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Sample records for title cognitive measurements

  1. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  2. The Search for Cognitive Terminology: An Analysis of Comparative Psychology Journal Titles

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    Cynthia Whissell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words. The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940–2010 and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.

  3. The search for cognitive terminology: an analysis of comparative psychology journal titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia; Abramson, Charles I; Barber, Kelsey R

    2013-03-01

    This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words). The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940-2010) and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.

  4. Adjusted Poverty Measures and the Distribution of Title I Aid: Does Title I Really Make the Rich States Richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Taylor, Lori; Levin, Jesse; Chambers, Jay; Blankenship, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state governments in the United States make extensive use of student poverty rates in compensatory aid programs like Title I. Unfortunately, the measures of student poverty that drive funding allocations under such programs are biased because they fail to reflect geographic differences in the cost of living. In this study, we construct…

  5. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  6. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  7. Cognitive Agility Measurement in a Complex Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    validated by the corresponding psychological tests in the experiment. 15 Chapter 3 – Results 3.1. Result Summary from Thesis #1 (An...experiment using psychological tests and a military decision computer game called Make Goal to attempt to measure cognitive agility in military leaders...NPS thesis students. This document discusses the experimental design and the results from one of those theses. 14. SUBJECT TERMS cognitive agility

  8. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

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    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  9. Challenged by cognition : toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric, Marija

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The

  10. A Measure of Cognition within the Context of Assertion.

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    Golden, Morrie

    1981-01-01

    Described the development and evaluation of a measure of cognitive belief systems and thinking styles. Reliability and validity results were poor for junior college students. For university and nonstudent populations, cognition scores discriminated social anxiety. The Cognition Scale of Assertiveness is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive…

  11. Development of cognitive functioning psychological measures for the SEADM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , Social Engineering Attack Detection Model (SEADM), by proposing and incorporating a cognitive functioning psychological measure in order to determine the emotional state and decision-making ability of the call centre employee. The cognitive analysis...

  12. SSA Unified Measurement System (SUMS) Title XVI Post-Eligibility Operational Data Store (PEODS)

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    Social Security Administration — Current store for information on post entitlement claims for title 16 for redeterminations and limited issues. Also includes information from Starz and Stripes field...

  13. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  14. Measuring cognition in teams: a cross-domain review.

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    Wildman, Jessica L; Salas, Eduardo; Scott, Charles P R

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: to provide a critical cross-domain evaluation of team cognition measurement options and to provide novice researchers with practical guidance when selecting a measurement method. A vast selection of measurement approaches exist for measuring team cognition constructs including team mental models, transactive memory systems, team situation awareness, strategic consensus, and cognitive processes. Empirical studies and theoretical articles were reviewed to identify all of the existing approaches for measuring team cognition. These approaches were evaluated based on theoretical perspective assumed, constructs studied, resources required, level of obtrusiveness, internal consistency reliability, and predictive validity. The evaluations suggest that all existing methods are viable options from the point of view of reliability and validity, and that there are potential opportunities for cross-domain use. For example, methods traditionally used only to measure mental models may be useful for examining transactive memory and situation awareness. The selection of team cognition measures requires researchers to answer several key questions regarding the theoretical nature of team cognition and the practical feasibility of each method. We provide novice researchers with guidance regarding how to begin the search for a team cognition measure and suggest several new ideas regarding future measurement research. We provide (1) a broad overview and evaluation of existing team cognition measurement methods, (2) suggestions for new uses of those methods across research domains, and (3) critical guidance for novice researchers looking to measure team cognition.

  15. Measurements of the velocity fields by PIV method round about titling gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistrová Ivana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of using of measurement method Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV to measure velocity fields in the flowing water in front, above and behind drowned titling weir gate. The aim was to obtain information about the distribution of speed in the area of interest for the verification or calibration of the numerical model. Experiments were carried out in inclinable channel connected to the hydraulic circuit with a pump and storage tank at the Water Management Research Laboratory (LVV of Institute of Water Structures at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Brno University of Technology. Hydraulic inclinable channel has cross-section with dimensions of 0.4×0.4m and length of 12.5m. The measured area has cross-section approximately 0.2m wide and 0.4m high and its length is 1m. The results of physical modelling allowed a comparison of experimental data with numerical simulation results of this type of flow in the commercial software ANSYS CFX-12.0.

  16. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Wieling

    Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  17. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

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    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  18. Measuring and managing cognitive impairment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Sam; Winston, Alan

    2017-06-01

    : Cognitive impairment remains a frequently reported complaint in HIV-positive patients despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Rates of cognitive impairment in antiretroviral treated HIV-positive cohorts vary and strongly depend on definitions utilized.The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and includes immune activation, neuroinflammation, antiretroviral neurotoxicity, the presence of noninfectious comorbidities such as vascular disease and depression and patient lifestyle factors such as recreational drug use.Contributing factors to cognitive impairment may change over time with ageing HIV-positive populations. Cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment may become more common with advancing age; how these factors interact with HIV-associated cognitive impairment is not yet known.Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape may occur in up to 10% of patients undergoing lumbar puncture clinically and can be associated with compartmentalized and resistant virus.Changes in antiretroviral therapy in patients with cognitive impairment should be based on current and historic resistance profiles of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma virus, or on potential antiretroviral drug neurotoxicity. Whether and how antiretroviral therapy should be changed in the absence of these factors is not known and requires study in adequately powered randomized trials in carefully selected clinical cohorts.

  19. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

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    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age =14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor solution resulted, accounting for 65% of the total variance. The factors were labeled (a) Cognitive Distortions and Maladaptive Beliefs, (b) Cognitive Avoidance, (c) Positive Outlook, and (d) Solution-Focused Thinking. Internal consistencies for the factor-based composite scores were .83, .85, .84, and .82, respectively. Girls endorsed more negative cognitions than boys on three of the four factors. Maladaptive cognitions were positively related to severity of depression and predicted treatment response. Taken together, findings indicated that there are four distinct domains of cognitions that are present among adolescents with depression that are tapped by several widely used self-report measures of cognitions. PMID:20183663

  20. Assessing Relevance of External Cognitive Measures.

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    Cairó, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    The arrival of modern brain imaging technologies has provided new opportunities for examining the biological essence of human intelligence as well as the relationship between brain size and cognition. Thanks to these advances, we can now state that the relationship between brain size and intelligence has never been well understood. This view is supported by findings showing that cognition is correlated more with brain tissues than sheer brain size. The complexity of cellular and molecular organization of neural connections actually determines the computational capacity of the brain. In this review article, we determine that while genotypes are responsible for defining the theoretical limits of intelligence, what is primarily responsible for determining whether those limits are reached or exceeded is experience (environmental influence). Therefore, we contend that the gene-environment interplay defines the intelligent quotient of an individual.

  1. Automatic Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (AMCLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Design and procedure A computer-based training application, running on a tablet monitor, was designed for basketball players to learn playing strategies... MRI ) and near-infrared (NIR) neuroimaging, have also been employed to detect changes in cognitive workload (Callicott et al., 1999; He et al., 2007...Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI , Cerebral Cortex, vol. 9, pp. 20-26, 1999

  2. Joint storybook reading measured with children's book title checklist and the children's language development in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Bajc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the relationship between parental educational level, joint storybook reading and children's language competence. Our sample included 123 5-year-old children attending one of the Slovenian preschools. Frequency of parent-child joint storybook reading was measured indirectly with the children's book title checklist, which was used in the Slovenian language environment for the first time, and which, in comparison with the parents' report about how often they read to their children, represents a more objective measure of storybook exposure. By using checklist we avoid socially desirable responses, which parents give because they think that reading is important for children's language development. We found out that parental education is positively related to the parental familiarity with the titles of books for children. Furthermore, the results show that storybook exposure is, regardless of parental educational level, a factor of home environment which makes an important contribution to the development of children's language competence.

  3. From theory to application: using performance measures for contraceptive care in the Title X family planning program.

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    Loyola Briceno, Ana Carolina; Kawatu, Jennifer; Saul, Katie; DeAngelis, Katie; Frederiksen, Brittni; Moskosky, Susan B; Gavin, Lorrie

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to describe a Performance Measure Learning Collaborative (PMLC) designed to help Title X family planning grantees use new clinical performance measures for contraceptive care. Twelve Title X grantee-service site teams participated in an 8-month PMLC from November 2015 to June 2016; baseline was assessed in October 2015. Each team documented their selected best practices and strategies to improve performance, and calculated the contraceptive care performance measures at baseline and for each of the subsequent 8 months. PMLC sites implemented a mix of best practices: (a) ensuring access to a broad range of methods (n=7 sites), (b) supporting women through client-centered counseling and reproductive life planning (n=8 sites), (c) developing systems for same-day provision of all methods (n=10 sites) and (d) utilizing diverse payment options to reduce cost as a barrier (n=4 sites). Ten sites (83%) observed an increase in the clinical performance measures focused on most and moderately effective methods (MME), with a median percent change of 6% for MME (from a median of 73% at baseline to 77% post-PMLC). Evidence suggests that the PMLC model is an approach that can be used to improve the quality of contraceptive care offered to clients in some settings. Further replication of the PMLC among other groups and beyond the Title X network will help strengthen the current model through lessons learned. Using the performance measures in the context of a learning collaborative may be a useful strategy for other programs (e.g., Federally Qualified Health Centers, Medicaid, private health plans) that provide contraceptive care. Expanded use of the measures may help increase access to contraceptive care to achieve national goals for family planning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Psychometrics of social cognitive measures for psychosis treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Charlie A; Lesser, Rebecca; Parente, Lori T; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2018-03-01

    Social cognition represents an important treatment target, closely linked to everyday social function. While a number of social cognitive interventions have recently been developed, measures used to evaluate these treatments are only beginning to receive psychometric scrutiny. Study goals were to replicate recently-published psychometrics for several social cognitive measures, and to provide information for additional social cognitive measures not included in recent reports. Forty-eight outpatients with psychotic-spectrum disorders completed measures of emotion perception, theory of mind, and attributional bias on two occasions, one month apart. Measures were tested for distributional characteristics, test-retest reliability, utility as a repeated measure, and relationship to symptoms and functioning. For a subgroup of participants, information about sensitivity to social cognitive treatment was also available. We replicated aspects of prior work, including largely favorable psychometric characteristics for the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and promising but weaker characteristics for The Awareness of Social Inferences Test subscales and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. The Hinting Task had adequate test-retest statistics but a more pronounced ceiling effect. Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire data showed evidence of validity but were limited by inconsistency over time. Our results strongly support the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale for future evaluation as a social cognitive treatment outcome measure. Its scores were adequately distributed, consistent over time, related to symptoms and functioning, and sensitive to treatment effects. Other relatively novel assessments of attributional bias and theory of mind showed some promise, although more work is needed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Idea density measured in late life predicts subsequent cognitive trajectories: implications for the measurement of cognitive reserve.

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    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Chand, Vineeta; Bonnici, Lisa; Baynes, Kathleen; Harvey, Danielle; Mungas, Dan; Simon, Christa; Reed, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    The Nun Study showed that lower linguistic ability in young adulthood, measured by idea density (ID), increased the risk of dementia in late life. The present study examined whether ID measured in late life continues to predict the trajectory of cognitive change. ID was measured in 81 older adults who were followed longitudinally for an average of 4.3 years. Changes in global cognition and 4 specific neuropsychological domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, spatial abilities, and executive function) were examined as outcomes. Separate random effects models tested the effect of ID on longitudinal change in outcomes, adjusted for age and education. Lower ID was associated with greater subsequent decline in global cognition, semantic memory, episodic memory, and spatial abilities. When analysis was restricted to only participants without dementia at the time ID was collected, results were similar. Linguistic ability in young adulthood, as measured by ID, has been previously proposed as an index of neurocognitive development and/or cognitive reserve. The present study provides evidence that even when ID is measured in old age, it continues to be associated with subsequent cognitive decline and as such may continue to provide a marker of cognitive reserve.

  6. Defining and Measuring Cognitive-Entropy and Cognitive Self-Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    16th ICCRTS: “Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations” Defining and Measuring Cognitive-Entropy and Cognitive Self- Synchronization ...shared awareness and enabling self- synchronization across the range of participating entities (Alberts and Hayes 2009, pp.106). We consider the...aspect of self- synchronization (Alberts and Hayes, 2006) a key one in the context of modern operations and in performing C2 assessments. Based on (Manso

  7. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  8. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

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    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (RMCLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI , Cerebral Cortex, vol. 9, pp. 20-26, 1999. [12...frequency can easily be ex- tracted in real time and unobtrusively using a tablet monitor or electronic pen, not only can this measure be applied to...basketball clip played on a tablet monitor, which was then frozen and replaced with a blank court schematic. The clips involved 10 players and the

  10. Measuring Cognitive Load and Cognition: Metrics for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This critical and reflective literature review examines international research published over the last decade to summarise the different kinds of measures that have been used to explore cognitive load and critiques the strengths and limitations of those focussed on the development of direct empirical approaches. Over the last 40 years, cognitive…

  11. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a measure of cognitive workload.

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    Muth, Eric R; Moss, Jason D; Rosopa, Patrick J; Salley, James N; Walker, Alexander D

    2012-01-01

    The current standard for measuring cognitive workload is the NASA Task-load Index (TLX) questionnaire. Although this measure has a high degree of reliability, diagnosticity, and sensitivity, a reliable physiological measure of cognitive workload could provide a non-invasive, objective measure of workload that could be tracked in real or near real-time without interrupting the task. This study investigated changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during seven different sub-sections of a proposed selection test for Navy aviation and compared them to changes reported on the NASA-TLX. 201 healthy participants performed the seven tasks of the Navy's Performance Based Measure. RSA was measured during each task and the NASA-TLX was administered after each task. Multi-level modeling revealed that RSA significantly predicted NASA-TLX scores. A moderate within-subject correlation was also found between RSA and NASA TLX scores. The findings support the potential development of RSA as a real-time measure of cognitive workload. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Measuring hope among families impacted by cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Amanda E; Terhorst, Lauren; Gentry, Amanda; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2016-07-01

    The current exploratory investigation aims to establish the reliability and validity of a hope measure, the Herth Hope Index, among families impacted by early cognitive impairment (N = 96). Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the measure. Bivariate analyses were used to examine construct validity. The sample had moderately high hope scores. A two-factor structure emerged from the factor analysis, explaining 51.44% of the variance. Both factors exhibited strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas ranged from .83 to .86). Satisfaction with social support was positively associated with hope, supporting convergent validity. Neurocognitive status, illness insight, and depression were not associated with hope, indicating discriminant validity. Families impacted by cognitive impairment may maintain hope in the face of a potentially progressive illness, regardless of cognitive status. The Herth Hope Index can be utilized as a reliable and valid measure of hope by practitioners providing support to families impacted by cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive health sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Collins, William B; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, Lashara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a conceptualization and measure of cognitive health sophistication--the complexity of an individual's conceptual knowledge about health. Study 1 provides initial validity evidence for the measure--the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument--by showing its association with other cognitive health constructs indicative of higher health sophistication. Study 2 presents data from a sample of low-income adults to provide evidence that the measure does not depend heavily on health-related vocabulary or ethnicity. Results from both studies suggest that the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument can be used to capture variability in the sophistication or complexity of an individual's health-related schematic structures on the basis of responses to two simple open-ended questions. Methodological advantages of the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the discussion.

  14. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

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    Armstrong, Carol L., E-mail: armstrongc@email.chop.edu [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neuro-Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shera, David M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lustig, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Phillips, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology and Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage.

  15. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Carol L.; Shera, David M.; Lustig, Robert A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18–69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT

  16. Positive associations between physical and cognitive performance measures in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Barbara J; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Chang, Jennifer C; Shimizu, Renee; Rutledge, Dana N; Jones, C Jessie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the associations between perceived physical function (self-report) and physical and cognitive performance (objective assessments) in persons with fibromyalgia (FM). Correlational study. Exercise testing laboratory in Southern California. Community-residing ambulatory adults meeting the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM (N=68; mean age, 59.5y). Not applicable. Composite Physical Function scale, Senior Fitness Test (3 items), Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, 30-foot walk, Trail Making Test parts A and B, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, a composite score of these 3 cognitive measures, attention/executive function composite, processing speed composite, problem solving, inhibition, and episodic memory composite. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that after controlling for age and FM symptoms, better physical performance (based on assessments, not self-report) was associated with higher cognitive function in attention/executive function, processing speed, problem solving, and inhibition. Researchers should continue to investigate the relationship between physical and cognitive function in both clinical and nonclinical populations, as well as explore changes across time. Because physical activity has been associated with neural improvements, further research may identify whether particular mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, or changes in inflammatory marker levels, are involved. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase measurement of cognitive impairment specific to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Carol L; Shera, David M; Lustig, Robert A; Phillips, Peter C

    2012-07-01

    Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-Time Measurements for Adaptive and Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive and cognitive radios (CR have been becoming popular for optimizing mobile radio system transmission and reception. One of the most important elements of the adaptive radio and CR concepts is the ability to measure, sense, learn about, and be aware of parameters related to the radio channel characteristics, availability of spectrum and power, interference and noise temperature, operational environment of radio, user requirements and applications, available networks and infrastructures, local policies, other operating restrictions, and so on. This paper discusses some of the important measurement parameters for enabling adaptive radio and CR systems along with their relationships and impacts on the performance including relevant challenges.

  19. Measurement of psychological disorders using cognitive diagnosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Jonathan L; Henson, Robert A

    2006-09-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article presents the development of a new cognitive diagnosis model for use in psychological assessment--the DINO (deterministic input; noisy "or" gate) model--which, as an illustrative example, is applied to evaluate and diagnose pathological gamblers. As part of this example, a demonstration of the estimates obtained by cognitive diagnosis models is provided. Such estimates include the probability an individual meets each of a set of dichotomous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text revision [DSM-IV-TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria, resulting in an estimate of the probability an individual meets the DSM-IV-TR definition for being a pathological gambler. Furthermore, a demonstration of how the hypothesized underlying factors contributing to pathological gambling can be measured with the DINO model is presented, through use of a covariance structure model for the tetrachoric correlation matrix of the dichotomous latent variables representing DSM-IV-TR criteria. Copyright 2006 APA

  20. Rosetta Phase II: Measuring and Interpreting Cultural Differences in Cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Helen A; Lin, Mei-Hua; Peng, Kaiping; Bhal, Kanika; Radford, Mark H; Choi, Incheol; Mohd Noor, Noraini; Khalid, Halimahtun M; Chan, David

    2008-01-01

    .... We have taken advantage of developments in cognitive psychology to expand the test battery. This has allowed us to gain a richer picture of national differences in cognition and to capture cognitive differences important in naturalistic setting...

  1. Integrated Cognitive Assessment: Combining Measurement, System, and Mission, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing cognitive performance test batteries consist of synthetic tasks that, while they may probe isolated cognitive functions, provide an incomplete and...

  2. Integrated Cognitive Assessment: Combining Measurement, System, and Mission, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing cognitive performance test batteries consist of synthetic tasks that, while they may probe isolated cognitive functions, provide an incomplete and...

  3. Measuring Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility in Friedreich Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Louise A; Klopper, Felicity; Stagnitti, Monique; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Bradshaw, John L; Rance, Gary; Delatycki, Martin B

    2017-08-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with subtle impact on cognition. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility were examined in FRDA by assessing the ability to suppress a predictable verbal response. We administered the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Trail Making Test, and the Stroop Test to 43 individuals with FRDA and 42 gender- and age-matched control participants. There were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop or Trail Making Test whereas significant impairment in cognitive flexibility including the ability to predict and inhibit a pre-potent response as measured in the HSCT was evident in individuals with FRDA. These deficits did not correlate with clinical characteristics of FRDA (age of disease onset, disease duration, number of guanine-adenine-adenine repeats on the shorter or larger FXN allele, or Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale score), suggesting that such impairment may not be related to the disease process in a straightforward way. The observed specific impairment of inhibition and predictive capacity in individuals with FRDA on the HSCT task, in the absence of impairment in associated executive functions, supports cerebellar dysfunction in conjunction with disturbance to cortico-thalamo-cerebellar connectivity, perhaps via inability to access frontal areas necessary for successful task completion.

  4. Translating patient reported outcome measures: methodological issues explored using cognitive interviewing with three rheumatoid arthritis measures in six European languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewlett, Sarah E.; Nicklin, Joanna; Bode, Christina; Carmona, Loretto; Dures, Emma; Engelbrecht, Matthias; Hagel, Sofia; Kirwan, John R.; Molto, Anna; Redondo, Marta; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Cross-cultural translation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is a lengthy process, often performed professionally. Cognitive interviewing assesses patient comprehension of PROMs. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of cognitive interviewing to assess translations and

  5. Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Gerrans, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We used a mathematical modeling approach, based on a sample of 2,019 participants, to better understand what the cognitive reflection test (CRT; Frederick In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42, 2005) measures. This test, which is typically completed in less than 10 min, contains three problems and aims to measure the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind. However, since the test contains three mathematically based problems, it is possible that the test only measures mathematical abilities, and not cognitive reflection. We found that the models that included an inhibition parameter (i.e., the probability of inhibiting an intuitive response), as well as a mathematical parameter (i.e., the probability of using an adequate mathematical procedure), fitted the data better than a model that only included a mathematical parameter. We also found that the inhibition parameter in males is best explained by both rational thinking ability and the disposition toward actively open-minded thinking, whereas in females this parameter was better explained by rational thinking only. With these findings, this study contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in solving the CRT, and will be particularly useful for researchers who are considering using this test in their research.

  6. Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Validity as a co-primary measure of cognition across phases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): development and validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based measure of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P; Keefe, Richard S E; Baade, Lyle E; Gold, James M; Green, Michael F; Kern, Robert S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Seidman, Larry J; Bilder, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Practical, reliable "real world" measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. The rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items) correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82) and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  9. Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT): A New Measure of Patients' Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of a new measure called the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) in depressed adults and their cognitive therapists. The 8-item SoCT assesses patients' understanding and use of basic cognitive therapy (CT) skills rated from the perspectives of both observers (SoCT-O; therapists in this…

  10. The Cognitive Change Index as a Measure of Self and Informant Perception of Cognitive Decline: Relation to Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabannakit, Chatchawan; Risacher, Shannon L; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Kathleen A; Brown, Steven A; McDonald, Brenna C; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Apostolova, Liana G; Saykin, Andrew J; Farlow, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    The perception of cognitive decline by individuals and those who know them well ("informants") has been inconsistently associated with objective cognitive performance, but strongly associated with depressive symptoms. We investigated associations of self-report, informant-report, and discrepancy between self- and informant-report of cognitive decline obtained from the Cognitive Change Index (CCI) with cognitive test performance and self-reported depressive symptoms. 267 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild dementia were included from a cohort study and memory clinic. Association of test performance and self-rated depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) with CCI scores obtained from subjects (CCI-S), their informants (CCI-I), and discrepancy scores between subjects and informants (CCI-D; CCI-S minus CCI-I) were analyzed using correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. CCI-S and CCI-I scores showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). Higher scores on CCI-S and CCI-I, and lower scores on the CCI-D, were associated with lower performance on various cognitive tests in both univariate and in ANCOVA models adjusted for age, gender, and education. Adjustment for GDS slightly weakened the relationships between CCI and test performance but most remained significant. Self- and informant-report of cognitive decline, as measured by the CCI, show moderately strong relationships with objective test performance independent of age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. The CCI appears to be a valid cross-sectional measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline across the continuum of functioning. Studies are needed to address the relationship of CCI scores to longitudinal outcome.

  11. Gender differences measured by the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in chronic schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Baohua; Han, Mei; Tan, Shuping; De Yang, Fu; Tan, Yunlong; Jiang, Shurong; Zhang, Xiangyang; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Using Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), previous study showed significant gender differences for cognitive deficits in immediate and delayed memory in schizophrenia patients. However, RBANS does not include reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These cognitive functions can significantly affect the outcomes and daily life in patients. This study examined the gender differences of cognition using the measurement and treatment research to...

  12. Measuring reliable change in cognition using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Christopher; Newton, Judith; Lonergan, Katie; Madden, Caoifa; Mays, Iain; O'Sullivan, Meabhdh; Costello, Emmet; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 50% of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research has indicated that impairment may worsen with disease progression. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed to measure neuropsychological functioning in ALS, with its alternate forms (ECAS-A, B, and C) allowing for serial assessment over time. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable change scores for the alternate forms of the ECAS, and to explore practice effects and test-retest reliability of the ECAS's alternate forms. Eighty healthy participants were recruited, with 57 completing two and 51 completing three assessments. Participants were administered alternate versions of the ECAS serially (A-B-C) at four-month intervals. Intra-class correlation analysis was employed to explore test-retest reliability, while analysis of variance was used to examine the presence of practice effects. Reliable change indices (RCI) and regression-based methods were utilized to establish change scores for the ECAS alternate forms. Test-retest reliability was excellent for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total scores of the combined ECAS A, B, and C (all > .90). No significant practice effects were observed over the three testing sessions. RCI and regression-based methods produced similar change scores. The alternate forms of the ECAS possess excellent test-retest reliability in a healthy control sample, with no significant practice effects. The use of conservative RCI scores is recommended. Therefore, a change of ≥8, ≥4, and ≥9 for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total score is required for reliable change.

  13. A content review of cognitive process measures used in pain research within adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Lang, C P; Newton-John, T R O; Ehde, D M; Jensen, M P

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that measures of cognitive process may be confounded by the inclusion of items that also assess cognitive content. The primary aims of this content review were to: (1) identify the domains of cognitive processes assessed by measures used in pain research; and (2) determine if pain-specific cognitive process measures with adequate psychometric properties exist. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched to identify the measures of cognitive process used in pain research. Identified measures were double coded and the measure's items were rated as: (1) cognitive content; (2) cognitive process; (3) behavioural/social; and/or (4) emotional coping/responses to pain. A total of 319 scales were identified; of these, 29 were coded as providing an un-confounded assessment of cognitive process, and 12 were pain-specific. The cognitive process domains assessed in these measures are Absorption, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, Acceptance, Rumination, Non-Judgment, and Enhancement. Pain-specific, un-confounded measures were identified for: Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, and Acceptance. Psychometric properties of all 319 scales are reported in supplementary material. To understand the importance of cognitive processes in influencing pain outcomes as well as explaining the efficacy of pain treatments, valid and pain-specific cognitive process measures that are not confounded with non-process domains (e.g., cognitive content) are needed. The findings of this content review suggest that future research focused on developing cognitive process measures is critical in order to advance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie effective pain treatment. Many cognitive process measures used in pain research contain a 'mix' of items that assess cognitive process, cognitive content, and behavioural/emotional responses. Databases searched: PsychInfo, CINAHL, Psyc

  14. Cognitive Age: A New Multidimensional Approach to Measuring Age Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Benny

    1987-01-01

    Conducted exploratory field study to examine how age-concepts are experienced and to assess relationship of age identities to each other. Proposes Cognitive Age as a new multidimensional age scale that merges the standard scale, Identity Age, and Personal Age. Study results attest to Cognitive Age scale's reliability and validity. (Author/NB)

  15. Cognitive Load Theory: Advances in Research on Worked Examples, Animations, and Cognitive Load Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe contributions to this special issue document some recent advances of cognitive load theory, and are based on contributions to the Third International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The contributions focus on developments in example-based learning,

  16. Measuring specific, rather than generalized, cognitive deficits and maximizing between-group effect size in studies of cognition and cognitive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2008-07-01

    While cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is easy to demonstrate, it has been much more difficult to measure a specific cognitive process unconfounded by the influence of other cognitive processes and noncognitive factors (eg, sedation, low motivation) that affect test scores. With the recent interest in the identification of neurophysiology-linked cognitive probes for clinical trials, the issue of isolating specific cognitive processes has taken on increased importance. Recent advances in research design and psychometric theory regarding cognition research in schizophrenia demonstrate the importance of (1) maximizing between-group differences via reduction of measurement error during both test development and subsequent research and (2) the development and use of process-specific tasks in which theory-driven performance indices are derived across multiple conditions. Use of these 2 strategies can significantly advance both our understanding of schizophrenia and measurement sensitivity for clinical trials. Novel data-analytic strategies for analyzing change across multiple conditions and/or multiple time points also allow for increased reliability and greater measurement sensitivity than traditional strategies. Following discussion of these issues, trade-offs inherent to attempts to address psychometric issues in schizophrenia research are reviewed. Finally, additional considerations for maximizing sensitivity and real-world significance in clinical trials are discussed.

  17. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-08-01

    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  18. A social work study on measuring the impact of age and job title on stress: A case study of hydro-power employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Iravani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study performs an empirical study based on the implementation of ANOVA and LSD tests to measure the impact of stress among people with different job titles and ages in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performed the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consisted of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.946, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The implementation of ANOVA and LSD tests have revealed that there are no meaning differences among people with different job titles but people in different age groups maintained various level of stress.

  19. Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Improved Measure of Reading Skill: The Cognitive Structure Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the construct validity and the predictive validity of a new test, called the Cognitive Structure Test, to multiple-choice tests of reading skill, namely the Armed Forces Vocational...

  2. Cognitive Measures of Vietnam-Era Prisoners of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Experience as a prisoner of war (POW) could lead to cognitive impairment because of the injuries, including head trauma, and other stressors endured preceding and during capture, and during incarceration...

  3. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  5. Cognitive stimulation therapy in the Italian context: its efficacy in cognitive and non-cognitive measures in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capotosto, Emanuela; Belacchi, Carmen; Gardini, Simona; Faggian, Silvia; Piras, Federica; Mantoan, Vanessa; Salvalaio, Elisa; Pradelli, Samantha; Borella, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) has been shown to have significant benefits in enhancing cognitive functioning and improving the quality of life of people with mild to moderate dementia. The present study examines the efficacy of the Italian version of the therapy (CST-IT). Older adults with mild to moderate dementia (n = 39) were randomly assigned to two programs: one group participated in the CST-IT, consisting of 14 sessions (twice a week for 7 weeks) and the active control group took part in alternative general activities. The outcome measures were cognitive functioning (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination-MMSE-, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment scale-cognitive subscale, the backward digit span test, and a narrative language test); quality of life (Quality of life--Alzheimer's Disease scale); mood (Cornell scale for depression in dementia and the social and emotional loneliness scale); functional activities in daily living (Disability Assessment for Dementia); and behavior (neuropsychiatric inventory). After the intervention, only the CST-IT group maintained its MMSE score, while the control group displayed deterioration. The CST-IT group also performed better in some of the cognitive measures (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale and narrative language), mood measures (Cornell scale, social and emotional loneliness scale with a decrease in reported loneliness), and the Quality of life--Alzheimer's Disease scale. No other treatment effect was observed. The findings confirm the efficacy, at least in the short term, of the CST in sustaining cognitive functions and perceived quality of life in older adults with dementia in the Italian care setting as well. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. How well do the ADAS-cog and its subscales measure cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benge, Jared F; Balsis, Steve; Geraci, Lisa; Massman, Paul J; Doody, Rachelle S

    2009-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog) is regularly used to assess cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. Yet, little is known about how the instrument and its subscales measure cognition across the spectrum of AD. The current investigation used item response theory (IRT) analyses to assess the measurement properties of the ADAS-cog across the range of cognitive dysfunction in AD. We used IRT-based analyses to establish the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and the probability of obtaining observed scores on each subscale and the test as a whole. Data were obtained from 1,087 patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Results showed that the ADAS-cog and its subscales provide maximum information at moderate levels of cognitive dysfunction. Raw score differences toward the lower and higher ends of the scale corresponded to large differences in cognitive dysfunction, whereas raw score differences toward the middle of the scale corresponded to smaller differences. The utility of the ADAS-cog and its subscales is optimal in the moderate range of cognitive dysfunction, but raw score differences in that region correspond to relatively small differences in cognitive dysfunction. Implications for tracking and staging dementia and for clinical trials are discussed. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. An investigation of self-appraised cognition versus measured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of this investigation are far-reaching in terms of the necessity to regard a student holistically, to realise the importance of how students appraise themselves cognitively, and the need to pay special attention to building a healthy self-concept. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (4) 2007: pp.

  8. On the Meaning of Cross-Cultural Differences in Simple Cognitive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…

  9. Measuring Cognitive Engagement with Self-Report Scales: Reflections from over 20 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…

  10. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  11. Development and initial validation of a brief self-report measure of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Schilling, Stephen G; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A

    2015-06-01

    Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In study 1, a nationwide (U.S.) sample of 1,035 adults with FM (age range = 18-82, 95.2% female) completed 2 cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI and a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = -.82). This paper presents the MISCI, a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in FM, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. III. NIH TOOLBOX COGNITION BATTERY (CB): MEASURING EPISODIC MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most significant domains of cognition is episodic memory, which allows for rapid acquisition and long-term storage of new information. For purposes of the NIH Toolbox, we devised a new test of episodic memory. The nonverbal NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test (TPSMT) requires participants to reproduce the order of an arbitrarily ordered sequence of pictures presented on a computer. To adjust for ability, sequence length varies from 6 to 15 pictures. Multiple trials are adminis...

  13. Resting fMRI measures are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia assessed by the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Bustillo, Juan; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Jones, Thomas R.; Jiang, Tianzi; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sui, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatment, and are thus a life-long burden to patients. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across a comprehensive set of cognitive domains for schizophrenia. In resting-state fMRI, functional connectivity associated with MCCB has not yet been examined. In this paper, the interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in two types of functional measures from resting-state fMRI—fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) maps were investigated in data from 47 schizophrenia patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. First, the fALFF maps were generated and decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA), and then the component showing the highest correlation with MCCB composite scores was selected. Second, the whole brain was separated into functional networks by group ICA, and the FNC maps were calculated. The FNC strengths with most significant correlations with MCCB were displayed and spatially overlapped with the fALFF component of interest. It demonstrated increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF values (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) in prefrontal regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) but lower ALFF values in thalamus, striatum, and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Interestingly, the FNC showing significant correlations with MCCB were in well agreement with the activated regions with highest z-values in fALFF component. Our results support the view that functional deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits and inferior parietal lobe may account for several aspects of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  14. Alzheimer's disease: relationship between cognitive aspects and power and coherence EEG measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between specific cognitive aspects and quantitative EEG measures, in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHOD: Thirty-eight AD patients and 31 controls were assessed by CERAD neuropsychological battery (Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD and the electroencephalogram (EEG. The absolute power and coherences EEG measures were calculated at rest. The correlations between the cognitive variables and the EEG were evaluated. RESULTS: In the AD group there were significant correlations between different coherence EEG measures and Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency, modified Boston naming, word list memory with repetition, word list recall and recognition, and constructional praxis (p<0.01. These correlations were all negative for the delta and theta bands and positive for alpha and beta. There were no correlations between cognitive aspects and absolute EEG power. CONCLUSION: The coherence EEG measures reflect different forms in the relationship between regions related to various cognitive dysfunctions.

  15. English Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Camacho Camargo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption of paper and poor management of documentation are weaknesses that may have a significant impact on productivity of organizations. For this reason, he began to develop the initiative to implement the concept of “paperless office” in the “Núcleo La Victoria de la Universidad Nacional Experimental Sur del Lago (UNESUR” in Venezuela, part of their academic processes, particularly in the related “Grades and Diplomas Section”. The research conducted was descriptive and feasible project. The proposal identified resource savings associated with implementing this practice. The results indicate that it is feasible to implement and which has a major impact on productivity; however, must be accompanied by measures for backup and information security, so its application in other areas of the university organization will be proposed, which can serve as an example for application in business organizations.

  16. english title

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Adolfo; Eppis, Maria Rosa

    1996-01-01

    One important parameter to specify in nuclear fuels is the oxygen-metal ratio, many tests were described in literature to determine it. Gravimetric methods are possibly the most used and usually a good precision was obtained analyzing sintered materials. However this method is affected by the humidity and impurities sorbed in the samples, especially in powders. The spectrophotometric methods determine oxygen-uranium ratio by measuring the absorbance of different ionic species in phosphoric acid. This technique is simply and is not affected by humidity and impurities. Owing to discrepancy in the results between both methods, it was carried out in our laboratory, a study on various gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Several assays and analysis were performed comparing test procedures, trying to obtain better precision and accuracy. This work presents the results obtained and the recommended procedure to use with sintered and unsintered materials. (author)

  17. Initial development of a treatment adherence measure for cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Southam-Gerow, MA; McLeod, BD; Arnold, CC; Rodríguez, A; Cox, JR; Reise, SP; Bonifay, WE; Weisz, JR; Kendall, PC

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 American Psychological Association.The measurement of treatment adherence (a component of treatment integrity defined as the extent to which a treatment is delivered as intended) is a critical element in treatment evaluation research. This article presents initial psychometric data for scores on the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Adherence Scale for Youth Anxiety (CBAY-A), an observational measure designed to be sensitive to common practice elements found in individual cognitive- behavio...

  18. Acoustic Measures of Voice and Physiologic Measures of Autonomic Arousal during Speech as a Function of Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K; Abur, Defne; Stepp, Cara E

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship among cognitive load condition and measures of autonomic arousal and voice production in healthy adults. A prospective study design was conducted. Sixteen healthy young adults (eight men, eight women) produced a sentence containing an embedded Stroop task in each of two cognitive load conditions: congruent and incongruent. In both conditions, participants said the font color of the color words instead of the word text. In the incongruent condition, font color differed from the word text, creating an increase in cognitive load relative to the congruent condition in which font color and word text matched. Three physiologic measures of autonomic arousal (pulse volume amplitude, pulse period, and skin conductance response amplitude) and four acoustic measures of voice (sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio) were analyzed for eight sentence productions in each cognitive load condition per participant. A logistic regression model was constructed to predict the cognitive load condition (congruent or incongruent) using subject as a categorical predictor and the three autonomic measures and four acoustic measures as continuous predictors. It revealed that skin conductance response amplitude, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio were significantly associated with cognitive load condition. During speech produced under increased cognitive load, healthy young adults show changes in physiologic markers of heightened autonomic arousal and acoustic measures of voice quality. Future work is necessary to examine these measures in older adults and individuals with voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results. PMID:29201011

  20. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 ( N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study ( N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  1. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Klepsch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97, we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1 Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2 Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task, we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  3. COGNITIVE LOAD MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE RESEARCH OF EFFICIENT USAGE OF LEARNING SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of cognitive load measurement are described within the research of efficient usage of learning Software. Their classification is given, main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed, as well as area of use of these methods is defined. The article presents an overview of modern Software and Hardware that can be used for cognitive load measurement while studying with information technologies and practical examples of such methods. The use of the secondary task method is reasoned to be the most optimal for cognitive load measurement as well as for detection of optimal conditions for student work with different learning materials. This method allows to receive objective quantification of cognitive load and to investigate its dynamics accurately.

  4. Predicting story goodness performance from cognitive measures following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Lê, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. One hundred sixty-seven individuals with TBI participated in the study. Story retellings were analyzed using the SGI protocol. Three cognitive measures--Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997) Working Memory Primary Index (WMI), and WMS-III Immediate Memory Primary Index (IMI)--were entered into a multiple linear regression model for each discourse measure. Two sets of regression analyses were performed, the first with the Sorting Test as the first predictor and the second with it as the last. The first set of regression analyses identified the Sorting Test and IMI as the only significant predictors of performance on measures of the SGI. The second set identified all measures as significant predictors when evaluating each step of the regression function. The cognitive variables predicted performance on the SGI measures, although there were differences in the amount of explained variance. The results (a) suggest that storytelling ability draws on a number of underlying skills and (b) underscore the importance of using discrete cognitive tasks rather than broad cognitive indices to investigate the cognitive substrates of discourse.

  5. III. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Heaton, Robert K; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L

    2013-08-01

    One of the most significant domains of cognition is episodic memory, which allows for rapid acquisition and long-term storage of new information. For purposes of the NIH Toolbox, we devised a new test of episodic memory. The nonverbal NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test (TPSMT) requires participants to reproduce the order of an arbitrarily ordered sequence of pictures presented on a computer. To adjust for ability, sequence length varies from 6 to 15 pictures. Multiple trials are administered to increase reliability. Pediatric data from the validation study revealed the TPSMT to be sensitive to age-related changes. The task also has high test-retest reliability and promising construct validity. Steps to further increase the sensitivity of the instrument to individual and age-related variability are described. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. [Prognosis and progression of cognitive impairment. Preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Mongil, Rosa; López Trigo, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Because of the substantial increase in population ageing, age-related processes, such as dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD), are becoming highly prevalent. The course of this disease, including preprodromic phases, lasts at least 20 years. The presence of comorbidities, especially those of vascular origin, can trigger and aggravate disease progression. On the other hand, cognitive reserve, the absence or control of comorbid factors and healthy lifestyles can protect or modify -in the sense of slow down- disease progression. Knowledge of the phases of AD and their functional impact on affected individuals helps to identify the average prognosis and, in particular, to establish and predict care plans based on the individual's needs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The Beast of Aggregating Cognitive Load Measures in Technology-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Jimmie; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing part of cognitive load research in technology-based learning includes a component of repeated measurements, that is: participants are measured two or more times on the same performance, mental effort or other variable of interest. In many cases, researchers aggregate scores obtained from repeated measurements to one single sum or…

  8. Computerized Assessment of Communication for Cognitive Stimulation for People with Cognitive Decline Using Spectral-Distortion Measures and Phylogenetic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Truong, Cong-Thang; Okamoto, Kazushi; Futaba, Terufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Masahide; Lampe, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline. PMID:25803586

  9. Computerized assessment of communication for cognitive stimulation for people with cognitive decline using spectral-distortion measures and phylogenetic inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan D Pham

    Full Text Available Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline.

  10. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.

  11. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... present the progress of our work intended to close this gap by continuously measuring cognitive load during design activities. This work aims at advancing our understanding of WHEN and WHY designers face challenges. For this, we attempt to explore and explain the occurrence of CL using fine–granular units...

  12. Both Reaction Time and Accuracy Measures of Intraindividual Variability Predict Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn U. Christ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementia researchers around the world prioritize the urgent need for sensitive measurement tools that can detect cognitive and functional change at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Sensitive indicators of underlying neural pathology assist in the early detection of cognitive change and are thus important for the evaluation of early-intervention clinical trials. One method that may be particularly well-suited to help achieve this goal involves the quantification of intraindividual variability (IIV in cognitive performance. The current study aimed to directly compare two methods of estimating IIV (fluctuations in accuracy-based scores vs. those in latency-based scores to predict cognitive performance in AD. Specifically, we directly compared the relative sensitivity of reaction time (RT—and accuracy-based estimates of IIV to cognitive compromise. The novelty of the present study, however, centered on the patients we tested [a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD] and the outcome measures we used (a measure of general cognitive function and a measure of episodic memory function. Hence, we compared intraindividual standard deviations (iSDs from two RT tasks and three accuracy-based memory tasks in patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's dementia (n = 23 and matched healthy controls (n = 25. The main analyses modeled the relative contributions of RT vs. accuracy-based measures of IIV toward the prediction of performance on measures of (a overall cognitive functioning, and (b episodic memory functioning. Results indicated that RT-based IIV measures are superior predictors of neurocognitive impairment (as indexed by overall cognitive and memory performance than accuracy-based IIV measures, even after adjusting for the timescale of measurement. However, one accuracy-based IIV measure (derived from a recognition memory test also differentiated patients with AD from controls, and significantly predicted episodic memory

  13. Cognition and objectively measured sleep duration in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle; Matricciani, Lisa; Coussens, Scott; M Reynolds, Chelsea; Galland, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Sleep recommendations are widely used to guide communities on children's sleep needs. Following recent adjustments to guidelines by the National Sleep Foundation and the subsequent consensus statement by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, we undertook a systematic literature search to evaluate the current evidence regarding relationships between objectively measured sleep duration and cognitive function in children aged 5 to 13 years. Cognitive function included measures of memory, attention, processing speed, and intelligence in children aged 5 to 13 years. Keyword searches of 7 databases to December 2016 found 23 meeting inclusion criteria from 137 full articles reviewed, 19 of which were suitable for meta-analysis. A significant effect (r = .06) was found between sleep duration and cognition, suggesting that longer sleep durations were associated with better cognitive functioning. Analyses of different cognitive domains revealed that full/verbal IQ was significantly associated with sleep loss, but memory, fluid IQ, processing speed and attention were not. Comparison of study sleep durations with current sleep recommendations showed that most children studied had sleep durations that were not within the range of recommended sleep. As such, the true effect of sleep loss on cognitive function may be obscured in these samples, as most children were sleep restricted. Future research using more rigorous experimental methodologies is needed to properly elucidate the relationship between sleep duration and cognition in this age group. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004): Special Issue 2004, Differential production of immune parameters by mouse strains ... agglutination and complement fixation tests in the field diagnosis ... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  15. Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Narazaki, Eri Matsuo, Takanori Honda, Yu Nofuji, Koji Yonemoto, Shuzo Kumagai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%. Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001. These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001. The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community

  16. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  17. Physical Fitness Measures as Potential Markers of Low Cognitive Function in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults without Apparent Cognitive Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, Kenji; Matsuo, Eri; Honda, Takanori; Nofuji, Yu; Yonemoto, Koji; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2014-09-01

    Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. Key pointsThere is a great need for identifying lifestyle-related markers which help detect subtle cognitive impairment in the preclinical or earlier phase of dementia.In the present study, each of the five physical fitness measures employed was linearly and

  18. Title IX Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  19. Measuring cognitive insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Engh, John A; Friis, Svein; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Jónsdóttir, Halldóra; Ringen, Petter A; Ruud, Torleif; Sundet, Kjetil S; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2007-01-01

    Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both di...

  20. The Multidimensional Card Selection Task: A new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjarny, Gal; Kamawar, Deepthi; Andrews, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e.g., shape and size, and then shape, size, and color). More than half of the preschoolers in our sample of 107 (50 3-year-olds and 57 4-year-olds) could coordinate three dimensions simultaneously and consistently across three test trials. Furthermore, performance on the Multidimensional Card Selection Task was related, but not identical, to performance on other cognitive tasks, including a widely used measure of switching cognitive flexibility (the Dimensional Change Card Sort). The Multidimensional Card Selection Task provides a new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers, and opens another avenue for exploring the emergence of early cognitive flexibility development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Suzanne C; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. We hypothesized that 1) recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2) recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM). Undergraduates (N=108) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) recall relevant memory with EM, 2) recall relevant memory without EM, and 3) recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s), and after (16×24 s) the intervention. Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory.

  2. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. van Veen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. Objective: We hypothesized that 1 recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2 recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM. Method: Undergraduates (N=108 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1 recall relevant memory with EM, 2 recall relevant memory without EM, and 3 recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s, and after (16×24 s the intervention. Results: Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Conclusions: Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory.

  3. Measuring cognitive load during procedural skills training with colonoscopy as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated cognitive factors affecting learning of procedural skills in medical education. Cognitive load theory, which focuses on working memory, is highly relevant, but methods for measuring cognitive load during procedural training are not well understood. Using colonoscopy as an exemplar, we used cognitive load theory to develop a self-report instrument to measure three types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous and germane load) and to provide evidence for instrument validity. We developed the instrument (the Cognitive Load Inventory for Colonoscopy [CLIC]) using a multi-step process. It included 19 items measuring three types of cognitive load, three global rating items and demographics. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey that was administered electronically to 1061 gastroenterology trainees in the USA. Participants completed the CLIC following a colonoscopy. The two study phases (exploratory and confirmatory) each lasted for 10 weeks during the 2014-2015 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis determined the most parsimonious factor structure; confirmatory factor analysis assessed model fit. Composite measures of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load were compared across years of training and with global rating items. A total of 477 (45.0%) invitees participated (116 in the exploratory study and 361 in the confirmatory study) in 154 (95.1%) training programmes. Demographics were similar to national data from the USA. The most parsimonious factor structure included three factors reflecting the three types of cognitive load. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a three-factor model was the best fit. Intrinsic, extraneous and germane load items had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.90, 0.87 and 0.96, respectively) and correlated as expected with year in training and global assessment of cognitive load. The CLIC measures three types of cognitive load during colonoscopy training. Evidence of validity is

  4. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Howard; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor ...

  5. Cognitive Load in eCommerce Applications—Measurement and Effects on User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schmutz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for designing usable interfaces recommend reducing short term memory load. Cognitive load, that is, working memory demands during problem solving, reasoning, or thinking, may affect users' general satisfaction and performance when completing complex tasks. Whereas in design guidelines numerous ways of reducing cognitive load in interactive systems are described, not many attempts have been made to measure cognitive load in Web applications, and few techniques exist. In this study participants' cognitive load was measured while they were engaged in searching for several products in four different online book stores. NASA-TLX and dual-task methodology were used to measure subjective and objective mental workload. The dual-task methodology involved searching for books as the primary task and a visual monitoring task as the secondary task. NASA-TLX scores differed significantly among the shops. Secondary task reaction times showed no significant differences between the four shops. Strong correlations between NASA-TLX, primary task completion time, and general satisfaction suggest that NASA-TLX can be used as a valuable additional measure of efficiency. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between browse/search preference and NASA-TLX as well as between search/browse preference and user satisfaction. Thus we suggest browse/search preference as a promising heuristic assessment method of cognitive load.

  6. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  7. Measuring Load on Working Memory: The Use of Heart Rate as a Means of Measuring Chemistry Students' Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Kristen N.; Tiettmeyer, Jessica M.; Chuprinko, Bryan C.; Jordan, Sophia; Grove, Nathaniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Information processing provides a powerful model for understanding how learning occurs and highlights the important role that cognitive load plays in this process. In instances in which the cognitive load of a problem exceeds the available working memory, learning can be seriously hindered. Previously reported methods for measuring cognitive load…

  8. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  9. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  10. Measuring cognitive load: mixed results from a handover simulation for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Irby, David M; Barilla-LaBarca, Maria-Louise; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    The application of cognitive load theory to workplace-based activities such as patient handovers is hindered by the absence of a measure of the different load types. This exploratory study tests a method for measuring cognitive load during handovers. The authors developed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs (CLI4H) with items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Medical students completed the measure after participating in a simulated handover. Exploratory factor and correlation analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Results yielded a two-factor solution for intrinsic and germane load that explained 50 % of the variance. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score for intrinsic load correlated with the Paas Cognitive Load scale (r = 0.31, p = 0.004) and was lower for students with more prior handover training (p = 0.036). Intrinsic load did not, however, correlate with performance. Germane load did not correlate with the Paas Cognitive Load scale but did correlate as expected with performance (r = 0.30, p = 0.005) and was lower for those students with more prior handover training (p = 0.03). The CLI4H yielded mixed results with some evidence for validity of the score from the intrinsic load items. The extraneous load items performed poorly and the use of only a single item for germane load limits conclusions. The instrument requires further development and testing. Study results and limitations provide guidance to future efforts to measure cognitive load during workplace-based activities, such as handovers.

  11. Systematic review of measurement tools to assess surgeons' intraoperative cognitive workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R D; Ngo-Howard, M C; Boskovski, M T; Zenati, M A; Yule, S J

    2018-04-01

    Surgeons in the operating theatre deal constantly with high-demand tasks that require simultaneous processing of a large amount of information. In certain situations, high cognitive load occurs, which may impact negatively on a surgeon's performance. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the different methods used to assess surgeons' cognitive load, and a critique of the reliability and validity of current assessment metrics. A search strategy encompassing MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PROSPERO and the Cochrane database was developed to identify peer-reviewed articles published from inception to November 2016. Quality was assessed by using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). A summary table was created to describe study design, setting, specialty, participants, cognitive load measures and MERSQI score. Of 391 articles retrieved, 84 met the inclusion criteria, totalling 2053 unique participants. Most studies were carried out in a simulated setting (59 studies, 70 per cent). Sixty studies (71 per cent) used self-reporting methods, of which the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was the most commonly applied tool (44 studies, 52 per cent). Heart rate variability analysis was the most used real-time method (11 studies, 13 per cent). Self-report instruments are valuable when the aim is to assess the overall cognitive load in different surgical procedures and assess learning curves within competence-based surgical education. When the aim is to assess cognitive load related to specific operative stages, real-time tools should be used, as they allow capture of cognitive load fluctuation. A combination of both subjective and objective methods might provide optimal measurement of surgeons' cognition. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Toward a Research-Based Assessment of Dyslexia: Using Cognitive Measures To Identify Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Cox, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children (n=105) completed measures of reading achievement and cognitive abilities. Factor analysis produced three empirically and theoretically derived factors, auditory processing, visual processing/speed, and memory. Together the three factors combined predicted 61 to 85% of the variance associated with different…

  13. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  15. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  16. The use of cognitive ability measures as explanatory variables in regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Brian; Schofield, Lynne Steuerle; Taylor, Lowell J

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive ability measures are often taken as explanatory variables in regression analysis, e.g., as a factor affecting a market outcome such as an individual's wage, or a decision such as an individual's education acquisition. Cognitive ability is a latent construct; its true value is unobserved. Nonetheless, researchers often assume that a test score , constructed via standard psychometric practice from individuals' responses to test items, can be safely used in regression analysis. We examine problems that can arise, and suggest that an alternative approach, a "mixed effects structural equations" (MESE) model, may be more appropriate in many circumstances.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 488 ... African Journal of Paediatric Surgery. ... Ileocecal valve atresia: Introduction of a new surgical approach ... Vol 4, No 1 (2007), Isolated Bilateral Macrostomia: Case Series and ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in ... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  20. Title to mining properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the law which must be met in order to create title to an unpatented mining claim and the procedures which should be followed when an attempt is made to determine the title to the claim is acceptable are reviewed

  1. The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale: a cognitive-developmental measure of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R D; Quinlan, D M; Schwartz, G E; Walker, P A; Zeitlin, S B

    1990-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is based on a new cognitive-developmental model of emotional experience. The scale poses evocative interpersonal situations and elicits descriptions of the emotional responses of self and others which are scored using specific structural criteria. Forty undergraduates (20 of each sex) were tested. Interrater reliability and intratest homogeneity of the LEAS were strong. The LEAS was significantly correlated with two measures of maturity: the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of Ego Development, and the Parental Descriptions Scale-a cognitive-developmental measure of object representation. In addition, the LEAS correlated positively with openness to experience and emotional range but not with measures of specific emotions, repression or the number of words used in the LEAS responses. These findings suggest that it is the level of emotion, not the specific quality of emotion, that is tapped by the LEAS.

  2. Measurement of signal use and vehicle turns as indication of driver cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bruce; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data analytics to provide a method for the measurement of a key driving task, turn signal usage as a measure of an automatic over-learned cognitive function drivers. The paper augments previously reported more complex executive function cognition measures by proposing an algorithm that analyzes dashboard video to detect turn indicator use with 100% accuracy without any false positives. The paper proposes two algorithms that determine the actual turns made on a trip. The first through analysis of GPS location traces for the vehicle, locating 73% of the turns made with a very low false positive rate of 3%. A second algorithm uses GIS tools to retroactively create turn by turn directions. Fusion of GIS and GPS information raises performance to 77%. The paper presents the algorithm required to measure signal use for actual turns by realigning the 0.2Hz GPS data, 30fps video and GIS turn events. The result is a measure that can be tracked over time and changes in the driver's performance can result in alerts to the driver, caregivers or clinicians as indication of cognitive change. A lack of decline can also be shared as reassurance.

  3. Cognitive Load Measurement in a Virtual Reality-based Driving System for Autism Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian; Wade, Joshua; Bian, Dayi; Fan, Jing; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with enormous individual and social cost. In this paper, a novel virtual reality (VR)-based driving system was introduced to teach driving skills to adolescents with ASD. This driving system is capable of gathering eye gaze, electroencephalography, and peripheral physiology data in addition to driving performance data. The objective of this paper is to fuse multimodal information to measure cognitive load during driving such that driving tasks can be individualized for optimal skill learning. Individualization of ASD intervention is an important criterion due to the spectrum nature of the disorder. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in our study and the data collected were used for systematic feature extraction and classification of cognitive loads based on five well-known machine learning methods. Subsequently, three information fusion schemes—feature level fusion, decision level fusion and hybrid level fusion—were explored. Results indicate that multimodal information fusion can be used to measure cognitive load with high accuracy. Such a mechanism is essential since it will allow individualization of driving skill training based on cognitive load, which will facilitate acceptance of this driving system for clinical use and eventual commercialization. PMID:28966730

  4. Cognitive Load Measurement in a Virtual Reality-based Driving System for Autism Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian; Wade, Joshua; Bian, Dayi; Fan, Jing; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with enormous individual and social cost. In this paper, a novel virtual reality (VR)-based driving system was introduced to teach driving skills to adolescents with ASD. This driving system is capable of gathering eye gaze, electroencephalography, and peripheral physiology data in addition to driving performance data. The objective of this paper is to fuse multimodal information to measure cognitive load during driving such that driving tasks can be individualized for optimal skill learning. Individualization of ASD intervention is an important criterion due to the spectrum nature of the disorder. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in our study and the data collected were used for systematic feature extraction and classification of cognitive loads based on five well-known machine learning methods. Subsequently, three information fusion schemes-feature level fusion, decision level fusion and hybrid level fusion-were explored. Results indicate that multimodal information fusion can be used to measure cognitive load with high accuracy. Such a mechanism is essential since it will allow individualization of driving skill training based on cognitive load, which will facilitate acceptance of this driving system for clinical use and eventual commercialization.

  5. Validity of Cognitive Load Measures in Simulation-Based Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures. PRISMA standards were followed. For 48 studies selected from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases, information was extracted about study aims, methods, validity evidence of measures, and findings. Studies were categorized on the basis of findings and prevalence of validity evidence collected, and statistical comparisons between measurement types and research domains were pursued. CL during simulation training has been measured in diverse populations including medical trainees, pilots, and university students. Most studies (71%; 34) used self-report measures; others included secondary task performance, physiological indices, and observer ratings. Correlations between CL and learning varied from positive to negative. Overall validity evidence for CL measures was low (mean score 1.55/5). Studies reporting greater validity evidence were more likely to report that high CL impaired learning. The authors found evidence that inconsistent correlations between CL and learning may be related to issues of validity in CL measures. Further research would benefit from rigorous documentation of validity and from triangulating measures of CL. This can better inform CLT instructional design for simulation-based medical training.

  6. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of daytime sleep, can identify patients with PD

  7. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Bolitho

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p < 0.001. Significantly, differences in napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. CONCLUSION: This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime

  8. Objective Measurement of Daytime Napping, Cognitive Dysfunction and Subjective Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Methods Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. Conclusion This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of

  9. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  10. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... of analysis (e.g., type of subtasks, evolution of design artifact’s quality, and manner of technology use). We expect implications for the future development of intelligent software systems, which are aware WHEN a particular designer experiences challenges, but also WHY challenges occur....

  11. Assessing Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive: The development of a toolkit based on cognition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huarong; Mo, Xian; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ruixue; Qiu, Peiyu; Dai, Jiajun

    2016-10-01

    Road traffic accidents resulting in group deaths and injuries are often related to coach drivers' inappropriate operations and behaviors. Thus, the evaluation of coach drivers' fitness to drive is an important measure for improving the safety of public transportation. Previous related research focused on drivers' age and health condition. Comprehensive studies about commercial drivers' cognitive capacities are limited. This study developed a toolkit consisting of nine cognition measurements across driver perception/sensation, attention, and reaction. A total of 1413 licensed coach drivers in Jiangsu Province, China were investigated and tested. Results indicated that drivers with accident history within three years performed overwhelmingly worse (panalysis, in which the eliminated 5% tail was calculated from on integrated index. Methods to categorizing qualified, good, and excellent coach drivers and criteria for evaluating and training Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive were also proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  3. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload, which can result in impaired cognitive functioning and can be detrimental to job performance. For example, some professions (e.g., fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, doctors and nurses working in an emergency room, pilots) require long periods of low workload (boredom), followed by sudden, high-tempo operations during which they may be required to respond to an emergency and perform at peak cognitive levels. Conversely, other professions (e.g., air traffic controllers, market investors in financial industries, analysts) require long periods of high workload and multitasking during which the addition of just one more task results in cognitive overload resulting in mistakes. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict cognitive workload could warn individuals, their teammates, or their supervisors when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. In this talk I will describe an approach to this problem that we have found to be successful across work domains including: (1) a suite of unobtrusive, field-ready neurophysiological, physiological, and behavioral sensors that are chosen to best suit the target environment; (2) custom algorithms and statistical techniques to process and time-align raw data originating from the sensor suite; (3) probabilistic and statistical models designed to interpret the data into the human state of interest (e.g., cognitive workload, attention, fatigue); (4) and machine-learning techniques to predict upcoming performance based on the current pattern of events, and (5) display of each piece of information depending on the needs of the target user who may or may not want to drill down into the functioning of the system to determine how conclusions about human state and performance are determined. I will then focus in on our experimental results from our custom functional near-infrared spectroscopy sensor

  4. Problematic internet use in gamblers: impact on clinical and cognitive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2017-12-01

    Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. Problematic internet use was defined using a total score of 5 or more on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Linear regression was employed to evaluate the relative contribution of addictive-related, impulsive-related, and compulsive-related measures in predicting YDQ total scores in gamblers. Gamblers with problematic internet use (18% of the sample) reported lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, elevated rates of intermittent explosive disorder, gambling disorder symptoms, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, antisocial personality disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as relative deficits in decision making and spatial working memory. In linear regression, the extent of problematic internet use was most significantly associated with increased gambling disorder symptoms and increased ADHD symptoms. Problematic internet use in gamblers is associated with worse quality of life, more problem/pathological gambling symptoms, more psychiatric morbidities, and select cognitive impairment. Refinement of the definition of problematic internet use and exploration of its clinical and cognitive associations are likely to be highly relevant to the treatment of problematic gambling.

  5. Validity of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test as a cognition performance outcome measure for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph Hb; DeLuca, John; Phillips, Glenn; LaRocca, Nicholas; Hudson, Lynn D; Rudick, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. Among the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step for these neuroperformance metrics is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are deemed clinically meaningful. This topical review provides an overview of research on one particular cognitive measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), recognized as being particularly sensitive to slowed processing of information that is commonly seen in MS. The research in MS clearly supports the reliability and validity of this test and recently has supported a responder definition of SDMT change approximating 4 points or 10% in magnitude.

  6. Blood Pressure Variability and Cognitive Function Among Older African Americans: Introducing a New Blood Pressure Variability Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Sperling, Scott A; Park, Moon Ho; Helenius, Ira M; Williams, Ishan C; Manning, Carol

    2017-09-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) variability has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment, whether this relationship affects African Americans has been unclear. We sought correlations between systolic and diastolic BP variability and cognitive function in community-dwelling older African Americans, and introduced a new BP variability measure that can be applied to BP data collected in clinical practice. We assessed cognitive function in 94 cognitively normal older African Americans using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI). We used BP measurements taken at the patients' three most recent primary care clinic visits to generate three traditional BP variability indices, range, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation, plus a new index, random slope, which accounts for unequal BP measurement intervals within and across patients. MMSE scores did not correlate with any of the BP variability indices. Patients with greater diastolic BP variability were less accurate on the CAMCI verbal memory and incidental memory tasks. Results were similar across the four BP variability indices. In a sample of cognitively intact older African American adults, BP variability did not correlate with global cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE. However, higher diastolic BP variability correlated with poorer verbal and incidental memory. By accounting for differences in BP measurement intervals, our new BP variability index may help alert primary care physicians to patients at particular risk for cognitive decline.

  7. Association between MRI structural features and cognitive measures in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, N.; Bellotti, R.; Fanizzi, A.; Lombardi, A.; Monaco, A.; Liguori, M.; Margari, L.; Simone, M.; Viterbo, R. G.; Tangaro, S.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease associated with neurodegenerative processes that lead to brain structural changes. The disease affects mostly young adults, but 3-5% of cases has a pediatric onset (POMS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is generally used for diagnosis and follow-up in MS patients, however the most common MRI measures (e.g. new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions, T1-weighted gadolinium- enhancing lesions) have often failed as surrogate markers of MS disability and progression. MS is clinically heterogenous with symptoms that can include both physical changes (such as visual loss or walking difficulties) and cognitive impairment. 30-50% of POMS experience prominent cognitive dysfunction. In order to investigate the association between cognitive measures and brain morphometry, in this work we present a fully automated pipeline for processing and analyzing MRI brain scans. Relevant anatomical structures are segmented with FreeSurfer; besides, statistical features are computed. Thus, we describe the data referred to 12 patients with early POMS (mean age at MRI: 15.5 +/- 2.7 years) with a set of 181 structural features. The major cognitive abilities measured are verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Data was collected at the Department of Basic Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, and exploring different abilities like the verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Different regression models and parameter configurations are explored to assess the robustness of the results, in particular Generalized Linear Models, Bayes Regression, Random Forests, Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Networks are discussed.

  8. Validation of reaction time as a measure of cognitive function and quality of life in healthy subjects and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Janice Marie; Rask, Ingeborg Krarup

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is related to decreased cognitive function and impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the validity of reaction time as a simple bedside tool for measuring cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients, and additionally...

  9. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  10. Wide range of body composition measures are associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Mat Ludin, Arimi Fitri; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    Studies of the association between body composition, both body fat and body muscle, and cognitive function are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between a wide range of body composition measures with cognitive function in older adults. A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass. The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P cognitive tests among women (P Cognitive Assessment among men (P older adults for optimal cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 554-560. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. One-carbon metabolism, cognitive impairment and CSF measures of Alzheimer pathology: homocysteine and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayon, Loïc; Guiraud, Seu Ping; Corthésy, John; Da Silva, Laeticia; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Tautvydaitė, Domilė; Oikonomidi, Aikaterini; Moullet, Barbara; Henry, Hugues; Métairon, Sylviane; Marquis, Julien; Descombes, Patrick; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Kussmann, Martin; Wojcik, Jérôme; Bowman, Gene L; Popp, Julius

    2017-06-17

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid and metabolite of the methionine pathway. The interrelated methionine, purine, and thymidylate cycles constitute the one-carbon metabolism that plays a critical role in the synthesis of DNA, neurotransmitters, phospholipids, and myelin. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that one-carbon metabolites beyond Hcy are relevant to cognitive function and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of AD pathology in older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on matched CSF and plasma collected from 120 older community-dwelling adults with (n = 72) or without (n = 48) cognitive impairment. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to quantify one-carbon metabolites and their cofactors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was initially applied to clinical and biomarker measures that generate the highest diagnostic accuracy of a priori-defined cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating-based) and AD pathology (i.e., CSF tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [p-tau181]/β-Amyloid 1-42 peptide chain [Aβ 1-42 ] >0.0779) to establish a reference benchmark. Two other LASSO-determined models were generated that included the one-carbon metabolites in CSF and then plasma. Correlations of CSF and plasma one-carbon metabolites with CSF amyloid and tau were explored. LASSO-determined models were stratified by apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. The diagnostic accuracy of cognitive impairment for the reference model was 80.8% and included age, years of education, Aβ 1-42 , tau, and p-tau181. A model including CSF cystathionine, methionine, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), serine, cysteine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) improved the diagnostic accuracy to 87.4%. A second model derived from plasma included cystathionine

  12. Motor Planning Error: Toward Measuring Cognitive Frailty in Older Adults Using Wearables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Practical tools which can be quickly administered are needed for measuring subtle changes in cognitive–motor performance over time. Frailty together with cognitive impairment, or ‘cognitive frailty’, are shown to be strong and independent predictors of cognitive decline over time. We have developed an interactive instrumented trail-making task (iTMT platform, which allows quantification of motor planning error (MPE through a series of ankle reaching tasks. In this study, we examined the accuracy of MPE in identifying cognitive frailty in older adults. Thirty-two older adults (age = 77.3 ± 9.1 years, body-mass-index = 25.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, female = 38% were recruited. Using either the Mini-Mental State Examination or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, 16 subjects were classified as cognitive-intact and 16 were classified as cognitive-impaired. In addition, 12 young-healthy subjects (age = 26.0 ± 5.2 years, body-mass-index = 25.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2, female = 33% were recruited to establish a healthy benchmark. Subjects completed the iTMT, using an ankle-worn sensor, which transforms ankle motion into navigation of a computer cursor. The iTMT task included reaching five indexed target circles (including numbers 1-to-3 and letters A&B placed in random order on the computer-screen by moving the ankle-joint while standing. The ankle-sensor quantifies MPE through analysis of the pattern of ankle velocity. MPE was defined as percentage of time deviation between subject’s maximum ankle velocity and the optimal maximum ankle velocity, which is halfway through the reaching pathway. Data from gait tests, including single task and dual task walking, were also collected to determine cognitive–motor performance. The average MPE in young-healthy, elderly cognitive-intact, and elderly cognitive-impaired groups was 11.1 ± 5.7%, 20.3 ± 9.6%, and 34.1 ± 4.2% (p < 0.001, respectively. Large effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 1.17–4.56 were observed for

  13. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  14. Initial development of a treatment adherence measure for cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; McLeod, Bryce D; Arnold, Cassidy C; Rodríguez, Adriana; Cox, Julia R; Reise, Steven P; Bonifay, Wesley E; Weisz, John R; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of treatment adherence (a component of treatment integrity defined as the extent to which a treatment is delivered as intended) is a critical element in treatment evaluation research. This article presents initial psychometric data for scores on the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Adherence Scale for Youth Anxiety (CBAY-A), an observational measure designed to be sensitive to common practice elements found in individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) for youth anxiety. Therapy sessions (N = 954) from 1 efficacy and 1 effectiveness study of ICBT for youth anxiety were independently rated by 2 coders. Interrater reliability (as gauged by intraclass correlation coefficients) for the item scores averaged 0.77 (SD = 0.15; range .48 to .80). The CBAY-A item and scale (skills, model, total) scores demonstrated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with an observational measure of therapeutic interventions and an observational measure of the alliance. The CBAY-A item and scale scores also discriminated between therapists delivering ICBT in research and practice settings and therapists delivering nonmanualized usual clinical care. We discuss the importance of replicating these psychometric findings in different samples and highlight possible application of an adherence measure in testing integrity-outcome relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Gait stability and variability measures show effects of impaired cognition and dual tasking in frail people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Oscar J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls in frail elderly are a common problem with a rising incidence. Gait and postural instability are major risk factors for falling, particularly in geriatric patients. As walking requires attention, cognitive impairments are likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. An objective quantification of gait and balance ability is required to identify persons with a high tendency to fall. Recent studies have shown that stride variability is increased in elderly and under dual task condition and might be more sensitive to detect fall risk than walking speed. In the present study we complemented stride related measures with measures that quantify trunk movement patterns as indicators of dynamic balance ability during walking. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of impaired cognition and dual tasking on gait variability and stability in geriatric patients. Methods Thirteen elderly with dementia (mean age: 82.6 ± 4.3 years and thirteen without dementia (79.4 ± 5.55 recruited from a geriatric day clinic, walked at self-selected speed with and without performing a verbal dual task. The Mini Mental State Examination and the Seven Minute Screen were administered. Trunk accelerations were measured with an accelerometer. In addition to walking speed, mean, and variability of stride times, gait stability was quantified using stochastic dynamical measures, namely regularity (sample entropy, long range correlations and local stability exponents of trunk accelerations. Results Dual tasking significantly (p Conclusions The observed trunk adaptations were a consistent instability factor. These results support the concept that changes in cognitive functions contribute to changes in the variability and stability of the gait pattern. Walking under dual task conditions and quantifying gait using dynamical parameters can improve detecting walking disorders and might help to identify those elderly who are able to adapt walking

  16. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    .01) but there were no differences between patient groups (P > 0.1). We found no correlation between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive dysfunction in BD (P = 0.7), and a non-significant trend towards a correlation in UD (P = 0.06), which disappeared when controlling for gender (P = 0......Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...

  17. Measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the Doloplus-2 pain scale in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Rostad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Doloplus-2 is a pain assessment scale for assessing pain in older adults with cognitive impairment. It is used in clinical practice and research. However, evidence for its measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility remain incomplete. This systematic review synthesizes previous research on the measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the scale. Method We conducted a systematic search in three databases (CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO for studies published in English, French, German, Dutch/Flemish or a Scandinavian language between 1990 and April 2017. We also reviewed the Doloplus-2 homepage and reference lists of included studies to supplement our search. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and performed the quality assessment and data abstraction. Results A total of 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The quality of the studies varied, but many lacked sufficient detail about the samples and response rates. The Doloplus-2 has been studied using diverse samples in a variety of settings; most study participants were in long-term care and in people with dementia. Sixteen studies addressed various aspects of the scale’s feasibility and clinical utility, but their results are limited and inconsistent across settings and samples. Support for the scale’s reliability, validity and responsiveness varied widely across the studies. Generally, the reliability coefficients reached acceptable benchmarks, but the evidence for different aspects of the scale’s validity and responsiveness was incomplete. Conclusion Additional high-quality studies are warranted to determine in which populations of older adults with cognitive impairment the Doloplus-2 is reliable, valid and feasible. The ability of the Doloplus-2 to meaningfully quantify pain, measure treatment response and improve patient outcomes also needs further investigation. Trial registration PROSPERO reg. no

  18. Measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the Doloplus-2 pain scale in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Hanne Marie; Utne, Inger; Grov, Ellen Karine; Puts, Martine; Halvorsrud, Liv

    2017-11-02

    The Doloplus-2 is a pain assessment scale for assessing pain in older adults with cognitive impairment. It is used in clinical practice and research. However, evidence for its measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility remain incomplete. This systematic review synthesizes previous research on the measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the scale. We conducted a systematic search in three databases (CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO) for studies published in English, French, German, Dutch/Flemish or a Scandinavian language between 1990 and April 2017. We also reviewed the Doloplus-2 homepage and reference lists of included studies to supplement our search. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and performed the quality assessment and data abstraction. A total of 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The quality of the studies varied, but many lacked sufficient detail about the samples and response rates. The Doloplus-2 has been studied using diverse samples in a variety of settings; most study participants were in long-term care and in people with dementia. Sixteen studies addressed various aspects of the scale's feasibility and clinical utility, but their results are limited and inconsistent across settings and samples. Support for the scale's reliability, validity and responsiveness varied widely across the studies. Generally, the reliability coefficients reached acceptable benchmarks, but the evidence for different aspects of the scale's validity and responsiveness was incomplete. Additional high-quality studies are warranted to determine in which populations of older adults with cognitive impairment the Doloplus-2 is reliable, valid and feasible. The ability of the Doloplus-2 to meaningfully quantify pain, measure treatment response and improve patient outcomes also needs further investigation. PROSPERO reg. no.: CRD42016049697 registered 20. Oct. 2016.

  19. Measuring cognitive change with ImPACT: the aggregate baseline approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared M; Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; Hutchison, Michael G; Aubry, Mark; Comper, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) is commonly used to assess baseline and post-injury cognition among athletes in North America. Despite this, several studies have questioned the reliability of ImPACT when given at intervals employed in clinical practice. Poor test-retest reliability reduces test sensitivity to cognitive decline, increasing the likelihood that concussed athletes will be returned to play prematurely. We recently showed that the reliability of ImPACT can be increased when using a new composite structure and the aggregate of two baselines to predict subsequent performance. The purpose of the present study was to confirm our previous findings and determine whether the addition of a third baseline would further increase the test-retest reliability of ImPACT. Data from 97 English speaking professional hockey players who had received at least 4 ImPACT baseline evaluations were extracted from a National Hockey League Concussion Program database. Linear regression was used to determine whether each of the first three testing sessions accounted for unique variance in the fourth testing session. Results confirmed that the aggregate baseline approach improves the psychometric properties of ImPACT, with most indices demonstrating adequate or better test-retest reliability for clinical use. The aggregate baseline approach provides a modest clinical benefit when recent baselines are available - and a more substantial benefit when compared to approaches that obtain baseline measures only once during the course of a multi-year playing career. Pending confirmation in diverse samples, neuropsychologists are encouraged to use the aggregate baseline approach to best quantify cognitive change following sports concussion.

  20. Towards Diagram Understanding: A Pilot Study Measuring Cognitive Workload Through Eye-Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Baltsen, Nick; Christoffersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate model understanding, in particular , how the quality of the UML diagram layout impacts cognitive load. We hypothesize that this w ill have a significant impact on the structure and effectiveness of engineers’ communication. In previous work, we have studied task performance...... measurements and subjective assessments; here, we also investigate behavioral indicators such as fixation and pupillary dilation. We use such indicators to explore diagram understanding- and reading strategies and how such strategies are impacted, e.g. by diagram type and expertise level. In the pilot eye...

  1. What are the benefits of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's Disease: use of Population Impact Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller Richard F

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to quantify the population impact of prescribing cholinesterase inhibitors to slow the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and to compare with the benefit of treating hypertension to prevent the onset of AD. Methods Literature review to ascertain the prevalence of AD, benefits of interventions, analysis of local and national surveys to measure the current use of interventions in the relevant population and application of the relevant findings to calculate Population Impact Measures. The Number of Events Prevented in a Population (NEPP by the intervention over a defined time period is calculated for a UK urban population in one Local Authority (population size 217,000. Results Treatment of all eligible patients with mild to moderate AD with Cholinesterase Inhibitors would prevent cognitive deterioration (measured by ADAS – cog scale in 123.6 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI 82.3, 169.1, 16.4 (95% CI 2.1, 31.2 would show a mild improvement (4 points or more on the ADAS – cog scale and 2.6 (95% CI 0.2, 5.8 would show an improvement of 7 points or more over a period of 6 months. This would require the treatment of 406 patients with Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Increasing from the current treatment rate of 46% of eligible patients to 'best practice' level would prevent cognitive deterioration in 66.8 (95% CI 44.0, 92.6, 8.99 (95% CI 1.2, 16.8 and 1.4 (95% CI 0.11, 3.2 would improve by 4 and 7 points respectively on the ADAS – cog scale over 6 months. This would require the treatment of an extra 187 patients with Cholinesterase Inhibitors beyond current practice, at an additional annual direct drug cost of £187,000. Improving the treatment of hypertension from current practice by 20% could prevent 8.2 (95% CI 2.3, 16.8 incident cases of AD in the next year. This would require the treatment of an extra 2711 patients with antihypertensive drugs. Conclusion Population Impact Measures are a new method to

  2. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  4. Browse Title Index

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    Issue, Title. Vol 25, No 2 (2005), Yam-based farm practices and nematode problems in stored yams (Dioscorea spp.) in Ghana, Abstract PDF. CK Kwoseh, RA Plowright, J Bridge, R Asiedu. Vol 27, No 2 (2007), Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic returns of broccoli under variable drip irrigation and lateral ...

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    Items 51 - 68 of 68 ... Issue, Title. Vol 12, No 1-2 (2009), Sécurité et ordre politique au Cameroun : entre dynamiques internes et connexions internationales, Abstract PDF. BEP Chantal. Vol 6, No 1-2 (2003), Self-Determination, Nationalism, Development and Pan-Africanism Stuck on the Runway: Are Intellectuals to be Blamed ...

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    Items 551 - 600 of 1463 ... Issue, Title. Vol 15, No 2 (2015), Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational characteristics of four rapid immunochromatographic syphilis tests in Burkina Faso, Abstract PDF. FY Bocoum, H Ouedraogo, G Tarnagda, A Kiba, S Tiendrebeogo, F Bationo, B Liestman, S Diagbouga, ...

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    Items 351 - 400 of 400 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 1 (2010), Soft tissue sarcoma of the thigh: Need for angiography in the developing, Abstract PDF. IA Adigun, GA Rahman, KO Ogundipe. Vol 3, No 1 (2004), Spectrum of rheumatic heart disease in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, Abstract. SS Danbauchi, MA Alhassan, SO David, ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 183 ... Issue, Title. Vol 62 (2017), #SchoolsOnFire: Criminal justice responses to protests that impede the right to basic education, Abstract PDF. Ann Skelton, Martin Nsibirwa. Vol 45 (2013), 'Pale Face'/'Pointy Face: SA Criminology in Denial, Abstract PDF. S Henkeman. Vol 59 (2017), Aluta continua: Police ...

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    Items 1 - 14 of 14 ... Issue, Title. Vol 2, No 1 (2009), Auditory and Respiratory Health Disorders Among Workers in an Iron and Steel Factory, Abstract. GM Abdel – Rasoul, OAE Mahrous, ME Abou Salem, MA Al-Batanony, HK Allam. Vol 2, No 1 (2009), Effect of An Educational Program About Medical Waste Management on ...

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    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

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    Items 251 - 300 of 490 ... Issue, Title. Vol 6, No 2 (2010), Knowledge and patterns of use of highly active antiretroviral therapies in HIV management at Abuja, Nigeria, Abstract. Jill I Okpalugo, US Inyang, K Ibrahim, F Anita, Chinwe V Ukwe, NC Aguwa. Vol 5, No 4 (2009), Knowledge and utilization of the acts in two major ...

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    Items 9951 - 10000 of 11090 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 36 (2011), Study of heavy metals bioaccumulation in the process of vermicomposting, Abstract PDF. MM Aleagha, G Ebadi. Vol 10, No 45 (2011), Study of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 412 ... Issue, Title. Vol 32, No 2 (2013), Seinsverständnis and meaning in Heidegger, Abstract. Rafael Winkler. Vol 21, No 3 (2002), A defense of peace as a human right, Abstract. Patrick Hayden. Vol 26, No 2 (2007), A Kantian stance on teleology in biology, Abstract. AA Cohen. Vol 30, No 1 (2011), A Likely ...

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    Items 251 - 300 of 328 ... Issue, Title. Vol 7, No 1 (2003), Sexual Harassment in Academia in Nigeria: How Real? Details PDF. Olugbenga Jelil Ladebo. Vol 8, No 2 (2004), Shaping the internet for match-making/dating: a challenge for the contemporary Nigerian family institution, Abstract PDF. Wale Adesina. Vol 6, No 1 (2002) ...

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    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 22, No 2 (2008), Voltammetric determination of heparin based on its interaction with malachite green, Abstract PDF. Xueliang Niu, Weili Zhang, Na Zhao, Wei Sun. Vol 22, No 2 (2008), Voltammetric determination of l-cysteic acid on a 1-[4-(ferrocenyl-ethynyl)phenyl]-1-ethanone modified carbon paste ...

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    Items 201 - 250 of 577 ... Issue, Title. Vol 20, No 2 (2003), Emergency Contraception: A Global Overview of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Among Providers, Abstract PDF. Deborah Haggai. Vol 23 (2006):, Emergency laparotomy for peripartum haemorrhage in Bida North Central Nigeria, Abstract PDF. Sunny Abiodun O ...

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    Items 201 - 250 of 11090 ... Issue, Title. Vol 12, No 49 (2013), In vitro regeneration of selected Kenyan papaya (Carica papaya L.) lines through shoot tip culture, Abstract PDF. Naomi Nzilani Mumo, Fredah Karambu Rimberia, George Edward Mamati, Agnes Wanjiru Kihurani. Vol 7, No 12 (2008), In vitro regeneration of Turkish ...

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    Items 151 - 200 of 221 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 38 (2010), Soft drink consumption of Grade 4 and Grade 7 learners in the Wynberg area, City of Cape Town, South .... Vol 42 (2014), The meaning of food for obese men: a qualitative study, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

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    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 2 (2000), Age dependent changes in the hypothalamic amino acid neurotransmitters in response to nicotine, Abstract. NM Radwan, NA Ahmed, YAM Aly. Vol 9, No 2 (2000), Autoantibodies, ocular and auditory changes in patients with vitiligo, Abstract. AE Fathia, EA Nagwa, ...

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    Items 51 - 76 of 76 ... Issue, Title. Vol 6, No 1 (2013), Integrating Sustainability into the Real Estate Valuation Process: A Nigerian Perspective, Abstract PDF. G K Babawale, B A Oyalowo. Vol 5, No 1 (2012), Internalising internationa valuation standards: Relevance and applicability issues in the Nigerian context, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 51 - 100 of 201 ... Issue, Title. Vol 12, No 1 (2006), Conservative management of cervical ectopic pregnancy: case report, Abstract PDF. TD Naidoo, MR Ramogale, J Moodley. Vol 18, No 2 (2012), Contraceptive use and associated factors among South African youth (18 - 24 years): A population-based survey, Abstract ...

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    Items 151 - 183 of 183 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 1 (2004), Socio-economic constraints affecting youths involvement in national economic development, Abstract. Josephine U Nwagwu. Vol 12, No 2 (2007), Stabilizing Potential Of Cement-Fly Ash Mixture On Expansive Clay Soil, Abstract. OO Amu, AB Fajobi, SO Afekhuai. Vol 11 ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Issue, Title. Vol 16, No 2 (2006), A profile of the theatre procedures in paediatrict ophthalmic practice, Abstract. E O Onwasigwe. Vol 15, No 2 (2005), Abdominal cocoon, Abstract. Abdulrasheed K Adesunkanmi, Tajudeen A Badmus, Olukayode Ogundoyin, Akinwumi B Ogunrombi. Vol 18, No 1 (2008) ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 647 ... Issue, Title. Vol 13, No 2 (2010), 'N toekomstige perspektief op grondwetlike stabiliteit, Abstract PDF. F.W de Klerk. Vol 18, No 5 (2015), Cloete murray and Another v Firstrand bank ltd t/a Wesbank [2015] ZASCA 39A, Abstract PDF. M Laubscher. Vol 15, No 5 (2012), Cave Pecuniam: Lawyers as ...

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    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Issue, Title. Vol 1, No 1 (2008), Assessment Of Ophthalmic Patients' Satisfaction In Owo, Abstract. CO Omolase, CO Fadamiro, BO Omolase, AS Aina, EO Omolade. Vol 3, No 1 (2010), Case Report: Strongyloides stercoralis coinfection in a Nigerian with HIV. Abstract. A.A Oyekunle, R.A.A Bolarinwa, O.A ...

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    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Issue, Title. Vol 1, No 1 (2007), An Action Five Strategy For Bridging The Gender Gap In Academic Research Activities In African Universities. The Case of Nigeria, Abstract PDF. DN Okorie, OG Agabi, CM Uche. Vol 1, No 1 (2007), Book Review: Confronting sexual harassment in Ghanaian Universities ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... Issue, Title. Vol 5 (2013), A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World, Abstract PDF. E Agyemang. Vol 3 (2011), A Historical and Gendered Perspective on HIV / AIDS in Botswana, Abstract PDF. J Hesselberg ...

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    Items 201 - 250 of 327 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 4 (2016), Omphalocoeles: A decade in review, Abstract PDF. S Singh, A Madaree. Vol 2, No 4 (2008), Ortner syndrome, Abstract PDF. E Meyer, NE Jones, LJ Zühlke. Vol 10, No 3 (2016), Outcome of children admitted to a general highcare unit in a regional hospital in the ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 814 ... Issue, Title. Vol 21, No 2 (2016), A 10 years trend of peptic ulcer disease and other gastrointestinal disorders in northern Uganda, Abstract PDF. T.R. Okello, D.M. Ogwang, I Pecorella. Vol 21, No 2 (2016), A 2-years description of traumatic brain injury admissions in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital ...

  12. Browse Title Index

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    Items 301 - 350 of 577 ... Issue, Title. Vol 32, No 2 (2015), Late arrival in hospital during labour: any correlation with materno-foetal outcome? The state specialist hospital, Asubiaro, Osogbo Experience. Abstract PDF. OO Awolola. Vol 30, No 2 (2013), Late Reproductive Effects of Cancer Treatment in Young People, Abstract ...

  13. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 319 ... Issue, Title. Vol 23, No 2 (2016), Carica papaya juice enhanced in-vitro cell proliferation better than freeze-dried PBS extract using scratch assay, Abstract. A.B. Nafiu, E Abdulaziz, M.T. Rahman. Vol 23, No 2 (2016), A comparative study of the ownership and utilization of insecticide treated nets in ...

  14. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 52 ... Issue, Title. Vol 15 (2000), Ammi analysis of maize yield trials in South-Western Nigeria, Abstract. SR Ajibade, BA Ogunbodede. Vol 20 (2006), Association of yield with some agronomic characters in potatoes in a cool mid-altitude location, Abstract. CO Amadi, EE Ene Obong. Vol 20 (2006), Casein (CSN3) ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 240 of 240 ... Issue, Title. Vol 8, No 4 (2005), Status equipment in primary health centres of Tafa Lga, North Central Nigeria, Abstract. MN Sambo, I Lewis, K Sabitu. Vol 10, No 1 (2007), Stroke at a tertiary medical institution in Northern Nigeria: Patients\\' profile and predictors of outcome, Abstract. KW Wahab, MU ...

  16. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 249 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 1 (2010), Ye Shakoch Chilot (the court of the sheikhs): A traditional institution of conflict resolution in Oromiya zone of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, Abstract PDF. M Zeleke. Vol 15, No 3 (2015), A comparative analysis of the Post- Arab Spring National Dialogues in Tunisia and ...

  17. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 670 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Business Planning and the Economic Growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria, Abstract. Egbe Aneozeng A, Ejoh Ndifon Ojong, Obo Ekpenyong Bassey. Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Calabar Humaphors: An Analysis of Selected Jokes in Nigerian Stand Up ...

  18. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 107 of 107 ... Issue, Title. Vol 6, No 1 (2017), The Ophthalmic status manifestations of nutritional and lifestyle disorders of men in a peri urban community in Ghana, Abstract PDF. F. Vuvor, M. Steiner-Asiedu, F.K. Saalia. Vol 2, No 1 (2013), Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana: A Retrospective Histopathological Study ...

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 165 ... Issue, Title. Vol 30 (2005), Digitisation projects at the University of Cape Town Libraries, Abstract. Janine Dunlop, Lesley Hart. Vol 24 (2002), DISA: an African Perspective on Digital Technology, Abstract. Michele Pickover, Dale Peters. Vol 30 (2005), Doing it right – or are we? Basic principles in the ...

  20. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 251 ... Issue, Title. Vol 55 (2014), 20 Years of democracy: Transforming the public service, Abstract. A Ruiters. Vol 63 (2016), Zemk' iinkomo magwala ndini! Wake up! The cows are being stolen! Abstract. Sipho Pityana. Vol 56 (2014), A layperson's guide to Nene's budget statement, Abstract. B Turok.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 1007 ... Issue, Title. Vol 11, No 1 (1997), (+)-Floribundone 3 from the pods of Senna septemtrionalis, Details PDF. Gizachew Alemayehu, Bekuretsion Woldeyesus, Berhanu M Abegaz. Vol 14, No 1 (2000), 11α-Hydroxy muzigadiolide, a novel drimane sesquiterpene from the stem bark of warburgia ugandensis ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 356 ... Issue, Title. Vol 27, No 3 (2014), A desire for weight loss in season increases disordered eating behaviour risk and energy deficiency in athletes, Abstract PDF. HH Wright, R Ford, CR Botha. Vol 29, No 3 (2016), A review of infant and young child feeding practice in hospital and the home in KwaZulu-Natal ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 66 ... Issue, Title. Vol 48, No 1-2 (2015), A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school teachers in rural areas of Nigeria, Abstract. Manir Abdullahi Kamba. Vol 49, No 1-2 (2016), Access to electronic information resources by students of federal college of education in south east Nigeria ...

  4. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 683 ... Issue, Title. Vol 54, No 1 (2006), Bovine tuberculosis survey in urban and peri urban dairy farms in coastal humid region of Tanga, Tanzania, Abstract. ES Swai, G Shirima, S Bwanga, W Moshy. Vol 60, No 3 (2012), Browsing capacity and nutritive value of indigenous browses in a tropical Coastal ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 387 ... Issue, Title. Vol 15, No 2 (2015), Introduction to Christian philosophy, Abstract. Charles Ogundu Nnaji. Vol 8, No 2 (2006), Is Quantum Mechanics a Complete Theory?: A Philosophical Defense of Einstein's Position, Abstract. U O Egbai. Vol 10, No 1 (2007), Jesus in Africa, Abstract. FF Edet. Vol 10, No ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 98 of 98 ... Issue, Title. Vol 4, No 1 (2016), First-year seminar intervention: Enhancing firstyear mathematics performance at the University of Johannesburg, Abstract PDF. Melanie Jacobs, Estherna Pretorius. Vol 5, No 2 (2017), From Inky Pinky Ponky to Improving Student Understanding in Assessment: Exploring the ...

  7. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 167 of 167 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 2, No 2 (2013), Women and the Leadership Paradigm: Bridging the Workplace Gender-Gap in Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 5, No 2 (2016), Women's participation and gender issues in local governance ...

  8. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 110 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 1 (2003), Incidence and Determinants of Child Labour in Nigeria: Implications for Poverty Alleviation, Abstract. Benjamin Chiedozie Okpukpara, Ngozi Odurukwu. Vol 20, No 1 (2013), Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector, Abstract. OA Ishola. Vol 19, No ...

  9. Browse Title Index

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    Items 251 - 300 of 367 ... Issue, Title. Vol 43 (2014), Some interlingual communicative challenges for foreign African interpreters in South African courtrooms, Abstract PDF. SE Usadolo, E Kotze. Vol 29 (1996), South Africa's new language policy in the context of the organisation for African unity's language plan of action for ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 89 ... Issue, Title ... of two-phased approaches to load balancing in cloud computing, Abstract ... Vol 19, No 1 (2012), Assessing Network Services and Security in ... Vol 23, No 1 (2016), Cloud model construct for transaction-based ...

  11. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 198 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 13, No 1 (2015), Biometric Enhancement of Home and Office Security to Reduce Assassinations in Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 9, No 1 (2013), Cloud Computing: Key to IT Development in West Africa ...

  12. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 198 of 198 ... Issue, Title ... scheme for QoS and energy conservation in cloud computing, Abstract PDF ... Vol 9, No 1 (2013), Performance and Security Evaluation of ... Vol 18, No 1 (2017), Reducing capital flight through local cloud ...

  13. Browse Title Index

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    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  14. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 170 of 170 ... Issue, Title. Vol 20, No 2 (2004), The Impact of Mine Closures on Rural Population Dynamics: The Case of Zhombe in Kwekwe District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, Abstract. Crescentia Madebwe. Vol 29, No 1 (2013), The Influence of Organisational Culture and Job Satisfaction on Intentions to ...

  15. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 263 ... Issue, Title. Vol 1, No 2 (2002), Effect of Light and Darkness on Packed Cell Volume in the Rat, Abstract. A. A. OSINUBI, F. I. DURU, C. C. NORONHA, A. O. OKANLAWON. Vol 4, No 1 (2005), Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum Biogenic Amines Concentrations in Humans ...

  16. Browse Title Index

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    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  17. Browse Title Index

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    Issue, Title. Vol 38, No 1 (2004), Book Review: Unexpected Voices – Theory, Practice and Identity in the Writing Classroom. Abstract. Charly Dyers. Vol 38, No 1 (2004), Book Review: Shelley Angelil-Carter: Stolen Language? Plagiarism in Writing. Abstract. Elizabeth de Kadt. Vol 37, No 1 (2003), Book Review: The Green ...

  18. Browse Title Index - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 508 of 508 ... Issue, Title. Vol 33, No 2 (2011), Visuele stereotipering van sportvroue in die sportmedia, Abstract. M Brandt, A Carstens. Vol 30, No 1 (2008), Volunteers\\' perceptions of benefits derived from volunteering: an empirical study, Abstract. J Surujlal, M Dhurup. Vol 33, No 1 (2011), Was the Conconi test ...

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 108 of 108 ... Issue, Title. Vol 8, No 2 (2016), The status and challenges of clinical informatics development in South Africa, Abstract PDF. Abayomi Kehinde Owolabi, Thokozani Patrick Mhlongo, Neil Evans. Vol 4, No 1 (2012), The stuttering implementation of language policies in the South African education system ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 100 ... Issue, Title. Vol 28 (2013): Special Issue, Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia, Abstract. J Siwila, IGK Phiri, HI Enemark, M Nchito, A Olsen. Vol 26, No 1 (2009), Occurrence of foot and mouth disease serotypes in Tanzania: A ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 11090 ... Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 61 (2011), Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected districts of Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan, Abstract PDF. I Hussain, R Ullah, J Khan, N Khan, M Zahoor, N Ullah, MuR Khattak, FA Khan, A Baseer, M Khurram. Vol 10, No 77 (2011), Analysis of chloroplast ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 670 ... Issue, Title. Vol 11, No 4 (2014), Strategies for Fostering Creativity Among Business Education Graduates in Nigeria, Abstract. BO Nwosu, KE Ojo. Vol 13, No 1 (2015) ... Vol 10, No 1 (2013), The Challenges Facing Accounting Education: The Nigerian Experience, Abstract. OR Okolie. Vol 5 (2008), The ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 198 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 7, No 1 (2013), Enterprise Cloud Adoption: Leveraging on the Business ... Load Balancing And Job Scheduling In Cloud Computing ... Vol 13, No 1 (2015), ICT-Based Framework for Improved Food Security in Nigeria ... Vol 5, No 1 (2012), IT-Based Solutions to the Electoral System in ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  5. Browse Title Index

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    Issue, Title. Vol 20, No 1 (2015), Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya, Abstract. I Kisiangani, C Mbakaya, A Makokha, D Magu. Vol 20, No 1 (2015), Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 232 ... Issue, Title. Vol 5 (2003), Pre-School Education for a Democratic Society: Identifying Views of Stakeholders in Tanzania, Abstract. Willy LM Komba, Satoki T Mahenge, Gadi Koda. Vol 13, No 2 (2012), Process of Assuring Quality in Counselling at the National Open University of Nigeria: A Critique ...

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    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

  8. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 200 of 1038 ... Issue, Title. Vol 31, No 2 (2009), Assessing the utility of a continuous, underway fish egg sampler (CUFES) for sampling zooplankton, Abstract. S Sono, CL Moloney, CD van der Lingen. Vol 38, No 4 (2016), Assessing trophic adaptability is critical for understanding the response of predatory fishes to ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 101 ... Issue, Title. Vol 3, No 4 (2014), Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies seroprevalence among students in two tertiary institutions in Anambra state, Nigeria: a comparative study, Abstract PDF. CB Duru, FE Emele, ED Adinma, CO Ifeadike, KA Uwakwe, AO Oluboyo, BO Oluboyo, C Abejegah. Vol 2, No 1 ...

  10. Browse Title Index

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    Items 201 - 250 of 367 ... Issue, Title. Vol 42 (2013), Nursing the Cure: A Phonetic Analysis of /ʊə/ in South African English, Abstract PDF. I Bekker. Vol 1 (1980), Nuwe ontwikkelings binne chomsky se teorle van kerngrammatika, Abstract PDF. J Maartens. Vol 42 (2013), Obligatory Reflexivity in a Minimalist Grammar of ...

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    Items 651 - 700 of 1007 ... Issue, Title. Vol 4, No 1 (1990), Kinetics of oxidation of β-diimihe macrocyclic complexes and accessibility of six-coordinate copper(III) complexes generated by electrochemical oxidation of copper(II) complexes, Abstract PDF. Mohamed A. Khalifa. Vol 14, No 2 (2000), Kinetics of periodate oxidation of ...

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    Items 151 - 200 of 1020 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 48, No 2 (2006), Barriers to HIV Care and Treatment by Doctors: A review of the literature. ... Vol 48, No 5 (2006), Breast cancer – early detection and screening in South African women from the ...

  13. Browse Title Index

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    Issue, Title. Vol 23, No 2 (2011), Dynamique foliaire et croissance du maïs: Application du modèle «STICS» en conditions tropicales en RD-Congo, Abstract PDF. MM Lufuluabo, RV Kizungu, KK Nkongolo. Vol 18, No 1 (2006), Dynamique spatio-temporelle des populations d\\'Altises Podagrica spp. (Coleoptera ...

  14. Browse Title Index

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    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  15. Browse Title Index

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    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  16. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  17. Browse Title Index

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    Items 151 - 200 of 286 ... Issue, Title. Vol 2, No 3-4 (2008), Impact of fire wood collection on trees species diversity in Bauchi state, Nigeria, Abstract. A Nura, A Ibrahim, I Mohammed, U Haruna. Vol 5, No 3 (2011), Impact of national special program for food security in Abia State, nigeria, Abstract. CO Emerole. Vol 5, No 1 (2011) ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 979 ... Issue, Title. Vol 45, No 9 (2003), Erectile dysfunction: A GP's guide to clinical assessment, Abstract PDF. PJ Harden. Vol 47, No 4 (2005), Ethical Issues in Family Practice: My Culture – Right or Wrong? Abstract PDF. GA Ogunbanjo, D Knapp van Bogaert. Vol 59, No 3 (2017), Ethical issues with ...

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 301 - 350 of 745 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 3 (1999), Frequency And Outcome In AIDS Patients In A University Teaching Hospital – A Five Year Review, Abstract. SA Ogun, OO Adelowo, AEA ... Vol 18, No 2 (2008), Good cllinical practice in clinical drug trials - What you need to know, Abstract. K Soyebi, Y Abosede, HAB ...

  20. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 217 ... Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced ... Vol 13, No 1 (2016), Access to specialized surgical care, Abstract PDF. H Saidi ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Clinical Assessment of the Palmaris Longus – Accuracy of common tests, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Clinical trials in Surgery, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 151 - 200 of 633 ... Issue, Title. Vol 19, No 1 (2009), Delays in Tuberculosis Treatment and Associated Factors in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia, Abstract PDF. Ayalew Tegegn, Meseret Yazachew. Vol 26, No 1 (2016), Delivery Site Preferences and Associated Factors among Married Women of Child Bearing Age in ...

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    Items 151 - 200 of 4119 ... Issue, Title. Vol 86, No 2 (1996), A re-evaluation of isotope screening for skeletal metastases in nodenegative breast cancer, Abstract PDF. C.A. Gudgeon, I.D. Werner, D.M. Dent. Vol 104, No 6 (2014), A reflection on the South African Medical Association – past, present and future, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

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    Items 201 - 250 of 1006 ... Issue, Title. Vol 49, No 8 (2007), Clinical approach to a patient with abnormal uterine bleeding, Abstract PDF. B G Lindeque. Vol 57, No 5 (2015), Clinical evidence in the management of swimmer's ear, Abstract PDF. Andre Marais. Vol 50, No 1 (2008), Clinical features of Systemic Lupus ...

  4. Browse Title Index

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    Items 701 - 750 of 1010 ... Issue, Title. Vol 6, No 2 (1998), Performance et stabilité de rendement des génotypes de patate douce dans divers environnements à l'est du Congo, Abstract. P Phemba, T Mutombo, N B Lutaladio, E E Carey. Vol 22 (2014): Supplement, Performance of Artemia shell-free embryos, Moina micrura and ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 17 (2005), A. C. conduction behaviour in amorphous WO3/CEO2 thin film, Abstract. B Yagoubi, C A Hogarth, A Boukorrt. Vol 16 (2003), A lossless image compression algorithm using variable block size segmentation, Abstract. Z Brahimi, K A Saadi, N Baraka. Vol 15 (2003), Analysis method of wavelet ...

  6. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 97 of 97 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 2 (2008), Research Note: Anthropometric data of the foot of ... Vol 26, No 1 (2014), Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

  7. Titles of Midas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Huxley

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Phrygian inscription on the tomb at Yazılıkaya (8th century gives Midas the titles wanax and lawagtas, paralled in Mycenaean, and there were strong connections between his dynasty and Greek Aeolis.

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    Items 201 - 250 of 333 ... Issue, Title. Vol 15, No 1 (2016), Irrigation potential of Inuakpa in Odukpani local government of Cross river using Kostiakov model, Abstract PDF. B.O. Unuigbe, K.I. Ofem, N.R.B. Antigha. Vol 2, No 2 (2003), LABOUR USE IN SMALL-SCALE YAM PRODUCTION IN QUA'AN PAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ...

  9. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 644 ... Issue, Title. Vol 19, No 2 (2007), A qualitative study of medical student socialization in Malawi\\'s College of Medicine: Clincal crisis and beyond, Abstract PDF. C Wendland, C Bandawe. Vol 19, No 2 (2007), A qualitative study of medical student socialization in Malawi\\'s College of Medicine: Preclinical ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 13, No 2 (2013), Using Mindfulness as a Teaching Aid for Phenomenology, Abstract PDF. IR Owen. Vol 8, No 1 (2008), Were Nietzsche's Cardinal Ideas – Delusions? Abstract PDF. Eva M Cybulska. Vol 12, No 1 (2012), What did you learn in school today? Abstract PDF. Carina Henriksson. Vol 5, No 1 (2005) ...

  11. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 265 ... Issue, Title. Vol 35, No 2 (2008), Choice of place for childbirth: prevalence and correlates of utilization of health facilities in Chongwe district, Zambia, Abstract PDF. AN Hazemba, S Siziya. Vol 43, No 1 (2016), Clinical and Radiological Features of Multiple Myeloma Patients at the University Teaching ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 88, No 8 (1998), New birth and death registration forms - a foundation for the future, a challenge for health workers? Abstract PDF. Debbie Bradshaw, Danuta Kielkowski, Freddy Sitas. Vol 83, No 3 (1993), New estimates of infant and child mortality for blacks in South Africa, 1968-1979, Abstract PDF.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 643 ... Issue, Title. Vol 18, No 2 (2015), Contraceptive Knowledge and Compliance with Guidelines for Providing Contraceptive Services by Patent Medicine Vendors In Ibadan North Local Government Area, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. OO Ajayi, AJ Ajuwon. Vol 16, No 2 (2013), Coping Strategy for Food Security ...

  14. Browse Title Index

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    Items 851 - 900 of 1006 ... Issue, Title. Vol 54, No 2 (2012), The effect of the introduction of a standard monitoring protocol on the investigations performed on the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes at Addington Hospital Medical Outpatients Department, Durban, South Africa, Abstract PDF. JM Gill, A Ross, F Pirie, ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Supplement, Using operative models (ICF and CBR) within an interprofessional context to address community needs, Abstract PDF. A Rhoda, F Waggie, G.C. Filies, J.M. Frantz. Vol 2, No 1 (2010), Using portfolios to assess professional competence and development in medical laboratory ...

  16. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 412 ... Issue, Title. Vol 30, No 3 (2011) ... Transferring the principle of double effect from war to business, Abstract. G. J. Rossouw ... Vol 22, No 2 (2003), Can more business ethics teaching halt corruption in companies? Abstract.

  17. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 155 ... Issue, Title. Vol 12 (2012), Political Dissent and Autonomy in Wum Local Government, Southern (West) Cameroons, 1957 – 1968, Abstract. TP Mbeum. Vol 9 (2009), Post-Emancipation Slave Commerce: Increasing Child Slave Trafficking and Women's Agency in Late Nineteenth-century Ghana ...

  18. Browse Title Index

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    Items 451 - 500 of 581 ... Issue, Title. Vol 30, No 1 (2016), Risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among students of Debre Tabor University, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study, Abstract PDF. Awoke Derbie, Mekonnen Assefa, Daniel Mekonnen, Fantahun Biadglegne. Vol 28, No 1 (2014), Road traffic accident: ...

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 451 - 500 of 1346 ... Issue, Title. Vol 32, No 1 (2015), Fire and the dynamics of two unpalatable grass species (Cymbopogon pospischilii and Elionurus muticus) in a semi-arid climate, Abstract. Hennie A Snyman. Vol 8, No 1 (1973), Fire as a method of controlling macchia (Fynos) vegetation on the Amathole Mountains of ...

  20. Browse Title Index

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    Issue, Title. Vol 43, No 2 (2006), Review: "'n Wonderlike geweld. Jeugherinneringe", By Elsa Joubert (2005), Abstract PDF. Henriette Roos. Vol 53, No 1 (2016), Review: Breyten Breytenbach, A Monologue in Two Voices, Abstract PDF. Andy Carolin. Vol 53, No 1 (2016), Review: The Shadow of the Hummingbird, Abstract ...

  1. Browse Title Index

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    Items 51 - 100 of 103 ... Issue, Title ... SE Edusah, E Osei-Tutu ... Vol 6, No 2 (2016), Interrelationships among unemployment, inflation and economic growth in Nigeria, Abstract .... Vol 4, No 3 (2014): Special Edition, Socio-cultural Issues for ...

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    Items 4351 - 4386 of 4386 ... Issue, Title. Vol 107, No 6 (2017), When students become patients: TB disease among medical undergraduates in Cape Town, South Africa, Abstract PDF. H van der Westhuizen, A Dramowski. Vol 106, No 4 (2016), Where do children die and what are the causes? Under-5 deaths in the Metro West ...

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    Issue, Title. Vol 10, No 2 (2014), Sorindeia warneckei Engl. (Anacardiaceae), une espèce multi-usagère de la dépression de la Lama au Togo, Abstract PDF. A Akodewou, S Akpavi, M Dourma, K Batawila, KB Amegnaglo, W Atakpama, K Akpagama. Vol 10, No 1 (2014), Sterculia setigera Del.: influence de quelques ...

  4. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 126 ... Issue, Title. Vol 8, No 2 (2016), 2010 FIFA World Cup stadium investment: Does the post-event usage justify the expenditure? Abstract PDF. Luke Humphrey, Gavin Fraser. Vol 6, No 1 (2014), 7Implication of mergers and acquisitions on stock returns before and during the 2007–2009 credit crunch: An ...

  5. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, van Sanneke; Buijs, Mathijs; Vliet, van Marjolein E.; Versluis, Maarten J.; Webb, Andrew G.; Oleksik, Ania M.; Wiel, van de Lotte; Middelkoop, Huub A.M.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W.E.; Goos, Jeroen D.C.; Flier, van der Wiesje M.; Koene, Ted; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, Ondine; Slagboom, P.E.; Buchem, van Mark A.; Grond, van der Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that, in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes may occur in the brain. Recently, an in vivo study has indicated the potential of ultra-high-field MRI to visualize amyloid-beta (Aβ)-associated changes in the cortex in

  6. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  7. Operator’s cognitive, communicative and operative activities based workload measurement of advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced MMIS in the advanced MCR requires new roles and tasks of operators. • A new workload evaluation framework is needed for a new MMIS environment. • This work suggests a new workload measurement approach (COCOA) for an advanced MCR. • COCOA enables 3-dimensional measurement of cognition, communication and operation. • COCOA workload evaluation of the reference plant through simulation was performed. - Abstract: An advanced man–machine interface system (MMIS) with a computer-based procedure system and high-tech control/alarm system is installed in the advanced main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant. Accordingly, though the task of the operators has been changed a great deal, owing to a lack of appropriate guidelines on the role allocation or communication method of the operators, operators should follow the operating strategies of conventional MCR and the problem of an unbalanced workload for each operator can be raised. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the operation capability and improve the plant safety by developing guidelines on the role definition and communication of operators in an advanced MCR. To resolve this problem, however, a method for measuring the workload according to the work execution of the operators is needed, but an applicable method is not available. In this research, we propose a COgnitive, Communicative and Operational Activities measurement approach (COCOA) to measure and evaluate the workload of operators in an advanced MCR. This paper presents the taxonomy for additional operation activities of the operators to use the computerized procedures and soft control added to an advanced MCR, which enables an integrated measurement of the operator workload in various dimensions of cognition, communication, and operation. To check the applicability of COCOA, we evaluated the operator workload of an advanced MCR of a reference power plant through simulation training experiments. As a result, the amount

  8. Do cognitive measures and brain circuitry predict outcomes of exercise in Parkinson Disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Peterson, D S; Mancini, M; Carlson-Kuhta, P; Fling, B W; Smulders, K; Nutt, J G; Dale, M; Carter, J; Winters-Stone, K M; Horak, F B

    2015-10-24

    There is emerging research detailing the relationship between balance/gait/falls and cognition. Imaging studies also suggest a link between structural and functional changes in the frontal lobe (a region commonly associated with cognitive function) and mobility. People with Parkinson's disease have important changes in cognitive function that may impact rehabilitation efficacy. Our underlying hypothesis is that cognitive function and frontal lobe connections with the basal ganglia and brainstem posture/locomotor centers are responsible for postural deficits in people with Parkinson's disease and play a role in rehabilitation efficacy. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine if people with Parkinson's disease can improve mobility and/or cognition after partaking in a cognitively challenging mobility exercise program and 2) determine if cognition and brain circuitry deficits predict responsiveness to exercise rehabilitation. This study is a randomized cross-over controlled intervention to take place at a University Balance Disorders Laboratory. The study participants will be people with Parkinson's disease who meet inclusion criteria for the study. The intervention will be 6 weeks of group exercise (case) and 6 weeks of group education (control). The exercise is a cognitively challenging program based on the Agility Boot Camp for people with PD. The education program is a 6-week program to teach people how to better live with a chronic disease. The primary outcome measure is the MiniBESTest and the secondary outcomes are measures of mobility, cognition and neural imaging. The results from this study will further our understanding of the relationship between cognition and mobility with a focus on brain circuitry as it relates to rehabilitation potential. This trial is registered at clinical trials.gov (NCT02231073).

  9. Measuring cognitive insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónsdóttir Halldóra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both diagnostic groups. Methods The BCIS self-report inventory was administered to patients with schizophrenia (n = 143, bipolar disorder (n = 92 and controls (n = 64. The 15 items of the inventory form two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Results The internal consistency of the subscales was good for the patient groups and the controls. The mean subscale scores were not significantly different for the three groups. Four items in subscale self-reflectiveness referring to psychotic experiences gave, however, different results in the control subjects. Self-certainty and scores on insight item PANSS correlated significantly in the schizophrenia, but not in the bipolar group. Conclusion BCIS with its two subscales seems applicable for patients with bipolar disorder as well as for patients with schizophrenia. The self-report inventory can also be applied to control subjects if the items referring to psychotic experiences are omitted. In schizophrenia high scores on self-certainty is possibly associated with poor insight of illness. For the bipolar group the subscales are largely independent of traditional insight measures.

  10. Measuring achievement goal motivation, mindsets and cognitive load: validation of three instruments' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery

  11. Stable xenon CT measurement of cerebral blood flow in cardiac transplantation candidates: Correlation with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, J.A.; Fink, M.E.; Hilal, S.K.; Rose, E.A.; Reemtsma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen consecutive unselected patients with NYHA class 4 cardiac failure referred for cardiac transplantation underwent neurologic examination and cerebral blood flow measurement (rCBF) using the stable xenon enhanced CT method on a GE9800 system. Eleven men and two women were studied (mean age = 43.8 +- 6.1). On neurological examination, six of the patients demonstrated normal mental function; the remaining seven patients demonstrated memory, language, or learning impairment. There was no difference in mean cardiac output between the groups (4.9 L/min +- 1.68 vs. 4.2L/min +- 1.57). rCBF was significantly reduced in the impaired group. Cognitive impairment in patients with cardiac failure can be correlated with cerebral ischemia. Stable xenon CT measurement of rCBF in transplant candidates may help identify patients requiring more rapid transplantation to prevent permanent cerebral injury

  12. Cognitive insight in psychosis: the relationship between self-certainty and self-reflection dimensions and neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael A; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2010-07-30

    Cognitive insight in schizophrenia encompasses the evaluation and reinterpretation of distorted beliefs and appraisals. We investigated the neuropsychological basis of cognitive insight in psychosis. It was predicted that, like clinical insight, cognitive insight would be associated with a wide range of neuropsychological functions, but would be most strongly associated with measures of executive function. Sixty-five outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed on tests of intelligence quotient (IQ), executive function, verbal fluency, attention and memory, and completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, which includes two subscales, self-certainty and self-reflection. Higher self-certainty scores reflect greater certainty about being right and more resistant to correction (poor insight), while higher self-reflection scores indicate the expression of introspection and the willingness to acknowledge fallibility (good insight). The self-certainty dimension of poor cognitive insight was significantly associated with lower scores on the Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome; this relationship was not mediated by IQ. There were no relationships between self-reflection and any neuropsychological measures. We conclude that greater self-certainty (poor cognitive insight) is modestly associated with poorer executive function in psychotic individuals; self-reflection has no association with executive function. The self-certainty and self-reflection dimensions of cognitive insight have differential correlates, and probably different mechanisms, in psychosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The feasibility of using pupillometry to measure cognitive effort in aphasia: Evidence from a working memory span task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sung Kim

    2015-05-01

    In this study, three PWA completed a computerized picture span task while an eye-tracker measured pupil dilation. As short-term memory demands (i.e., span size increased, average pupil size significantly increased in all three PWA. These data provide preliminary support for the use of pupillometry to gauge cognitive effort in PWA. A larger study of PWA and demographically-matched control participants is currently underway, allowing for analysis of change in pupil size within and between groups. Examination of cognitive effort will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of linguistic and cognitive functioning in aphasia.

  14. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  15. Pain and major depressive disorder: Associations with cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Carmona, Nicole E; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Lee, Yena; Park, Hyun Jung; Rodrigues, Nelson B; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Pan, Zihang; Lee, Jae Hon; Lee, JungGoo; Almatham, Fahad; Alageel, Asem; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Zhou, Aileen J; Rong, Carola; Harrison, John; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-04-01

    To examine the role of pain on cognitive function in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adults (18-65) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined diagnosis of MDD experiencing a current major depressive episode (MDE) were enrolled (n MDD =100). All subjects with MDD were matched in age, sex, and years of education to healthy controls (HC) (n HC =100) for comparison. Cognitive function was assessed using the recently validated THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it), which comprises variants of the choice reaction time (i.e., THINC-it: Spotter), One-Back (i.e., THINC-it: Symbol Check), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (i.e., THINC-it: Codebreaker), Trail Making Test - Part B (i.e., THINC-it: Trails), as well as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire for Depression - 5-item (i.e., THINC-it: PDQ-5-D). A global index of objective cognitive function was computed using objective measures from the THINC-it, while self-rated cognitive deficits were measured using the PDQ-5-D. Pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Regression analyses evaluated the role of pain in predicting objective and subjective cognitive function. A significant between-group differences on the VAS was observed (p<0.001), with individuals with MDD reporting higher pain severity as evidenced by higher scores on the VAS than HC. Significant interaction effects were observed between self -rated cognitive deficits and pain ratings (p<0.001) on objective cognitive performance (after adjusting for MADRS total score), suggesting that pain moderates the association between self-rated and objective cognitive function. Results indicated that pain is associated with increased self-rated and objective cognitive deficits in adults with MDD. The study herein provides preliminary evidence demonstrating that adults with MDD reporting pain symptomatology and poorer subjective cognitive function is predictive of poorer objective cognitive performance. THINC-it is capable of

  16. Critical considerations about the use of poverty measures in the study of cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Sebastián J

    2017-06-01

    Developmental psychology and developmental cognitive neuroscience generated evidence at different levels of analysis about the influences of poverty on neurocognitive development (i.e., molecular, neural activation, cognition, behaviour). In addition, different individual and environmental factors were identified as mediators of such influences. Such a complexity is also illustrated through the many poverty conceptual and operational definitions generated by social, human and health sciences. However, to establish the causal relationships between the different factors of poverty and neurocognitive outcomes is still an issue under construction. Most studies of this area apply classic unidimensional poverty indicators such as income and maternal education. Nonetheless, this approach does not take into adequate consideration the variability of neurocognitive outcomes depending on the type of poverty measures, and the dynamic nature of changes during development. This creates a virtual underestimation of the complexity imposed by the involved mediating mechanisms. The scientific and policy implications of this underestimation include the risk of not adequately addressing children rights and developmental opportunities. This article proposes to explore such scenario, which is necessary for the reconsideration of the criteria used to analyse the influences of poverty on child development in general and neurocognitive development in particular. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. MRI Measures of Hippocampus in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Öncel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to compare the hippocampal volumes of patients diagnosed as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Minimal Cognitive Impairment (MCI and the healthy objects. We also tried to demonstrate whether there was a possible correlation between the cognitive tests and the hippocampal volumes. METHODS: Minimental State Examination, Adas-Cog and Global Deterioration Scale were administrated to the patients having Alzheimer’s Disease (n=20. We also performed Minimental State Examination, and Adas-Cog to MCI patients (n=20 and Minimental State Examination to the healthy control group (n=18. Both right and left hippocampal volumes were measured by a three dimensioned Surf Driver programm with the support of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. RESULTS: Both right and left hippocampal volumes of the Alzheimer’s Disease group were significantly smaller than the MCI and the control groups. Bilaterally hippocampal volumes of MCI group were also smaller than the control group. (Hippocampal volumes; AD 0.05. CONCLUSION: : Surf Driver method succesfully demonstrated the relative hippocampal atrophy in the AD and the MCI groups when compared with the healthy controls

  18. MRI Measures of Hippocampus in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Öncel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to compare the hippocampal volumes of patients diagnosed as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Minimal Cognitive Impairment (MCI and the healthy objects. We also tried to demonstrate whether there was a possible correlation between the cognitive tests and the hippocampal volumes. METHODS: Minimental State Examination, Adas-Cog and Global Deterioration Scale were administrated to the patients having Alzheimer’s Disease (n=20. We also performed Minimental State Examination, and Adas-Cog to MCI patients (n=20 and Minimental State Examination to the healthy control group (n=18. Both right and left hippocampal volumes were measured by a three dimensioned Surf Driver programm with the support of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. RESULTS: Both right and left hippocampal volumes of the Alzheimer’s Disease group were significantly smaller than the MCI and the control groups. Bilaterally hippocampal volumes of MCI group were also smaller than the control group. (Hippocampal volumes; AD 0.05. CONCLUSION: : Surf Driver method succesfully demonstrated the relative hippocampal atrophy in the AD and the MCI groups when compared with the healthy controls.

  19. Assessment of Cognitive Outcome Measures in Teenagers with 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Emeline; Ali, May; Harrison, John; Sovago, Judit; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Schaaf, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome causes a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including intellectual disability and autism. We aimed to determine if any or all of three cognitive testing systems (the KiTAP, CogState, and Stanford-Binet) are suitable for assessment of cognitive function in affected individuals. These three tests were administered to ten…

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 338 ... Child and adolescent cognitive behaviour therapy in South Africa: An .... discharged from two inpatient psychosocial rehabilitation units, Abstract ... case of high school students in the Cape Metropolitan Area, Cape Town, ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973), X-Linked Deafness in a South African Kindred, Abstract PDF ... Vol 96, No 2 (2006):, Young adults, the target of below-the-line ... The in vivo effect of zinc on platelet membranes and cognition, Abstract PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 533 ... Vol 30, No 4 (2012), Implementing a speaking test at Grade 6 (primary ... Vol 30, No 1 (2012), Inclusive education for Deaf students: .... Vol 24, No 2 (2006), Linguistic creativity from a cognitive perspective, Abstract.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 788 ... ... Adolescents-Parent Relationships As Perceived By Younger And Older ... Vol 15, No 1 (2007), Anxiety and Adaptive behaviour of fresh ... Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Among Selected Nigerian Adolescents.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 1463 ... ... control on glomerular filtration rate in Diabetes Mellitus patients, Abstract PDF ... Vol 17, No 1 (2017), Effect of posture on swallowing, Abstract PDF .... stability on early post-operative cognitive dysfunction in elderly ...

  5. Three sides of the same coin: measuring global cognitive impairment with the MMSE, ADAS-cog and CAMCOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Lindeboom, Robert

    2010-08-01

    The total scores of the ADAS-cog, MMSE and CAMCOG, comprising various cognitive tasks, are widely used to measure a dimension of global cognitive impairment. It is unknown, however, whether this dimension is common to these instruments. This hampers comparisons when either of these instruments is used. The extent to which these instruments share a common dimension of global cognitive impairment and how their scores relate was examined. Rasch analysis of CAMCOG and MMSE data of participants from a population based study and two memory clinics pooled with ADAS-cog and MMSE data of participants from three RCTs (overall N = 1566) to estimate a common dimension of global cognitive impairment and to examine the goodness of fit of the individual items to this dimension. Using the estimated common dimension of global cognitive impairment, the total scores of the instruments could be related, e.g. a mean level of global cognitive impairment corresponded to a predicted score of 11.4 (ADAS-cog), 72.6 (CAMCOG) and 22.2 (MMSE). When revised according to The Rasch validity analyses, every individual item could be fitted to the dimension. The MMSE, ADAS-cog and CAMCOG reflect a valid common dimension of global cognitive impairment, which enables comparisons of RCTs that use the ADAS-cog and observational studies that use the CAMCOG and MMSE.

  6. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; Pmethods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  7. Measurement of overall quality of life in nursing homes through self report : the role of cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Debby Lydia; Steverink, Nardi; Ooms, Marcel E.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Ribbe, Miel W.

    Measuring quality of life is a necessity for adequate interventions. This paper concerns the usefulness of six self-report measures for overall quality of life for nursing home residents with various levels of cognitive impairment. It was investigated which proportion of residents from four

  8. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Measuring motivation: change talk and counter-change talk in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Diana R; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. This study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context.

  10. The Prevalence, Measurement, and Treatment of the Cognitive Dimension/Domain in Major Depressive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Xiao, Holly X; Syeda, Kahlood

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient outcomes amongst adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provide the impetus to identify and refine therapeutic targets that are most critical to outcome from patient, provider, and societal perspectives. Towards this aim, a pivotal shift towards the transnosological domain...... depressive disorder, depression, unipolar depression, cognition, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive deficit, and cognitive function. The search was supplemented with a manual review of relevant references. The selection of articles for inclusion in this review was based on overall methodological quality...... are currently under investigation for possible benefit in mitigating cognitive deficits and improving cognitive performance (e.g., intranasal insulin, erythropoietin, anti-inflammatory agents). Non-pharmacological approaches including, but not limited to, cognitive remediation (CR), aerobic exercise...

  11. Development and Validation of an Abbreviated Questionnaire to Easily Measure Cognitive Failure in ICU Survivors: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, Annelies; de Reus, Jorn; Donders, A Rogier T; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Cremer, Olaf L; de Lange, Dylan W; van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Pickkers, Peter; van den Boogaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate an abbreviated version of the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire that can be used by patients as part of self-assessment to measure functional cognitive outcome in ICU survivors. A retrospective multicenter observational study. The ICUs of two Dutch university hospitals. Adult ICU survivors. None. Cognitive functioning was evaluated between 12 and 24 months after ICU discharge using the full 25-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-25). Incomplete CFQ-25 questionnaires were excluded from analysis. Forward selection in a linear regression model was used in hospital A to assess which of the CFQ-25 items should be included to prevent a significant loss of correlation between an abbreviated and the full CFQ-25. Subsequently, the performance of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire was determined in hospital B using Pearson's correlation. A Bland-Altman plot was used to examine whether the reduced-item outcome scores of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were a replacement for the full CFQ-25 outcome scores. Among 1,934 ICU survivors, 1,737 were included, 819 in hospital A, 918 in hospital B. The Pearson's correlation between the abbreviated 14-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-14) and the CFQ-25 was 0.99. The mean of the difference scores was -0.26, and 95% of the difference scores fell within +5 and -5.5 on a 100-point maximum score. It is feasible to use the abbreviated CFQ-14 to measure self-reported cognitive failure in ICU survivors as this questionnaire has a similar performance as the full CFQ-25.

  12. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  13. Recommended Measures for the Assessment of Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.R. Bossers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Goal: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. Methods: A literature search (2005–2011 yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Results: Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility were found. Conclusion: The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.

  14. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  15. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  16. TOWARDS THE USE OF A NOVEL METHOD: The First Experiences on Measuring The Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Pas UYSAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and methods can enable educational researchers gain an insight into brain and cognitive processes as well. Therefore, this experimental study explored the previously learned OOP skills in terms of cognitive load. By using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method, we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. There were two research questions investigated by this study. The first research question explored whether the average oxygenation changed according to the participants’ academic achievements and task completion status. The second research question was for identifying the instant changes in the oxygenations to find out which programming tasks were more contributing to the oxygenation. Later, we compared the findings with experts’ judgments. We observed that the fNIRS system was an effective and promising technology for monitoring cognitive tasks both in classrooms and in experimental environments.

  17. A Comparison of Measures of Abnormal Performance on a Sample of Monthly Mutual Fund Returns, formerly titled; The Evaluation of Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Monthly Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark

    1989-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the Jensen Measure, the Positive Period Weighting Measure, developed in Grinblatt and Titman (1987a), measures developed from the Treynor-Mazuy (1966) quadratic regression on a sample 179 mutual funds, using a variety of benchmark portfolios. We find that the measures generally yield similar inferences when using the same benchmark and that inferences can vary, even from the same measure, when using different benchmarks. Several benchmarks, developed here, appe...

  18. Practical measures of cognitive function and promotion of their performance in the context of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Gujski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aging of the population generates a number of very interesting research questions in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology, demography, and many others. One of the issues subject to both intensive research by scientists and exploration by practitioners is associated with cognitive functions. The article presents current knowledge regarding practical actions in the field of promoting cognitive function using diagnostic programmes and training using modern technologies. An important aspect presented in this study is also related to the welfare of the maintenance or improvement of cognitive function. Information and communication technologies will contribute to the dissemination of computerized cognitive training, also personalized.

  19. Operationalizing the Diagnostic Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Salience of Objective Measures in Predicting Incident Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Aerts, Liesbeth; Crawford, John D; Heffernan, Megan; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Maston, Kate; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-05-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. It is diagnosed in the presence of subjective cognitive decline and objective cognitive impairment without significant functional impairment, although there are no standard operationalizations for each of these criteria. The objective of this study is to determine which operationalization of the MCI criteria is most accurate at predicting dementia. Six-year longitudinal study, part of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Community-based. 873 community-dwelling dementia-free adults between 70 and 90 years of age. Persons from a non-English speaking background were excluded. Seven different operationalizations for subjective cognitive decline and eight measures of objective cognitive impairment (resulting in 56 different MCI operational algorithms) were applied. The accuracy of each algorithm to predict progression to dementia over 6 years was examined for 618 individuals. Baseline MCI prevalence varied between 0.4% and 30.2% and dementia conversion between 15.9% and 61.9% across different algorithms. The predictive accuracy for progression to dementia was poor. The highest accuracy was achieved based on objective cognitive impairment alone. Inclusion of subjective cognitive decline or mild functional impairment did not improve dementia prediction accuracy. Not MCI, but objective cognitive impairment alone, is the best predictor for progression to dementia in a community sample. Nevertheless, clinical assessment procedures need to be refined to improve the identification of pre-dementia individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  1. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  2. Measuring organizational flexibility in community pharmacy: Building the capacity to implement cognitive pharmaceutical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura Kate; Roberts, Alison Sarah; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac

    2011-03-01

    Community pharmacy is undergoing transformation with increasing pressure to build its capacity to deliver cognitive pharmaceutical services ("services"). The theoretical framework of organizational flexibility (OF) may be used to assess the capacity of community pharmacy to implement change programs and guide capacity-building initiatives. To test the applicability of an existing scale measuring OF to the industry of community pharmacy in Australia. A mail survey was used to test a preexisting scale measuring OF amended from 28 items to 20 items testing 3 underlying factors of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility in the Australian community pharmacy context. The sample was 2006 randomly-stratified community pharmacies. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the 1-factor models for each underlying construct and the full measurement model. Responses were received from a total of 395 (19.7%) community pharmacies. The 1-factor models of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility fit the data with appropriate respecification. Overall, the favorable fit of the individual factor constructs suggested that the multiple-factor measurement model should be tested. However, this model did not yield an interpretable response. Operational flexibility covaried negatively to the other factors, whereas structural and strategic flexibility shared covariance. Despite this, the results highlighting the individual factor fit suggest the constructs have application to pharmacy. The individual OF constructs were useful in the development and initial testing of a scale adapted for community pharmacy. When further developed and validated, the scale could be used to identify group of pharmacies that require individualized assistance to build capacity and integrate services and other new endeavors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 533 ... Vol 35, No 3 (2017), A cognitive analysis of metaphor in Shona ... A comparison of lexical specificity in the communication verbs of L1 ... what's high school performance or prior exposure to academic reading got to do with it?

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 559 ... Vol 7, No 1 (2008), Cognitive dissonance as an explanation of the ... Vol 11, No 4 (2012), Correlates of HIV-status awareness among adults in Nairobi slum areas ... Vol 9, No 2 (2010), Deafness and HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of ... surveys indicate limited impact of condoms and HIV testing in four ...

  5. Browse Title Index - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3851 - 3900 of 4497 ... Vol 92, No 10 (2002), The effect of air medical Transport on survival after ... on the cognitive and motor development of children, Abstract PDF ... Is molecular diagnosis the Harry Potter or the Lord Voldemort of clinical ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 278 ... Vol 44, No 2 (2010), Students' Comprehension of the representation of African American Vernacular in Alice Walker's The Color Purple, Abstract. M Pretorius. Vol 50, No 1 ... Vol 46, No 2 (2012), Successful first-year learning: A social cognitive view of academic literacy, Abstract. V McGhie, C van der ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 318 ... Vol 9, No 1 (2014), Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of primary care ... analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple .... Vol 12, No 1 (2017), Effects of music therapy under general ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 263 ... Vol 11, No 1 (2010), The Phonological Problems Encountered by Igbo Students in Chinese Language Learning. Abstract PDF. IS Odinye. Vol 15, No 2 (2014), The Quest for a Sure Foundation of Cognitive Beliefs: Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism, Abstract PDF. I Ndianefo.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 446 of 446 ... Vol 3, No 2 (1996), The psychological impact of unemployment among ... AI Alarape ... Vol 18, No 3 (2015), The public sector and revitalization of the ... Withdrawal cognition among workers in distressed banks: Roles of ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 641 ... Vol 4, No 3 (2014), Analysis of tooth mortality among Nigerian children in a tertiary hospital ... Vol 2, No 2 (2012), Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini ... Vol 4, No 3 (2014), Auditory screening in infants for early detection of ... Vol 4, No 4 (2014), Blindness and Visual Impairment among ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 769 ... D DAHOROU, E MULLET. Vol 18, No 2 (2010), The Relative ... E Dawson-Brew, V Ankomah-Sey. Vol 6, No 1 (1998), The Results of ... Vol 16, No 1 (2008), The Study of the Effects of Cognitive Restructuring Therapy on Cigarette Smoking Behaviour of Undergraduate Students. Abstract. A A Shobola.

  12. Examining the Influence of Measures of Adiposity on Cognitive Function in Middle Age and Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Regina S; Cole, Angela P; Ali, Mana K; Skinner, Jeannine; Whitfield, Keith E; Mwendwa, Denée T

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine whether measures of total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and central obesity (waist circumference [WC] and waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) are associated with cognitive function in African Americans, and whether sex moderates these associations. A sample of 194 African Americans, with a mean age of 58.97 years, completed a battery of cognitive tests and a self-reported health questionnaire. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were assessed. Linear regression analyses were run. Results suggested lower performance on measures of verbal fluency and complex attention/cognitive flexibility was accounted for by higher levels of central adiposity. Among men, higher WHR was more strongly related to complex attention/cognitive flexibility performance, but for women, WC was a salient predictor. Higher BMI was associated with poorer verbal memory performance among men, but poorer nonverbal memory performance among women. Findings suggest a need for healthy lifestyle interventions for African Americans to maintain healthy weight and cognitive function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Development of a cognitive bias methodology for measuring low mood in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an ethical and scientific need for objective, well-validated measures of low mood in captive chimpanzees. We describe the development of a novel cognitive task designed to measure ‘pessimistic’ bias in judgments of expectation of reward, a cognitive marker of low mood previously validated in a wide range of species, and report training and test data from three common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. The chimpanzees were trained on an arbitrary visual discrimination in which lifting a pale grey paper cone was associated with reinforcement with a peanut, whereas lifting a dark grey cone was associated with no reward. The discrimination was trained by sequentially presenting the two cone types until significant differences in latency to touch the cone types emerged, and was confirmed by simultaneously presenting both cone types in choice trials. Subjects were subsequently tested on their latency to touch unrewarded cones of three intermediate shades of grey not previously seen. Pessimism was indicated by the similarity between the latency to touch intermediate cones and the latency to touch the trained, unreinforced, dark grey cones. Three subjects completed training and testing, two adult males and one adult female. All subjects learnt the discrimination (107–240 trials, and retained it during five sessions of testing. There was no evidence that latencies to lift intermediate cones increased over testing, as would have occurred if subjects learnt that these were never rewarded, suggesting that the task could be used for repeated testing of individual animals. There was a significant difference between subjects in their relative latencies to touch intermediate cones (pessimism index that emerged following the second test session, and was not changed by the addition of further data. The most dominant male subject was least pessimistic, and the female most pessimistic. We argue that the task has the potential to be used to assess

  14. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  15. A cognitive organization theory (COT) of organizational change : Measuring organizational texture, audience appeal, and leadership engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Ad; Elliott, Karen; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van; Barlage, Melody; Polos, Laszlo; Rogiest, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, the authors develop a cognitive organization theory (COT) of organizational change. COT was developed in the 2000s, by taking insights from cognitive psychology and anthropology to rebuild the foundation of organizational ecology (OE), grounding macro processes of

  16. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

  18. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  20. Do cognitive measures of response inhibition differentiate between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.E. van; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Broek, P.J.A. van den; Kan, C.C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether cognitive measures of response inhibition derived from the AX-CPT are able to differentiate between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC). Current DSM-IV-TR symptoms of ADHD and BPD were

  1. Clinical global impression of cognition in schizophrenia (CGI-CogS): reliability and validity of a co-primary measure of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Cienfuegos, Angel; Boxer, Oren; Bilder, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia that have been associated reliably with functional outcomes and now are a focus of treatment research. New rating scales are needed to complement current psychometric testing procedures, both to enable wider clinical use, and to serve as endpoints in clinical trials. Subjects were 35 schizophrenia patient-and-caregiver pairs recruited from the UCLA and West Los Angeles VA Outpatient Psychiatry Departments. Participants were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS), an interview-based rating scale of cognitive functioning, on 3 occasions (baseline, 1 month, and 3 months). A computerized neurocognitive battery (Cogtest), an assessment of functioning, and symptom measures were administered at two occasions (baseline and one month). The CGI-CogS ratings generally showed a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.69 to .96), adequate levels of inter-rater reliability (ICC's=.71 to .80), and high test-retest stability (ICC's=.92 to .95). Correlations of caregiver and rater global (but not "patient only rating") CGI-CogS ratings with neurocognitive performance were in the moderate range (r's=-.27 to -.48), while most of the correlations with functional outcome were moderate to high (r's=-.41 to -.72). In fact, the CGI-CogS ratings were significantly more correlated with Social Functioning than were objective neurocognitive test scores (p=.02) and showed a trend in the same direction for predicting Instrumental Functioning (p=.06). We found moderate correlations between CGI-CogS global ratings and PANSS positive (r's=.36 to .49) and SANS negative symptoms (r=.41 to .61), but not with BPRS depression (r's=.11 to .13). An interview-based measure of cognition demonstrated high internal consistency, good inter-rater reliability, and high test-retest reliability. Caregiver ratings appear to add important clinical information over patient-only ratings. The CGI

  2. Measuring emotional and cognitive empathy using dynamic, naturalistic, and spontaneous emotion displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross; Powers, Stacie R; Hull, Kyle S

    2017-10-01

    Most measures of nonverbal receiving ability use posed expressions as stimuli. As empathy measures, such stimuli lack ecological validity, as the participant is not actually experiencing emotion. An alternative approach uses natural and dynamic displays of spontaneous expressions. The Communication of Affect Receiving Ability Test (CARAT) uses as stimuli spontaneous facial expressions and gestures filmed by an unobtrusive camera of solitary participants responding to emotional images. This article reports the development and initial validation of the CARAT-Spontaneous, Posed, Regulated (CARAT-SPR), which measures both abilities to detect emotion from spontaneous displays (emotion communication accuracy) and to differentiate spontaneous, posed, and regulated displays (expression categorization ability). Although spontaneous displays are natural responses to emotional images, posed displays involve asking the sender to display "as if" responding to a particular sort of image when no image is in fact present (simulation), while Regulated displays involve asking the sender to display "as if" responding to a particular sort of image when an image of opposite valence is in fact present (masking). Expression categorization ability involves judging deception-simulation and masking-and conceptually involves a kind of perspective-taking or cognitive empathy. Emotion communication using spontaneous clips achieved a high level of accuracy and was strongly correlated with ratings of sender expressivity. Expression categorization ability was not significantly correlated with expressivity ratings and was modestly negatively correlated with emotion communication accuracy. In a brief version of the CARAT-SPR, women showed evidence of greater emotion signal detection, whereas men reported greater confidence in expression categorization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Automated cross-sectional and longitudinal hippocampal volume measurement in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kelvin K; Barnes, Josephine; Ridgway, Gerard R; Bartlett, Jonathan W; Clarkson, Matthew J; Macdonald, Kate; Schuff, Norbert; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2010-07-15

    Volume and change in volume of the hippocampus are both important markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Delineation of the structure on MRI is time-consuming and therefore reliable automated methods are required. We describe an improvement (multiple-atlas propagation and segmentation (MAPS)) to our template library-based segmentation technique. The improved technique uses non-linear registration of the best-matched templates from our manually segmented library to generate multiple segmentations and combines them using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Change in volume over 12months (MAPS-HBSI) was measured by applying the boundary shift integral using MAPS regions. Methods were developed and validated against manual measures using subsets from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The best method was applied to 682 ADNI subjects, at baseline and 12-month follow-up, enabling assessment of volumes and atrophy rates in control, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD groups, and within MCI subgroups classified by subsequent clinical outcome. We compared our measures with those generated by Surgical Navigation Technologies (SNT) available from ADNI. The accuracy of our volumes was one of the highest reported (mean(SD) Jaccard Index 0.80(0.04) (N=30)). Both MAPS baseline volume and MAPS-HBSI atrophy rate distinguished between control, MCI and AD groups. Comparing MCI subgroups (reverters, stable and converters): volumes were lower and rates higher in converters compared with stable and reverter groups (pmethods give accurate and reliable volumes and atrophy rates across the clinical spectrum from healthy aging to AD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  5. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  6. Sensorimotor and cognitive slowing in schizophrenia as measured by the Symbol Digit Substitution Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Hecke, J. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives A vast amount of studies demonstrates the presence of psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this overall psychomotor slowing can be divided into distinct processes that differentially affect cognitive functioning in

  7. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories : using an objective measure of cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Suzanne C.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eyemovement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The workingmemory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversivememory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM

  8. Development and validation of a parent-report measure for detection of cognitive delay in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Graham; Genesoni, Lucia; Boden, Greg; Doll, Helen; Jones, Rosamond A K; Gray, Ron; Adams, Eleri; Jefferson, Ros

    2014-12-01

    To develop a brief, parent-completed instrument (ERIC - Early Report by Infant Caregivers) for detection of cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-olds born preterm, or of low birthweight, or with perinatal complications, and to establish ERIC's diagnostic properties. Scores for ERIC were collected from the parents of 317 children meeting ≥inclusion criterion (birthweight Toddler Development-III cognitive scale. Items were retained according to their individual associations with delay. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were estimated and a truncated ERIC was developed for use in children cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-old preterm infants and as a screen for cognitive delay. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Neuropsychological, physical, and functional mobility measures associated with falls in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Morag E; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2014-08-01

    Older people with cognitive impairment have an elevated fall risk, with 60% falling annually. There is a lack of evidence for fall prevention in this population, in part due to limited understanding of risk factors. This study examined fall risk in older people with cognitive impairment with an emphasis on identifying explanatory and modifiable risk factors. One hundred and seventy-seven community-dwelling older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 11-23/Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months with the assistance of carers. Of the 174 participants available to follow-up, 111 (64%) fell at least once and 71 (41%) at least twice. Higher fall rates were associated with slower reaction time, impaired balance (sway on floor and foam, semitandem, near-tandem, tandem stance), and reduced functional mobility (co-ordinated stability, timed up-and-go, steps needed to turn 180°, sit-to-stand, gait velocity). Higher fall rates were also associated with increased medication use (central nervous system, total number) and poorer performances in cognitive (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: visuospatial domain, cube drawing; Trail-Making Test) and psychological (Geriatric Depression Scale, Goldberg Anxiety Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale-International) tests. Multivariate analysis identified increased sway on foam, co-ordinated stability score, and depressive symptoms to be significantly and independently associated with falls while controlling for age, years of education, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised score. This study identified several risk factors of falls in older people with cognitive impairment, a number of which are potentially modifiable. Future research involving targeted interventions addressing medication use, balance, mood, and functional performance may prove useful for fall prevention in this population. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford

  10. Measuring Cognitive Load with Electroencephalography and Self-Report: Focus on the Effect of English-Medium Learning for Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…

  11. [Selection of medical students : Measurement of cognitive abilities and psychosocial competencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Lackamp, Janina; Knorr, Mirjana; Hissbach, Johanna; Kadmon, Martina; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    The German Constitutional Court is currently reviewing whether the actual study admission process in medicine is compatible with the constitutional right of freedom of profession, since applicants without an excellent GPA usually have to wait for seven years. If the admission system is changed, politicians would like to increase the influence of psychosocial criteria on selection as specified by the Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020.What experiences have been made with the actual selection procedures? How could Situational Judgement Tests contribute to the validity of future selection procedures to German medical schools?High school GPA is the best predictor of study performance, but is more and more under discussion due to the lack of comparability between states and schools and the growing number of applicants with top grades. Aptitude and knowledge tests, especially in the natural sciences, show incremental validity in predicting study performance. The measurement of psychosocial competencies with traditional interviews shows rather low reliability and validity. The more reliable multiple mini-interviews are superior in predicting practical study performance. Situational judgement tests (SJTs) used abroad are regarded as reliable and valid; the correlation of a German SJT piloted in Hamburg with the multiple mini-interview is cautiously encouraging.A model proposed by the Medizinischer Fakultätentag and the Bundesvertretung der Medizinstudierenden considers these results. Student selection is proposed to be based on a combination of high school GPA (40%) and a cognitive test (40%) as well as an SJT (10%) and job experience (10%). Furthermore, the faculties still have the option to carry out specific selection procedures.

  12. Cognitive impairment and its relation to imaging measures in multiple sclerosis: a study using a computerized battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Clelia; Kane, Robert L; Gallo, Antonio; Xiaobai, Li; Stern, Susan K; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Ohayon, Joan M; Ehrmantraut, Mary; Cantor, Fredric K; Bagnato, Francesca

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) is an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) disability. A complex biological interplay between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) disease likely sustains CI. This study aims to address this issue by exploring the association between the extent of normal WM and GM disease and CI. Cognitive function of 24 MS patients and 24 healthy volunteers (HVs) was studied using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) battery. WM focal lesions and normal appearing WM (NAWM) volume in patients, cortical thickness (CTh) and deep GM structure volumes in both patients and HVs were measured by high field strength (3.0-Tesla; 3T) imaging. An analysis of covariance showed that patients performed worse than HVs on Code Substitution Delayed Memory (P = .04) and Procedural Reaction Time (P = .05) indicative of reduced performance in memory, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. A summary score (Index of Cognitive Efficiency) indicating global test battery performance was also lower for the patient group (P = .04). Significant associations, as determined by the Spearman rank correlation tests, were noted between each of these 3 cognitive scores and measures of NAWM volume [CDD-TP1(r = .609; P = .0035), PRO-TP1 (r = .456; P = .029) and ICE (r = .489; P = .0129)], CTh (r = .5; P ≤ .05) and volume of subcortical normal appearing GM (NAGM) structures (r = .4; P≤ .04), but not WM lesions. Both NAWM and NAGM volumes are related to CI in MS. The results highlight once again the urgent need to develop pharmacological strategies protecting patients from widespread neurodegeneration as possible preventive strategies of CI development. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWalt Darren A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.

  14. Delay and probability discounting among payday and title loan recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Payday and title loans are short-term loans associated with significant economic impact. Behavioral theories of impulsive choice may provide insight into behavioral processes that underlie the propensity to take out payday and title loans. Adults between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited from the community completed delay and probability discounting tasks for hypothetical money as well as measures of substance use. Patterns of discounting were characterized using a hyperbolic decay model and area under the curve. Participants who took out a payday and/or title loan in the past (n=41) exhibited more impulsive choice patterns on the delay discounting task than did those who did not (n=255). Substance use mediated this relationship between payday and title loan retention and delay discounting. These findings suggest potentially important relationships between payday/title loan borrowing, substance use, and delay discounting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  16. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  17. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-08-01

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing an international scoring system for a consensus-based social cognition measure: MSCEIT-managing emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemann, G S; Green, M F; Kern, R S; Sitarenios, G; Nuechterlein, K H

    2017-10-01

    Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries. We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms. This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.

  19. The ties that bind: what's in a title?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2018-03-01

    Many Australian and New Zealand surgeons use the title 'Mister' rather than 'Doctor', a practice dating back to traditions established over 600 years ago. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is currently undergoing a period of critical self-reflection, embodied by its 'Respect' campaign. Active measures to embrace diversity and encourage women into surgery are underway. This paper reviews the historical basis to the use of gendered titles and their current use amongst fellows. De-identified demographic data from the college register of active fellows was searched by self-identified title, country or state, and gender. Data were further reviewed by surgical sub-specialty and year of fellowship. The college dataset suggests that there is significant variance in the preference for gendered titles, determined predominantly by geography rather than specialty. The highest use of gendered titles (by male and female surgeons) was in Victoria/Tasmania (58% male, 22% female) and New Zealand (81% male, 17% female). By contrast, only 2% of female surgeons in other states elected a gendered title (Miss/Mrs/Ms). Surgery is the only profession that continues to use gendered titles. As the College of Surgeons moves towards greater equity and diversity, consideration should be given to phasing out the use of gendered titles, which serve to divide rather than unite our profession. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. 32 CFR 644.62 - Title evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.62 Title evidence... and their charter to issue the same. They must also be financially sound and be willing and able to...

  1. Region 7 Title V facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web map shows the Region 7 Title V facilities (Clean Air Act major sources), any Class I areas within 300 km of R7 States, and any Tribal areas within 50 miles...

  2. Translation and linguistic validation of the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures into simplified Chinese using cognitive interviewing methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Hinds, Pamela S; Wang, Jichuan; Correia, Helena; Du, Shizheng; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wen Jun; Yuan, Changrong

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures were developed using modern measurement theory and tested in a variety of settings to assess the quality of life, function, and symptoms of children and adolescents experiencing a chronic illness and its treatment. Developed in English, this set of measures had not been translated into Chinese. The objective of this study was to develop the Chinese version of the Pediatric PROMIS measures (C-Ped-PROMIS), specifically 8 short forms, and to pretest the translated measures in children and adolescents through cognitive interviewing methodology. The C-Ped-PROMIS was developed following the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Translation Methodology. Bilingual teams from the United States and China reviewed the translation to develop a provisional version, which was then pretested with cognitive interview by probing 10 native Chinese-speaking children aged 8 to 17 years in China. The translation was finalized by the bilingual teams. Most items, response options, and instructions were well understood by the children, and some revisions were made to address patient's comments during the cognitive interview. The results indicated that the C-Ped-PROMIS items were semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Children aged 8 to 17 years in China were able to comprehend these measures and express their experience and feelings about illness or their life. The C-Ped-PROMIS is available for psychometric validation. Future work will be directed at translating the rest of the item banks, calibrating them and creating a Chinese final version of the short forms.

  3. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Applied Cognition - General Concerns, Short Forms in Ethnically Diverse Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieo, Robert; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Eimicke, Joseph P; Crane, Paul K; Cella, David; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    The goals of these analyses were to examine the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of a self-reported cognition measure, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) Applied Cognition - General Concerns short form. These items are also found in the PROMIS Cognitive Function (version 2) item bank. This scale consists of eight items related to subjective cognitive concerns. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of gender, education, race, age, and (Spanish) language were performed using an ethnically diverse sample ( n = 5,477) of individuals with cancer. This is the first analysis examining DIF in this item set across ethnic and racial groups. DIF hypotheses were derived by asking content experts to indicate whether they posited DIF for each item and to specify the direction. The principal DIF analytic model was item response theory (IRT) using the graded response model for polytomous data, with accompanying Wald tests and measures of magnitude. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using ordinal logistic regression (OLR) with a latent conditioning variable. IRT-based reliability, precision and information indices were estimated. DIF was identified consistently only for the item, brain not working as well as usual. After correction for multiple comparisons, this item showed significant DIF for both the primary and sensitivity analyses. Black respondents and Hispanics in comparison to White non-Hispanic respondents evidenced a lower conditional probability of endorsing the item, brain not working as well as usual. The same pattern was observed for the education grouping variable: as compared to those with a graduate degree, conditioning on overall level of subjective cognitive concerns, those with less than high school education also had a lower probability of endorsing this item. DIF was also observed for age for two items after correction for multiple comparisons for both the IRT and OLR-based models: "I have had

  4. Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...

  5. Lost in transportation: Information measures and cognitive limits in multilayer navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Porter, Mason A; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Cities and their transportation systems become increasingly complex and multimodal as they grow, and it is natural to wonder whether it is possible to quantitatively characterize our difficulty navigating in them and whether such navigation exceeds our cognitive limits. A transition between different search strategies for navigating in metropolitan maps has been observed for large, complex metropolitan networks. This evidence suggests the existence of a limit associated with cognitive overload and caused by a large amount of information that needs to be processed. In this light, we analyzed the world's 15 largest metropolitan networks and estimated the information limit for determining a trip in a transportation system to be on the order of 8 bits. Similar to the "Dunbar number," which represents a limit to the size of an individual's friendship circle, our cognitive limit suggests that maps should not consist of more than 250 connection points to be easily readable. We also show that including connections with other transportation modes dramatically increases the information needed to navigate in multilayer transportation networks. In large cities such as New York, Paris, and Tokyo, more than 80% of the trips are above the 8-bit limit. Multimodal transportation systems in large cities have thus already exceeded human cognitive limits and, consequently, the traditional view of navigation in cities has to be revised substantially.

  6. Measures of Cognitive Limitations and Their Relation to Perceived Work Limitations in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-06

    Recent data suggests that ethnic/racial minorities and members of traditionally marginalized groups, such as the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender ...The CSC was modified to a self-report index of disruption of work tasks that require specific cognitive functions (dichotomous discrimination ; i.e

  7. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Factors in Measures of L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihi, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the direct and/or indirect effects of some cognitive (working memory capacity) and affective (writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy) variables on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) of second language (L2) learners' writings. To achieve this goal, 232 upper-intermediate English learners performed an automated…

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  9. The white space opportunity in Southern Africa: measurements with Meraka cognitive radio platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available space is available and how can it be used opportunistically and dynamically without causing harmful interference to licensed users? In this paper, we present work that is currently ongoing in our research lab with regard to the use of cognitive radio...

  10. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  11. Refining Measurement of Social Cognitive Theory Factors Associated with Exercise Adherence in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura Q; Fogleman, Amanda; Verhulst, Steven; Bhugra, Mudita; Rao, Krishna; Malone, James; Robbs, Randall; Robbins, K Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) measures related to exercise adherence in head and neck cancer (HNCa) patients were developed. Enrolling 101 HNCa patients, psychometric properties and associations with exercise behavior were examined for barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers interference, outcome expectations, enjoyment, and goal setting. Cronbach's alpha ranged from.84 to.95; only enjoyment demonstrated limited test-retest reliability. Subscales for barriers self-efficacy (motivational, physical health) and barriers interference (motivational, physical health, time, environment) were identified. Multiple SCT constructs were cross-sectional correlates and prospective predictors of exercise behavior. These measures can improve the application of the SCT to exercise adherence in HNCa patients.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Vol 15, No 3 (2001), A four quadrant whole brain approach in innovation and engineering ... for measuring the quality of student learning in outcomes-based education, Abstract.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 135 ... ... Frontier to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Fish Farming ... Vol 2, No 1 (2004), Chemical, nutritional and sensory analysis of ... Vol 8, No 2 (2010), Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Zooplankton Production, Abstract.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 5201 - 5250 of 11090 ... Vol 9, No 15 (2010), Full Length Research Paper Study on the association ... Vol 15, No 34 (2016), Functional properties of milk drinks ... phenolic effluent treatment and electrochemical measurement, Abstract PDF.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 985 ... ... in Delta State using resistivity and seismic refraction measurements, Abstract ... Vol 20, No 1 (2012), Comparative Study of Uranium and Thorium ... for solving initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 2157 ... South African Journal of Animal Science. ... and growth in Bonsmara bulls and evaluation of alternative measures of feed efficiency, Abstract PDF ... Vol 41, No 2 (2011), Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 174 ... Vol 22, No 2 (2016), New visual prostate symptom score versus .... between Anthropometric Measurements and Prostate‑specific Antigen, Abstract PDF ... Combination on Nigerian Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008), Load control strategies in 2G mobile network for ... Vol 21, No 1 (2009), Measurement of environmental radiation levels ... Vol 16, No 2 (2004), Modelling of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) system, Abstract.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type Silicon Single Crystals Of Different Surface Orientations, Abstract PDF. B Guel. Vol 8, No 1 (2002), Electron - positron correlation energy due to ... using surficial resistivity measurements: A case study from parts of ...

  20. Hormone effects on fMRI and cognitive measures of encoding: importance of hormone preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, C E; Schmitz, T W; Hess, T; Koscik, R L; Trivedi, M A; Ries, M L; Carlsson, C M; Sager, M A; Asthana, S; Johnson, S C

    2006-12-12

    We compared fMRI and cognitive data from nine hormone therapy (HT)-naive women with data from women exposed to either opposed conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (n = 10) or opposed estradiol (n = 4). Exposure to either form of HT was associated with healthier fMRI response; however, CEE-exposed women exhibited poorer memory performance than either HT-naive or estradiol-exposed subjects. These preliminary findings emphasize the need to characterize differential neural effects of various HTs.

  1. Measuring Motivation: Change Talk and Counter-Change Talk in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa; Westra, Henny A.

    2013-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early...

  2. Cognitive Components Predict Virtual Reality-Induced Analgesia: Repeated Measures in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naor Demeter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is an advanced and useful technology in the distraction from pain. The efficacy of VR for reducing pain is well established. Yet, the literature analyzing the unique attributes of VR which impact pain reduction is scarce. The present study evaluated the effect of two VR environments on experimental pain levels. Both VR environments are games used with an EyeToy application which is part of the video capture VR family. The VR environments were analyzed by expert occupational therapists using a method of activity analysis, allowing for a thorough evaluation of the VR activity performance requirements. The VR environments were found to differ in the cognitive load (CL demands they apply upon subjects. Sixty-two healthy students underwent psychophysical thermal pain tests, followed by exposure to tonic heat stimulation under one of three conditions: Low CL (LCL VR, high CL (HCL VR, and control. In addition, following participation in VR, the subjects completed a self-feedback inventory evaluating their experience in VR. The results showed significantly greater pain reduction during both VR conditions compared to the control condition (p = 0.001. Hierarchical regression revealed cognitive components which were evaluated in the self-feedback inventory to be predictive factors for pain reduction only during the high cognitive load (HCL VR environment (20.2%. CL involved in VR may predict the extent of pain decrease, a finding that should be considered in future clinical and laboratory research.

  3. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Comparison of Central, Ambulatory, Home and Office Blood Pressure Measurement as Risk Markers for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Yaneva-Sirakova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We compared the role of central blood pressure (BP, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, home-measured BP (HMBP and office BP measurement as risk markers for the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: 70 hypertensive patients on combination medical therapy were studied. Their mean age was 64.97 ± 8.88 years. Eighteen (25.71% were males and 52 (74.28% females. All of the patients underwent full physical examination, laboratory screening, echocardiography, and office, ambulatory, home and central BP measurement. The neuropsychological tests used were: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. SPSS 19 was used for the statistical analysis with a level of significance of 0.05. Results: The mean central pulse pressure values of patients with MCI were significantly (p = 0.016 higher than those of the patients without MCI. There was a weak negative correlation between central pulse pressure and the results from the MoCA and MMSE (r = –0.283, p = 0.017 and r = –0.241, p = 0.044, respectively. There was a correlation between ABPM and MCI as well as between HMBP and MCI. Conclusions: The correlation of central BP with target organ damage (MCI is as good as for the other types of measurements of BP (home and ambulatory. Office BP seems to be the poorest marker for the assessment of target organ damage.

  5. Cognitive and adaptive measurement endpoints for clinical trials in mucopolysaccharidoses types I, II, and III: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Darren; Delaney, Kathleen A; Shapiro, Elsa G

    2017-06-01

    Sensitive, reliable measurement instruments are critical for the evaluation of disease progression and new treatments that affect the brain in the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). MPS I, II, and III have early onset clinical phenotypes that affect the brain during development and result in devastating cognitive decline and ultimately death without treatment. Comparisons of outcomes are hindered by diverse protocols and approaches to assessment including applicability to international trials necessary in rare diseases. We review both cognitive and adaptive measures with the goal of providing evidence to a Delphi panel to come to a consensus about recommendations for clinical trials for various age groups. The results of the consensus panel are reported in an accompanying article. The following data were gathered (from internet resources and from test manuals) for each measure and summarized in the discussion: reliability, validity, date and adequacy of normative data, applicability of the measure's metrics, cross cultural validity including translations and adaptations, feasibility in the MPS population, familiarity to sites, sensitivity to change, and interpretability. If, resulting from this consensus, standard protocols are used for both natural history and treatment studies, patients, their families, and health care providers will benefit from the ability to compare study outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpan, S

    1997-01-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 462 ... ... and sensorineural hearing loss: Expanding the clinical spectrum ... variability and unusual findings in four Egyptian families, Abstract PDF ... Genetic disorders from an endogamous population, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2010), Hair mercury measurement in Egyptian autistic children, Abstract PDF.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 985 ... Vol 12 (2008), Mark-resighting survey method for the estimation of population size in a closed animal population, Abstract. OR Oniyide, BT ... Vol 10 (2006), Measure synchronization in a coupled Hamiltonian associated with the motion of particles in a periodic potential, Abstract. UE Vincent, AN Njah, ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 85, No 12 (2008), Repeatability And Validity Of IUATLD Respiratory Questionnaire Responses As A Measure Of Asthma In An Ethiopian Population, Abstract ... Vol 87, No 3 (2010), Resistance to antibiotics in urinopathogenic bacteria isolated in patients attending Kenyatta University Health Clinic, Nairobi, Abstract PDF.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 224 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2003), A Review of Some Non-Destructive Linear Measurement Procedures .... Vol 5, No 1 (2004), Credit procurement and utilization by rural ... financial institutions in Ikwuano local government area Abia State, ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 124 ... Vol 14 (2013), Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ... Vol 17, No 2 (2017), Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using ... Vol 15, No 1 (2015), Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1385 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... on Risk Management Approach during Project Implementation, Abstract PDF ... Terminals of Some Oil Industry Facilities in Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 19, No 1 (2015), Assessment of Public Perspectives on Quality Control Measures in ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 4 (2005), The hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, Abstract PDF. EO Ajala. Vol 8, No 1 (2002), The impedance measure of yttrium aluminium garnet doped ... The study of epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins as corrosion protective ... The tempering quality evaluation of cocoa liquor during industrial production ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 391 ... G Wiafe, CLJ Frid. Vol 2, No 3 (2000):, Small and medium-scale food industry development, Details. O. Boeh-Ocansey. Vol 14, No 1 (2012), Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in Bantama, Kumasi, Ghana using magnetic susceptibility measurements, Abstract. M Hadi, K Preko, ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 437 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2006), The many faces of cyber-crime: the implications on e-banking ... communication (social network) by open and distance students, the ... Vol 13, No 2 (2016), Towards improving security measures in ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 821 ... Vol 37, No 3 (2014), Affine fractal functions as bases of continuous funtions, Abstract. MA Navascues. Vol 23, No 2 (2000), Al- and am-spaces of integrable scalar functions with respect to a fréchet-valued measure, Abstract. Antonio Fernández, Francisco Naranjo. Vol 32, No 4 (2009), Algebraic entropy ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 497 ... Vol 54, No 1 (2008), Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management, Abstract ... Vol 50, No 2 (2007), Occupational hazards and safety measures .... of Health Workers working in Maternal and Child Health Units on ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 800 ... Vol 33, No 2 (2010), Mahler measure and modular elliptic surfaces, Abstract ... Sami Lazaar, Tom Richmond, Tarek Turki ... Vol 30, No 3 (2007), Minimal generating sets of groups, rings, and ... Vol 38, No 2 (2015), Nonlocal symmetries and classes of exact solutions for a convection-dispersion model ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 193 ... Vol 17, No 3 (2013), Predicting retail banking customers' attitude towards ... Vol 17, No 1 (2013), Productivity measurement in a sports organisation, Abstract PDF ... and satisfaction as predictors of wholesale and retail customers' ... Africa: A 2010–2011 comparative analysis for six industry clusters ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 533 ... Melanie Ann Law. Vol 33, No 3 (2015), The development of phonological awareness literacy measures for isiXhosa, Abstract. Maxine Diemer, Kristin van der Merwe, Mark de Vos. Vol 23, No 3 (2005), The discourse of the male gaze: a critical analysis of the feature section 'The beauty of sport\\' in SA ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 229 ... Vol 18, No 2 (2006), Design and development of solar still for ... the global solar radiation in Enugu using maximum temperature data, Abstract PDF ... Vol 21, No 1 (2009), Development of an electronic measurement circuit ...

  2. Is the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy measuring two or five dimensions? Evidence in a French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Nils; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Roux, Paul; Robieux, Léonore; Malézieux, Antoine; Boujut, Emilie; Zenasni, Franck

    2017-09-01

    Although many instruments measure empathy, most of them focus on specific facets (e.g., Spreng et al., 2009) or specific contexts (e.g. Wang et al., 2003) of empathy. For this reason, the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE; Reniers et al., 2011) was recently built to grasp the general construct of empathy through its Affective-Cognitive duality, although not providing clear-cut results about the bidimensionality of the scale. In this study, Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted on the responses of 418 adults on the French QCAE (backtranslated for this study). A total of 8 models were tested - including the models of the original investigation. The 5-correlated factors model had the best fit, and the pattern of correlations between the factors did not support the Cognitive-Affective distinction. The QCAE is discussed as showing signs of psychometrical robustness, but also as a tool that is more 5-dimensional than bidimensional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Responsive upper limb and cognitive fatigue measures during light precision work: an 8-hour simulated micro-pipetting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Wells, Richard P

    2017-07-01

    Many contemporary occupations are characterised by long periods of low loads. These lower force levels, which are relevant to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, are usually not the focus of fatigue studies. In studies that did measure fatigue in light manual or precision work, within and between measurement responses were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to identify fatigue measures that were responsive at lower force levels (fatigue measures, reflecting both neuromuscular and cognitive mechanisms, was measured during a light precision micro-pipetting task performed by 11 participants. Nine measures were found to be significantly responsive over the 8-h period, including: ratings of perceived fatigue, postural tremor, blink frequency and critical flicker fusion frequency threshold. Common field measures, specifically electromyography RMS amplitude and maximum voluntary contractions, did not lead to extraordinary time effects. Practitioner summary: The findings provide insight towards the responsiveness of a complementary set of field usable fatigue measures at low work intensities Although commonly used measures did not reveal significant increases in fatigue, nine alternative measures were significantly responsive over the 8-h period.

  4. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  5. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  6. Liraglutide promotes improvements in objective measures of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B.; Ahmed, Juhie; Cha, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    . There was a significant increase in lipase (pvalues were above the upper limit of normality. Limitations Small sample size, open-label design, lack of a placebo group. Conclusions Liraglutide was safe and well tolerated by a sample of non-diabetic individuals with mood disorders and had beneficial...... score (age and education corrected) (Cohen's d=0.64, p=0.009) and in a composite Z-score comprising multiple cognitive tests (i.e. Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop test) (Cohen's d=0.77, p

  7. Attrition from Web-Based Cognitive Testing: A Repeated Measures Comparison of Gamification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus

    2017-11-22

    The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies

  8. Systematic Review of Measurement Property Evidence for 8 Financial Management Instruments in Populations With Acquired Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lisa; Chui, Adora; Beaton, Dorcas E; Green, Robin E; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2018-03-07

    To critically appraise the measurement property evidence (ie, psychometric) for 8 observation-based financial management assessment instruments. Seven databases were searched in May 2015. Two reviewers used an independent decision-agreement process to select studies of measurement property evidence relevant to populations with adulthood acquired cognitive impairment, appraise the quality of the evidence, and extract data. Twenty-one articles were selected. This review used the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments review guidelines and 4-point tool to appraise evidence. After appraising the methodologic quality, the adequacy of results and volume of evidence per instrument were synthesized. Measurement property evidence with high risk of bias was excluded from the synthesis. The volume of measurement property evidence per instrument is low; most instruments had 1 to 3 included studies. Many included studies had poor methodologic quality per measurement property evidence area examined. Six of the 8 instruments reviewed had supporting construct validity/hypothesis-testing evidence of fair methodologic quality. There is a dearth of acceptable quality content validity, reliability, and responsiveness evidence for all 8 instruments. Rehabilitation practitioners assess financial management functions in adults with acquired cognitive impairments. However, there is limited published evidence to support using any of the reviewed instruments. Practitioners should exercise caution when interpreting the results of these instruments. This review highlights the importance of appraising the quality of measurement property evidence before examining the adequacy of the results and synthesizing the evidence. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lawrence, Natalia S; Coyle, David; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-07-15

    Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and

  10. Measuring the Impact of Cognitive Prosthetics on the Daily Life of People with Dementia and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    Assistive technologies to support persons with dementia and their carers are used increasingly often. However, little is known about the effectiveness of most assistive devices. Much technology is put on the market without having been properly tested with potential end-users. To increase the chance that an assistive device is well accepted and useful for the target group, it is important, especially in the case of disabled persons, to involve potential users in the development process and to evaluate the impact of using the device on them before implementing it in the daily care and support. When evaluating the impact, decisions have to be made regarding the selection of measuring instruments. Important considerations in the selection process are the underlying domains to be addressed by the assistive technology, the target group and the availability of standardized instruments with good psychometric properties. In this chapter the COGKNOW project is used as a case example to explain how the impact of cognitive prosthetics on the daily lives of people with dementia and their carers can be measured. In COGKNOW a cognitive prosthetic device is being developed to improve the quality of life and autonomy of persons with dementia and to help them to remember and remind, to have social contact, to perform daily activities and to enhance feelings of safety. For all these areas, potential measuring instruments are described. Besides (standardized) measuring instruments, other data collection methods are used as well, such as semi-structured interviews and observations, diaries and in situ measurement. Within the COGKNOW project a first uncontrolled small-scale impact measurement takes place during the development process of the assistive device. However, it is recommended to perform a larger randomized controlled study as soon as the final product is ready to evaluate the impact of the device on persons with dementia and carers before it is released on the market.

  11. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  12. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  13. Change Abstract Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating possible health effects of transported and resuspended dusts People in regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean are often exposed to high levels of both transported desert dust and to resuspended urban dust. Due to warming and drying trends, the frequency and intensity of dust storms have increased in the Eastern Mediterranean over the last decades. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to the exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust, its effects on the local microbiome and dependence on the source region will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to presence of biological components on dust. Finally, we will discuss how metals from brake and tire wear in resuspended urban dust affect oxidative stress and inflammation, and lead to oxidative damage in lung tissues. The significance of these findings in light of recent measurements from the global SPARATN network will be presented.

  14. Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use. PMID:23483964

  15. Predicting Story Goodness Performance from Cognitive Measures Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Le, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. Method: One hundred…

  16. INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the nineteenth revision of the INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles (IAEA-INIS-11). It lists 10,797 journal titles which have contained articles within the scope of INIS. The purpose of this Authority List is to provide descriptive cataloguers with a standard abbreviation for journal titles and to assist users of INIS products with a tool for verifying the full title of a journal. A journal, or periodical, is generally published within a defined, fixed interval between issues, which usually has more than one issue a year, and which usually includes a mixture of articles, letters, summaries, etc. Within this definition, annuals such as Annual Review of Nuclear Science are included. Series titles as, for example the McGraw-Hill Series in Nuclear Engineering, are not included in this Authority. Entries: Each entry consists of: - the full journal title (highlighted); - the abbreviated title; - ISSN, if available; - CODEN, if available; - additional information related to the journal title. Arrangement: In Part I, the full journal titles are grouped by country or international organization name and ordered alphabetically, followed by the ISSN, the CODEN in square brackets if available, and then the abbreviated title. The abbreviated title is based on the rules of ISO 4: Documentation - International Code for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals. The abbreviations of the words are taken from the ISDS List of Periodical Title Word Abbreviation. In Part II, the order of the citations is reversed: the abbreviated journal titles are arranged alphabetically, followed by country code. Then the full journal titles are followed by the country of publication, and if available, ISSN and CODEN. Additional Information: There is important information related to the journal titles which are fundamental for tracing the history of the title and the present status. They are listed below and are entered whenever applicable: - Ceased publication; - Superseded by

  17. Randomized controlled trial of increasing physical activity on objectively measured and self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors: The memory & motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Myers, Emily; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Palmer, Barton W; Weiner, Lauren S; Parker, Barbara A; Patterson, Ruth E

    2018-01-01

    Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales. Linear mixed-effects regression models tested intervention effects for changes in cognition scores. On average, participants (n = 87) were aged 57 years (standard deviation, 10.4 years) and were 2.5 years (standard deviation, 1.3 years) post surgery. Scores on the Oral Symbol Digit subscale (a measure of processing speed) evidenced differential improvement in the exercise arm versus the control arm (b = 2.01; P cognition were not statistically significant but were suggestive of potential group differences. Time since surgery moderated the correlation, and participants who were ≤2 years post surgery had a significantly greater improvement in Oral Symbol Digit score (exercise vs control (b = 4.00; P 2 years postsurgery (b = -1.19; P = .40). A significant dose response was observed with greater increased physical activity associated with objective and self-reported cognition in the exercise arm. The exercise intervention significantly improved processing speed, but only among those who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 2 years. Slowed processing speed can have substantial implications for independent functioning, supporting the potential importance of early implementation of an exercise intervention among patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2018;124:192-202. © 2017

  18. Assessing the criterion validity of four highly abbreviated measures from the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Holtzer, Roee; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Beier, Meghan; Farrell, Eileen; Snyder, Stacey; Schairer, Laura C; Glukhovsky, Lisa; Botvinick, Jason; Sloan, Jessica; Picone, Mary Ann; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in multiple sclerosis. As self-reported cognitive functioning is unreliable, brief objective screening measures are needed. Utilizing widely used full-length neuropsychological tests, this study aimed to establish the criterion validity of highly abbreviated versions of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) in order to begin developing an MS-specific screening battery. Participants from Holy Name Medical Center and the Kessler Foundation were administered one or more of these four measures. Using test-specific criterion to identify impairment at both -1.5 and -2.0 SD, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of BVMT-R Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 1 + 2 raw data (N = 286) were run to calculate the classification accuracy of the abbreviated version, as well as the sensitivity and specificity. The same methods were used for SDMT 30-s and 60-s (N = 321), D-KEFS Sorting Free Card Sort 1 (N = 120), and COWAT letters F and A (N = 298). Using these definitions of impairment, each analysis yielded high classification accuracy (89.3 to 94.3%). BVMT-R Trial 1, SDMT 30-s, D-KEFS Free Card Sort 1, and COWAT F possess good criterion validity in detecting impairment on their respective overall measure, capturing much of the same information as the full version. Along with the first two trials of the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT-II), these five highly abbreviated measures may be used to develop a brief screening battery.

  19. Measurement tools of resource use and quality of life in clinical trials for dementia or cognitive impairment interventions: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Dawes, Piers; Leroi, Iracema; Gannon, Brenda

    2017-01-26

    Dementia and cognitive impairment could severely impact patients' life and bring heavy burden to patients, caregivers and societies. Some interventions are suggested for the older patients with these conditions to help them live well, but economic evaluation is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Trial-based economic evaluation is an ideal method; however, little is known about the tools used to collect data of resource use and quality of life alongside the trials. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and describe the resource use and quality of life instruments in clinical trials of interventions for older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. We will perform a search in main electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science and Scopus) using the key terms or their synonyms: older, dementia, cognitive impairment, cost, quality of life, intervention and tools. After removing duplicates, two independent reviewers will screen each entry for eligibility, initially by title and abstract, then by full-text. A hand search of the references of included articles and general search, e.g. Google Scholar, will also be conducted to identify potential relevant studies. All disagreements will be resolved by discussion or consultation with a third reviewer if necessary. Data analysis will be completed and reported in a narrative review. This review will identify the instruments used in clinical trials to collect resource use and quality of life data for dementia or cognitive impairment interventions. This will help to guide the study design of future trial-based economic evaluation of these interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016038495.

  20. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time...

  1. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, O.; Xie, J.; Fletcher, E.; Singh, B.; DeCarli, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures

  2. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Owen; Xie, Jing; Fletcher, Evan; Singh, Baljeet; Decarli, Charles; A, Saradha; Abdi, Hervé; Abdul Hadi, Normi; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Achuthan, Anusha; Adluru, Nagesh; Aggarwal, Namita; Aghajanian, Jania; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Duaa; Ahmed, Shiek; Ahmed, Fareed; Ahmed, Fayeza; Akbarifar, Roshanak; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Aksu, Yaman; Alcauter, Sarael; Daniel, Alexander; Alin, Aylin; Alshuft, Hamza; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Anderson, Dallas; Anderson, Jeff; Andorn, Anne; Ang, Amma; Angersbach, Steve; Ansarian, Reza; Appaji, Abhishek; Appannah, Arti; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armentrout, Steven; Arrighi, Michael; Arumughababu, S. Vethanayaki; Arunagiri, Vidhya; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashford, Wes; Aurelie, Le Page; Avants, Brian; Aviv, Richard; Avula, Ramesh; Richard, Edo; Schmand, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures

  3. Effect of Caffeine on Attention and Alertness Measured in a Home-Setting, Using Web-Based Cognition Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Boessen, Ruud; Donner, Yoni; Clabbers, Nard; Boorsma, André

    2017-09-07

    There is an increasing interest among nutritional researchers to perform lifestyle and nutritional intervention studies in a home setting instead of testing subjects in a clinical unit. The term used in other disciplines is 'ecological validity' stressing a realistic situation. This becomes more and more feasible because devices and self-tests that enable such studies are more commonly available. Here, we present such a study in which we reproduced the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness in an at-home setting. The study was aimed to reproduce the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness using a Web-based study environment of subjects, at home, performing different Web-based cognition tests. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects were provided with coffee sachets (2 with and 2 without caffeine). They were also provided with a written instruction of the test days. Healthy volunteers consumed a cup of coffee after an overnight fast. Each intervention was repeated once. Before and 1 hour after coffee consumption subjects performed Web-based cognitive performance tests at home, which measured alertness and attention, established by 3 computerized tests provided by QuantifiedMind. Each test was performed for 5 minutes. Web-based recruitment was fast and efficient. Within 2 weeks, 102 subjects applied, of whom 70 were eligible. Of the 66 subjects who started the study, 53 completed all 4 test sessions (80%), indicating that they were able to perform the do it yourself tests, at home, correctly. The Go-No Go cognition test performed at home showed the same significant improvement in reaction time with caffeine as found in controlled studies in a metabolic ward (P=.02). For coding and N-back the second block was performed approximately 10% faster. No effect was seen on correctness. The study showed that the effects of caffeine consumption on a cognition test in an at-home setting revealed similar

  4. TITLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha K. M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is seen as an epoch of entrepreneurship with entrepreneurs perceiving novel opportunities, organizing resources, undertaking risks to pursue their goals in establishing innovative ventures for scaling new horizons. Women entrepreneurs have the potency to confront numerous challenges, such as creating equity, equilibrium, ensuring sustainable and inclusive socio economic development in divergent economies, by seizing tremendous business opportunities in the contemporary commercial world. Kerala, the southern State of India, is experiencing an economic renovation through technological transformation and, in particular, through the growth of women oriented Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs. The study aims to; identify the growth trends of women’s entrepreneurship in the micro enterprises of Kerala; examine whether women’s entrepreneurial activities significantly vary across the form of women owned enterprises, type of organization and nature of activity; and also explore the prospects and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs through micro entrepreneurial activities. Research methodology involves the application of descriptive quantitative analysis on the secondary data primarily collected from the database of Directorate of Industries and District Industries Centre for a period of 7 years extending from 2007-08 to 2013-14. Findings reveal that MSMEs spawn better income distribution, by operating in heterogeneous areas of the economy with limited capital and creating more employment opportunities, thereby reducing poverty and inequalities. The trend analysis reflects an escalation in the number of enterprises, investments, profits and employment opportunities generated especially through micro enterprises of women. They play a crucial role in the economy in terms of creating self employment and generating employment opportunities for others. A paradigm shift is seen in the role of women’s entrepreneurship in terms of innovation, attitudes, leadership qualities, competitiveness, entrepreneurial skill and absorbing new entrants to the job market, empowering marginalized women.

  5. TITLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Papzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated entrepreneurial intention among graduate students of USM Engineering Campus. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, we examined the empirical model of entrepreneurial intention determinants. Although research has been conducted in entrepreneurial intention, limited study has been done among Iranian graduate students who are studying abroad. This research aims to fill this gap using Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ, version 3.1. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and Iranian graduate students of the USM Engineering Campus were studied using the census method. The authors propose an empirical model and tested its reliability and validity using structural equation modeling. Data was analyzed using Spss16 and Amos18 software. Results revealed that the level of knowledge about business sources of assistance for entrepreneurs in addition to components of the TPB, affected entrepreneurial intention. Empirical model ‘s goodness of fit indices indicated good model fit x2=1.047, df=2, probability 0.592; NFI= 0.981; CFI= 1.000; RMSEA=0.000. It seems that current empirical model could be a guide for future research on this important topic.

  6. Differentiating SCT and inattentive symptoms in ADHD using fMRI measures of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with different impairment profiles in the symptom domains of hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattention. An additional symptom domain of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been proposed. Although there is a degree of correlation between the SCT symptom domain and inattention, it has been proposed as a distinct disorder independent of ADHD. The objective of this study was to examine the neural substrates of cue-related preparatory processes associated with SCT symptoms versus inattentive symptoms in a group of adolescents with ADHD. We also compared cue-related effects in the entire ADHD group compared with a group of typically developing (TD) peers. A modified cued flanker paradigm and fMRI examined brain activity associated with attention preparation and motor response preparation. Between group contrasts between the ADHD and TD group revealed significant hypoactivity in the ADHD group during general attention preparation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) during response preparation. In the ADHD group, greater numbers of SCT symptoms were associated with hypoactivity in the left SPL to cues in general whereas greater numbers of inattentive symptoms were associated with greater activity in the SMA to cues that provided no information and less activity in the thalamus during response preparation. Hypoactivity in the SPL with increasing SCT symptoms may be associated with impaired reorienting or shifting of attention. Altered activity in the SMA and thalamus with increasing inattention may be associated with a general problem with response preparation, which may also reflect inefficient processing of the response preparation cue. Our results support a degree of differentiation between SCT and inattentive symptom profiles within adolescents with ADHD.

  7. Reliability measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging in a longitudinal evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Pa, Judy; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    As the aging population grows, it has become increasingly important to carefully characterize amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a valuable tool for monitoring disease progression in selectively vulnerable brain regions associated with AD neuropathology. However, the reliability of fMRI data in longitudinal studies of older adults with aMCI is largely unexplored. To address this, aMCI participants completed two visual working tasks, a Delayed-Recognition task and a One-Back task, on three separate scanning sessions over a three-month period. Test-retest reliability of the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity was assessed using an intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis approach. Results indicated that brain regions engaged during the task displayed greater reliability across sessions compared to regions that were not utilized by the task. During task-engagement, differential reliability scores were observed across the brain such that the frontal lobe, medial temporal lobe, and subcortical structures exhibited fair to moderate reliability (ICC=0.3-0.6), while temporal, parietal, and occipital regions exhibited moderate to good reliability (ICC=0.4-0.7). Additionally, reliability across brain regions was more stable when three fMRI sessions were used in the ICC calculation relative to two fMRI sessions. In conclusion, the fMRI BOLD signal is reliable across scanning sessions in this population and thus a useful tool for tracking longitudinal change in observational and interventional studies in aMCI. © 2013.

  8. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  9. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS AND MORTGAGEES Title I and Title II Specific Requirements § 202.12 Title II. (a) Tiered pricing—(1... rate up to two percentage points under the mortgagee's customary lending practices must be based on... after accounting for the value of servicing rights generated by making the loan and other income to the...

  10. Influence of age on cognition and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats measured in the radial maze paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Dorothea; Fleck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The influence of age on (1) cognition and (2) scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced memory impairment in female rats was measured in the radial maze paradigm (RAM). (1) First training trials were done with 3 and 12 months old rats. Rats were trained to find all eight food baits in the RAM without errors and within 1 min. Both 3- and 12-month old rats need about 15 trials for the first-time learning of the RAM task. After intervals of 3 6 months, respectively, initially young rats were re-trained with an age of 6 and 12 months. Surprisingly, re-trained rats successfully completed the maze runs already after one re-training trial. Thus the phenomenon of preserved spatial memory was approved for female rats. (2) Memory impairment by scopolamine in the RAM was tested for the time in rats with an age of 3 months. first rats with thesame After a control run,the rats received an i.p. injection of either scopolamine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/100 g b. wt.) or saline vehicle. The effect of scopolamine on working memory was measured 20 min after administration. Training procedure and scopolamine administration were repeated at an age of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the same manner. The cognition impairment after scopolamine (number of errors: control: <1; scopolamine: 5-6) remains constant between 3 and 24 months of age. The only significant difference was the increase in run time in rats older than 18 months caused by degenerative changes developing with age.

  11. Comparing methods for measuring consumer willingness to pay: A cognitive perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    Willingness to pay for a basic chilled soup product and for an improved, self-heating version was measured for 100 Ss who were randomly assigned to conditions: a contingent valuation scheme, and an experimental auction scheme. Drawing on constructs derived from research in consumer price informat......Willingness to pay for a basic chilled soup product and for an improved, self-heating version was measured for 100 Ss who were randomly assigned to conditions: a contingent valuation scheme, and an experimental auction scheme. Drawing on constructs derived from research in consumer price...

  12. 42 CFR 476.86 - Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions. 476.86 Section 476.86 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...) Qio Review Functions § 476.86 Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions. (a...

  13. Rorschach Measures of Cognition Relate to Everyday and Social Functioning in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Viglione, Donald J.; Rosenfarb, Irwin S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment and negative symptoms contribute to functional disability in people with schizophrenia. Yet, a high level of unexplained variability remains after accounting for the role of these factors. This study examined the role of thought disorder, psychological complexity, and interpersonal representations, as measured by the…

  14. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  15. New Multiple-Choice Measures of Historical Thinking: An Investigation of Cognitive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    History education scholars have recognized the need for test validity research in recent years and have called for empirical studies that explore how to best measure historical thinking processes. The present study was designed to help answer this call and to provide a model that others can adapt to carry this line of research forward. It employed…

  16. Using Reading Times and Eye-Movements to Measure Cognitive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Self-paced reading and eye-tracking can be used to measure microlevel student engagement during science instruction. These methods imply a definition of engagement as the quantity and quality of mental resources directed at an object and the emotions and behaviors entailed. This definition is theoretically supported by models of reading…

  17. The Modified Hole Board - Measuring Behavior, Cognition and Social Interaction in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, Maaike; Van Lith, Hein A.; Ohl, Frauke; Arndt, Saskia S.

    This protocol describes the modified hole board (mHB), which combines features from a traditional hole board and open field and is designed to measure multiple dimensions of unconditioned behavior in small laboratory mammals (e.g., mice, rats, tree shrews and small primates). This paradigm is a

  18. Measuring psychological change during cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care: a Polish study using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Czachowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological outcome measures are evolving into measures that depict progress over time. Interval measurement during therapy has not previously been reported for a patient-generated measure in primary care. We aimed to determine the sensitivity to change throughout therapy, using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles, and to determine if new problems appearing during therapy diminish overall improvement. METHODS: Responses to PSYCHLOPS, pre-, during- and post-therapy were compared. SETTING: patients offered brief cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care in Poland. RESULTS: 238 patients completed the pre-therapy questionnaire, 194 (81.5% the during-therapy questionnaire and 142 the post-therapy questionnaire (59.7%. For those completing all three questionnaires (n = 135, improvement in total scores produced an overall Effect Size of 3.1 (2.7 to 3.4. We estimated change using three methods for dealing with missing values. Single and multiple imputation did not significantly change the Effect Size; 'Last Value Carried Forward', the most conservative method, produced an overall Effect Size of 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6. New problems during therapy were reported by 81 patients (60.0%: new problem and original problem scores were of similar magnitude and change scores were not significantly different when compared to patients who did not report new problems. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of outcome data is lost when outcome measures depend upon completed end of therapy questionnaires. The use of a during-therapy measure increases data capture. Missing data still produce difficulties in interpreting overall effect sizes for change. We found no evidence that new problems appearing during therapy hampered overall recovery.

  19. Measuring Learning Outcomes. Evolution of Cognitive Skills among Graduate Students in Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    with the knowledge provided in a graduate course the student learns from his prior experiences and stores the important aspects of each experience in memory in accordance with such schemas. The schemas available for students taking a graduate auditing course reflects prior accounting work experience for some...... students and undergraduate accounting coursework experience for all students. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning outcomes is a complex matter requiring sensible measures for both declarative knowledge...... outcomes in the context of an auditing course by posing a broad set of questions testing declarative knowledge and the full range of intellectual skills from discrimination to the use of higher-order-rules . The paper presents data collected in September 1999 including 34 graduate students representing...

  20. Stroop interference and reverse Stroop interference as potential measures of cognitive ability during exposure to stress

    OpenAIRE

    景山, 望; 箱田, 裕司; Kageyama, Nozomu; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference are one of the easiest and most powerful effects to demonstrate in a classroom. Therefore, they have been studied not only through basic research in the laboratory but also through applied research in extreme environments. First, we reviewed studies tha investigated Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference as hallmark measures of selective at attention and conflict resolution. Second, we reviewed studies that examined the effects ...

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy in practice: therapist perceptions of techniques, outcome measures, practitioner qualifications, and relation to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Benjamin; Santi, Alberto; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a strong evidence base for several psychiatric disorders, however, it may be argued that currently there is no overall agreement on what counts as 'CBT'. One reason is that CBT is commonly perceived as encompassing a broad range of treatments, from purely cognitive to purely behavioral, making it difficult to arrive at a clear definition. The purpose of the present study was to explore practicing therapists' perceptions of CBT. Three hundred fifty members of two multi-disciplinary interest groups for CBT in Sweden participated. Mean age was 46 years, 68% were females, 63% psychologists and mean number of years of professional experience was 12 years. Participants completed a web-based survey including items covering various aspects of CBT practice. Overall, therapist perceptions of the extent to which different treatment techniques and procedures were consistent with CBT were in line with current evidence-based CBT protocols and practice guidelines, as were therapists' application of the techniques and procedures in their own practice. A majority of participants (78%) agreed that quality of life or level of functioning were the most important outcome measures for evaluating treatment success. Eighty percent of therapists believed that training in CBT at a basic level was a requirement for practicing CBT. There was a medium size Spearman correlation of r s= .46 between the perceived importance of research to practice and the extent to which participants kept themselves updated on research. Implications for training, quality assurance, and the effectiveness of CBT in clinical practice are discussed.

  2. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Europe: Vers La Societe Cognitive (Europe: Towards a Cognitive Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Claude

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the idea behind the European Community's recently published white paper on education and teaching, titled "To Teach and to Learn--Towards a Cognitive Society." The paper declares that Europe is undergoing a transition to a new type of society, describes the issues at stake, and proposes steps to encourage member States to…

  4. The impact of secondary-task type on the sensitivity of reaction-time based measurement of cognitive load for novices learning surgical skills using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, David; Haji, Faizal; Shewaga, Rob; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the measurement of cognitive load (CL) in simulation-based education has grown in recent years. In this paper we present two pilot experiments comparing the sensitivity of two reaction time based secondary task measures of CL. The results suggest that simple reaction time measures are sensitive enough to detect changes in CL experienced by novice learners in the initial stages of simulation-based surgical skills training.

  5. Decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia: The relationship between social functioning, social cognition and graph theoretical network measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Burak; Serin, Emin; İbadi, Yelda; Taş, Cumhur

    2017-12-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which abnormalities in brain connectivity and social functioning play a central role. The aim of this study is to explore small-world network properties, and understand their relationship with social functioning and social cognition in the context of schizophrenia, by testing functional connectivity differences in network properties and its relation to clinical behavioral measures. Resting-state fMRI time series data were acquired from 23 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 healthy volunteers. The results revealed that patients with schizophrenia show significantly decreased connectivity between a range of brain regions, particularly involving connections among the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral putamen and left amygdala. Furthermore, topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with schizophrenia were characterized by reduced path length compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found for clustering coefficient, local efficiency or global efficiency. Additionally, we found that nodal efficiency of the amygdala and the putamen were significantly correlated with the independence-performance subscale of social functioning scale (SFC), and Reading the Mind in the Eyes test; however, the correlations do not survive correction for multiple comparison. The current results help to clarify the relationship between social functioning deficits and topological brain measures in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The cognitive processing of somatic anxiety: Using functional measurement to understand and address the fear of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anxiety has both dispositional and situational determinants, little is known about how individuals' anxiety-related sensitivities and their expectations about stressful events combine to determine anxiety. This research used Information Integration Theory and Functional Measurement to assess how participants' anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are cognitively integrated to determine their anxiety about physical pain. Two studies were conducted-one with university students and one with anxiety clinic patients-in which participants were presented with multiple scenarios of a physically painful event, each representing a different degree of event probability, from which subjective expectancies were derived. Independent variables included anxiety sensitivity (low, moderate, high and event expectancy (low, medium, high, no probability information. Participants were asked to indicate their anxiety (dependent measure in each expectancy condition in this 3 X 4 mixed, quasi-experimental design. The results of both studies strongly suggest that anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are integrated additively to produce somatic anxiety. Additional results and their implications for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders are also discussed.

  7. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "Every time that month comes, I remember": using cognitive interviews to adapt grief measures for use with bereaved adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tory M; Thurman, Tonya R; Nogela, Lineo

    2016-07-01

    To assess standard grief measures through cognitive interviews with bereaved adolescents in Free State, South Africa, and make recommendations designed to improve the measurement of grief in this and similar populations. Twenty-one parentally bereaved adolescents participated in semi-structured cognitive interviews about the Core Bereavement Items (CBI) questionnaire, Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C), or Intrusive Griefs Thoughts Scale (IGTS). Interviewees offered valuable insights for improving grief measurement with this population (e.g., consensus that not thinking frequently about a deceased loved one was shameful, aversion to terms including "died"). Participants were better able to apply response options denoting specific frequencies (e.g., "once or twice a week") versus general ones (e.g., "a little bit of the time"). Questions intended to gauge grief commonly elicited responses reflecting the impact of loss on adolescents' basic survival instead of psychological wellbeing. The need for psychological support is high among orphans and vulnerable children. Tools for measuring psychological outcomes can provide evidence of programme effects and guide decision making about investment. Grief measures used with adolescents in South Africa should account for the issues raised by cognitive interviewees in the study, including question and response option complexity, linguistic preferences, and cultural norms.

  9. Cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it): Association with psychosocial function in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Carmona, Nicole E; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Lee, Yena; Hon Lee, Jae; Lee, JungGoo; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Park, Caroline; Rong, Carola; Greer, Tracy L; Lam, Raymond; Baune, Bernhard T; Harrison, John; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-11-01

    Psychosocial impairment represents an important treatment target in major depressive disorder (MDD). The majority of patients with MDD do not regain premorbid levels of psychosocial functioning despite the resolution of core depressive symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the respective effects of cognitive function and depression severity on impaired psychosocial function in MDD. Adults aged 18-65 with moderate-to-severe MDD (n = 100) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in a cross-sectional study validating the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it), a cognitive screening tool comprised of objective and subjective measures of cognitive function. Depression severity was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and psychosocial function was assessed using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Subjects with MDD reported greater impairment in psychosocial function than healthy controls, with significant differences in SDS total and domain scores (ps Depression severity was most strongly associated with SDS social life (RR = .08, p < .01) and economic days underproductive (RR = .07, p < .01). Objective cognitive function was not significantly associated with any SDS outcomes. The cross-sectional, observational study design limits temporal inferences. The self-report nature of measures included may have influenced associations observed. Potential medication effects are not noted. Cognitive deficits, as measured by the THINC-it, are associated with significant psychosocial impairment in MDD. These results provide empirical support for the assessment of both subjective and objective measures of cognition, as they are not associated with each other and have differential effects on functional trajectory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. INIS: Authority list for journal titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This is the twenty-ninth revision of the INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles (IAEA-INIS-11). It lists the titles of 12 990 journals which have contained articles within the scope of INIS. The purpose of this report is to provide descriptive cataloguers with a standard entry for the full title of a journal. In addition to the full journal title, the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), administered by the ISSN International Centre, Paris, France, and/or CODEN, assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service, USA, are given in this manual. In order to help the reader to find titles easily, the list is divided into two parts. In Part I, the full journal titles are grouped by country or international organization responsible for coverage and ordered alphabetically. In Part II, the full journal titles of all countries or international organizations are arranged alphabetically. The country name or the international organization name responsible for coverage of the journal title to INIS is entered in parentheses. Journal titles marked with an asterisk are regularly scanned by INIS. Titles that have been identified by INIS Centres as 'Key Journals' are marked with the hash sign.

  11. INIS: Authority list for journal titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth revision of the INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles (IAEA-INIS-11). It lists the titles of 12 990 journals which have contained articles within the scope of INIS. The purpose of this report is to provide descriptive cataloguers with a standard entry for the full title of a journal. In addition to the full journal title, the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), administered by the ISSN International Centre, Paris, France, and/or CODEN, assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service, USA, are given in this manual. In order to help the reader to find titles easily, the list is divided into two parts. In Part I, the full journal titles are grouped by country or international organization responsible for coverage and ordered alphabetically. In Part II, the full journal titles of all countries or international organizations are arranged alphabetically. The country name or the international organization name responsible for coverage of the journal title to INIS is entered in parentheses. Journal titles marked with an asterisk are regularly scanned by INIS. Titles that have been identified by INIS Centres as 'Key Journals' are marked with the hash sign

  12. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR construct in current empirical psychiatric research.Method: We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE, SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology.Results: Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models.Conclusion: Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  13. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  14. Leadership Styles of Principals in Successful Title I Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    The problem addressed in the dissertation is the relationship between high poverty and low academic achievement that persists in spite of efforts to change it. In one Western state, a small proportion of the schools that are eligible for Title I funds, a measure of poverty, have achieved recognition for high student achievement. The recognition,…

  15. The Big Four Skills: Teachers’ Assumptions on Measurement of Cognition and Academic Skills for Non-Native Students.

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Silva, Carlos Fernandes da; Nunes, Odete; Martins, Maria Margarida Alves d'Orey

    2016-01-01

    The four-skills on tests for young native speakers commonly do not generate correlation incongruency concerning the cognitive strategies frequently reported. Considering the non-native speakers there are parse evidence to determine which tasks are important to assess properly the cognitive and academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1980; 2012). Research questions: It is of high probability that young students with origin in immigration ...

  16. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  17. Clinical Trials of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Medication: is Cognitive Measurement State-Of-The-Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V; Davey, Adam

    2018-02-22

    Randomized controlled trials of blood pressure (BP) lowering and antihypertensive medication use on cognitive outcomes have often been disappointing, reporting mixed findings and small effect sizes. We evaluate the extent to which cognitive assessment protocols used in these trials approach state-of-the-art. Overall, we find that a primary focus on cognition and the systematic selection of cognitive outcomes across trials take a backseat to other trial goals. Twelve trials investigating change in cognitive functioning were examined and none met criteria for state-of-the-art assessment, including use of at least 4 tests indexing 2 cognitive domains. Four trials investigating incident dementia were also examined. Each trial used state-of-the-art diagnostic criteria to assess dementia, although follow-up periods were relatively short, with only 2 trials lasting for at least 3 years. Weaknesses in each trial may act to obscure or weaken the positive effects of BP lowering on cognitive functioning. Improving trial designs in terms of cognitive outcomes selected and length of follow-up periods employed could lead to more promising findings. We offer logical steps to achieve state-of-the-art assessment protocols, with examples, in hopes of improving future trials.

  18. A Latent Transition Analysis of English Learners with Reading Disabilities: Do Measures of Cognition Add to Predictions of Late Emerging Risk Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this cohort sequential study was to extend previously reported latent transition analyses conducted by Swanson, Kudo, and Guzman-Orth (2016) by determining the role of cognitive measures in identifying English learners (EL) at risk for late emerging reading disabilities (LERD). To this end, EL students (N = 450) in Grades 1, 2, and…

  19. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  20. Creating an Implicit Measure of Cognition More Suited to Applied Research: A Test of the Mixed Trial-Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (MT-IRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Hayes, Steven C.; Waltz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a promising tool for measuring implicit cognitions in applied research. However, the need for training and block effects can limit its capacity to assess effects with individual stimuli and participants, both of which are important for applied research. We developed a modified IRAP, the Mixed…

  1. Ensemble Classification of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Complex Graph Measures from Diffusion Tensor Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ashkan; Dalboni da Rocha, Josué L.; Nagaraju, Dushyanth B.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bramati, Ivanei; Coutinho, Gabriel; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Rashidi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    The human brain is a complex network of interacting regions. The gray matter regions of brain are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. In this article, we report our investigation about the potential of applying brain connectivity patterns as an aid in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We performed pattern analysis of graph theoretical measures derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data representing structural brain networks of 45 subjects, consisting of 15 patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 patients of MCI, and 15 healthy subjects (CT). We considered pair-wise class combinations of subjects, defining three separate classification tasks, i.e., AD-CT, AD-MCI, and CT-MCI, and used an ensemble classification module to perform the classification tasks. Our ensemble framework with feature selection shows a promising performance with classification accuracy of 83.3% for AD vs. MCI, 80% for AD vs. CT, and 70% for MCI vs. CT. Moreover, our findings suggest that AD can be related to graph measures abnormalities at Brodmann areas in the sensorimotor cortex and piriform cortex. In this way, node redundancy coefficient and load centrality in the primary motor cortex were recognized as good indicators of AD in contrast to MCI. In general, load centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality were found to be the most relevant network measures, as they were the top identified features at different nodes. The present study can be regarded as a “proof of concept” about a procedure for the classification of MRI markers between AD dementia, MCI, and normal old individuals, due to the small and not well-defined groups of AD and MCI patients. Future studies with larger samples of subjects and more sophisticated patient exclusion criteria are necessary toward the development of a more precise technique for clinical diagnosis. PMID:28293162

  2. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  3. Analysis of spontaneous MEG activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using spectral entropies and statistical complexity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruña, Ricardo; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; García, María; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Over the last few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to exploring new biomarkers. Nevertheless, a better understanding of brain dynamics is still required to optimize therapeutic strategies. In this regard, the characterization of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is crucial, due to the high conversion rate from MCI to AD. However, only a few studies have focused on the analysis of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) rhythms to characterize AD and MCI. In this study, we assess the ability of several parameters derived from information theory to describe spontaneous MEG activity from 36 AD patients, 18 MCI subjects and 26 controls. Three entropies (Shannon, Tsallis and Rényi entropies), one disequilibrium measure (based on Euclidean distance ED) and three statistical complexities (based on Lopez Ruiz-Mancini-Calbet complexity LMC) were used to estimate the irregularity and statistical complexity of MEG activity. Statistically significant differences between AD patients and controls were obtained with all parameters (p validation procedure was applied. The accuracies reached 83.9% and 65.9% to discriminate AD and MCI subjects from controls, respectively. Our findings suggest that MCI subjects exhibit an intermediate pattern of abnormalities between normal aging and AD. Furthermore, the proposed parameters provide a new description of brain dynamics in AD and MCI.

  4. Cognition Effects of Low-Grade Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    human short-term memory . Br J Anaesth. 1971; 43(6):548–552. 3. Crow TJ, Kelman GR. Psychological effects of mild acute hypoxia. Br J Anaesth. 1973; 45...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2003 – Sep 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognition Effects of Low-Grade Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... cognitive function are reported in this paper. The study compared cognitive function during short exposures at four different altitudes. Ninety-one

  5. 24 CFR 200.61 - Title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner. (c) Endorsement of the credit instrument for insurance shall evidence the acceptability of title... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally...

  6. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  7. The Moderating Role of Anxiety in the Associations of Callous-Unemotional Traits with Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Affective and Cognitive Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A

    2017-04-01

    In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.

  8. S-TOFHLA in mild Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients as a measure of functional literacy: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Okada de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The greatest difficulty in diagnosing cognitive loss in our population is the diversity of its education which has a broad spectrum ranging from illiteracy, functional illiteracy and different degrees of literacy, even in those with the same level of schooling. Objectives: To verify whether there is impairment on the S-TOFHLA among individuals with AD and MCI compared with healthy controls, and to compare performance on the S-TOFHLA performance with neuropsychological tests and the scores achieved on the Raven's Colored Matrices and Vocabulary and Block Design (WAIS-III as a measure of estimated intellectual level. Methods: 59 subjects: controls (n=23; age 70.96±8.31y; schooling 10.2±5.87y; 6 men, MCI patients (n=11; age 74.18±8.12y; schooling 7.55±4.32y; 5 men and AD patients (n=25; age 76.16±4.96y; schooling 7.32±4.78y; 10 men were submitted to neuropsychological assessment, S-TOFHLA and functional evaluation. Results: Differences on BD, Raven and Estimated IQ were found between controls and MCI patients as well as controls and AD patients. On the S-TOFHLA, differences were found between MCI and AD patients, controls and AD patients, but not between control and MCI groups. S-TOFHLA performance correlated strongly with schooling and all neuropsychological tests, except Clock Drawing. Conclusions: The S-TOFHLA seems to be a useful measure for determining the level of literacy in MCI patients, but not in AD patients. S-TOFHLA performance was more closely associated with neuropsychological test scores than were years of education and seems to be a good predictor of level of literacy. The Vocabulary subtest proved to be uninfluenced by the disease process in early stages and preserved in both MCI and AD patients, showing that semantic memory and crystallized intelligence are preserved.

  9. White matter measures are near normal in controlled HIV infection except in those with cognitive impairment and longer HIV duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Soares, James R; Geng, Guangqiang; Scarpetta, Maia; Moffat, Kirsten; Green, Michael; Brew, Bruce J; Henry, Roland G; Rae, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 ; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL. Using the ENIGMA DTI protocol, FA and MD values were extracted for each participant and in 11 skeleton regions of interest (SROI) from standard labels in the JHU ICBM-81 atlas covering major striato-frontal and parietal tracks. We found no major differences in FA and MD values across the 11 SROI between study groups. Within the HIV+ sample, we found that a higher CNS penetrating antiretroviral treatment, higher current CD4+ T cell count, and immune recovery from the nadir CD4+ T cell count were associated with increased FA and decreased MD (p < 0.05-0.006), while HIV duration, symptomatic, and asymptomatic cognitive impairment were associated with decreased FA and increased MD (p < 0.01-0.004). Stability of HIV treatment and antiretroviral CNS penetration efficiency in addition to current and historical immune recovery were related to higher FA and lower MD (p = 0.04-p < 0.01). In conclusion, WM DTI measures are near normal except for patients with neurocognitive impairment and longer HIV disease duration.

  10. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activities of daily living measured by the Harvard Automated Phone Task track with cognitive decline over time in non-demented elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Locascio, Joseph J.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer’s disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap. Objective To further validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task by assessing its longitudinal relationship to global cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinically normal elderly and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Design In a longitudinal study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with cognitive measures using mixed effects models. The Harvard Automated Phone Task’s ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups at baseline was also assessed. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants Two hundred and seven participants (45 young normal, 141 clinically normal elderly, and 21 mild cognitive impairment) were recruited from the community and the memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Measurements Participants performed the three tasks of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, which consist of navigating an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, repetitions, and correct completion of the task. The primary outcome measure used for each of the tasks was total time adjusted for correct completion. Results The Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between young normal, clinically normal elderly, and mild cognitive impairment

  12. Comparing the characteristics of highly cited titles and highly alted titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didegah, F.; Bowman, T.D.; Bowman, S.; Hartley, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines differences in the types of titles for articles that show high altmetric activity (highly alted articles) versus highly cited articles. This work expands on previous research on document titles in combination with a grounded theory approach to develop a codebook in which articles were manually coded based on 11 characteristics. The results show that there are differences and similarities in titles across many of the examined characteristics; highly cited titles and highly mentioned titles on Wikipedia have some similar characteristics such as they have the the highest percentage of substantive words; in addition, there are no or very few titles referencing outside or with humor/lightness on both platforms. Twitter and Facebook also showed some similarities having the highest percentage of humorous/light titles and lowest percentage of substantive words in their titles. (Author)

  13. Disrupted Brain Network in Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment Measured by Eigenvector Centrality Mapping is Linked to Cognition and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tiantian; Luo, Xiao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Xu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jiong; Zhang, Minming

    2016-10-18

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition associated with a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although functional brain network alterations have been observed in progressive MCI (pMCI), the underlying pathological mechanisms of network alterations remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated neuropsychological, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data at baseline across a cohort of: 21 pMCI patients, 33 stable MCI (sMCI) patients, and 29 normal controls. Fast eigenvector centrality mapping (fECM) based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) was used to investigate brain network organization differences among these groups, and we further assessed its relation to cognition and AD-related pathology. Our results demonstrated that pMCI had decreased eigenvector centrality (EC) in left temporal pole and parahippocampal gyrus, and increased EC in left middle frontal gyrus compared to sMCI. In addition, compared to normal controls, patients with pMCI showed decreased EC in right hippocampus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and sMCI had decreased EC in right middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. Correlation analysis showed that EC in the left temporal pole was related to Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory (WMS-LM) delay score (r = 0.467, p = 0.044) and total tau (t-tau) level in CSF (r = -0.509, p = 0.026) in pMCI. Our findings implicate EC changes of different brain network nodes in the prognosis of pMCI and sMCI. Importantly, the association between decreased EC of brain network node and pathological changes may provide a deeper understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of pMCI.

  14. Getting to one from title 10 + title 32 unity of effort in the homeland

    OpenAIRE

    Prosch, Caroline Ross.

    2011-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis bridges the knowledge gap between Title 10 Active Duty and Title 32 National Guard in order to breakdown cultural barriers and reach unity of effort for response operations in the homeland. Regrettably, a unified response was missing among Title 10 Active Duty and Title 32 National Guard members following Hurricane Katrina. Since then, initiatives based in doctrine, statutes and formal recommendations...

  15. Effects of mental practice on performance are moderated by cognitive anxiety as measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvari, H

    1996-12-01

    45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a cognitive rehearsal of the task, whereas the latter did not. None practiced the task physically before being tested. Analysis of variance showed that both errors and performance time interacted significantly with Mental Practice versus Control group scores and scores on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Among subjects who practiced mentally, those scoring low on cognitive anxiety performed significantly better than subjects who scored high. Further, the relationship between test scores of cognitive anxiety and performance for the total sample was analysed by different curvilinear regression models. The cubic model fitted the data better and accounted for a greater percent of variance on error performance explained by anxiety test scores (R = .39) than the linear correlation (r = .25). This cubic model formed a polynomial relationship between cognitive anxiety test scores and error in performance.

  16. Diffusion Tensor Fractional Anisotropy in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Correlates with Functional Independence Measure Cognition Scores in Patients with Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between fiber tract degeneration measured by diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and outcome of patients after cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated by DTI in patients 14-21 days after the first infarction and were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Mean FA values within the corticospinal tract (CST) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were extracted from individual TBSS data. Relationships between FA ratios (rFAs, lesioned to non-lesioned hemisphere) and outcomes assessed by Brunnstrom stage (BRS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor and cognition scores were examined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Forty patients (21 left and 19 right hemisphere lesions) were entered into an analytical database. BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 5) for shoulder, elbow, or forearm; from 2 to 6 (median, 4.5) for hand or finger; and from 3 to 6 (median, 5) for lower extremity. FIM motor ranged from 51 to 91 (median, 79.5), and FIM cognition ranged from 16 to 35 (median, 29). rFA values in the CST ranged from .692 to 1.053 (median, .933), and those in the SLF ranged from .778 to 1.076 (median, .965). Mann-Whitney U test (P cognition scores (r = .409, P cognitive function and extremity function, respectively. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How property title impacts urban consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Easthope, Hazel; Warnken, Jan; Sherry, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Continuing urbanisation is triggering an increase in multi-titled housing internationally. This trend has given rise to a substantial research interest in the social consequences of higher density living. Little enquiry, however, has been directed to examining how property title subdivisions gene...

  18. 31 CFR 505.01 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 505.01 Section 505.01 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... CERTAIN MERCHANDISE BETWEEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 505.01 Short title. The regulations in this part may be...

  19. 33 CFR 401.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 401.1 Section 401.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations § 401.1 Short title. These regulations may be cited as the...

  20. 18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall be known...

  1. 25 CFR 151.13 - Title examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title examination. 151.13 Section 151.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.13 Title examination. If the Secretary determines that he will approve a request for the acquisition of land from...

  2. Student Achievement in Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abby T.

    2017-01-01

    This researcher seeks to answer the following question: How did two elementary Title I schools, identified as "high performing" on the first Smarter Balanced assessment, address elements of Maslow's hierarchy of needs when developing school-wide initiatives to enhance student achievement? Many students in Title I schools face barriers to…

  3. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  4. 24 CFR 202.11 - Title I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in 24 CFR 25.5. Civil money penalties may be imposed against Title I lenders and mortgagees pursuant... unacceptable risk to the Department; or (iv) Transfer of a Title I loan to a party that does not have a valid...

  5. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  6. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  7. EEG activity as an objective measure of cognitive load during effortful listening: A study on pediatric subjects with bilateral, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Pasquale; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Cartocci, Giulia; Giannantonio, Sara; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Venuti, Isotta; Brizi, Ambra; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks. Recently, alpha and theta EEG rhythm variations in the parietal and frontal areas, respectively, have been used as indicators of cognitive load in adult subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of EEG, the cognitive load of pediatric subjects affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss as they were engaged in a speech-in-noise identification task. Seven children (4F and 3M, age range = 8-16 years) affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (i.e. profound degree on one side, mild-to-severe degree on the other side) and using a hearing aid only in their better ear, were included in the study. All of them underwent EEG recording during a speech-in-noise identification task: the experimental conditions were quiet, binaural noise, noise to the better hearing ear and noise to the poorer hearing ear. The subjects' Speech Recognition Thresholds (SRT) were also measured in each test condition. The primary outcome measures were: frontal EEG Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the theta band and parietal EEG PSD in the alpha band, as assessed before stimulus (word) onset. No statistically significant differences were noted among frontal theta power levels in the four test conditions. However, parietal alpha power levels were significantly higher in the "binaural noise" and in the "noise to worse hearing ear" conditions than in the "quiet" and "noise to better hearing ear" conditions (p cognitive load during effortful listening. Significantly higher

  8. An Equal Start: Absence of Group Differences in Cognitive, Social and Neural Measures Prior to Music or Sports Training in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assal eHabibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6-7 year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  9. An equal start: absence of group differences in cognitive, social, and neural measures prior to music or sports training in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Ilari, Beatriz; Crimi, Kevin; Metke, Michael; Kaplan, Jonas T; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Shattuck, David W; Choi, So Y; Haldar, Justin P; Ficek, Bronte; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long-term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6- to 7-year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional, or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  10. 24 CFR 203.385 - Types of satisfactory title evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of satisfactory title... Title Waivers § 203.385 Types of satisfactory title evidence. The following types of title evidence shall be satisfactory to the Commissioner: (a) Fee or owner's title policy. A fee or owner's policy of...

  11. Quarterly title list for the period ending June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The title list contains: a) 17 titles and abstracts of laboratory reports, b) 36 titles of publications (32 with abstracts), c) 13 titles of articles submitted for publication (12 with abstracts), and d) 72 titles of lectures (52 with abstracts.) (GG) [de

  12. Creatine Supplementation Associated or Not with Strength Training upon Emotional and Cognitive Measures in Older Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Merege Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Brucki, Sonia; Pereira, Rosa Maria R.; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Methods This is a 24-week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The individuals were randomly allocated into one of the following groups (n=14 each): 1) placebo, 2) creatine supplementation, 3) placebo associated with strength training or 4) creatine supplementation associated with strength training. According to their allocation, the participants were given creatine (4 x 5 g/d for 5 days followed by 5 g/d) or placebo (dextrose at the same dosage) and were strength trained or not. Cognitive function, assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests involving memory, selective attention, and inhibitory control, and emotional measures, assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale, were evaluated at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention. Muscle strength and food intake were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results After the 24-week intervention, both training groups (ingesting creatine supplementation and placebo) had significant reductions on the Geriatric Depression Scale scores when compared with the non-trained placebo group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and the non-trained creatine group (p creatine (p = 0.60) groups, or between the trained placebo and creatine groups (p = 0.83). Both trained groups, irrespective of creatine supplementation, had better muscle strength performance than the non-trained groups. Neither strength training nor creatine supplementation altered any parameter of cognitive performance. Food intake remained unchanged. Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals. In addition, strength training per se improved emotional state and muscle strength, but not cognition, with no additive effects of creatine supplementation

  13. The Impact of a Home-Based Computerized Cognitive Training Intervention on Fall Risk Measure Performance in Community Dwelling Older Adults, a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, J; Shubert, T; Fogarty, K; Chase, C

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive intervention studies have reported improvements in various domains of cognition as well as a transfer effect of improved function post training. Despite the availability of web based cognitive training programs, most intervention studies have been performed under the supervision of researchers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to first, examine the feasibility of a six week home based computerized cognitive training (CCT) program in a group of community dwelling older adults and, second, to determine if a CCT program which focused on set shifting, attention, and visual spatial ability impacted fall risk measure performance. This pilot study used a pretest/posttest experimental design with randomization by testing site to an intervention or control group. Community dwelling older adults (mean age = 74.6 years) participated in either the control (N=25) or the intervention group (N=19). Intervention group subjects participated in 6 weeks of home based CCT 3x/week for an average of 23 minutes/session, using an online CCT program. Comparisons of mean scores on three measures of physical function (usual gait speed, five times sit to stand, timed up and go) were completed at baseline and week 7. Following the completion of an average of 18 sessions of CCT at home with good adherence (86%) and retention (92%) rates, a statistically significant difference in gait speed was found between groups with an average improvement of 0.14 m/s in the intervention group. A home based CCT program is a feasible approach to targeting cognitive impairments known to influence fall risk and changes in gait in older adults.

  14. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvoort SJW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serge JW Walvoort,1–3 Paul T van der Heijden,3,4 Roy PC Kessels,1,2,5 Jos IM Egger1–3,6 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, 3Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 4Reinier van Arkel Mental Health Institute, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands Aim: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8 was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS and in alcohol use disorder (AUD patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results: Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73. The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion: The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. Keywords: illness insight, anosognosia, alcohol use disorder, Korsakoff

  15. Designing Non-Cognitive Construct Measures That Improve Mathematics Achievement in Grade 5-6 Learners. A User-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi; Lin, Meiko

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and iteratively improve the quality of survey-based measures of three non-cognitive constructs for Grade 5-6 students, keeping in mind information needs of users in education reform contexts. The constructs are: Mathematics-related Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Anxiety (M-SE, M-SC, and M-ANX).…

  16. Measuring relationships between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, burnout and well-being in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists: a quantitative survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Elaine.; Durkin, Mark.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Carson, Jerome.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged deficiency in self-care strategies puts counsellors and psychotherapists at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue. Aim: To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing and burnout in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. Method: A quantitative survey using four validated data collection instruments: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental We...

  17. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  18. Relationships between nutrition-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior for fifth grade students attending Title I and non-Title I schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations

  19. INIS: Authority list for journal titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the 31st revision of the INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles (IAEA-INIS-11). This list is published annually and includes the titles of all journals which have contained articles submitted to INIS at the time of publication. The current list contains 13,104 journal titles, 2,078 regularly scanned journals and 561 key journals. It was last updated in February 2005. The purpose of this report is to provide descriptive cataloguers with a standard entry for the full title of a journal. In addition to the full journal title, the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), administered by the ISSN International Centre, Paris, France, and/or CODEN, assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service, USA, are given in this manual. In order to help the user find titles easily, the list is arranged in six parts, followed by summary statistics: In Part I, all key journals are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part II, all key journals are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS is entered in parentheses within the body of the entry. In Part III, all journals that are regularly scanned by INIS Centers are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part IV, all journals that are regularly scanned by INIS Centers are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS is entered in parentheses within the body of the entry. In Part V, all journals are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part VI, all journals are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the

  20. INIS: Authority list for journal titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    This is the 31st revision of the INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles (IAEA-INIS-11). This list is published annually and includes the titles of all journals which have contained articles submitted to INIS at the time of publication. The current list contains 13,104 journal titles, 2,078 regularly scanned journals and 561 key journals. It was last updated in February 2005. The purpose of this report is to provide descriptive cataloguers with a standard entry for the full title of a journal. In addition to the full journal title, the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), administered by the ISSN International Centre, Paris, France, and/or CODEN, assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service, USA, are given in this manual. In order to help the user find titles easily, the list is arranged in six parts, followed by summary statistics: In Part I, all key journals are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part II, all key journals are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS is entered in parentheses within the body of the entry. In Part III, all journals that are regularly scanned by INIS Centers are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part IV, all journals that are regularly scanned by INIS Centers are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS is entered in parentheses within the body of the entry. In Part V, all journals are grouped under the name of the country or international organization responsible for their input in INIS, then sorted alphabetically under their title. In Part VI, all journals are sorted alphabetically under their title. The name of the