932 comb. nov., is transferred from Octodesmus Lesne, 1901. A lectotype is designated for Octodesmus episternalis Lesne, 1901, the type species of Octodesmus. Octodesmus kamoli Chûjô, 1964 is designated a new synonym of Paraxylion bifer (Lesne, 1932. A key is provided to the species of Octodesmus and Octomeristes gen. nov.

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of the genus Gilbertella and related genera within the order Mucorales based on 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences. (United States)

    Papp, T; Acs, Klára; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Nagy, Erzsébet; Vágvölgyi, Cs


    The complete ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region coding the ITS1, the ITS2 and the 5.8S rDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from two strains of Gilbertella persicaria, six strains in the Mucoraceae (Mucor piriformis, M. rouxii, M. circinelloides, Rhizomucor miehei, R. pusillus and R. tauricus) and four strains representing three species of the Choanephoraceae (Blakeslea trispora, Choanephora infundibulifera and Poitrasia circinans). Sequences of the amplified DNA fragments were determined and analysed. G. persicaria belongs to the monogeneric family (Gilbertellaceae), however, originally it was described as Choanephora persicaria. The goal of this study was to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among fungi belonging to Gilbertellaceae, Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae. Our results support that the "intermediate" position of this family is between Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae.

  19. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates. (United States)

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, L M; Kamal, A M; Ahmed, M M; Boshara, E F


    Mosquitoes are among the most annoying and important vectors of human and animal diseases as malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, rift valley fever...etc. In this paper, it was aimed to study the present status of species of genus Culex in the Suez Canal Governorates after the reconstruction and developmental projects. Five species of Culex were identified: C. pipiens, C. univittatus, C. antennatus, C. poicilipes and C. pusillus. The latter species was represented by two specimens. C. pipiens was the commonest species both indoors and outdoors. C. antennatus and C. poicilipes were found only outdoors. C. pipiens was found all the year round particularly in Spring. Other species were found in Spring and Autumn, except C. antennatus which was found in Summer as well. The results were discussed on the light of work done before.

  20. Further revisionary studies on the ant genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini

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    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão


    Full Text Available I hereby revise, for the second time, the primarily Neotropical solenopsidine ant genus Megalomyrmex, describing M. wettereri n. sp., of the Silvestrii group, based on workers and gynes. Megalomyrmex latreillei Forel is synonymyzed under M. foreli Emery. The gyne of M. poatan is described and that of M. wallacei redescribed; males of M. acauna, M. incisus and M. wallacei are described. New locality records are given for M. ayri, M. cupecuara, M. goeldii, M. iheringi, M. modestus, and M. wallacei (Modestus group; M. acauna, M. balzani, M. cyendyra, M. emeryi, M. foreli, M. glaesarius, M. leoninus, M. staudingeri, and M. timbira (Leoninus group; M. poatan, M. silvestrii, and M. symmetochus (Silvestrii group, and M. drift, M. incisus, M. myops and M. pusillus (Incisus group. New biological data are recorded for M. acauna, M. goeldii, and M. wallacei. Comments are made for M. bidentatus, M. miri and M. mondabora.Reviso, pela segunda vez, o gênero neotropical de formigas Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini, descrevendo M. wettereri n. sp. do grupo Silvestrii com base em operárias e gines (rainhas. Megalomyrmex latreillei Forel é sinonimizada sob M. foreli Emery. A gine de M. poatan é descrita e a de M. wallacei é redescrita; os machos de M. acauna, M. incisus e M. wallacei são descritos. Novos registros de localidade são apresentados para M. ayri, M. cupecuara, M. goeldii, M. iheringi, M. modestus, e M. wallacei (grupo Modestus; M. acauna, M. balzani, M. cyendyra, M. emeryi, M. foreli, M. glaesarius, M. leoninus, M. staudingeri, e M. timbira (grupo Leoninus; M. poatan, M. silvestrii, e M. symmetochus (grupo Silvestrii, e M. drift, M. incisus, M. myops e M. pusillus (grupo Incisus. Novos dados biológicos são apresentados para M. acauna, M. goeldii, e M. wallacei e outros comentários são apresentados para M. bidentatus, M. miri e M. mondabora.

  1. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation. (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara


    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  2. Comparative phylogeography of African fruit bats (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) provide new insights into the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, 2014-2016. (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Nesi, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Éric; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Musaba Akawa, Prescott; Ngoagouni, Carine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Ruedi, Manuel; Tshikung, Didier; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Bonillo, Céline

    Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae. Our phylogenetic results confirm the existence of four independent lineages of African fruit bats: the genera Eidolon and Rousettus, and the tribes Epomophorini and Scotonycterini, and indicate that the three species suspected to represent ZEBOV reservoir hosts (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, and Myonycteris torquata) belong to an African clade that diversified rapidly around 8-7 Mya. To test for phylogeographic structure and for recent gene flow from Central to West Africa, we analysed the nucleotide variation of 675 cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences, representing eight fruit bat species collected in 48 geographic localities. Within Epomophorina, our mitochondrial data do not support the monophyly of two genera (Epomops and Epomophorus) and four species (Epomophorus gambianus, Epomops franqueti, Epomops buettikoferi, and Micropteropus pusillus). In Epomops, however, we found two geographic haplogroups corresponding to the Congo Basin and Upper Guinea forests, respectively. By contrast, we found no genetic differentiation between Central and West African populations for all species known to make seasonal movements, Eidolon helvum, E. gambianus, H. monstrosus, M. pusillus, Nanonycteris veldkampii, and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our results suggest that only three fruit bat species were able to disperse directly ZEBOV from the Congo Basin to Upper Guinea: E. helvum, H. monstrosus, and R. aegyptiacus. Copyright © 2016 Académie des

  3. Bats host diverse parvoviruses as possible origin of mammalian dependoparvoviruses and source for bat-swine interspecies transmission. (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Yeung, Hazel C; Li, Kenneth S M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Zhao, Pyrear S H; Lau, Candy C C; Lam, Carol S F; Choi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Ben C H; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Libiao; Wang, Ming; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    Compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. We detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in Hong Kong and mainland China. Parvoviruses belonging to Amdoparvovirus, Bocaparvovirus and Dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvovirus, three dependoparvovirus and one amdoparvovirus species. Nearly complete genome sequencing confirmed the existence of at least four novel bat bocaparvovirus species (Rp-BtBoV1 and Rp-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus pusillus, Rs-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus sinicus and Rol-BtBoV1 from Rousettus leschenaultii) and two novel bat dependoparvovirus species (Rp-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus pusillus and Rs-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus sinicus). Rs-BtBoV2 was closely related to Ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 with 93, 72.1 and 78.7 % amino acid identities in the NS1, NP1 and VP1/VP2 genes, respectively. The detection of bat bocaparvoviruses, including Rs-BtBoV2, closely related to porcine bocaparvoviruses, suggests recent interspecies transmission of bocaparvoviruses between bats and swine. Moreover, Rp-BtAAV1 and Rs-BtAAV1 were most closely related to human AAV1 with 48.7 and 57.5 % amino acid identities in the rep gene. The phylogenetic relationship between BtAAVs and other mammalian AAVs suggests bats as the ancestral origin of mammalian AAVs. Furthermore, parvoviruses of the same species were detected from multiple bat species or families, supporting the ability of bat parvoviruses to cross species barriers. The results extend our knowledge on the diversity of bat parvoviruses and the role of bats in parvovirus evolution and emergence in humans and animals.

  4. «I remember a Mahometan story of Ahmed ben Edris»: free thinking uses of Islam from Stubbe to Toland

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    Champion, Justin


    Full Text Available This paper explores the intellectual context and learned sources of an unnoticed clandestine manuscript owned by Charles Hornby in 1701 which included a version of Henry Stubbe’s controversial Account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism and a translation of the first seven chapters of a Spanish work of Muḥammad Alguazir (fl. 1610 Apología contra la ley Cristiana. The paper sets out to examine how both freethinking figures like Stubbe and Toland and orthodox men of learning encountered, used and challenged Islamic anti-Christian polemic. To this end it esttablishes the diverse patterns of citation and usage of «orientalist» erudition between 1650 and 1720 —focusing in particular on the great works of Hottinger and Pococke. The paper argues that freetthinkers were very capable of appropriating both Christian erudition and Islamic theology (in particular that hostile to Pauline corruption of doctrine and scriptture to their irreligious ends.

    Este artículo explora el contexto intelectual y las fuentes eruditas de un manuscrito clandestino, que ha pasado inadvertido hasta la fecha, que en 1701 pertenecía a Charles Hornby y que incluía una versión de la obra polémica de Henry Stubbe Account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism, además de una traducción de los siete primeros capítulos de la obra en castellano de Muḥammmad Alguazir (fl. 1610 Apología contra la ley Cristiana. El artículo propone examinar cómo las polémicas islámicas anticristianas fueron encontradas, utilizadas y cuestionadas, tanto por personajes librepensadores, como Stubbe y Toland, como por los estudiosos más ortodoxos. Para tal fin establece los distintos hábitos en la citación y utilización de la erudición “orientalista” que se emplearon entre 1650 y 1720, prestando especial atención a las grandes obras de Hotttinger y Pococke. El artículo argumenta que los librepensadores fueron perfectamente capaces de

  5. A literatura como via de reconstrução nacional: o contexto curitibano no período posterior à Revolução Federalista (1890-1900 * Literature as a means of national reconstruction: Curitiba’s context during the period after the federalist revolution...

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    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo objetiva tratar do impacto da Revolução Federalista sobre os discursos dos literatos paranaenses do contexto do final do século XIX. Também busca discutir o papel do literato naquela sociedade, explorando as fontes que tratam desse assunto. O corpo documental deste trabalho compreende duas revistas importantes do período para o meio literato local, o Clube Curitibano (1890-1912 e O Cenáculo (1895-1897. Além desses periódicos, a análise também abrange obras biográficas sobre os escritores e colaboradores mais assíduos dos dois periódicos. Tais agentes são entendidos aqui como “atores linguísticos”, expressão utilizada por John Pocock para designar os que operam como articuladores da linguagem de uma época, visando à defesa de interesses e à expressão de determinadas ideias e valores. Foram, portanto, mediadores da cultura de sua época, pois assumiram, de maneira engajada, posicionamentos referentes à vida em sociedade, nela desempenhando, a um só tempo, os papéis de atores, testemunhas e consciências do contexto por eles vivenciado.Palavras-chave: Revolução – Literatura – Intelectuais. Abstract: This article intends to examine the impact of Federalistic War on the writer’s ideas in the context of the Nineteenth Century in the Brazilian state of Parana. It also intends to discuss the social role of the literati in that society, exploring the magazines as historic sources. The documental corpus of this work covers the Club Curitibano Magazine (Revista do Clube Curitibano (1890-1912 and The Cenacle (1895-1897. Besides theses sources, the analysis covers biographical works about the main contributors of the magazines already mentioned. We understand that these writers are "linguistic actors", a term used by John Pocock to designate the ones who operate as language articulators of an epoch, aimed at defending interests and the expression of certain ideas and values. Therefore, they were the

  6. Contribuição para o conhecimento da intoxicação pelo veneno dos "escorpiões"

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    Octavio de Magalhães


    Full Text Available Nous avons travaillé à Bello Horizonte, Etat de Minas, avec le venin de 4 espèces de Scorpions: Tityus bahiensis (C. L. KOCK, 1836. Tityus serrulatus (LUTZ-MELLO, 1922. Tityus dorsomaculatus (LUTZ – MELLO, 1922. Bothriurus (espèce em étude, sur un total de 13.640 individus. Nous avons essayé et observe l’action du venin sur 97 espèces differentes d’êtres vivants – depuis les chlamydozoaires jusqu’à l’«Homo sapiens». Nous avons cherché à déterminer une unité toxique «plus précise, plus régulierè». Les étalons dits «unité vésicule», «unité morsure» sont inconstants et sans rigueur. Tout au plus, peuvent ils server à l’étude de l’action générale du venin, et cela meme, dans certains cas seulement. Nous avons employé la pesée pour determiner l’unité toxique. Ce qui est important pour qui étudie ces sujets ce n’est pás lê nombre de vésicules, mais bien la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent. La balance, pour notre travail, est um moyen indicateur de bien plus grande précision que la «vésicule» ou la «morsure». Nous sommes parvenus à prouver qu’il existe une relation constante entre le poid brut des vésicules et la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent dans leur intérieur. Donc em pesant les vésicules, nous pesons indirectement le venin. Peu nous importe qu’il y ait 10 ou 100 vésicules. Il nous importe seulement de savoir combien elles pèsent, et de déterminer par ce fait, la quantité proportionnelle de vain pur. La technique générale est la suivante: Nous pesons um certain nombre de vésicules. Nous triturons ensuite, dans um mortier stérilisé et nous emulsionnons, par l’addition consécutive d’eau distillée, stérilisée. Nous filtrons l’émulsion sur le papier filtre employé em chimie, préalablement taré et desséché dans une atmosphere de chlorure de calcium. Après le filtrage on sèche à nouveau les

  7. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    José Brites-Neto


    Full Text Available Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis. The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC, using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9% and tree cover (28.2% for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8% and thermal amplitude (12.6% for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State

  8. Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga , from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae

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    Yeimy Cifuentes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901, is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male of P. verdolaga sp. nov. is distinguished by the palpal bulb with broad embolus, poorly developed apical keel (A, prolateral inferior keel (PI and prolateral accessory keel (PAc present but poorly developed, and retrolateral keel (R of similar length as A. Females are distinguished by the morphology of spermatheca with a wide base and very short oval seminal receptacles, which are curved toward the center. This is the thirteenth species described in Pamphobeteus and the sixth species reported from Colombia. The species description is complemented by a molecular characterization of a partial CO1 sequence.

  9. Using environmental niche modeling to find suitable habitats for the Hard-ground Barasingha in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    C. P. Singh


    Full Text Available The subspecies of Swamp Deer, the Hard-ground Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii branderi Pocock, is presently found only in Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR in Madhya Pradesh, India. This subspecies is highly vulnerable to extinction, and reintroduction in suitable sites is the need of the hour.  Environmental niche models (GARP, SVM, ED, CSM aimed at providing a detailed prediction of species distribution by relating presence of species to 19 bioclimatic indices were developed, using swamp deer occurrence records in KTR. The predictions were appropriately weighted with the prevailing LU/LC classes to identify suitable habitats in Madhya Pradesh, India. The result shows that the southern region of Madhya Pradesh is suitable for the sustenance of Barasingha with varying degrees of habitability. Vicarious validation shows that most of these forest areas were the same as that of historical records dating back to 50 years. However, land use maps can help identify areas where this subspecies can be reintroduced. 

  10. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, S.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M.; Murthy, K. Radha Krishna


    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  11. Molecular technique reveals high variability of 18S rDNA distribution in harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from South Africa. (United States)

    Šťáhlavský, František; Opatova, Vera; Just, Pavel; Lotz, Leon N; Haddad, Charles R


    The knowledge of cytogenetics in the harvestmen family Phalangiidae has been based on taxa from the Northern Hemisphere. We performed cytogenetic analysis on Guruia africana (Karsch, 1878) (2n=24) and four species of the genus Rhampsinitus Simon, 1879 (2n=24, 26, 34) from South Africa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe was used to analyze the number and the distribution of this cluster in the family Phalangiidae for the first time. The results support the cytogenetic characteristics typical for the majority of harvestmen taxa, i.e. the predominance of small biarmed chromosomes and the absence of morphologically well-differentiated sex chromosomes as an ancestral state. We identified the number of 18S rDNA sites ranging from two in R. qachasneki Kauri, 1962 to seven in one population of R. leighi Pocock, 1903. Moreover, we found differences in the number and localization of 18S rDNA sites in R. leighi between populations from two localities and between sexes of R. capensis (Loman, 1898). The heterozygous states of the 18S rDNA sites in these species may indicate the presence of XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, and the possible existence of these systems in harvestmen is discussed. The variability of the 18S rDNA sites indicates intensive chromosomal changes during the differentiation of the karyotypes, which is in contrast to the usual uniformity in chromosomal morphology known from harvestmen so far.

  12. Abundância e sazonalidade de Bothriurus signatus (Arachnida, Scorpiones em diferentes formações vegetais em São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil

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    Ricardo Ott


    Full Text Available Foi realizado levantamento de escorpiões em serrapilheira de três tipos de formações vegetais (florestas primárias, florestas secundárias e silviculturas em área de Floresta com Araucária no Sul do Brasil. Para a coleta foram utilizadas armadilhas de queda ao longo de 20 meses. No total foram amostrados 165 escorpiões de apenas uma espécie identificada como Bothriurus signatus Pocock, 1893. Machos foram mais abundantes que fêmeas e jovens. A espécie foi mais abundante em áreas de floresta primária e silvicultura do que na floresta secundária. A maior atividade dos escorpiões foi registrada durante a primavera. O comprimento total dos escorpiões adultos coletados variou de 3,05 a 4,52 cm sendo que machos foram significativamente maiores que fêmeas. Nenhuma fêmea grávida foi registrada entre os indivíduos coletados.

  13. Contextualismo linguístico: contexto histórico, pressupostos teóricos e contribuições para a escrita da história da educação

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    Carlos Eduardo Vieira


    Full Text Available O contextualismo linguístico (CL, cujas origens estão na escrita da história do pensamento político, disseminou-se e se tornou uma das mais importantes referências também no debate de questões atinentes à história intelectual. Considerando que os historiadores Skinner e Pocock estão entre os seus principais formuladores, suas obras de caráter metodológicoforam definidas como fontes deste estudo. A análise está dividida em trêspartes. Na primeira, procura-se identificar a emergência do projeto intelectual do CL; na segunda, explora-se a arquitetura lógica da teoria e, na terceira, analisa-se o foco do CL no exame do funcionamento da linguagem e na questão do protagonismo do sujeito na história. Nas conclusões, aborda-seo potencial dessa proposição para a escrita da história da educação.

  14. Revision of the camel spider genus Eremocosta Roewer and a description of the female Eremocosta gigas Roewer (Arachnida, Solifugae). (United States)

    Cushing, Paula E; Channiago, Felix; Brookhart, Jack O


    A recent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the solifuge genus Eremocosta (Eremobatidae), although not monophyletic, formed a strongly supported group, rendered paraphyletic by the exclusion of E. acuitlapanensis, which we herein determine is misplaced in this genus. We revise the taxonomy of the genus Eremocosta. Nine species of the 13 currently placed in the genus are retained, E. bajaensis (Muma 1986), E. calexicensis (Muma 1951), E. formidabilus (Simon 1879), E. gigas Roewer 1934, E. gigasella (Muma 1970), E. spinipalpis (Kraepelin 1899), E. striata (Putnam 1883), and E. titania (Muma 1951). Eremocosta fusca (Muma 1986) and E. montezuma (Roewer 1934) are returned to the genus Eremorhax along with E. arenarum. Eremocosta hystrix and Eremocosta acuitlapanensis (Vázquez Gaviño-Rojas 2000) are transferred to Eremobates. We re-evaluated E. nigrimana (Pocock 1895) and determined that, since the type shows the ventrodistal concavity (VDC) diagnostic for the genus Eremocosta, it should be retained in that genus; however, because the type locality is identified as Afghanistan, far outside the range of any Eremobatidae, its status and placement remain uncertain. Eremocosta robusta (Roewer 1934) was designated nomen dubium by Muma and we maintain this designation. We provide a key to the species of Eremocosta and provide a description of the female of E. gigas.

  15. El Maquiavelo de Don Manuel García-Pelayo : algunas reflexiones sobre el significado de la aportación de la teoría del estadoal derecho político desde la perspectiva del actual momento del derecho constitucional

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    Eloy García


    Full Text Available Se trata de tomar como hilo conductor la lectura que Manuel García- Pelayo hace del pensamiento de Maquiavelo, para reflexionar acerca de la conveniencia de efectuar una reflexión sobre nuestra vida política desde la Teoría del Estado constitucional. La Teoría del Estado parece ser una categoría prescindible para los actuales estudiosos de la Constitución, cuando los problemas a que asistimos no pueden ser satisfactoriamente explicados acudiendo sólo a las explicaciones que nos dan las normas del Derecho. Por eso se hace necesario considerar lo que ahora están diciendo los autores de Cambridge (Pocock, Dunn, Skinner, Tuck, Pagden para saber si es posible reconstruir una Teoría del Estado que satisfaga las deficiencias del Derecho Constitucional para abordar una realidad política que parece desbordada por los problemas de la gobernabilidad, el declive de la libertad política o la corrupción

  16. Maquiavelismo: concepto y significado. Una lectura desde la virtù

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    Full Text Available "El maquiavelismo" o "lo maquiavélico" se suele usar como sinónimo de inmoralidad, o de la subordinación de los medios a los fines (una suerte de utilitarismo embrionario. Una lectura más profunda de El Príncipe, conjuntamente con el análisis de las otras obras de Maquiavelo, nos muestra que el florentino distaba de tener esto en mente. Obras como la de Pocock y la de Llefort hacen una relectura interesante de la cual se deduce que "el maquiavelismo" o "lo maquiavélico" no es una doctrina moral sino una forma (amoral de entender el poder -más específicamente: las relaciones reales de poder-. El concepto de virtù juega en esto un rol esencial, pues encierra el modo de concebir el poder y la política en Maquiavelo, y es a su vez el generador de las ambigüedades en la interpretación del florentino. Todo gobernante debe ser virtuoso en sentido clásico, y también en sentido maquiavélico. El que sólo lo sea en sentido maquiavélico, será un inmoral, y el que sólo lo sea en sentido clásico, será un irresponsable.

  17. Scorpion envenoming in two regions of Colombia: clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects. (United States)

    Otero, R; Navío, E; Céspedes, F A; Núñez, M J; Lozano, L; Moscoso, E R; Matallana, C; Arsuza, N B; García, J; Fernández, D; Rodas, J H; Rodríguez, O J; Zuleta, J E; Gómez, J P; Saldarriaga, M; Quintana, J C; Núñez, V; Cárdenas, S; Barona, J; Valderrama, R; Paz, N; Díaz, A; Rodríguez, O L; Martínez, M D; Maturana, R; Beltrán, L E; Mesa, M B; Paniagua, J; Flórez, E; Lourenço, W R


    To determine clinical and epidemiological features of scorpion stings in two departments of Colombia, a descriptive study was performed in the hospitals of 10 towns from Antioquia (2 256 071 inhabitants) and five from Tolima (630 424 inhabitants). One hundred and twenty-nine cases were admitted during one year, 51 in Antioquia, 78 in Tolima and 41 were children less than 15 years old. Most stings (70.5%) occurred inside the house; 27.9% were on the hands and 26.4% on the feet. The scorpion species involved were Tityus pachyurus (51), Centruroides gracilis (31), T. fuehrmanni (29), T. asthenes (7) and Chactas spp. (1). In 10 cases the scorpion involved was not identified. Systemic envenoming signs (e.g. vomiting, tachypnea) were significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P < 0.05). Four children had hypertension, but none developed pulmonary oedema. One 3-year-old girl, stung by T. asthenes, had acute oedematous pancreatitis. Ninety-eight patients had mild envenoming. Moderate (27 patients) and severe (four patients) envenoming was significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P = 0.003; relative risk = 2.97). A pepsin-digested anti-Centruroides spp. antivenom was administered to 19 of 31 patients presenting systemic envenoming signs. No adverse reactions to antivenom were observed.

  18. Data to the knowledge of the macrolepidoptera fauna of the Sălaj-region, Transylvania, Romania (arthropoda: insecta

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    Bálint Zs


    Full Text Available We provide 984 data of 88 collecting events originating from the Sălaj-region of western Transylvania, Romania. These have been assembled in the period between 22. April, 2014 and 10. September, 2015. Geographical, spatial and temporal records to the knowledge of 98 butterflies (Papilionoidea and 225 moths (Bombycoidea, Drepanoidea, Geometroidea, Noctuoidea and Sphingoidea are given representing the families (species numbers in brackets Hesperiidae (8, Lycaenidae (28, Nymphalidae (28, Papilionidae (3, Pieridae (13 Riodinidae (1, Satyridae (17 (Papilionoidea; Arctiidae (11, Ctenuchidae (1, Lymantriidae (1, Noctuidae (119, Nolidae (2, Notodontidae (6 Thyatiridae (4, (Noctuoidea; Drepanidae (3 (Drepanoidea; Geometridae (73 (Geometroidea; Lasiocampidae (2, Saturniidae (1 (Bombycoidea; Sphingidae (2 (Sphingoidea. According to the most recent catalogue of the Romanian Lepidoptera fauna 31 species proved to be new for the region Sălaj. The following 43 species have faunistical interest, therefore they are briefly annotated: Agrochola humilis, Agrochola laevis, Aplocera efformata, Aporophila lutulenta, Atethmia centrago, Bryoleuca felina, Calyptra thalictri, Chazara briseis, Colias chrysotheme, Coscinia cribraria, Cupido osiris, Cyclophora albipunctata, Cymatophorima diluta, Drepana curvatula, Dryobotodes monochroma, Eilema caniola, Eilema palliatella, Eucarta amethystina, Eucarta virgo, Euphydryas aurinia, Eupithecia inturbata, Euxoa cos, Euxoa distinguenda, Everes alcetas, Hemaris tityus, Leptidea major, Lycaena thersamon, Maculinea arion, Maculinea teleius, Maniola tithonus, Meganephria bimaculosa, Noctua interjecta, Nothocasis sertata, Nymphalis xanthomelas, Perconia strigillaria, Phyllophila obliterata, Plebejides sephirus, Pyrgus armoricanus, Rhyacia lucipeta, Scotochrosta pulla, Scotopteryx vicinaria, Selidosema plumaria, Shargacucullia gozmanyi. Amongst them Euxoa cos, Plebejides sephirus and Scotopteryx vicinaria turned to be the most

  19. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

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    F. F. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  20. Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Kardousha


    Full Text Available Objective: To survey mosquito diversity in the north-eastern area, which includes the most important gas industrial city in Qatar, and to investigate the potential mosquitoes for transmitting diseases. Methods: A study was performed from September 2009 until June 2011 in Al-Khor district of North-eastern Qatar. Five localities were selected for larval collection: Al Khor City (the main city, Al Dhakira, Ras Laffan (gas industrial city, Simsimah and Al Ghuwariyah. The survey was carried out by using different sampling methods and covering all expected natural breeding sites. The larvae were collected, preserved and transferred to the laboratory for identification. Results: Our findings revealed that 10 species of mosquito larvae had been detected from the area and five of them were new records in Qatar. The species encountered were: Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Anopheles stephensi (Liston 1901, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say 1823 (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Forskal 1775 (Cx. pipiens, Culex univittatus (Theobald 1901, Culex pusillus (Macquart 1850, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles 1901 (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus (Edwards 1913, Culex sitiens (Weidmann 1828 and Culex perexiguus (Theobald 1901. The new recorded species were Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus, Culex sitiens and Culex perexiguus. The most prevalent type was Cx. pipiens molestus (31.29% and followed by Culex pusillus and Cx. quinquefasciatus which have relatively similar prevalence of 18.72% and 18.52% respectively. Anopheles stephensi was an established vector for malaria. Cx. pipiens molestus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were vectors of West Nile virus and filariasis. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was established as a vector of Rift Valley virus and Culex univittatus was the main vector of Sindbis virus. Conclusions: The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has

  1. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of Pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS.

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    Daniel P Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z are provided with no declared error estimate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the accuracy of ARGOS Locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki, 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal, diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2-21 min and range of latitudes (equator to temperate. A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68(th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1 are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the

  2. Bats are rare reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus complex in Gabon. (United States)

    Held, Jana; Gmeiner, Markus; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Matsiégui, Pierre-Blaise; Schaer, Juliane; Eckerle, Isabella; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai; Bletz, Stefan; Schaumburg, Frieder


    The colonization of afro-tropical wildlife with Staphylococcus aureus and the derived clade Staphylococcus schweitzeri remains largely unknown. A reservoir in bats could be of importance since bats and humans share overlapping habitats. In addition, bats are food sources in some African regions and can be the cause of zoonotic diseases. Here, we present a cross-sectional survey employing pharyngeal swabs of captured and released bats (n=133) in a forest area of Gabon. We detected low colonization rates of S. aureus (4-6%) and S. schweitzeri (4%) in two out of four species of fruit bats, namely Rousettus aegyptiacus and Micropteropus pusillus, but not in insectivorous bats. Multilocus sequence typing showed that S. aureus from Gabonese bats (ST2984, ST3259, ST3301, ST3302) were distinct from major African human associated clones (ST15, ST121, ST152). S. schweitzeri from bats (ST1697, ST1700) clustered with S. schweitzeri from other species (bats, monkeys) from Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire. In conclusion, colonization rates of bats with S. aureus and S. schweitzeri were low in our study. Phylogenetic analysis supports an intense geographical dispersal of S. schweitzeri among different mammalian wildlife hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain). (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis


    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  4. Perdagangan burung-burung paruh bengkok di Bali

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    W Widodo


    Full Text Available The survey was carried out to know some aspects of the bird trade in Bali on May 2002, especially to observe the diversity and abundance of species of Psittacidae Family along with their problems. The survey was done by direct observations and interview to the traders in the Sanglah and Satria Bird Markets, Denpasar-Bali. The total of 80 spescies of birds were traded in Bali and most of them i.e.: 75 species or 1577 individuals were found in the Satria bird market, but only 37 species or 393 individuals traded in the Sanglah bird market. Psittacidae family was found more abundantly, i.e.: 428 individiuals in 13 species of parrots. Those spesies of parrots were: Violet-necked Lory (Eos squamata, Blue-streaked Lory (E. reticulata, Red Lory (E. bornea, Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus, Chattering Lory (Lorius garrulus, Cockatail Australia (Nymphicus hollandicus, Moustached Parrakeet (Psittacula alexandri, Peach-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis, Fischer’s Lovebird (A. fischeri, Masked Lovebird (A. personata, Bali Hanging Parrot (Loriculus pusillus and Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus. The Rainbow Lorikeet was found more abundant than another species of parrots, but Bali or Javan Hanging Parrot was very rare. The most catching area of Psittacidae was about 45% from Moluccas Islands.

  5. One particular Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotype infects cattle in the Camargue, France. (United States)

    Dugat, Thibaud; Leblond, Agnès; Keck, Nicolas; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Desjardins, Isabelle; Joulié, Aurélien; Pradier, Sophie; Durand, Benoit; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia


    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis, a mild to a severe febrile disease that affects man and several animal species, including cows and horses. In Europe, I. ricinus is the only proven vector for this pathogen, but studies suggest that other tick genera and species could be involved in its transmission. Our objective was to assess the presence and genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and different tick species from the Camargue region, located in the south of France. A total of 140 ticks and blood samples from 998 cattle and 337 horses were collected in Camargue and tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by msp2 quantitative real-time PCR. Molecular typing with four markers was performed on positive samples. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 6/993 (0.6%) cows, 1/20 (5%) Haemaphysalis punctata, 1/57 (1.75%) Rhipicephalus pusillus, and was absent in horses (0%). All cattle A. phagocytophilum presented a profile identical to an A. phagocytophilum variant previously detected in Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus spp. in Camargue. Our results demonstrate that one particular A. phagocytophilum variant infects cattle in Camargue, where I. ricinus is supposed to be rare or even absent. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp., and possibly other tick species could be involved in the transmission of this variant in this region.

  6. Mycoflora and mycotoxin of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and walnut (Juglans regia L.) seeds in Egypt. (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; Saber, S M


    Fifty-one species and 3 varieties appertaining to 20 genera were collected from 20 samples of each of hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose- and 40% (W/V) sucrose-Czapek's agar at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C with the most common mesophiles were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. oxalicum. Fusarium (represented by F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum) was recovered from walnut seeds in moderate frequency (on glucose-Czapek's agar). Eurotium (E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. repens and E. rubrum) was completely absent on glucose agar, but it was isolated in high frequency from the two types of seeds on 40% sucrose-Czapek's agar. Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizomucor pusillus were the most common thermophilic fungi in hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose agar at 45 degrees C. Humicola grisea var. themoidae and Thermoascus aurantiacus were encountered rarely from walnuts. The nuts samples were assayed for natural occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol by thin layer chromatography analysis. Aflatoxin was detected in 90% of hazelnut samples (25-175 micrograms/kg) and 75% of walnut samples (15-25 micrograms/kg). Zearalenone was detected in one sample of walnut (125 micrograms/kg). This is the first report for the presence of zearalenone in walnut. The other mycotoxins were not detected.

  7. Detection of Neospora caninum DNA by polymerase chain reaction in bats from Southern China. (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Xianhe; Zhang, Li; He, Biao; Xu, Lin; Yang, Zhengtao; Liu, Quan; Zhang, Xichen


    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects many domestic and wild animals. Domestic dogs and other canids function as definitive hosts, while other mammals serve as natural intermediate hosts. In the present study, the brain tissues of bats collected in Yunnan Province, Southern China were tested by N. caninum specific-nested PCR, targeting the Nc-5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the ribosomal DNA to determine whether bats could be infected with N. caninum. N. caninum DNA was detected in 1.8% (4/227) of bats, i.e., 1.7% (1/60) in Rousettus leschenaultia, 1.7% (1/58) in Hipposideros pomona, 2.9% (2/69) in Rhinolophus pusillus, and none (0/40) in Myotis daubentoniid. The findings of the present study are only the first indication that bats could serve as an intermediate host, and further studies are necessary to confirm whether bats are involved in the transmission of N. caninum infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

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    Hui-Ju Han

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107 bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  9. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro


    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  10. A Geographical Information System Based Approach for Integrated Strategies of Tick Surveillance and Control in the Peri-Urban Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; Blanda, Marcellocalogero; Auteri, Michelangelo; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Disclafani, Rosaria; Villari, Sara; Currò, Vittoria; Caracappa, Santo


    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino) and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS) data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dragging method from June 2012 to May 2014. The species collected were: Ixodes ventalloi (46.09%), Hyalomma lusitanicum (19.99%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.34%), Rhipicephalus pusillus (16.11%), Haemaphisalis sulcata (0.36%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.10%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.03%). GIS analysis revealed environmental characteristics of each site, and abundance of each tick species was analysed in relation to time (monthly trend) and space (site-specific abundance). A relevant presence of I. ventalloi in site 2 and H. lusitanicum in site 5 was observed, suggesting the possible exposure of animals and humans to tick-borne pathogens. Our study shows the importance of surveillance of ticks in peri-urban areas and the useful implementation of GIS analysis in vector ecology; studies on temporal and spatial distribution of ticks correlated to GIS-based ecological analysis represent an integrated strategy for decision support in public health.

  11. Genetic support for the morphological identification of larvae of Myctophidae, Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae (Pisces from the western Mediterranean

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    Ainhoa Bernal


    Full Text Available Mesopelagic fishes experience an extreme body transformation from larvae to adults. The identification of the larval stages of fishes from the two orders Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes is currently based on the comparison of morphological, pigmentary and meristic characteristics of different developmental stages. However, no molecular evidence to confirm the identity of the larvae of these mesopelagic species is available so far. Since DNA barcoding emerged as an accurate procedure for species discrimination and larval identification, we have used the cytochrome c oxidase 1 or the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA regions to identify larvae and adults of the most frequent and abundant species of myctophiforms (family Myctophidae and stomiiforms (families Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae from the Mediterranean Sea. The comparisons of sequences from larval and adult stages corroborated the value of the morphological characters that were used for taxonomic classification. The combination of the sequences obtained in this study and those of related species from GenBank was used to discuss the consistency of monophyletic clades for different genera. Pairwise nucleotide distances were notably higher inter- than intraspecifically, and were useful to discern between congeners such as Cyclothone braueri and C. pygmaea, Hygophum benoiti and H. hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus and L. pusillus, and Notoscopelus bolini and N. elongatus.

  12. A Geographical Information System Based Approach for Integrated Strategies of Tick Surveillance and Control in the Peri-Urban Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo, Southern Italy

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    Alessandra Torina


    Full Text Available Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dragging method from June 2012 to May 2014. The species collected were: Ixodes ventalloi (46.09%, Hyalomma lusitanicum (19.99%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.34%, Rhipicephalus pusillus (16.11%, Haemaphisalis sulcata (0.36%, Dermacentor marginatus (0.10%, and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.03%. GIS analysis revealed environmental characteristics of each site, and abundance of each tick species was analysed in relation to time (monthly trend and space (site-specific abundance. A relevant presence of I. ventalloi in site 2 and H. lusitanicum in site 5 was observed, suggesting the possible exposure of animals and humans to tick-borne pathogens. Our study shows the importance of surveillance of ticks in peri-urban areas and the useful implementation of GIS analysis in vector ecology; studies on temporal and spatial distribution of ticks correlated to GIS-based ecological analysis represent an integrated strategy for decision support in public health.

  13. Peynir Yapımında Mikrobiyal Renet Kullanımı

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    Mehmet Karapınar


    Full Text Available Peynir yapımında süt koagulantı olarak buzağı reneti yerine kullanılmak üzere proteazlar üzerine yapılan çalışmalar son yıllarda yoğunluk kazanmıştır. Günümüzde buzağı reneti standart bir süt koagulantı olarak önemini sürdürmekteyse de, şirden mayası üretimi her yıl giderek gereksinimi karşılayamaz duruma gelmektedir. Bunun sonucu olarak yeni renet kaynakları arasında yoğunlaşmış ve günümüzde Mucor pusillus, M. miehei, Endothia parasitica küf türlerinden elde edilen üç fungal enzim ile Bacillus cereus bakterisinden elde edilen bir bakteriyel enzim ticari olarak üretilmeye başlanmıştır.

  14. Identification of mucorales from clinical specimens: a 4-year experience in a single institution. (United States)

    Yang, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Kim, Young Kwon; Ki, Chang Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong


    Mucormycosis, a fatal opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Early diagnosis based on exact identification and multidisciplinary treatments is critical. However, identification of Mucorales fungi is difficult and often delayed, resulting in poor prognosis. This study aimed to compare the results of phenotypic and molecular identification of 12 Mucorales isolates collected from 4-yr-accumulated data. All isolates were identified on the basis of phenotypic characteristics such as growth rate, colony morphology, and reproductive structures. PCR and direct sequencing were performed to target internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or D1/D2 regions. Target DNA sequencing identified five Lichtheimia isolates, two Rhizopus microsporus isolates, two Rhizomucor pusillus isolates, one Cunninghamella bertholletiae isolate, one Mucor fragilis isolate, and one Syncephalastrum racemosum isolate. Five of the 12 (41.7%) isolates were incorrectly identified on the basis of phenotypic identification. DNA sequencing showed that of these five isolates, two were Lichtheimia isolates, one was Mucor isolate, one was Rhizomucor isolate, and one was Rhizopus microspores. All the isolates were identified at the species level by ITS and/or D1/D2 analyses. Phenotypic differentiation and identification of Mucorales is difficult because different Mucorales share similar morphology. Our results indicate that the molecular methods employed in this study are valuable for identifying Mucorales.

  15. Sterol Composition of Clinically Relevant Mucorales and Changes Resulting from Posaconazole Treatment. (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Neugebauer, Thomas; Zill, Patrizia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Bracher, Franz; Binder, Ulrike


    Mucorales are fungi with increasing importance in the clinics. Infections take a rapidly progressive course resulting in high mortality rates. The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and sterol composition are of interest, since they are targeted by currently applied antifungal drugs. Nevertheless, Mucorales often exhibit resistance to these drugs, resulting in therapeutic failure. Here, sterol patterns of six clinically relevant Mucorales ( Lichtheimia corymbifera , Lichtheimia ramosa , Mucor circinelloides , Rhizomucor pusillus , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Rhizopus microsporus ) were analysed in a targeted metabolomics fashion after derivatization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of posaconazole (POS) treatment on the sterol pattern of R. arrhizus was evaluated. Overall, fifteen different sterols were detected with species dependent variations in the total and relative sterol amount. Sterol analysis from R. arrhizus hyphae confronted with sublethal concentrations of posaconazole revealed the accumulation of 14-methylergosta-8,24-diene-3,6-diol, which is a toxic sterol that was previously only detected in yeasts. Sterol content and composition were further compared to the well-characterized pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus . This work contributes to a better understanding of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway of Mucorales, which is essential to improve antifungal efficacy, the identification of targets for novel drug design, and to investigate the combinatorial effects of drugs targeting this pathway.

  16. Serial monitoring of Mucorales DNA load in serum samples of a patient with disseminated mucormycosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (United States)

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Noda, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Honda, Takayuki; Koike, Kenichi


    Mucormycosis is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients, and is additionally difficult to diagnose due to the lack of useful serum biomarkers. Using a quantitative PCR approach, we retrospectively analyzed Mucorales DNA load in sera collected serially from a 3-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease, who died of multi-organ failure probably due to dissemination of Rhizomucor pusillus, which was detected from necropsy specimens. Mucorales DNA load was below the detection limit on days 9, 2, and 4 after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Rhizomucor DNA was first detected on day 14 (1.6 × 10(3) copies/mL), and subsequently fluctuated between 1.3 × 10(3) and 37.2 × 10(3) copies/mL until day 43. Rhizomucor achieved a peak value of 940.0 × 10(3) copies/mL on day 48 the day before death. The detection or fluctuation of Rhizomucor DNA appeared to be associated with corticosteroid dosages or C-reactive protein levels. This specific, noninvasive, and highly quantitative assay may be useful for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and prediction of disease progression.

  17. The sight of an adult brood parasite near the nest is an insufficient cue for a honeyguide host to reject foreign eggs (United States)

    Tong, Wenfei; Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Spottiswoode, Claire N


    Hosts of brood-parasitic birds typically evolve anti-parasitism defences, including mobbing of parasitic intruders at the nest and the ability to recognize and reject foreign eggs from their clutches. The Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator is a virulent brood parasite that punctures host eggs and kills host young, and accordingly, a common host, the Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus frequently rejects entire clutches that have been parasitized. We predicted that given the high costs of accidentally rejecting an entire clutch, and that the experimental addition of a foreign egg is insufficient to induce this defence, Bee-eaters require the sight of an adult parasite near the nest as an additional cue for parasitism before they reject a clutch. We found that many Little Bee-eater parents mobbed Greater Honeyguide dummies while ignoring barbet control dummies, showing that they recognized them as a threat. Surprisingly, however, neither a dummy Honeyguide nor the presence of a foreign egg, either separately or in combination, was sufficient to stimulate egg rejection. PMID:26300559

  18. Experimental weed control of Najas marina ssp. intermedia and Elodea nuttallii in lakes using biodegradable jute matting

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    Markus A. Hoffmann


    Full Text Available The use of jute matting in managing the invasive aquatic macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii (Planch. H. St. John and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski Casper (Najas intermedia was studied in laboratory experiments and field trials. Four German lakes with predominant population of Najas intermedia or Elodea nuttalli were chosen for the experiment and areas between 150 and 300 m² were covered with jute textile. The effect of the matting on the growth of invasive and non-invasive macrophytes was determined through comparison with control transects. Biodegradable jute matting successfully suppressed the invasive macrophyte Najas intermedia and significantly reduced the growth of Elodea nuttalli in lakes. The results indicate that the capability of the matting to inhibit the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia depends on the mesh size of the jute weaving and that environmental conditions can affect its efficiency. Various indigenous species like Charales or Potamogeton pusillus L. were able to grow through the jute fabric and populate the treated areas. Until the end of the vegetation period, none of the invasive species were able to penetrate the covering and establish a stable population; in fact, in the subsequent year the jute matting affected only the spread of Najas intermedia. Jute matting proved to be an easy-to-use and cheap method to control the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia.

  19. Simultaneous lactic acidification and coagulation by using recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain. (United States)

    Raftari, M; Ghafourian, S; Abu Bakar, F


    This study was an attempt to create a novel milk clotting procedure using a recombinant bacterium capable of milk coagulation. The Rhizomucor pusillus proteinase (RPP) gene was sub-cloned into a pALF expression vector. The recombinant pALF-RPP vector was then electro-transferred into Lactococcus lactis. Finally, the milk coagulation ability of recombinant L. lactis carrying a RPP gene was evaluated. Nucleotide sequencing of DNA insertion from the clone revealed that the RPP activity corresponded to an open reading frame consisting of 1218 bp coding for a 43·45 kDa RPP protein. The RPP protein assay results indicated that the highest RPP enzyme expression with 870 Soxhlet units (SU) per ml and 7914 SU/OD were obtained for cultures which were incubated at pH 5·5 and 30°C. Interestingly, milk coagulation was observed after 205 min of inoculating milk with recombinant L. lactis carrying the RPP gene. The recombinant L. lactis carrying RPP gene has the ability to function as a starter culture for acidifying and subsequently coagulating milk by producing RPP as a milk coagulant agent. Creating a recombinant starter culture bacterium that is able to coagulate milk. It is significant because the recombinant L. lactis has the ability to work as a starter culture and milk coagulation agent. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The sight of an adult brood parasite near the nest is an insufficient cue for a honeyguide host to reject foreign eggs. (United States)

    Tong, Wenfei; Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Spottiswoode, Claire N


    Hosts of brood-parasitic birds typically evolve anti-parasitism defences, including mobbing of parasitic intruders at the nest and the ability to recognize and reject foreign eggs from their clutches. The Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator is a virulent brood parasite that punctures host eggs and kills host young, and accordingly, a common host, the Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus frequently rejects entire clutches that have been parasitized. We predicted that given the high costs of accidentally rejecting an entire clutch, and that the experimental addition of a foreign egg is insufficient to induce this defence, Bee-eaters require the sight of an adult parasite near the nest as an additional cue for parasitism before they reject a clutch. We found that many Little Bee-eater parents mobbed Greater Honeyguide dummies while ignoring barbet control dummies, showing that they recognized them as a threat. Surprisingly, however, neither a dummy Honeyguide nor the presence of a foreign egg, either separately or in combination, was sufficient to stimulate egg rejection.

  1. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography (United States)

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.


    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  2. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? (United States)

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J


    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  3. Historia conceptual y hermenéutica

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    Faustino ONCINA COVES


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Por un lado, mi contribución estudia los lazos de la historia conceptual con la historia de la filosofía, desde la versión tradicional de la historia de la terminología (R. Eucken y de los conceptos (E. Rothacker, pasando por las revisiones del Collegium Philosophicum de Münster (J. Ritter, K. Gründer y H. Lübbe y la metaforología de H. Blumenberg, hasta la superación heideggeriano-gadameriana de la historia del problema del neokantismo y de las cosmovisiones del historicismo. Por otro, contrasta el enfoque de R. Koselleck con perspectivas análogas: la historia del espíritu (Dilthey y la historia de las ideas (F. Meinecke, la semántica histórico-social (R. Reichardt y la historia de los discursos de factura anglosajona (la Escuela de Cambridge: Q. Skinner y J. G. A. Pocock. Koselleck rastrea la lógica de los conceptos como indicadores y propulsores del mundo moderno y registra sus crisis, teniendo en cuenta que ellos son inescindibles de los contextos históricos de su uso, lo que entraña una ética de la responsabilidad en su empleo. A pesar de su afinidad con la hermenéutica filosófica en su diagnóstico de los déficits de la modernidad (que les ha hecho granjearse los recelos de Habermas por su continuismo con el conservadurismo germano, la Begriffsgeschichte y la Histórica de Koselleck no se prestan a convertirse en un subcaso de aquélla.ABSTRACT: My contribution studies, on the one hand, the links between conceptual history and the history of philosophy, from the traditional versión of the history of terminology (R. Eucken and of concepts (E. Rothacker, through the revisions of the Collegium Philosophicum of Münster (J. Ritter, K. Gründer, and H. Lübbe and the metaphorolgy of H. Blumenberg, to Heidegger's and Gadamer's transcending of the history of problems of neokantism and of the history of cosmovisions of historicism. On the other hand, it contrasts R. Koselleck's approach with other similar perspectives

  4. Morfometría geométrica en cinco especies de Buthidae y Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones de Venezuela Geometric morphometrics in five species of Buthidae and Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones from Venezuela

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    Walter Y. Bechara


    Full Text Available En Venezuela, la escorpiofauna consta de 17 géneros y 202 especies. En algunos grupos la taxonomía no ha sido aclarada; por lo tanto, son necesarias investigaciones adicionales que contribuyan a mejorar el conocimiento sobre la identidad taxonómica y relaciones entre sus componentes. La morfometría geométrica es una herramienta que ha sido utilizada como apoyo a la sistemática en distintos organismos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la conformación y tamaño isométrico en 5 especies de escorpiones. Se fotografiaron 266 individuos de 4 especies de Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus clathratus y T. discrepans, y una de Scorpionidae: Tarsoporosus yustizi. Se registraron configuraciones de coordenadas (x,y en 5 estructuras a partir de puntos anatómicos de referencia (PAR y PAR deslizantes. Los resultados mostraron separación completa de las especies de Buthidae por medio de tricobotrias dorsales en la patela del pedipalpo, y una consistente separación en el nivel familiar en las estructuras restantes. Las placas delgadas permitieron la visualización de compresión horizontal del esternón en las especies de Buthidae y compresión vertical en la de Scorpionidae. Se determinó la similitud de coxas, quela y caparazón entre R. laticauda y C. testaceus. La disposición de tricobotrias y la conformación del esternón permitió la diferenciación entre T. discrepans y T. clathratus.The Venezuelan scorpionfauna comprises 17 genera and 202 species. In some taxa the taxonomy is unclear, and additional studies that contribute to the knowledge about taxonomic identity and relationships are necessary. Geometric morphometrics is a tool that has been used as support to the systematics in different organisms. The goal was to analize the isometric size and conformation in five scorpions species. We photographed 266 individuals of four speceis of Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus

  5. Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases scorpion toxin-induced gastric secretion in rats Ligadura do esôfago abdominal diminui a secreção gástrica induzida por toxina de escorpião em ratos

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    Claudia S. Vidal


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Scorpion toxin purified from Tityus serrulatus venom (Tx induces an increase in volume, acidity and pepsin secretion in the gastric juice of rats. Ligation of oesophagus has been shown to reduce the acid gastric secretion in rats. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of the esophageal ligation on gastric secretion induced by Tx in rats METHODS: Forty-four male albino rats were given water ad libitum, but no food for 20 to 24 hours, anesthetized with urethane and the trachea and jugular vein cannulated. Cervical or abdominal esophageal ligation or sham-operations were performed before and after the injection of 0.25 mg/kg of scorpion toxin (fraction T1 into the jugular vein. One hour later, the volume, acidity, pH and peptic activity of gastric juice were determined. RESULTS: The scorpion toxin induced an increase in gastric juice volume, acidity and pepsin output and a decrease in pH when injected into the vein of intact animals or in sham-operated animals. Cervical esophagus ligation did not interfere with the effects of toxin, however, ligation of the abdominal esophageal decreased the toxin effect on the rat stomach. CONCLUSION: Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases the gastric secretion induced by scorpion toxin.OBJETIVO: A toxina de escorpião purificada do veneno do escorpião Tityus serrulatus (Tx induz um aumento no volume, acidez e secreção de pepsina no suco gástrico de ratos. A ligadura do esôfago diminui a secreção ácida do estômago em ratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da ligadura do esôfago sobre a secreção gástrica induzida pela Tx em ratos. MÉTODOS: 44 ratos machos, brancos foram administrados água ad libitum, mas não alimentados por 20 a 24 horas, anestesiados com uretana e canulados a traquéia e a veia jugular. Foram realizadas as ligaduras do esôfago cervical ou abdominal ou operações simuladas antes e após a administração na veia jugular de 0

  6. Extraction and partial characterization of venom from the Colombian spider Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor (Aranae:Theraphosidae). (United States)

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Vargas Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Quintana Castillo, Juan C


    We report the first studies of characterization and extraction of the Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor (Pocock, 1901) (Aranae:Theraphosidae) venom done in Colombia using the electro-stimulation technique previous anesthesia with isofluorane. After each extraction process, a low viscosity, colorless venom was obtained. This venom showed a 1.01 mg/μl density and a pH of 5. The humidity percentage did not show a significance difference between males and females (P > 0.05) with a general media of 77.49 ± 1.74%. In all cases the venom yielded was variable between males and females, with a media of 22.45 ± 5.17 mg (wet weight) and 4.58 ± 0.94 mg (dry weigh), obtaining larger amounts in females, 28.34 ± 7.49 mg and 5.69 ± 1.36 (wet and dry weight respectively). Venom showed a hemolytic activity dependent of enzymatic active phospholipase and neither coagulant nor proteolytic activities were observed. Electrophoretic profile showed a main protein content with a molecular mass below 14 kDa. RP-HPLC venom profile revealed a difference among male and female venom's content where 17 and 21 main fractions were obtained respectively. Three peptides, Theraphotoxin-Pn1a, Theraphotoxin-Pn1b and Theraphotoxin-Pn2a, were identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS. These peptides showed a high identity with other peptides found on Theraphosides which are proved to affect voltage-gated calcium channels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-arm group sequential designs with a simultaneous stopping rule. (United States)

    Urach, S; Posch, M


    Multi-arm group sequential clinical trials are efficient designs to compare multiple treatments to a control. They allow one to test for treatment effects already in interim analyses and can have a lower average sample number than fixed sample designs. Their operating characteristics depend on the stopping rule: We consider simultaneous stopping, where the whole trial is stopped as soon as for any of the arms the null hypothesis of no treatment effect can be rejected, and separate stopping, where only recruitment to arms for which a significant treatment effect could be demonstrated is stopped, but the other arms are continued. For both stopping rules, the family-wise error rate can be controlled by the closed testing procedure applied to group sequential tests of intersection and elementary hypotheses. The group sequential boundaries for the separate stopping rule also control the family-wise error rate if the simultaneous stopping rule is applied. However, we show that for the simultaneous stopping rule, one can apply improved, less conservative stopping boundaries for local tests of elementary hypotheses. We derive corresponding improved Pocock and O'Brien type boundaries as well as optimized boundaries to maximize the power or average sample number and investigate the operating characteristics and small sample properties of the resulting designs. To control the power to reject at least one null hypothesis, the simultaneous stopping rule requires a lower average sample number than the separate stopping rule. This comes at the cost of a lower power to reject all null hypotheses. Some of this loss in power can be regained by applying the improved stopping boundaries for the simultaneous stopping rule. The procedures are illustrated with clinical trials in systemic sclerosis and narcolepsy. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tigers need cover: multi-scale occupancy study of the big cat in Sumatran forest and plantation landscapes.

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    Sunarto Sunarto

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones, riparian forests (as corridors and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones, potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial

  9. Diverse activities of viral cis-acting RNA regulatory elements revealed using multicolor, long-term, single-cell imaging. (United States)

    Pocock, Ginger M; Zimdars, Laraine L; Yuan, Ming; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M


    Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other posttranscriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multicolor, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus), and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene. Striking behaviors include "burst" RNA nuclear export dynamics regulated by HIV-1's Rev response element and the viral Rev protein; transient aggregations of RNAs into discrete foci at or near the nuclear membrane triggered by multiple elements; and a novel, pulsiform RNA export activity regulated by the hepadnaviral posttranscriptional regulatory element. We incorporate single-cell tracking and a data-mining algorithm into our approach to obtain RNA element-specific, high-resolution gene expression signatures. Together these imaging assays constitute a tractable, systems-based platform for studying otherwise difficult to access spatiotemporal features of viral and cellular gene regulation. © 2017 Pocock et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  10. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders. (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A


    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  11. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo


    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  12. Study of the Influence of Gamma Radiation on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Action s of Leiurus Quinquestriatus Scorpion Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabo, H.A.M.


    Unlike the amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, scorpions have no back bone, as they are invertebrates. Scorpions belong to the phylum arthropoda, their bodies are segmented and their legs are jointed. They belong to the class arachnida, because they have eight legs, two pedipalps, two chelicerae and a body composed of eighteen segments. The most important species of Buthidae family are Buthotus tamulus, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus australis, Tityus serrulatus, and Centruroides suffusus (Minton, 2010). Scorpions are found in East Africa, Middle East, India, as well as Central and South America. Classification of scorpions from Africa and Middle East, has been summarized by Vachon, (1966). Unlike snakes, all scorpions are venomous. The venom is injected by means of a stinger found at the tip of the telson, the terminal structure of the tail. The smallest adults may range from approximately 2 to 3 cm and the largest between 15 to 25 cm (Bucherl, 1971). Scorpions have quite variable life spans. The age range appears to be approximately 4–25 years. Scorpions prefer to live in areas where the temperatures range from 20 °C to 37 °C, but may survive from freezing temperatures to the desert heat (Hadley, 1970; Hannah's et al., 2006). The death stalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus), is a member of the Buthidae family. It is also known as Palestine yellow scorpion, Omdurman scorpion, Israeli desert scorpion and numerous other colloquial names. To eliminate confusion, especially with potentially dangerous species, the scientific name is normally used to refer to them. The name Leiurus quinquestriatus roughly translates into English as f ive-striped smooth-tail . Other species of the genus Leiurus are often referred to as d eathstalkers a s well (Werness, 2004; Minton, 2010).

  13. A review of data on the effects of low and low dose-rate radiation with special reference to the dose limit problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsudaira, Hiromichi


    This is a review of data pertaining to detection and quantification of the effects after exposure to low LET radiations delivered at low and low dose-rate, i.e., at a level of maximum permissible dose for the radiation workers, on experimental materials ranging from plant to rodents and on some human populations. Irradiation at a dose of a few rad is reported to induce mutation or malignant transformation in some selected model systems, with a linear dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the incidence of the chromosome aberrations in spermatocytes is reported to be elevated in the scorpiones (Tityus bahiensis) collected in a region of high natural background radiations (several rem/year). An increase in the incidence of childhood malignancies is reported among children exposed in utero to diagnostic X-rays. Appreciable increase in the incidence of genetic diseases due possibly to chromosome aberrations is also reported among population living in a region of high natural background radiations. Points are raised and discussed as to the interpretation and particularly application of these data to the estimation of somatic and genetic risks of human population from man-made radiations. Recent attempts of risk-benefit analysis with populations subjected to mass X-ray examination of the chest and stomac are referred to. Since we are unaware of the actual injuries due to the exposure even at the level of radiation workers (5 rem/year), it is out of the capacity of a biologist to afford the basis for the decision of limiting the exposure of general population due to the light water reactor operation to 5 mrem/year. (auth.)

  14. Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA only blocks PGE2 -dependent fever. (United States)

    Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Vaz, Artur de L L; Assis, Débora C R; de Melo, Miriam C C; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Clososki, Giuliano C; de Souza, Glória E P


    The antipyretic and hypothermic prodrug dipyrone prevents PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever induced by LPS from Escherichia coli and Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) respectively. We aimed to identify the dipyrone metabolites responsible for the antipyretic and hypothermic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated i.p. with indomethacin (2 mg·kg(-1) ), dipyrone, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) (60-360 mg·kg(-1) ), 4-formylaminoantipyrine, 4-acethylaminoantipyrine (120-360 mg·kg(-1) ) or vehicle 30 min before i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg·kg(-1) ), Tsv (150 μg·kg(-1) ) or saline. Rectal temperatures were measured by tele-thermometry and dipyrone metabolite concentrations determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by LC-MS/MS. PGE2 concentrations were determined in the CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. In contrast to LPS, Tsv-induced fever was not followed by increased PGE2 in the CSF or hypothalamus. The antipyretic time-course of 4-MAA and 4-AA on LPS-induced fever overlapped with the period of the highest concentrations of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the hypothalamus, CSF and plasma. These metabolites reduced LPS-induced fever and the PGE2 increase in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus. Only 4-MAA inhibited Tsv-induced fever. The higher doses of dipyrone and 4-MAA also induced hypothermia. The presence of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the CSF and hypothalamus was associated with PGE2 synthesis inhibition and a decrease in LPS-induced fever. 4-MAA was also shown to be an antipyretic metabolite for PGE2 -independent fever induced by Tsv suggesting that it is responsible for the additional antipyretic mechanism of dipyrone. Moreover, 4-MAA is the hypothermic metabolite of dipyrone. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Estudo do mecanismo da hiperglicemia e da hipertensão arterial, produzidas pelo veneno de escorpião, no cão

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    Lineu Freire-Maia


    Full Text Available In the present paper we studied the mechanism of the hyperglycemia and hypertension evoked by the intravenous injection of scorpion venom (Tityus bahiensis in the dog. We used 34 dogs, of both sex, weighing between 4.3 to 22 kg. These animals were divided in 3 groups and the following experiments were performed: in the first group (8 dogs the animals were adrenalectomized after the intravenous injection of chlorpromazine; in the second group (16 dogs the animals were injected with ganglionic blocking drugs (9.295 Ciba and hexamethonium; in the third group (10 dogs the naimals were injected with dibenamine, and in 3 of them the adrenal glands were removed. The dogs of each group were injected intravenously with aqueous extract of 2 telsons of scorpion/kg; the average weight of each telson was 6,5 mg. The following results were obtained: 1 The hyperglycemia evoked by scorpion venom, in adrenalectomized dogs, was inhibited by chlorpromazine; 2 Ganglionic blocking drugs (9.295 Ciba and hexamthonium were inefective as far as the hyperglycemic and pressor effects of venom are concerned; 3 In the animals treated with dibenamine, the venom produced a fall in blood pressure, both in the controle and in the adrenalectomized. The present experiments suggest that the scorpion venom has, besides the central action already described by other investigators, an adrenergic action, very similar to the adrenaline. On basis of our experiments we think that the adrenergic action is responsible, in part, by the productrion of hyperglycemia and hypertension.

  16. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz


    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  17. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

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    Adriana Profeta


    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  18. In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order. (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Meletiadis, Joseph


    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (≤ 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (≤ 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for

  19. Phytochemical Screening: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Potamogeton Species in Order to Obtain Valuable Feed Additives. (United States)

    Lupoae, Paul; Cristea, Victor; Borda, Daniela; Lupoae, Mariana; Gurau, Gabriela; Dinica, Rodica Mihaela


    The alcoholic extracts from three submerged perennial plants Potamogeton crispus L., P. pusillus L. and P. pectinatus L. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC/MS) and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their volatile fingerprint and polyphenols composition was mutually compared. Twenty-nine chemical compounds were detected and identified in ethanolic and methanolic extracts; the highest abundance (over 5%) in descending order, was detected for 9,9-dimethyl-8,10- dioxapentacyclo (5,3,0(2,5) 0(3,5,)0 (3,6) decane (21.65%), phenol 2,6 bis (1,1 dimethyletyl) 4-1-methylpropil (20.8%), pentadecanoic acid (14.3%), 2-(5-chloro-2-Methoxyphenyl) pyrrole (8.66%), propanedioic (malonic) acid 2-(4-methylphenyl) sulfonyl ethylidene (5.77%), 2 hydroxy-3 tert butyl-5-isopropyl-6 methyl phenyl ketone (5.76%). The highest total polyphenols and flavonoids content was found in the methanolic extract of P. crispus (112.5±0.5 mg tannic acid/g dry extract; 64.2±1.2 mg quercitin/g dry extract). Antioxidant activities (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil, hydrogen peroxide and reducing power assays) of obtained extracts are comparable with the standard compounds, butylated hydroxytoluene, rutin and ascorbic acid. Antibacterial efficiency of methanolic extracts was notably demonstrated against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter hormaechei) and Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus casseliflavus). The data reported for the first time for Romanian Potamogeton species, provides extensive support for the chemical investigations of these plants of the aquatic anthropogene ecosystems in order to obtain valuable bioadditives for animal feed and/or pharmaceutical/food industry.

  20. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

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    V. P. Shirobokov


    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  1. Exploration of unique relation among industrial fungi by statistical analysis

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    Asma Siddique


    Full Text Available This work was carried out to explore the relation among thermophilic cellulolytic fungi, which are of industrialimportance. There was no report found about the genetic relationship of fungi, which are used to produce industrial enzymes.So the aim of the study was to observe the similarity among different cellulolytic fungi on genetic level, which will providethe background to understand the correlation among cellulase producing systems of these fungi. Eleven (11 fungi werestudied for genetic diversity using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD a PCR based molecular marker system.In this regard twenty universal decamers used for RAPD resulted in 1527 numbers of bands observed during comparison ofall wild strains. Maximum polymorphism was generated with GLA-07. Average numbers of bands per 20 primers were 65-72.An Interesting feature of the study was the similarity of Humicola insolens with Torula thermophile, more than with theother members of the Humicola family. This genetic pattern affects the physical structure of the fungi. Spores of Torulathermophila are more related to Humicola insolens than to its own family. Similarity between the two was found to be 57.8%,whereas between Humicola lanuginosa (Thermomysis lanuginosus and Humicola grisea it was 57.3%. Apart from this,similarity between Talaromyces dupontii and Rhizomucor pusillus was 51.5%. Least similarity was found in Rhizomucorpusillus and Humicola grisea, which was 18.7% and Chaetomium thermophile and Sporotrichum thermophile, which was18.3%. Genetic similarity matrix was constructed on the basis of Nei and Li’s index.

  2. Multicenter evaluation of MIC distributions for epidemiologic cutoff value definition to detect amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole resistance among the most clinically relevant species of Mucorales. (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chakrabarti, A; Chowdhary, A; Cordoba, S; Dannaoui, E; Dufresne, P; Fothergill, A; Ghannoum, M; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Kidd, S; Lass-Flörl, C; Meis, J F; Pelaez, T; Tortorano, A M; Turnidge, J


    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. In lieu of CBPs, epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are proposed for amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole and four Mucorales species. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined with available pooled CLSI MICs from 14 laboratories (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States) as follows: 10 Apophysomyces variabilis, 32 Cunninghamella bertholletiae, 136 Lichtheimia corymbifera, 10 Mucor indicus, 123 M. circinelloides, 19 M. ramosissimus, 349 Rhizopus arrhizus, 146 R. microsporus, 33 Rhizomucor pusillus, and 36 Syncephalastrum racemosum isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MICs were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs comprising ≥95% and ≥97.5% of the modeled populations were as follows: amphotericin B ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for M. circinelloides were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for R. arrhizus were 2 and 4 μg/ml, and those for R. microsporus were 2 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; posaconazole ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2, those for M. circinelloides were 4 and 4, those for R. arrhizus were 1 and 2, and those for R. microsporus were 1 and 2, respectively; both itraconazole ECVs for R. arrhizus were 2 μg/ml. ECVs may aid in detecting emerging resistance or isolates with reduced susceptibility (non-WT MICs) to the agents evaluated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Seasonal clustering of sinopulmonary mucormycosis in patients with hematologic malignancies at a large comprehensive cancer center

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    Shobini Sivagnanam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality. Results A cluster of 7 patients were identified with sinopulmonary IMIs (Rhizopus microsporus/azygosporus, 6; Rhizomucor pusillus, 1 during a 3 month period between June and August of 2014. All patients died or were discharged to hospice. The cluster was managed with institution of standardized posaconazole prophylaxis to high-risk patients and patient use of N-95 masks when outside of protected areas on the inpatient service. Review of an earlier study period identified 11 patients with IMIs of varying species over the preceding 29 months without evidence of clustering. There were 9 total IMIs in the later study period (12 month post-initial cluster with 5 additional cases in the summer months, again suggesting seasonal clustering. Extensive environmental sampling did not reveal a source of mold. Using local climatological data abstracted from National Centers for Environmental Information the clusters appeared to be associated with high temperatures and low precipitation. Conclusions Sinopulmonary Mucorales clusters at our center had a seasonal variation which appeared to be related to temperature and precipitation. Given the significant mortality associated with IMIs, local climatic conditions may need to be considered when considering center specific fungal prevention and prophylaxis strategies for high-risk patients.

  4. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu


    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  5. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿ (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu


    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  6. Epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals. (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Duignan, Pádraig J; Taylor, Trevor; Nielsen, Ole; Kirkwood, Roger; Gibbens, John; Arnould, John P Y


    Novel members of the bacterial genus Brucella have recently emerged as pathogens of various marine mammal species and as potential zoonotic agents. We investigated the epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) by establishing demographic and temporal variations in antibody prevalence, attempting isolation of the causative agent, and determining whether this potential pathogen is involved in frequent abortions observed in this pinniped species. Two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs), an indirect ELISA, and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used to test sera for Brucella antibodies. The FPA and cELISA proved suitable for use in this species. Significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between age classes of seals sampled between 2007 and 2009 at one colony. Pups sampled at this site (n=134) were negative for Brucella antibodies by all serologic tests but 17 of 45 (38%) of juveniles were antibody-positive. Antibody prevalence in adult females was significantly higher than in juveniles (P=0.044). Antibody prevalence for adult females between 2003 and 2009 varied significantly over time (P=0.011), and for individuals sampled between 2003 and 2005, the likelihood of pregnancy was greater in individuals positive for Brucella antibodies (P=0.034). Inflammatory lesions suggestive of infectious agents were found in 14 of 39 aborted Australian fur seal pups, but pathologic changes were not uniformly consistent for Brucella infection. Culture and PCR investigations on fetal tissues were negative for Brucella. Culture and PCR on selected fresh or frozen tissues from 36 juvenile and adult animals were also negative. We suspect that the prevalence of active infection with Brucella in Australian fur seals is low relative to antibody prevalence.

  7. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

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    John P Y Arnould

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus was investigated. For 9 (25% of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability. A total of 26 (72% individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35% of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  8. Investigations on the role of insulin and scorpion antivenom in scorpion envenoming syndrome

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    K. Radha Krishna Murthy


    Full Text Available Acute myocardiopathy in alloxan treated experimental dogs and rabbits was induced by subcutaneous (SQ injection of scorpion venom from Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Envenoming resulted in an initial transient hypertension (180-320 mm Hg. followed by hypotension. Simultaneous administration of venom and species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV prevented hypertension and hypotension. Hypotension did not occur when SAV was given 60 min after envenoming. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, platelet count, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG, and glutathione levels were increased 60 and 90 min after envenoming. Total white blood cell (WBC count was reduced 60 min and increased 90 min after envenoming. Simultaneous administration of venom and SAV did not alter Hb, MCHC, and packed cell volume (PCV levels, or ECG, and cardiovascular, biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal changes. Hematological parameters were reversed when SAV was given 30 and 60 min after envenoming. PCV, Hb, and MCHC values returned to normal 120 min after SAV. Alloxan-treated dogs showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon, cortisol levels; reduced glycogen content of liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles; and reduced insulin levels and insulin/ glucagon ratio (I/G ratio. Envenoming in the alloxan pre-treated dogs further increased these levels and reduced tissue glycogen content, insulin levels, and I/G ratio. Administration of 4 U of insulin to alloxan pre-treated envenomed rabbits caused a biochemical and clinical improvement and increased glycogen content of all tissues in comparison with the values from those administered with SAV to alloxan pre-treated envenomed animals. SAV administration to envenomed alloxan pre-treated rabbits did not cause clinical or

  9. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

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    Silvia Lopes de Menezes


    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  10. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins in snake venoms using monoclonal antibodies against Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. (United States)

    Sánchez, E E; García, C; Pérez, J C; De La Zerda, S J


    Most snakes and a few warm-blooded animals have a resistance to snake venoms because of naturally occurring antihemorrhagins found in their sera. The antihemorrhagins in serum of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) neutralize hemorrhagic activity by binding to hemorrhagins in snake venoms. The binding characteristic of antihemorrhagins in D. virginiana serum was used to develop a five-step western blot. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins were measured indirectly with antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum and with DV-2LD#2, a monoclonal antibody specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. Snake venoms were separated by native-PAGE, transferred to a Millipore Immobilon-P membrane and then incubated with crude Virginia opossum serum. The hemorrhagins in snake venom bind to antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum which react with DV-2LD#2 a monoclonal antibody that is specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody inhibits antihemorrhagic activity in Virginia opossum serum when mixed in equal amounts. The inhibition of antihemorrhagins by DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody suggests specificity. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody does not recognize antihemorrhagins in gray woodrat (Neotoma micropus) serum. The five-step western blot reveals two well-defined bands which represent hemorrhagins found in Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom. Venoms from 15 different snake species were examined to determine the usefulness of the five-step western blot. Other hemorrhagic venoms (Great Basin rattlesnake (C. viridis lutosus), Prairie rattlesnake (C. viridis viridis), Tancitaran dusky rattlesnake (C. pusillus), Northern Mojave rattlesnake (C. scutulatus scutulatus type B) and Northern Pacific rattlesnake (C. v. oreganus)) had one single band in the five-step western blot. DV-2LD#2 did not bind to the non-hemorrhagic venoms and reacted with 50% of the hemorrhagic venoms used in this study. The monoclonal antibody, CAH

  11. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

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    Ernesto Favela-Torres


    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  12. The flat bark beetles (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Cucujidae, Laemophloeidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka


    Full Text Available As a result of the present investigations 18 species of flat bark beetles are known to occur in Atlantic Canada, 10 in New Brunswick, 17 in Nova Scotia, four on Prince Edward Island, six on insular Newfoundland, and one in Labrador. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported and nine species, Uleiota debilis (LeConte, Uleiota dubius (Fabricius, Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann, Ahasverus advena (Waltl, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr, Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte, Charaphloeus species nr. adustus, and Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte are newly recorded in the region, one of which C. sp. nr. adustus, is newly recorded in Canada as a whole. Eight species are cosmopolitan species introduced to the region and North America, nine are native Nearctic species, and one, Pediacus fuscus Erichson, is Holarctic in distribution. All the introduced species except for one (Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius, a saproxylic species are found on various stored products, whereas all the native species are saproxylic. Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley, is removed from the species list of New Brunswick and Charophloeus adustus (LeConte is removed from the species list of Nova Scotia. One tropical Asian species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guérin-Méneville, has been intercepted in the region in imported produce, but is not established. The substantial proportion (44% of the fauna that is comprised of introduced species is highlighted, almost all of which are synanthropic species associated with various dried stored products. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are diminished in comparison to the mainland fauna, that of Prince Edward Island being exceptionally so in comparison to other saproxylic groups found there. Of the ten native species, four can be categorized as 'apparently rare' (i.e., comprising ≤ 0.005% of specimens examined from the region. It is possibly that the

  13. Looking Without Landing—Using Remote Piloted Aircraft to Monitor Fur Seal Populations Without Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R. McIntosh


    Full Text Available Technical advances in monitoring devices, specifically drones, are allowing managers and scientists to obtain quality information on ecosystem health with minimal disturbance to ecosystems and the wildlife they support. Temporal and spatial indicators of ecosystem health, such as population size and/or abundance estimates of marine mammals are the basis for our understanding and prediction of ecosystem change. This is critical for the achievement of conservation goals and sustainable natural resources use. Performing surveys to obtain abundance estimates can be logistically demanding and expensive particularly in offshore marine environments, and can cause significant disturbance to wildlife. These constraints may lead to sub-optimal monitoring programs that reduce the frequency and/or precision of surveys at the cost of data quality and confidence in the resulting analyses. Using Remote Piloted Aircraft (RPA can be a solution to this challenge. With appropriate testing and ethical consideration; for many situations, RPAs can perform surveys with increased frequency, higher data resolution and less disturbance than typical methods that involve people being present on the ground, thereby enabling more robust programs for monitoring. We demonstrate the process of testing images from RPAs for estimating the abundance of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus at one of their largest colonies on Seal Rocks, Australia. Two sizes of multirotor (1,400 and 350 mm with different imaging equipment were tested at 40, 60, and 80 m altitude above sea level. We assessed wildlife disturbance levels and optimized a methodology for effective and economical monitoring of this site. We employed commercially available and open-source software for programming survey flights (Drone Deploy, image processing (Agisoft Photoscan and Autopano Giga, data collation and analyses (R and Python. An online portal “SealSpotter” was developed to facilitate data

  14. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Tylodinus Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae: Tylodina) of Chiapas, Mexico. (United States)

    Luna-Cozar, Jesús; Anderson, Robert S; Jones, Robert W; León-Corté, Jorge L


    nodulosus species group (3) T. andersoni new species (Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1), T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel; Tylodinus pusillus species group (2) T. porvenirensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, El Porvenir, El Porvenir (2 km NE)), T. pusillus new species (type locality: Chiapas, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus spiniventris species group (2) T. lum new species (Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), and T. spiniventris new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Reserva Huitepec); Incertae sedis (13) T. pinguis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1) , T. kissingeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tapalapa, ca. 14 km NE Coapilla), T. complicatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena), T. dominicus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Reserva de la Biósfera La Sepultura), T. noctis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. rufus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec); T. branstetteri new species (type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec), T. kuscheli new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. pappi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. gibbosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, Yerbabuena Reserve), T. immundus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas Cerro Huitepec), T. intzin new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tenejapa, Yashanal), T. elongatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1). Three species (T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel and T. cavicrus Champion) are not known to occur in Chiapas but were included in this study to be more representative of inter- and intraspecific variation and to provide a

  15. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation (United States)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina


    between desktop GIS, web applications and geographic web services and interactive scientific applications (MATLAB, IPython). The system is also automatically ingesting direct readout data from meteorological and research satellites in near-real time with distributed acquisition workflows managed by Taverna workflow engine [2]. The system has demonstrated its utility in performing non-trivial analytic processing such as the computation of the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) indices [3]. It had been useful in different tasks such as studying urban heat islands, analyzing patterns in the distribution of wildfire occurrences, detecting phenomena related to seismic and earthquake activity. Initial experience has highlighted several limitations of the proposed approach yet it has demonstrated ability to facilitate the use of large archives of remote sensing data by geoscientists. 1. J.G. Acker, G. Leptoukh, Online analysis enhances use of NASA Earth science data. EOS Trans. AGU, 2007, 88(2), P. 14-17. 2. D. Hull, K. Wolsfencroft, R. Stevens, C. Goble, M.R. Pocock, P. Li and T. Oinn, Taverna: a tool for building and running workflows of services. Nucleic Acids Research. 2006. V. 34. P. W729-W732. 3. V. Tramutoli, G. Di Bello, N. Pergola, S. Piscitelli, Robust satellite techniques for remote sensing of seismically active areas // Annals of Geophysics. 2001. no. 44(2). P. 295-312.

  16. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios (United States)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.


    ), as well as when data is published and reused using mechanisms that are not provenance-aware. In this presentation we discuss requirements for ensuring provenance-aware data publishing and reuse, and describe the design and implementation of a prototype toolkit that involves two specific, and broadly used, workflow models, Kepler [3] and Taverna [4]. The implementation is expected to be adopted as part of DataONE's investigators' toolkit, in support of its mission of large-scale data preservation. Refs. [1]Sharing of Data Leads to Progress on Alzheimer’s, G. Kolata, NYT, 8/12/2010 [2] [3]Ludaescher B., Altintas I. et al. Scientific Workflow Management and the Kepler System. Special Issue: Workflow in Grid Systems. Concurrency and Computation: Practice & Experience 18(10): 1039-1065, 2006 [4]D. Hull, K. Wolstencroft, R. Stevens, C. Goble, M. R. Pocock, P. Li, T. Oinn. Taverna: a tool for building and running workflows of services. Nucl. Acids Res. 34: W729-W732, 2006

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Gubser


    Full Text Available - Ward H. Goodenough, Frederick Barth, Models of social organization. Royal Anthropological Institute Occasional Paper No. 23. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, London 1966. Pp. vi, 33. - E. Postel-Coster, Carl A. Schmitz, Grundformen der Verwandtschaft. Basler Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnologie, Ethnologische Reihe Heft I. Pharos-Verlag Hansrudolf Schwabe AG, Basel 1964. 134 pp. - B. Siertsema, John J. Gumperz, “The ethnography of communication”; Special publication of American Anthropologist, Part 2, Vol. 66, no. 6, December 1964. American Anthropological Association, Menasha, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 1964, 186 pp., Dell Hymes (eds. - J. Voorhoeve, William J. Samarin, Field Linguistics. A guide to linguistic fieldwork. Holt, Rinehart & Winston Inc., New York, etc., 1967. X + 246 pp. - P.J.R. Modderman, André Leroi-Gourhan, La geste et la parole. Albin Michel, Paris 1964. 2 dln., 300 en 268 pp. Vele ills. - David F. Pocock, Andre Beteille, Caste, class and power. Changing patterns of stratification in a Tanjore village. University of California Press, Berkeley 1965. 225 pp. - A. Trouwborst, P.C. Lloyd, The new elites of tropical Africa. Studies presented and discussed at the sixth international African seminar at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, July 1964 . Foreword by Daryll Forde. Introduction by P.C. Lloyd. Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press. London 1966. X + 390 pp. - F.L. van Holthoon, Darryll Forde, West African Kingdoms in the 19th. century. O.U.P. for the International African Institute, London 1967. 281 pp., P.M. Kaberry (eds. - J.J. Romkes, David W. Brokensha, Social change at Larteh, Ghana. Clarendon Press. Oxford University Press. London 1966. 294 pp., 5 plates, 3 maps. - A.J.C. Lach de Bère, Merran Fraenkel, Tribe and class in Monrovia. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London, Ibadan, Accra, 1964; 244 blz. - F.L. van


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara


    attalica Gyllenhal var. unicolor Desbrochers, 1895: 102 (non Fåhraeus, 1843; Sibinia attalica subsp. tibiella var. desbordesi Hoffmann, 1954; Tychius pusillus var. inermis Hoffmann, 1954. Sibinia suturella Motschulsky, 1858 (non Fårhaeus, 1843 viene trasferita al genere Smicronyx.

  19. Icotinib versus whole-brain irradiation in patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer and multiple brain metastases (BRAIN): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhou, Caicun; Huang, Yisheng; Feng, Jifeng; Lu, Sun; Song, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Gongyan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yan, Hong Hong; Tan, Fen Lai; Zhong, Wenzhao; Wu, Yi-Long


    For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China. Eligible participants were patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations, who were naive to treatment with EGFR-TKIs or radiotherapy, and had at least three metastatic brain lesions. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either icotinib 125 mg orally (three times per day) or WBI (30 Gy in ten fractions of 3 Gy) plus concurrent or sequential chemotherapy for 4-6 cycles, until unacceptable adverse events or intracranial disease progression occurred. The randomisation was done by the Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group with a web-based allocation system applying the Pocock and Simon minimisation method; groups were stratified by EGFR gene mutation status, treatment line (first line or second line), brain metastases only versus both intracranial and extracranial metastases, and presence or absence of symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Clinicians and patients were not masked to treatment assignment, but individuals involved in the data analysis did not participate in the treatments and were thus masked to allocation. Patients receiving icotinib who had intracranial progression only were switched to WBI plus either icotinib or chemotherapy until further progression; those receiving icotinib who had extracranial progression only were switched to icotinib plus chemotherapy. Patients receiving WBI who progressed were switched to icotinib until further progression. Icotinib could be continued beyond progression if a clinical benefit

  20. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Domingos Brescovit


    Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia

  1. Developing an outcome-based biodiversity metric in support of the field to market project: Final report (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; McKerrow, Alexa; Anderson, John


    depends on that animal’s resource specialization, mobility, and life history strategies (Jeanneret et al. 2003a, b; Jennings & Pocock 2009). The knowledge necessary to define the biodiversity contribution of agricultural lands is specialized, dispersed, and nuanced, and thus not readily accessible. Given access to clearly defined biodiversity tradeoffs between alternative agricultural practices, landowners, land managers and farm operators could collectively enhance the conservation and economic value of agricultural landscapes. Therefore, Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture and The Nature Conservancy jointly funded a pilot project to develop a biodiversity metric to integrate into Field to Market’s existing sustainability calculator, The Fieldprint Calculator (http://www. Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture is an alliance among producers, agribusinesses, food companies, and conservation organizations seeking to create sustainable outcomes for agriculture. The Fieldprint Calculator supports the Keystone Alliance’s vision to achieve safe, accessible, and nutritious food, fiber and fuel in thriving ecosystems to meet the needs of 9 billion people in 2050. In support of this same vision, our project provides proof-of-concept for an outcome-based biodiversity metric for Field to Market to quantify biodiversity impacts of commercial row crop production on terrestrial vertebrate richness. Little research exists examining the impacts of alternative commercial agricultural practices on overall terrestrial biodiversity (McLaughlin & Mineau 1995). Instead, most studies compare organic versus conventional practices (e.g. Freemark & Kirk 2001; Wickramasinghe et al. 2004), and most studies focus on flora, avian, or invertebrate communities (Jeanneret et al. 2003a; Maes et al. 2008; Pollard & Relton 1970). Therefore, we used an expert-knowledge-based approach to develop a metric that predicts

  2. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15 (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.


    species of conservation concern. Two of these species, Vireo bellii pusillus (least Bell’s vireo) and Empidonax traillii (willow flycatcher) are listed as State and (or) federally threatened or endangered.Except for Archilochus alexandri (black-chinned hummingbird) and Setophaga occidentalis (hermit warbler), which arrived later during the migratory season in latter years of our study, median arrival dates for migratory species tended to be earlier each year or did not change across 5 years. Of the five most common migratory species, white-crowned sparrow and rufous hummingbird arrived earlier in latter years of the study, but Pacific-slope flycatcher, warbling vireo, and Wilson’s warbler median arrival dates were variable and showed no trend.We captured 1,680 individuals of 66 species during the MAPS/breeding season (May through August) across the 5 years of our study, 72 percent (1,211) of which were newly banded, 10 percent (167) of which were recaptures, and 18 percent (302 hummingbirds and other birds that escaped prior to banding) of which we released unbanded. Bird capture rate averaged 0.65 ± 0.21 captures per net-hour (range 0.12–2.54). Species richness per day ranged from 9.80 ± 5.01 to 14.20 ± 4.57. Calypte anna (Anna’s hummingbird) was the most abundant breeding species captured, followed by Oreothlypis celata (orange-crowned warbler), Psaltriparus minimus (bushtit), Pipilo maculatus (spotted towhee), Thryomanes bewickii (Bewick’s wren), Melozone crissalis (California towhee), and Chamaea fasciata (wrentit). Fifty-one percent of known-sex captures were female, and 49 percent were male. Thirty-one percent of known-age captures were juveniles.Populations of bushtits and orange-crowned warbler decreased significantly over 5 years. Anna’s hummingbird abundance was high for 4 years, and then decreased in 2015. Bewick’s wren and wrentit populations were highest in 2015. There was no obvious pattern in spotted towhee and California towhee abundance