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Sample records for titanium-based biomaterial surfaces

  1. Antibacterial Surface Design of Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Enhanced Bacteria-Killing and Cell-Assisting Functions Against Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Qian, Shi; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-04

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the formidable and recalcitrant complications after orthopedic surgery, and inhibiting biofilm formation on the implant surface is considered crucial to prophylaxis of PJI. However, it has recently been demonstrated that free-floating biofilm-like aggregates in the local body fluid and bacterial colonization on the implant and peri-implant tissues can coexist and are involved in the pathogenesis of PJI. An effective surface with both contact-killing and release-killing antimicrobial capabilities can potentially abate these concerns and minimize PJI caused by adherent/planktonic bacteria. Herein, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in titania (TiO2) nanotubes by anodic oxidation and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to form a contact-killing surface. Vancomycin is then incorporated into the nanotubes by vacuum extraction and lyophilization to produce the release-killing effect. A novel clinical PJI model system involving both in vitro and in vivo use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 is established to systematically evaluate the antibacterial properties of the hybrid surface against planktonic and sessile bacteria. The vancomycin-loaded and Ag-implanted TiO2 nanotubular surface exhibits excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against planktonic/adherent bacteria without appreciable silver ion release. The fibroblasts/bacteria cocultures reveal that the surface can help fibroblasts to combat bacteria. We first utilize the nanoarchitecture of implant surface as a bridge between the inorganic bactericide (Ag NPs) and organic antibacterial agent (vancomycin) to achieve total victory in the battle of PJI. The combination of contact-killing and release-killing together with cell-assisting function also provides a novel and effective strategy to mitigate bacterial infection and biofilm formation on biomaterials and has large potential in orthopedic applications.

  2. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  3. Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Preventing Stress Shielding between Implant Devices and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niinomi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available β-type titanium alloys with low Young's modulus are required to inhibit bone atrophy and enhance bone remodeling for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. At the same time, these titanium alloys are required to have high static and dynamic strength. On the other hand, metallic biomaterials with variable Young's modulus are required to satisfy the needs of both patients and surgeons, namely, low and high Young's moduli, respectively. In this paper, we have discussed effective methods to improve the static and dynamic strength while maintaining low Young's modulus for β-type titanium alloys used in biomedical applications. Then, the advantage of low Young's modulus of β-type titanium alloys in biomedical applications has been discussed from the perspective of inhibiting bone atrophy and enhancing bone remodeling. Further, we have discussed the development of β-type titanium alloys with a self-adjusting Young's modulus for use in removable implants.

  4. Titanium-based spectrally selective surfaces for solar thermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A D; Holmes, J P

    1983-10-01

    A study of spectrally selective surfaces based on anodic oxide films on titanium is presented. These surfaces have low values of solar absorptance, 0.77, due to the nonideal optical properties of the anodic TiO2 for antireflection of titanium. A simple chemical etching process is described which gives a textured surface with dimensions similar to the wavelengths of solar radiation, leading to spectral selectivity. The performance of this dark-etched surface can be further improved by anodising, and optimum absorbers have been produced with alpha(s) 0.935 and hemispherical emittances (400 K) 0.23. The surface texturing effects a significant improvement in alpha(s) at oblique incidence.

  5. Bioinspired surface functionalization of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingchao; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Zhihui; Hermawan, Hendra; Zhu, Donghui; Huang, Jubin; Liang, Yunhong; Li, Guangyu; Ren, Luquan

    2018-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used for clinical applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and good durability. In order to provide essential biofunctionalities, surface functionalization is of particular interest and requirement in the development of high-performance metallic implants. Inspired by the functional surface of natural biological systems, many new designs and conceptions have recently emerged to create multifunctional surfaces with great potential for biomedical applications. This review firstly introduces the metallic biomaterials, important surface properties, and then elaborates some strategies on achieving the bioinspired surface functionalization for metallic biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium biomaterials with complex surfaces induced aberrant peripheral circadian rhythms in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nathaniel; McCarville, Kirstin; Morinaga, Kenzo; Mengatto, Cristiane M; Langfelder, Peter; Hokugo, Akishige; Tahara, Yu; Colwell, Christopher S; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated. The Ti biomaterials, which reduced Per1 expression and upregulated Npas2, were further examined with BMSCs harvested from Per1::luc transgenic rats. Next, we addressed the regulatory relationship between Per1 and Npas2 using BMSCs from Npas2 knockout mice. The Npas2 knockout mutation did not rescue the Ti biomaterial-induced Per1 suppression and did not affect Per2, Per3, Bmal1 and Clock expression, suggesting that the Ti biomaterial-induced Npas2 overexpression was likely an independent phenomenon. Previously, vitamin D deficiency was reported to interfere with Ti biomaterial osseointegration. The present study demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation significantly increased Per1::luc expression in BMSCs, though the presence of Ti biomaterials only moderately affected the suppressed Per1::luc expression. Available in vivo microarray data from femurs exposed to Ti biomaterials in vitamin D-deficient rats were evaluated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A large co-expression network containing Npas2, Bmal1, and Vdr was observed to form with the Ti biomaterials, which was disintegrated by vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the aberrant BMSC peripheral circadian rhythm may be essential for the integration of Ti biomaterials into bone.

  7. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  8. Bone bonding at natural and biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John E

    2007-12-01

    Bone bonding is occurring in each of us and all other terrestrial vertebrates throughout life at bony remodeling sites. The surface created by the bone-resorbing osteoclast provides a three-dimensionally complex surface with which the cement line, the first matrix elaborated during de novo bone formation, interdigitates and is interlocked. The structure and composition of this interfacial bony matrix has been conserved during evolution across species; and we have known for over a decade that this interfacial matrix can be recapitulated at a biomaterial surface implanted in bone, given appropriate healing conditions. No evidence has emerged to suggest that bone bonding to artificial materials is any different from this natural biological process. Given this understanding it is now possible to explain why bone-bonding biomaterials are not restricted to the calcium-phosphate-based bioactive materials as was once thought. Indeed, in the absence of surface porosity, calcium phosphate biomaterials are not bone bonding. On the contrary, non-bonding materials can be rendered bone bonding by modifying their surface topography. This paper argues that the driving force for bone bonding is bone formation by contact osteogenesis, but that this has to occur on a sufficiently stable recipient surface which has micron-scale surface topography with undercuts in the sub-micron scale-range.

  9. Plasma assisted surface treatments of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Migliaresi, C; Lunelli, L; Viero, G; Dalla Serra, M; Speranza, G

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant depends upon the material it is composed of, in addition to the prosthetic device's morphology, mechanical and surface properties. Properties as porosity and pore size should allow, when required, cells penetration and proliferation. Stiffness and strength, that depend on the bulk characteristics of the material, should match the mechanical requirements of the prosthetic applications. Surface properties should allow integration in the surrounding tissues by activating proper communication pathways with the surrounding cells. Bulk and surface properties are not interconnected, and for instance a bone prosthesis could possess the necessary stiffness and strength for the application omitting out prerequisite surface properties essential for the osteointegration. In this case, surface treatment is mandatory and can be accomplished using various techniques such as applying coatings to the prosthesis, ion beams, chemical grafting or modification, low temperature plasma, or a combination of the aforementioned. Low temperature plasma-based techniques have gained increasing consensus for the surface modification of biomaterials for being effective and competitive compared to other ways to introduce surface functionalities. In this paper we review plasma processing techniques and describe potentialities and applications of plasma to tailor the interface of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  11. Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, P.; Van Dam, J.; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a

  12. A new titanium based alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcio W D; Ágreda, Carola G; Bressiani, Ana H A; Bressiani, José C

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for >3 days in the SBF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Migonney , Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 20th century, biomaterials have contributed to many of the incredible scientific and technological advancements made in recent decades. This book introduces and details the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a various fields, practical applications of their products, and potential advancements of the years to come. A comprehensive resource, the text covers the reasons that certain properties of biomaterials contribute to specific applications, and students and researchers will appreciate this exhaustive textbook.

  14. A new titanium based alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Marcio W.D., E-mail: mwdmendes@ipen.com; Ágreda, Carola G.; Bressiani, Ana H.A.; Bressiani, José C.

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for > 3 days in the SBF solution. - Highlights: • The alloy is classified as α + β and the milling time influences the formation of these phases. • Dissolution of Nb is related to the mechanical properties of the alloy. • It's possible to form apatite on all samples immersed in SBF from 3 days. • The alloy can be used in orthopedic applications or in dental applications.

  15. Biocompatibility of the titanium-based implant surfaces: Effect of the calcium dihydrogen phosphate on osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović Milena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of calcium dihydrogen phosphate in acid media on titanium-based implant surfaces, Ticer, employed in clinics, and its white form (Ticer white, on osteoblast cells was investigated. Novel surfaces M1 and M2 were obtained by immersing Ticer and Ticer white surfaces in calcium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.5. The surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results related to interaction of investigated surfaces and human osteoblast cells from indirect biocompatibility (MTT and SRB assays, proliferation (DAPI assay and mode of cell death (acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB double staining were found to be in good agreement, as well as findings from osteocalcin (OC and bone sialoprotein (BSP expression. Surfaces were obtained by employing anodic plasma-electrochemical oxidation with spark discharges without subsequent surface modifications were found to be more compatible. Soaking of Ticer and Ticer white in phosphate solution gave toxic materials (M1 and M2 which induced apoptosis and secondary necrosis in osteoblast cells.

  16. Wettability and surface free energy of polarised ceramic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Namba, Saki; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The surface modification of ceramic biomaterials used for medical devices is expected to improve osteoconductivity through control of the interfaces between the materials and living tissues. Polarisation treatment induced surface charges on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and yttria-stabilized zirconia regardless of the differences in the carrier ions participating in the polarisation. Characterization of the surfaces revealed that the wettability of the polarised ceramic biomaterials was improved through the increase in the surface free energies compared with conventional ceramic surfaces. (note)

  17. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  18. Surface modification of biomaterials and biomedical devices using additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Robertson, Samuel Ford; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-01-15

    The demand for synthetic biomaterials in medical devices, pharmaceutical products and, tissue replacement applications are growing steadily due to aging population worldwide. The use for patient matched devices is also increasing due to availability and integration of new technologies. Applications of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing (3DP) in biomaterials have also increased significantly over the past decade towards traditional as well as innovative next generation Class I, II and III devices. In this review, we have focused our attention towards the use of AM in surface modified biomaterials to enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances. Specifically, we have discussed the use of AM to deliberately modify the surfaces of different classes of biomaterials with spatial specificity in a single manufacturing process as well as commented on the future outlook towards surface modification using AM. It is widely understood that the success of implanted medical devices depends largely on favorable material-tissue interactions. Additive manufacturing has gained traction as a viable and unique approach to engineered biomaterials, for both bulk and surface properties that improve implant outcomes. This review explores how additive manufacturing techniques have been and can be used to augment the surfaces of biomedical devices for direct clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface characterization of titanium based dental implants; Caracterizacao de implantes odontologicos a base de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Guilherme Augusto Alcaraz

    2006-07-01

    Dental implantology uses metallic devices made of commercially pure titanium in order to replace lost teeth. Titanium presents favorable characteristics as bio material and modern implants are capable of integrate, witch is the union between bone and implant without fibrous tissue development. Three of the major Brazilian implant manufacturers were chosen to join the study. A foreign manufacturer participated as standard. The manufacturers had three specimens of each implant with two different surface finishing, as machined and porous, submitted to analysis. Surface chemical composition and implant morphology were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe. Implant surface is mainly composed of titanium, oxygen and carbon. Few contaminants commonly present on implant surface were found on samples. Superficial oxide layer is basically composed of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), another oxides as Ti O and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also found in small amount. Carbon on implant surface was attributed to manufacturing process. Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Silicon appeared in smaller concentration on surface. There was no surface discrepancy among foreign and Brazilian made implants. SEM images were made on different magnification, 35 X to 3500 X, and showed similarity among as machined implants. Porous surface finishing implants presented distinct morphology. This result was attributed to differences on manufacturing process. Implant bioactivity was accessed through immersion on simulated body solution (SBF) in order to verify formation of an hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on surface. Samples were divided on three groups according to immersion time: G1 (7 days), G2 (14 days), G3 (21 days), and deep in SBF solution at 37 deg C. After being removed from solution, XPS analyses were made and then implants have been submitted to microprobe analysis. XPS showed some components of SBF solution on sample surface but microprobe

  20. The Influence of Surface Roughness on Biocompatibility and Fatigue Life of Titanium Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, S.; Cyrus, P.; Hubálovská, M.

    2017-02-01

    This article deals with the effect of treatment on the mechanical properties ofbiocompatible alloys. In the case of implants, it is desirable to ensure good biocompatibility. Generally, the environment in the body is very aggressive and implants can quickly degrade due the corrosion. The process of corrosion leads to the release of harmful particles into the body. Other reasons for rejection of the implants, is their coverage bacterial plaque. Another reason for the rejection of the implant may be a smooth surface. In some cases, the tissue does not adhere to the smooth surface of the implant, in this regionsoccurs an accumulation of body fluids. This problem can be solved with a rough surface. From the viewpoint of fatigue resistance, the rough surface containing grooves and holes has a negative influence on the fatigue resistance against mechanical loading. The rough surface can be produced by machining or asymmetric deposition of particles of oxides, nitrides or other particles on surface. In this work the formation and propagation of fatigue cracks in the material with granular surface is analysed. The formation and growth of fatigue crack originated from granular surface is simulated. Also, experimental studies were carried out.

  1. Surface-MALDI mass spectrometry in biomaterials research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesser, H.J.; Kingshott, P.; McArthur, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used for over a decade for the determination of purity and accurate molecular masses of macromolecular analytes, such as proteins, in solution. In the last few years the technique has been adapted to become a new...... surfaces and detecting their molecular ions with high mass resolution and at levels much below monolayer coverage. Thus, Surface-MALDI-MS offers unique means of addressing biomaterial surface analysis needs, such as identification of the proteins and lipids that adsorb from multicomponent biological...... solutions in vitro and in vivo, the study of interactions between biomaterial surfaces and biomolecules, and identification of surface-enriched additives and contaminants. Surface-MALDI-MS is rapid, experimentally convenient, overcomes limitations in mass resolution and sensitivity of established...

  2. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls

  3. Microarrays for the evaluation of cell-biomaterial surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, H.; Johnson, G.; McFarland, G.; Verbiest, B. C. H.; Gengenbach, T.; Voelcker, N. H.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of cell-material surface interactions is important for the design of novel biomaterials which are used in a variety of biomedical applications. While traditional in vitro test methods have routinely used samples of relatively large size, microarrays representing different biomaterials offer many advantages, including high throughput and reduced sample handling. Here, we describe the simultaneous cell-based testing of matrices of polymeric biomaterials, arrayed on glass slides with a low cell-attachment background coating. Arrays were constructed using a microarray robot at 6 fold redundancy with solid pins having a diameter of 375 μm. Printed solutions contained at least one monomer, an initiator and a bifunctional crosslinker. After subsequent UV polymerisation, the arrays were washed and characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell culture experiments were carried out over 24 hours using HeLa cells. After labelling with CellTracker ® Green for the final hour of incubation and subsequent fixation, the arrays were scanned. In addition, individual spots were also viewed by fluorescence microscopy. The evaluation of cell-surface interactions in high-throughput assays as demonstrated here is a key enabling technology for the effective development of future biomaterials.

  4. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cleaning of biomaterial surfaces: protein removal by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Fabian; Grass, Simone; Umanskaya, Natalia; Scheibe, Christian; Müller-Renno, Christine; Davoudi, Neda; Hannig, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The removal of biofilms or protein films from biomaterials is still a challenging task. In particular, for research investigations on real (applied) surfaces the reuse of samples is of high importance, because reuse allows the comparison of the same sample in different experiments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of different solvents (SDS, water, acetone, isopropanol, RIPA-buffer and Tween-20) on five different biomaterials (titanium, gold, PMMA (no acetone used), ceramic, and PTFE) with different wettability which were covered by layers of two different adsorbed proteins (BSA and lysozyme). The presence of a protein film after adsorption was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After treatment of the surfaces with the different solvents, the residual proteins on the surface were determined by BCA-assay (bicinchoninic acid assay). Data of the present study indicate that SDS is an effective solvent, but for several protein-substrate combinations it does not show the cleaning efficiency often mentioned in literature. RIPA-buffer and Tween-20 were more effective. They showed very low residual protein amounts after cleaning on all examined material surfaces and for both proteins, however, with small differences for the respective substrate-protein combinations. RIPA-buffer in combination with ultrasonication completely removed the protein layer as confirmed by TEM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  7. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different...... of bone properties is feasible, biomaterials that could simultaneously mimic all or most of the relevant bone properties are rare. We used rational design and additive manufacturing to develop porous metallic biomaterials that exhibit an interesting combination of topological, mechanical, and mass...

  8. Computer simulation of biomolecule–biomaterial interactions at surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Meng-hao; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Ke-feng; Zhang, Xing-dong; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Hong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial surfaces and interfaces are intrinsically complicated systems because they involve biomolecules, implanted biomaterials, and complex biological environments. It is difficult to understand the interaction mechanism between biomaterials and biomolecules through conventional experimental methods. Computer simulation is an effective way to study the interaction mechanism at the atomic and molecular levels. In this review, we summarized the recent studies on the interaction behaviors of biomolecules with three types of the most widely used biomaterials: hydroxyapatite (HA), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ), and graphene(G)/graphene oxide(GO). The effects of crystal forms, crystallographic planes, surface defects, doping atoms, and water environments on biomolecules adsorption are discussed in detail. This review provides valuable theoretical guidance for biomaterial designing and surface modification. (topical review)

  9. Protein-surface interactions on stimuli-responsive polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael C; Toomey, Ryan G; Gallant, Nathan D

    2016-03-04

    Responsive surfaces: a review of the dependence of protein adsorption on the reversible volume phase transition in stimuli-responsive polymers. Specifically addressed are a widely studied subset: thermoresponsive polymers. Findings are also generalizable to other materials which undergo a similarly reversible volume phase transition. As of 2015, over 100,000 articles have been published on stimuli-responsive polymers and many more on protein-biomaterial interactions. Significantly, fewer than 100 of these have focused specifically on protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers. These report a clear trend of increased protein adsorption in the collapsed state compared to the swollen state. This control over protein interactions makes stimuli-responsive polymers highly useful in biomedical applications such as wound repair scaffolds, on-demand drug delivery, and antifouling surfaces. Outstanding questions are whether the protein adsorption is reversible with the volume phase transition and whether there is a time-dependence. A clear understanding of protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers will advance theoretical models, experimental results, and biomedical applications.

  10. A review of the clinical implications of anti-infective biomaterials and infection-resistant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2013-11-01

    Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. The important social, clinical and economic impacts of implant-related infections are promoting the efforts to obviate these severe diseases. In this context, the development of anti-infective biomaterials and of infection-resistant surfaces is being regarded as the main strategy to prevent the establishment of implant colonisation and biofilm formation by bacteria. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction–Corrosion and Friction Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirowicz-Laskowska, Katarzyna; Łysik, Dawid; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Jan R.; Bucki, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials. PMID:29509686

  12. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction-Corrosion and Friction Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystkowska, Joanna; Niemirowicz-Laskowska, Katarzyna; Łysik, Dawid; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Jan R; Bucki, Robert

    2018-03-06

    Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials.

  13. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction–Corrosion and Friction Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mystkowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials.

  14. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  15. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces: A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-04-15

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed a favorable but rare combination of relatively low elastic properties in the range of those observed for trabecular bone and high yield strengths exceeding those reported for cortical bone. This combination allows for simultaneously avoiding stress shielding, while providing ample mechanical support for bone tissue regeneration and osseointegration. Furthermore, as opposed to other AM porous biomaterials developed to date for which the fatigue endurance limit has been found to be ≈20% of their yield (or plateau) stress, some of the biomaterials developed in the current study show extremely high fatigue resistance with endurance limits up to 60% of their yield stress. It was also found that the permeability values measured for the developed biomaterials were in the range of values reported for trabecular bone. In summary, the developed porous metallic biomaterials based on TPMS mimic the topological, mechanical, and physical properties of trabecular bone to a great degree. These properties make them potential candidates to be applied as parts of orthopedic implants and/or as bone

  16. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification ...

  17. A review of the biomaterials technologies for infection-resistant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2013-11-01

    Anti-infective biomaterials need to be tailored according to the specific clinical application. All their properties have to be tuned to achieve the best anti-infective performance together with safe biocompatibility and appropriate tissue interactions. Innovative technologies are developing new biomaterials and surfaces endowed with anti-infective properties, relying either on antifouling, or bactericidal, or antibiofilm activities. This review aims at thoroughly surveying the numerous classes of antibacterial biomaterials and the underlying strategies behind them. Bacteria repelling and antiadhesive surfaces, materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties, antibacterial coatings, nanostructured materials, and molecules interfering with bacterial biofilm are considered. Among the new strategies, the use of phages or of antisense peptide nucleic acids are discussed, as well as the possibility to modulate the local immune response by active cytokines. Overall, there is a wealth of technical solutions to contrast the establishment of an implant infection. Many of them exhibit a great potential in preclinical models. The lack of well-structured prospective multicenter clinical trials hinders the achievement of conclusive data on the efficacy and comparative performance of anti-infective biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface characterization of collagen/elastin based biomaterials for tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J.; Sionkowska, A.; Kaminska, A.; Kaznica, A.; Jachimiak, R.; Drewa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen and elastin are the main proteins of extracellular matrix. Collagen plays a crucial role in tensile strength of tissues, whereas elastin provides resilience to many organs. Both biopolymers are readily available and biocompatible. These properties point out that collagen and elastin are good components of materials for many potential medical applications. The surface properties of biomaterials play an important role in biomedicine as the majority of biological reactions occur on the surface of implanted materials. One of the methods of surface modification is UV-irradiation. The exposition of the biomaterial on ultraviolet light can alterate surface properties of the materials, their chemical stability, swelling properties and mechanical properties as well. The aim of our work was to study the surface properties and biocompatibility of new collagen/elastin based biomaterials and consideration of the influence of ultraviolet light on these properties. The surface properties of collagen/elastin based biomaterials modified by UV-irradiation were studied using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. On the basis of the results the surface free energy and its polar component was calculated using Owens-Wendt method. To assess the biological performance of films based on collagen, elastin and their blends, the response of 3T3 cell was investigated. It was found that the surface of collagen/elastin film is enriched in less polar component - collagen. Exposition on UV light increases polarity of collagen/elastin based films, due to photooxidation process. The AFM images have shown that topography and roughness of the materials had been also affected by UV-irradiation. The changes in surface properties influence on interaction between the material's surface and cells. The investigation of 3T3 cells grown on films based on collagen, elastin and their blends, leads to the conclusion that higher content of elastin in biomaterial

  19. Surface characterization of collagen/elastin based biomaterials for tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J., E-mail: joanna@chem.uni.torun.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarin 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Sionkowska, A.; Kaminska, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarin 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kaznica, A.; Jachimiak, R.; Drewa, T. [Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Karlowicz 24, 85-092 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2009-07-15

    Collagen and elastin are the main proteins of extracellular matrix. Collagen plays a crucial role in tensile strength of tissues, whereas elastin provides resilience to many organs. Both biopolymers are readily available and biocompatible. These properties point out that collagen and elastin are good components of materials for many potential medical applications. The surface properties of biomaterials play an important role in biomedicine as the majority of biological reactions occur on the surface of implanted materials. One of the methods of surface modification is UV-irradiation. The exposition of the biomaterial on ultraviolet light can alterate surface properties of the materials, their chemical stability, swelling properties and mechanical properties as well. The aim of our work was to study the surface properties and biocompatibility of new collagen/elastin based biomaterials and consideration of the influence of ultraviolet light on these properties. The surface properties of collagen/elastin based biomaterials modified by UV-irradiation were studied using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. On the basis of the results the surface free energy and its polar component was calculated using Owens-Wendt method. To assess the biological performance of films based on collagen, elastin and their blends, the response of 3T3 cell was investigated. It was found that the surface of collagen/elastin film is enriched in less polar component - collagen. Exposition on UV light increases polarity of collagen/elastin based films, due to photooxidation process. The AFM images have shown that topography and roughness of the materials had been also affected by UV-irradiation. The changes in surface properties influence on interaction between the material's surface and cells. The investigation of 3T3 cells grown on films based on collagen, elastin and their blends, leads to the conclusion that higher content of elastin in

  20. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achala de Mel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

  1. The influence of surface integrin binding patterns on specific biomaterial-cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Maggi Marie

    As the future of biomaterials progresses toward bioactivity, the biomaterial surface must control non-specific protein adsorption and encourage selective protein and cell adsorption. Integrins alphavbeta3, alpha 1beta1, alpha5beta1 and alpha Mbeta2 are expressed on cells involved in endothelialization, inflammation, and intimal hyperplasia. These cellular events play a vital role in biomaterial biocompatibility, especially in the vascular environment. The overall hypothesis of these studies is that biomaterial surfaces exhibit selective integrin binding, which then specifies differential cell binding. To test this hypothesis, four specific aims were developed. The first aim was designed to determine whether metal and polymeric biomaterials exhibit selective integrin binding. The tested materials included 316L stainless steel, nitinol, gold, Elgiloy RTM, poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide), polycarbonate urethane and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Discrete integrin binding patterns were detected microscopically using integrin specific fluorescent antibodies. Stainless steel exhibited high level integrin alpha1beta 1 and low level integrin alphaMbeta2 binding pattern. This suggests that this metal surface should selectively encourage endothelial cell to inflammatory cell binding. In contrast, gold bound ten times the amount of integrin alphaMbeta2 compared to integrin alpha1beta1, which should encourage inflammatory cell adhesion. The 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) was the only polymeric biomaterial tested that had integrin binding levels comparable to metal biomaterials. Based on these observations, a combinational biomaterial with a surface pattern of 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) dots on a 316L stainless steel background was created. A pattern of high level integrin alpha1beta1 binding and low level integrin alpha Mbeta2 binding on this combinational surface indicates that this surface should selectively favor endothelial cell binding. In the second

  2. New quantitative image analysis of staphylococcal biofilms on the surfaces of nontranslucent metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouichi; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Yonekura, Akihiko; Nishimura, Seisuke; Kajiyama, Shiro; Hirakata, Yoichi; Shindo, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Implant-related infection after orthopedic surgery is difficult to cure. One of the causes of infection is the bacterial biofilm that forms around biomaterials used during surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate bacterial biofilms extensively to resolve the problems of these postoperative infections. However, no established culture method or quantification system exists for bacterial biofilms grown on the surface of the metallic biomaterials used in orthopedics, which are nonradiolucent. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative method to evaluate the difference in resistance of stainless steel versus titanium to staphylococcal biofilms and the efficacy of antibiotics against biofilms. The bacterial strains used in this study were three Staphylococcus aureus stains: strain Seattle 1945 and two clinical strains cultured from postoperative infections. Staphylococcal biofilms were formed on stainless steel washers (SUS304) and titanium washers (pure titanium). They were stained with crystal violet and were examined with a digital microscope to calculate the bacterial coverage rate (BCR) by NIH imaging. The BCR of S. aureus biofilms formed on stainless steel and titanium washers increased over time. At 24, 48, and 72 h after cultivation, the amount of biofilm on the surface of the stainless steel washers was significantly greater or tended to be greater than that on the titanium. Cefazolin was applied to the obtained biofilms of two clinically isolated S. aureus strains. Cefazolin did not eradicate the biofilms but significantly reduced the biofilm of one strain. The newly developed quantitative method (static microtube culture and measurement system) was useful for assessing the amount of bacterial biofilms on the surface of nontranslucent biomaterial. We found that titanium may be more resistant to bacterial infection than stainless steel. To control implant-related severe infections, the biomaterials should be assessed from the viewpoint of

  3. Effects of bio-functionalizing surface treatments on the mechanical behavior of open porous titanium biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; van der Stok, J; Wauthle, R; Riemslag, A C; Janssen, M; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-01

    Bio-functionalizing surface treatments are often applied for improving the bioactivity of biomaterials that are based on otherwise bioinert titanium alloys. When applied on highly porous titanium alloy structures intended for orthopedic bone regeneration purposes, such surface treatments could significantly change the static and fatigue properties of these structures and, thus, affect the application of the biomaterial as bone substitute. Therefore, the interplay between biofunctionalizing surface treatments and mechanical behavior needs to be controlled. In this paper, we studied the effects of two bio-functionalizing surface treatments, namely alkali-acid heat treatment (AlAcH) and acid-alkali (AcAl), on the static and fatigue properties of three different highly porous titanium alloy implants manufactured using selective laser melting. It was found that AlAcH treatment results in minimal mass loss. The static and fatigue properties of AlAcH specimens were therefore not much different from as-manufactured (AsM) specimens. In contrast, AcAl resulted in substantial mass loss and also in significantly less static and fatigue properties particularly for porous structures with the highest porosity. The ratio of the static mechanical properties of AcAl specimens to that of AsM specimen was in the range of 1.5-6. The fatigue lives of AcAl specimens were much more severely affected by the applied surface treatments with fatigue lives up to 23 times smaller than that of AsM specimens particularly for the porous structures with the highest porosity. In conclusion, the fatigue properties of surface treated porous titanium are dependent not only on the type of applied surface treatment but also on the porosity of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  5. Surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials as potential scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangkui; Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang; Wang, Haixia; Li, Qian; Yang, Jing; Hao, Xuefang; Lv, Juan; Ma, Nan; Li, Wenzhong

    2015-08-07

    Surface modification and endothelialization of vascular biomaterials are common approaches that are used to both resist the nonspecific adhesion of proteins and improve the hemocompatibility and long-term patency of artificial vascular grafts. Surface modification of vascular grafts using hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), zwitterionic polymers, heparin or other bioactive molecules can efficiently enhance hemocompatibility, and consequently prevent thrombosis on artificial vascular grafts. However, these modified surfaces may be excessively hydrophilic, which limits initial vascular endothelial cell adhesion and formation of a confluent endothelial lining. Therefore, the improvement of endothelialization on these grafts by chemical modification with specific peptides and genes is now arousing more and more interest. Several active peptides, such as RGD, CAG, REDV and YIGSR, can be specifically recognized by endothelial cells. Consequently, graft surfaces that are modified by these peptides can exhibit targeting selectivity for the adhesion of endothelial cells, and genes can be delivered by targeting carriers to specific tissues to enhance the promotion and regeneration of blood vessels. These methods could effectively accelerate selective endothelial cell recruitment and functional endothelialization. In this review, recent developments in the surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials in vascular tissue engineering are summarized. Both gene engineering and targeting ligand immobilization are promising methods to improve the clinical outcome of artificial vascular grafts.

  6. Study of surface phenomena in biomaterials: The influence of physical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachelarie, Liliana, E-mail: lisachero@yahoo.com; Vasiliu, Mihaela Papusa; Ciobanu, Catalina

    2015-10-15

    This study's purpose is pointing out the phenomenon that occurs at time of interaction between the tissue with implant. The materials used are Ti and its alloys. The oral tissue must be compatible with the materials used in surgical implant to human body. The bio-materials surface behavior is influenced by physical characteristics. The methods we use show a number of bio-compatibility aspects. The success of an implant in a hard tissue depends not only on the initial attachment and the osteogenic cells consecutive proliferation, but also on their capacity to create a new bone.

  7. Laser processing of metallic biomaterials: An approach for surface patterning and wettability control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Sepehr; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Madanipour, Khosro

    2015-12-01

    Q -switched Nd:YAG laser is used to manipulate the surface morphology and wettability characteristic of 316L stainless steel (SS) and titanium biomaterials. Water and glycerol are selected as wettability testing liquids and the sessile drop method is used for the contact angle measurements. Results indicate that on both of the metals, wettability toward water improves significantly after the laser treatment. Different analyses including the study of the surface morphology, free energy and oxidation are assessed in correlation with wettability. Beside the important role of the laser-induced surface patterns, the increase in the surface roughness, oxygen content and the polar component of the surface energy, are detected as the most important physical and chemical phenomena controlling the improvement in the wettability. However, all the processed hydrophilic surfaces that are exposed to air become hydrophobic over time. The time dependency of the surface wettability is related to the chemical activities on the treated surfaces and the reduction of oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio on them. The behavior is further studied with investigating the effect of the keeping environment and changes of the components of the surface tension. Results show that the pulsed laser treatment is a versatile approach to create either hydrophobic or super hydrophilic surfaces for industrial and medical applications.

  8. Characterization of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, M; Tolias, P; Arinzeh, T

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials. Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterial...

  9. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  10. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology has been synthesized and its application as a recyclable...

  11. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology was synthesized and itsefficacy was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.

  12. Tribocorrosion studies of metallic biomaterials: The effect of plasma nitriding and DLC surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-10-01

    The medical grade pure titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy have been utilized as biomaterials for load-bearing orthopedic prosthesis. The conventional surgery metals suffer from a combined effect of wear and corrosion once they are implanted, which may significantly accelerate the material degradation process. In this work, the tribocorrosion performance of the metallic biomaterials with different surface modifications was studied in the simulated body fluid for the purpose of investigating the effect of the surface treatments on the tribocorrosion performance and eventually finding the most suitable implantation materials. The metals were subjected to surface modifications by plasma nitriding in different treatment temperatures or physical vapor deposition (PVD) to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, respectively. The dry wear and tribocorrosion properties of the samples were evaluated by using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. Prior to the tribocorrosion tests, their electrochemical behavior was measured by the potentiodynamic polarization in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at room temperature. Both stainless steel and CoCrMo after low temperature nitriding kept their passive nature by forming an expanded austenite phase. The DLC coated samples presented the low anodic corrosion current due to the chemical inertness of the carbon layer. During the tribocorrosion tests at open circuit potential, the untreated and low temperature nitrided samples exhibited significant potential drop towards the cathodic direction, which was a result of the worn out of the passive film. Galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated (worn) area and the still passive (unworn) area, making the materials suffered from wear-accelerated corrosion. The DLC coating performed as a solid lubricant in both dry wear and tribocorrosion tests, and the resulting wear after the tests was almost negligible. Copyright

  13. The development of peptide-based interfacial biomaterials for generating biological functionality on the surface of bioinert materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Steven R; Khoo, Xiaojuan; Huang, Xin; Walsh, Elisabeth B; Grinstaff, Mark W; Kenan, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials used in implants have traditionally been selected based on their mechanical properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, the durability and clinical efficacy of implantable biomedical devices remain limited in part due to the absence of appropriate biological interactions at the implant interface and the lack of integration into adjacent tissues. Herein, we describe a robust peptide-based coating technology capable of modifying the surface of existing biomaterials and medical devices through the non-covalent binding of modular biofunctional peptides. These peptides contain at least one material binding sequence and at least one biologically active sequence and thus are termed, "Interfacial Biomaterials" (IFBMs). IFBMs can simultaneously bind the biomaterial surface while endowing it with desired biological functionalities at the interface between the material and biological realms. We demonstrate the capabilities of model IFBMs to convert native polystyrene, a bioinert surface, into a bioactive surface that can support a range of cell activities. We further distinguish between simple cell attachment with insufficient integrin interactions, which in some cases can adversely impact downstream biology, versus biologically appropriate adhesion, cell spreading, and cell survival mediated by IFBMs. Moreover, we show that we can use the coating technology to create spatially resolved patterns of fluorophores and cells on substrates and that these patterns retain their borders in culture.

  14. Effects of sterilization treatments on bulk and surface properties of nanocomposite biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Punshon, Geoffrey; Darbyshire, Arnold; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-10-01

    With the continuous and expanding use of implantable biomaterials in a clinical setting, this study aims to elucidate the influence of sterilization techniques on the material surface and bulk properties of two polyurethane nanocomposite biomaterials. Both solid samples and porous membranes of nondegradable polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) and a biodegradable poly(caprolactone-urea) urethane (POSS-PCL) were examined. Sterilization techniques included conventional steam sterilization (autoclaving), gamma irradiation, and disinfection via incubating with ethanol (EtOH) for 10 min or 24 h. After treatment, the samples were examined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensiometry. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the culture of endothelial progenitor cells and the efficacy of sterilization method was determined by incubating each sample in tryptone soya broth and fluid thioglycollate medium for cultivation of microorganisms. Although EtOH did not affect the material properties in any form, the samples were found to be nonsterile with microbial growth detected on each of the samples. Gamma irradiation was not only effective in sterilizing both POSS-PCU and POSS-PCL but also led to minor material degradation and displayed a cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. Autoclaving was found to be the optimal sterilization technique for both solid and porous membranes of the nondegradable POSS-PCU samples as it was successful in sterilizing the samples, displayed no cytotoxic side effects and did not degrade the material. However, the biodegradable POSS-PCL was not able to withstand the harsh environment during autoclaving, resulting in it losing all structural integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  15. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  16. Mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to model biomaterial surfaces: Establising a link between thrombosis and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Julie Miyo

    Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the

  17. Structure and mechanical properties of a two-layered material produced by the E-beam surfacing of Ta and Nb on the titanium base after multiple rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, V. A.; Golkovski, M. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Ruktuev, A. A.; Polyakov, I. A.; Kuksanov, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    The study has been conducted in line with the current approach to investigation of materials obtained by considerably deep surface alloying of the titanium substrate with Ta, Nb, and Zr. The thickness of the resulting alloyed layer was equal to 2 mm. The coating was formed through weld deposition of a powder with the use of a high-voltage electron beam in the air. It has been lately demonstrated that manufactured such a way alloyed layers possess corrosion resistance which is significantly higher than the resistance of titanium substrates. It has already been shown that such two-layered materials are weldable. The study objective is to investigate the feasibility of rolling for necking the sheets with the Ti-Ta-Nb anticorrosion coating with further fourfold decrease in their thickness. The research is also aimed at investigation of the material properties after rolling. Anticorrosion layers were formed both on CP-titanium and on VT14 (Ti-4Al-3Mo-1 V) durable titanium alloy. The results of chemical composition determination, structure examination, X-ray phase analysis and mechanical properties observations (including bending properties of the alloyed layers) are presented in the paper. The combination of welding, rolling, and bending enables the manufacture of corrosion-resistant vessels and process pipes which are made from the developed material and find technological application.

  18. Sensitivity of surface roughness parameters to changes in the density of scanning points in multi-scale AFM studies. Application to a biomaterial surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Vilas, A.; Bruque, J.M.; Gonzalez-Martin, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of biomaterials surfaces, the ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to access the surface structure at unprecedented spatial (vertical and lateral) resolution, is helping in a better understanding on how topography affects the overall interaction of biological cells with the material surface. Since cells in a wide range of sizes are in contact with the biomaterial surface, a quantification of the surface structure in such a wide range of dimensional scales is needed. With the advent of the AFM, this can be routinely done in the lab. In this work, we show that even when it is clear that such a scale-dependent study is needed, AFM maps of the biomaterial surface taken at different scanning lengths are not completely consistent when they are taken at the same scanning resolution, as it is usually done: AFM images of different scanning areas have different point-to-point physical distances. We show that this effect influences the quantification of the average (R a ) and rms (R q ) roughness parameters determined at different length scales. This is the first time this inconsistency is reported and should be taken into account when roughness is measured in this way. Since differences will be in general in the range of nanometres, this is especially interesting for those processes involving the interaction of the biomaterial surface with small biocolloids as bacteria, while this effect should not represent any problems for larger animal cells

  19. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    Neural electrode devices hold great promise to help people with the restoration of lost functions, however, research is lacking in the biomaterial design of a stable, long-term device. Current devices lack long term functionality, most have been found unable to record neural activity within weeks after implantation due to the development of glial scar tissue (Polikov et al., 2006; Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008). The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar made up of reactive astrocytes and the matrix proteins they generate (Polikov et al., 2005; Seil and Webster, 2008). Scarring is initiated when a device is inserted into brain tissue and is associated with an inflammatory response. Activated astrocytes are hypertrophic, hyperplastic, have an upregulation of intermediate filaments GFAP and vimentin expression, and filament formation (Buffo et al., 2010; Gervasi et al., 2008). Current approaches towards inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape and materials of the device (Grill et al., 2009; Kotov et al., 2009; Kotzar et al., 2002; Szarowski et al., 2003). Literature has shown that surface topography modifications can alter cell alignment, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and gene expression (Agnew et al., 1983; Cogan et al., 2005; Cogan et al., 2006; Merrill et al., 2005). Thus, the goals of the presented work are to study the cellular response to biomaterials used in neural electrode fabrication and assess surface topography effects on minimizing astrogliosis. Initially, to examine astrocyte response to various materials used in neural electrode fabrication, astrocytes were cultured on platinum, silicon, PMMA, and SU-8 surfaces, with polystyrene as the control surface. Cell proliferation, viability, morphology and gene expression was measured for seven days in vitro. Results determined the cellular characteristics, reactions and growth rates of astrocytes

  20. Surface modification of biomaterials by pulsed laser ablation deposition and plasma/gamma polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Kaustubh R.

    Surface modification of stainless-steel was carried out by two different methods: pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLAD) and a combined plasma/gamma process. A potential application was the surface modification of endovascular stents, to enhance biocompatibility. The pulsed laser ablation deposition process, had not been previously reported for modifying stents and represented a unique and potentially important method for surface modification of biomaterials. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elatomer was studied using the PLAD technique. Cross- linked PDMS was deemed important because of its general use for biomedical implants and devices as well as in other fields. Furthermore, PDMS deposition using PLAD had not been previously studied and any information gained on its ablation characteristics could be important scientifically and technologically. The studies reported here showed that the deposited silicone film properties had a dependence on the laser energy density incident on the target. Smooth, hydrophobic, silicone-like films were deposited at low energy densities (100-150 mJ/cm2). At high energy densities (>200 mJ/cm2), the films had an higher oxygen content than PDMS, were hydrophilic and tended to show a more particulate morphology. It was also determined that (1)the deposited films were stable and extremely adherent to the substrate, (2)silicone deposition exhibited an `incubation effect' which led to the film properties changing with laser pulse number and (3)films deposited under high vacuum were similar to films deposited at low vacuum levels. The mechanical properties of the PLAD films were determined by nanomechanical measurements which are based on the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). From these measurements, it was possible to determine the modulus of the films and also study their scratch resistance. Such measurement techniques represent a significant advance over current state-of-the-art thin film characterization methods. An empirical model for

  1. Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Febriyani F R; Rothuizen, Tonia C; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Rotmans, Joris I; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-09-19

    Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials' surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and antiinflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, IL-10) secreted in medium, and protein expression of collagen and elastin. Surface microstructuring, derived from chloroform partial etching, increased surface roughness and oxygen content. This resulted in enhanced cell adhesion, strength and proliferation as well as a balance of soluble factors for optimum collagen and elastin synthesis for tissue regeneration. By linking surface parameters to cell activity, we could determine the fate of the regenerated tissue to create successful soft tissue-engineered replacement.

  2. Time-related contact angle measurements with human plasma on biomaterial surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; Van der Mei, HC; van Oeveren, W; Spijker, HT; Busscher, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) was used to assess in time contact angle changes of human plasma drops placed on four different biomaterials. Results were related with conventional blood compatibility measurements: albumin adsorption, fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  3. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  4. Nano-objects as biomaterials: immense opportunities, significant challenges and the important use of surface analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Donald R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2017-05-30

    Nano-sized objects are increasingly important as biomaterials and their surfaces play critical roles in determining their beneficial or deleterious behaviors in biological systems. Important characteristics of nanomaterials that impact their application in many areas are described with a strong focus on the importance of particle surfaces and surface characterization. Understanding aspects of the inherent nature of nano-objects and the important role that surfaces play in these applications is a universal need for any research or product development using such materials in biological applications. The role of surface analysis methods in collecting critical information about the nature of particle surfaces and physicochemical properties of nano-objects is described along with the importance of including sample history and analysis results in a record of provenance information regarding specific batches of nano-objects.

  5. Corrosion performance of some titanium-based hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, B.; Broszeit, E.; Aromaa, J.; Ronkainen, H.; Hannula, S.P.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    1991-01-01

    Tools and machine parts which could benefit from wear-resistant titanium-based hard films are often subject to corrosive environments. Physically vapour-deposited coatings frequently exhibit porosity and even small defects, which can cause rapid local corrosion of the substrate material; there is therefore a requirement for dense and chemically inert coatings. This paper presents corrosion data for titanium-based hard coatings such as TiN, (Ti, Al)N, Ti(B, N) and TiB 2 and also for multilayered structures where additional aluminium-based insulating surface layers (AlN and Al 2 O 3 ) were deposited. The corrosion resistance and porosity of the films were analysed by electrochemical techniques. The degree of metallic bonding can play a significant role in influencing the corrosion resistance of refractory transition-metal-based ceramic coatings. Here we demonstrate that, under potentiodynamic corrosion test conditions, resistance to corrosive attack was relatively poor for TiB 2 , better for (Ti, Al)N and Ti(B, N) and best for TiN. It is also shown that applying the additional protective aluminium-based insulating surface layers on the coating can further improve corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  6. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  7. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  8. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  9. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  10. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Porous titanium bases for osteochondral tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, Adam B.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Georgescu, Maria S.; Howard, Daniel R.; Saunders, Reuben A.; Yu, William T.; Klein, Robert W.; Napolitano, Anthony P.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of osteochondral grafts may offer a cell-based alternative to native allografts, which are in short supply. Previous studies promote the fabrication of grafts consisting of a viable cell-seeded hydrogel integrated atop a porous, bone-like metal. Advantages of the manufacturing process have led to the evaluation of porous titanium as the bone-like base material. Here, porous titanium was shown to support the growth of cartilage to produce native levels of Young’s modulus, using a clinically relevant cell source. Mechanical and biochemical properties were similar or higher for the osteochondral constructs compared to chondral-only controls. Further investigation into the mechanical influence of the base on the composite material suggests that underlying pores may decrease interstitial fluid pressurization and applied strains, which may be overcome by alterations to the base structure. Future studies aim to optimize titanium-based tissue engineered osteochondral constructs to best match the structural architecture and strength of native grafts. Statement of Significance The studies described in this manuscript follow up on previous studies from our lab pertaining to the fabrication of osteochondral grafts that consist of a bone-like porous metal and a chondrocyte-seeded hydrogel. Here, tissue engineered osteochondral grafts were cultured to native stiffness using adult chondrocytes, a clinically relevant cell source, and a porous titanium base, a material currently used in clinical implants. This porous titanium is manufactured via selective laser melting, offering the advantages of precise control over shape, pore size, and orientation. Additionally, this manuscript describes the mechanical influence of the porous base, which may have applicability to porous bases derived from other materials. PMID:26320541

  12. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades

    Full Text Available Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts.Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD technique, which is the gold standard method.All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6| with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005. The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring.This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  13. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces : A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different

  14. In silico, in vitro and antifungal activity of the surface layers formed on zinc during this biomaterial degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta M.; Marques, Luísa M.; Nogueira, Isabel; Santos, Catarina F.; Salazar, Sara B.; Eugénio, Sónia; Mira, Nuno P.; Montemor, M. F.

    2018-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) has been proposed as an alternative metallic biodegradable material to support transient wound-healing processes. Once a Zn piece is implanted inside the organism the degradation will depend upon the physiological surrounding environment. This, by modulating the composition of the surface layers formed on Zn devices, will govern the subsequent interactions with the surrounding living cells (e.g. biocompatibility and/or antifungal behaviour). In silico simulation of an implanted Zn piece at bone-muscle interface or inside the bone yielded the preferential precipitation of simonkolleite or zincite, respectively. To study the impact of these surface layers in the in vitro behaviour of Zn biomaterials, simonkolleite and zincite where synthesised. The successful production of simonkolleite or zincite was confirmed by an extensive physicochemical characterization. An in vitro layer formed on the top of these surface layers revealed that simonkolleite was rather inert, while zincite yielded a complex matrix containing hydroxyapatite, an important bone analogue. When analysing the "anti-biofilm" activity simonkolleite stood out for its activity against an important pathogenic fungi involved in implant-device infections, Candida albicans. The possible physiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Enhancement of as-sputtered silver-tantalum oxide thin film coating on biomaterial stainless steel by surface thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Rodianah; Mahmoodian, Reza; Shukor, Mohd Hamdi Abd; Yew, Been Seok; Muhamad, Martini

    2018-04-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is extensively used as surgical/clinical tools due to its low carbon content and excellent mechanical characteristic. The fabrication of metal ceramic based on this metallic biomaterial favor its biofunctionality properties. However, instability phase of amorphous thin film lead to degradation, corrosion and oxidation. Thus, thin film coating requires elevated adhesion strength and higher surface hardness to meet clinical tools criteria. In this study, the SS316L was deposited with micron thickness of Ag-TaO thin film by using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, elemental analysis and phase identification of Ag-TaO thin film were characterized by using FESEM, EDX and XRD, respectively; whereas the micro scratch test and micro hardness test were performed by using Micro Scratch Testing System and Vickers Micro Hardness Tester, respectively. It was found that the coating thin film's adhesion and hardness strength were improved from 672 to 2749 mN and 142 to 158 Hv respectively. It was found that the as-deposited surface were treated at 500 °C of temperatures with 2 °C/min ramping rate enhance 4.1 times of the adhesion strength value. Furthermore, FESEM characterization revealed coarsening structure of the thin film coating which can provide high durability service.

  16. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry : an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA

  17. Characterization of Silk Fibroin Modified Surface: A Proteomic View of Cellular Response Proteins Induced by Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the pathway of silk fibroin (SF biopolymer surface induced cell membrane protein activation. Fibroblasts were used as an experimental model to evaluate the responses of cellular proteins induced by biopolymer material using a mass spectrometry-based profiling system. The surface was covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs and SF to increase the surface area, enhance the adhesion of biopolymer, and promote the rate of cell proliferation. The amount of adhered fibroblasts on CNTs/SF electrodes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM greatly exceeded those on other surfaces. Moreover, analyzing differential protein expressions of adhered fibroblasts on the biopolymer surface by proteomic approaches indicated that CD44 may be a key protein. Through this study, utilization of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in evaluation of cell adhesion on biopolymer was proposed.

  18. Characterization of surface charge and mechanical properties of chitosan/alginate based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Desai, Malav S.; Kulkarni, Namrata; Langrana, Noshir

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine mechanical properties and surface charge characteristics of chitosan/alginate-based films for biomedical applications. By varying the concentrations of chitosan and alginate, we have developed films with varying surface charge densities and mechanical characteristics. The surface charge densities of these films were determined by applying an analytical model on force curves derived from an atomic force microscope (AFM). The average surface charge densities of films containing 60% chitosan and 80% chitosan were found to be - 0.46 mC/m 2 and - 0.32 mC/m 2 , respectively. The surface charge density of 90% chitosan containing films was found to be neutral. The elastic moduli and the water content were found to be decreasing with increasing chitosan concentration. The films with 60%, 80% and 90% chitosan gained 93.5 ± 6.6%, 217.1 ± 22.1% and 396.8 ± 67.5% of their initial weight, respectively. Their elastic moduli were found to be 2.6 ± 0.14 MPa, 1.9 ± 0.27 MPa and 0.93 ± 0.12 MPa, respectively. The trend observed in the mechanical response of these films has been attributed to the combined effect of the concentration of polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) and the amount of water absorbed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments indicate the presence of higher alginate on the surface of the films compared to the bulk in all films. The presence of higher alginate on surface is consistent with negative surface charge densities of these films, determined from AFM experiments. Highlights: → Chitosan/alginate based fibrous polyelectrolyte complex films were developed. → The average surface charge density of the films was determined using AFM. → Elastic modulus of the films increased with increase in PEC content. → FTIR analysis indicated higher alginate content on surface compared to bulk.

  19. Risedronate adsorption on bioactive glass surface for applications as bone biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbahi, Siwar [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Orthopaedic and Traumatology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Medicine, Sfax (Tunisia); Oudadesse, Hassane, E-mail: hassane.oudadesse@univ-rennes1.fr [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Lefeuvre, Bertand [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Barroug, Allal [University Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); CNRST, Rabat (Morocco); Elfeki, Hafed [Science Materials and Environement Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Science, Sfax (Tunisia); Elfeki, Abdelfattah [Animal Ecophysiology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Science, Department of Life Sciences, Sfax (Tunisia); Roiland, Claire [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Keskes, Hassib [Orthopaedic and Traumatology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Medicine, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • The fixation of risèdronates on the bioactive glass surface has been highlighted. • Scanning electron microscopy shows the new morphology of this composite. • Chemical analyses reveal the stability of adsorption process after 40 min of incubation. - Abstract: The aim of the current work is to study the physicochemical interactions between bisphosphonates molecules, risedronate (RIS) and bioactive glass (46S6) after their association by adsorption phenomenon. To more understand the interaction processes of RIS with the 46S6 surface we have used complementary physicochemical techniques such as infrared (FTIR), Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that risedronate adsorption corresponds to an ion substitution reaction with silicon ions occurring at the bioactive glass surface. Thus, a pure bioactive glass was synthesized and fully characterized comparing the solids after adsorption (46S6-XRIS obtained after the interaction of 46S6 and X% risedronate). Therefore, based on the spectroscopic results FTIR, Raman and MAS-NMR, it can be concluded that strong interactions have been established between RIS ions and 46S6 surface. In fact, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy illustrate the fixation of risedronate on the bioactive glass surface by the appearance of several bands characterizing risedronate. The {sup 31}P MAS-NMR of the composite 46S6-XRIS show the presence of two species at a chemical shift of 15 and 19 ppm demonstrating thus the fixation of the RIS on 46S6 surface.

  20. In vitro investigation of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion on inorganic biomaterial surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Huang [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lue Xiaoying [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: luxy@seu.edu.cn; Ma Jingwu [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Nan Huang [Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: nhuang@263.com

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this paper was to study the surface properties, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion behaviors of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium (Ti) films. The surface energy and microstructures of these films were characterized by contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay was used to study the amount of adsorbed proteins. Platelet adhesion was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AFM results show that the DLC film is smoother than Ti. Protein adsorption results from CBB protein assay show that the ratio of adsorbed albumin (Alb) to IgG (R{sub A/I}) on DLC is larger than Ti, which coincide with the sequence of the ratio of interfacial tension between solid surface and Alb ({gamma}{sub S,Alb}) to interfacial tension between surface and IgG ({gamma}{sub S,IgG}) ({gamma}{sub S,Alb}/{gamma}{sub S,IgG}). The DLC film has a preferential adsorption for Alb. The results suggest that the ratio of {gamma}{sub S,Alb}/{gamma}{sub S,IgG} may indicate an Alb/IgG affinity ratio of materials. More platelets adhere on Ti film than on DLC, which may correspond to the surface roughness of materials. The conclusion is the blood compatibility of DLC seems to be better than Ti.

  1. Smart biomaterials: Surfaces functionalized with proteolytically stable osteoblast-adhesive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annj Zamuner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration are designed to promote cell adhesion, growth, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, covalent and selective functionalization of glass and titanium surfaces with an adhesive peptide (HVP mapped on [351–359] sequence of human Vitronectin allowed to selectively increase osteoblast attachment and adhesion strength in in vitro assays, and to promote osseointegration in in vivo studies. For the first time to our knowledge, in this study we investigated the resistance of adhesion sequences to proteolytic digestion: HVP was completely cleaved after 5 h. In order to overcome the enzymatic degradation of the native peptide under physiological conditions we synthetized three analogues of HVP sequence. A retro-inverted peptide D-2HVP, composed of D amino acids, was completely stable in serum-containing medium. In addition, glass surfaces functionalized with D-2HVP increased human osteoblast adhesion as compared to the native peptide and maintained deposition of calcium. Interestingly, D-2HVP increased expression of IBSP, VTN and SPP1 genes as compared to HVP functionalized surfaces. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope analysis showed cells with numerous filopodia spread on D-2HVP-functionalized surfaces. Therefore, the D-2HVP sequence is proposed as new osteoblast adhesive peptide with increased bioactivity and high proteolytic resistance.

  2. Smart biomaterials: Surfaces functionalized with proteolytically stable osteoblast-adhesive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Annj; Brun, Paola; Scorzeto, Michele; Sica, Giuseppe; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Dettin, Monica

    2017-09-01

    Engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration are designed to promote cell adhesion, growth, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, covalent and selective functionalization of glass and titanium surfaces with an adhesive peptide (HVP) mapped on [351-359] sequence of human Vitronectin allowed to selectively increase osteoblast attachment and adhesion strength in in vitro assays, and to promote osseointegration in in vivo studies. For the first time to our knowledge, in this study we investigated the resistance of adhesion sequences to proteolytic digestion: HVP was completely cleaved after 5 h. In order to overcome the enzymatic degradation of the native peptide under physiological conditions we synthetized three analogues of HVP sequence. A retro-inverted peptide D-2HVP, composed of D amino acids, was completely stable in serum-containing medium. In addition, glass surfaces functionalized with D-2HVP increased human osteoblast adhesion as compared to the native peptide and maintained deposition of calcium. Interestingly, D-2HVP increased expression of IBSP, VTN and SPP1 genes as compared to HVP functionalized surfaces. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope analysis showed cells with numerous filopodia spread on D-2HVP-functionalized surfaces. Therefore, the D-2HVP sequence is proposed as new osteoblast adhesive peptide with increased bioactivity and high proteolytic resistance.

  3. Surface force analysis of molecular interfacial interactions of proteins and lipids with polymeric biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton-Brown, P.; Griesser, H.J.; Meagher, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Adverse biological responses to biomedical devices are often caused by the irreversible accumulation of biological deposits onto the surfaces of devices. Such deposits cause blocking of artificial blood vessels, fibrous encapsulation of soft tissue regenerative devices, 'fouling' of contact lenses, secondary cataracts on intraocular lenses, and other undesirable events that interfere with the intended functions of biomedical devices. The formation of deposits is triggered by an initial stage in which various proteins and lipids rapidly adsorb onto the synthetic material surface; further biological molecules and ultimately cellular entities (e.g., host cells, bacteria) then settle onto the initial adsorbed layer. Hence, to avoid or control the accumulation of biological deposits, molecular understanding is required of the initial adsorption processes. Such adsorption is caused by attractive interfacial forces, which we are characterising by the use of a novel method. In the present study, polymeric thin film coatings, polyethylene oxide (PEO), and polysaccharide coatings have been analysed in terms of their surface forces and the ensuing propensity for protein and lipid adsorption. Interfacial forces are measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a colloid-modified tip in a liquid cell using solutions of physiological pH and ionic strength. The chemical composition and uniformity of the coatings was characterised by X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS). For a polymeric solid coating, repulsive forces have been measured against a silica colloid probe, and the dominant surface force is electrostatic. For the highly hydrated, 'soft' PEO and polysaccharide coatings, on the other hand, steric/entropic forces are also significant and contribute to interfacial interactions with proteins and lipids. In one system we have observed a time dependence of the electrostatic surface potential, which affects interaction with charged proteins. Force measurements were

  4. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyratou, E.; Asproudis, I.; Tsoutsi, D.; Bacharis, C.; Moutsouris, K.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV (λ = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  5. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyratou, E., E-mail: ellas5@central.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, Zografou Campus, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Asproudis, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece); Tsoutsi, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece); Bacharis, C.; Moutsouris, K.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, Zografou Campus, Athens, 15780 (Greece)

    2010-02-01

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV ({lambda} = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  6. Smart polymers as surface modifiers for bioanalytical devices and biomaterials: theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. E.; Zubov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    Smart, or responsive polymers can reversibly change their state of aggregation, thus switching from water-soluble to insoluble state, in response to minor changes in temperature, pH or solvent composition. Grafting of these polymers to solid surfaces imparts the surfaces with controllable wettability and adsorption behaviour. The review summarizes the theoretical models and the results of physical measurements of the conformational transitions in grafted polymer chains and polymer brushes. Primary attention is paid to the grafting density and the length and spatial arrangement of grafted chains, the role of polystyrene, organosilane or alkanethiol sublayers and their effects on adsorption of proteins and adhesion of cells. The key applications of grafted smart polymers such as cell culture and tissue engineering, cell and protein separation, biosensing and targeted drug delivery are surveyed. The bibliography includes 174 references.

  7. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  8. [The evaluation of relationship between the origin of Candida sp. and the ability of biofilm formation on surface of different biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Prazyńska, Małgorzata; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The increase of fungal infections in recent years is connected with the progress in medicine. The vast usage of biomaterials is an inseparable element of contemporary medicine but it also leads to development of infections. The ability to produce biofilm by those yeasts plays an important role in the pathogenesis of candidiasis. Candida biofilm can form on the surface of plastic materials (silicon, polychloride vinyl, polymethacrylate methyl) used to catheters, drains and dentures production that is why it is a serious problem in case of fungal infections in patients who during the diagnosis and treatment have contact with biomaterials. The aim of the study was the assessment of ability to form biofilm on the surface of different biomaterials (latex silicon, polychloride vinyl, polystyrene, nylon and polymethacrylate methyl). 150 strains of Candida sp. were examined: 85 (56.7%) C. albicans and 65 (43.3%) C. non-albicans. The examined yeasts produced biofilm on the surface of polymethacrylate methyl in 39.3%, latex silicone in 38.7%, polychloride vinyl in 38.0%, polystyrene in 35.3% and nylon in 30.7%. Biofilm was most frequently produced by the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae species.

  9. Polydopamine as an intermediate layer for silver and hydroxyapatite immobilisation on metallic biomaterials surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidin, Syafiqah, E-mail: syafiqahsaidin@gmail.com [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crsfa.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Hermawan, Hendra, E-mail: hendra.hermawan@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Mantovani, Diego, E-mail: Diego.Mantovani@gmn.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application. - Highlights: • Successful immobilisation of Ag and HA on SS316L functionalised with polydopamine • Development of antibacterial film at 97.88% bactericidal ratio • The functionalised films were stable under ageing test at 7 days.

  10. Surface chemistry and microstructure of metallic biomaterials for hip and knee endoprostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, Monika; Gorenšek, Matevž; Godec, Matjaž; Hodnik, Maxinne; Batič, Barbara Šetina; Donik, Črtomir; Grant, John T.; Dolinar, Drago

    2018-01-01

    The surface chemistry and microstructures of titanium alloys (both new and used) and CoCrMo alloys used for hip and knee endoprostheses were determined using SEM (morphology), EBSD (phase analysis), AES and XPS (surface chemistry). Two new and two used endoprostheses were studied. The SEM SE and BE images showed their microstructures, while the EBSD provided the phases of the materials. During the production of the hip and knee endoprostheses, these materials are subject to severe thermomechanical treatments and physicochemical processes that are decisive for CoCrMo alloys. The AES and XPS results showed that thin oxide films on (a) Ti6Al4V are primarily a mixture of TiO2 with a small amount of Al2O3, while the V is depleted, (b) Ti6Al7Nb is primarily a mixture of TiO2 with a small amount of Al2O3 and Nb2O5, and (c) the CoCrMo alloy is primarily a mixture of Cr2O3 with small amounts of Co and Mo oxides. The thin oxide film on the CoCrMo alloy should prevent intergranular corrosion and improve the biocompatibility. The thin oxide films on the Ti alloys prevent further corrosion, improve the biocompatibility, and affect the osseointegration.

  11. Engineering of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Venina; Savaris, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on biomaterials of different forms used for medical implants. The authors introduce the characteristics and properties of biomaterials and then dedicate special chapters to metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite biomaterials. Case studies on sterilization methods by biomaterials are also presented. Finally, the authors describe the degradation and effects of biomaterials in living tissue.

  12. Reducing Escherichia coli growth on a composite biomaterial by a surface immobilized antimicrobial peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Anderton, William D.; Schimoler, Patrick J. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Roudebush, Shana L.; Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Miller, Mark C. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A new composite bioceramic consisting of calcium aluminum oxide (CaAlO) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was functionalized with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide Inverso-CysHHC10. CaAlO is a bioceramic that can be mold cast easily and quickly at room temperature. Improved functionality was previously achieved through surface reactions. Here, composites containing 0–5% HA (by mass) were prepared and the elastic modulus and modulus of rupture were mechanically similar to non-load bearing bone. The addition of hydroxyapatite resulted in increased osteoblast attachment (> 180%) and proliferation (> 140%) on all composites compared to 100% CaAlO. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immobilization was achieved using an interfacial alkene-thiol click reaction. The linked AMP persisted on the composite (> 99.6% after 24 h) and retained its activity against Escherichia coli based on N-phenylnaphthylamine uptake and bacterial turbidity tests. Overall, this simple scaffold system improves osteoblast activity and reduces bacterial activity. - Highlights: • Calcium aluminum oxide and hydroxyapatite were cast into a composite material. • Osteoblast attachment and proliferation were significantly increased on composites. • An active antimicrobial peptide was linked to and remained stable on the composite. • Bacterial turbidity and NPN uptake tests showed modified composites had an effect equal to a 10 μM Inverso-CysHHC10 solution. • Antimicrobial peptide linkage did not affect the increased osteoblast performance.

  13. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  14. Reducing Escherichia coli growth on a composite biomaterial by a surface immobilized antimicrobial peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Reger, Nina A.; Anderton, William D.; Schimoler, Patrick J.; Roudebush, Shana L.; Meng, Wilson S.; Miller, Mark C.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2016-01-01

    A new composite bioceramic consisting of calcium aluminum oxide (CaAlO) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was functionalized with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide Inverso-CysHHC10. CaAlO is a bioceramic that can be mold cast easily and quickly at room temperature. Improved functionality was previously achieved through surface reactions. Here, composites containing 0–5% HA (by mass) were prepared and the elastic modulus and modulus of rupture were mechanically similar to non-load bearing bone. The addition of hydroxyapatite resulted in increased osteoblast attachment (> 180%) and proliferation (> 140%) on all composites compared to 100% CaAlO. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immobilization was achieved using an interfacial alkene-thiol click reaction. The linked AMP persisted on the composite (> 99.6% after 24 h) and retained its activity against Escherichia coli based on N-phenylnaphthylamine uptake and bacterial turbidity tests. Overall, this simple scaffold system improves osteoblast activity and reduces bacterial activity. - Highlights: • Calcium aluminum oxide and hydroxyapatite were cast into a composite material. • Osteoblast attachment and proliferation were significantly increased on composites. • An active antimicrobial peptide was linked to and remained stable on the composite. • Bacterial turbidity and NPN uptake tests showed modified composites had an effect equal to a 10 μM Inverso-CysHHC10 solution. • Antimicrobial peptide linkage did not affect the increased osteoblast performance.

  15. Time-resolved imaging and immobilization study of biomaterials on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces by means of laser-induced forward transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Zergioti, Ioanna; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present the generation of high velocity liquid jets of a photosynthetic biomaterial in buffer solution (i.e. thylakoid membranes) and a test solution, using the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique. The high impact pressure of the collision of the jets on solid substrates, ranging from 0.045 MPa–35 MPa, resulted in strong physical immobilization of the photosynthetic biomaterial on superhydrophobic (SH) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces and hydrophobic gold surfaces. The immobilization efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, while time-resolved imaging of the LIFT process was carried out to study the corresponding LIFT dynamics. The results show that this simple, direct and chemical-linkers-free immobilization technique is valuable for several biosensors and microfluidic applications since it can be applied to a variety of hydrophobic and SH substrates, leading to the selective immobilization of the biomaterials, due to the high spatial printing resolution of the LIFT technique. (letter)

  16. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  17. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Based Ceramic Coatings Deposited on Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Titanium based ceramic films are increasingly used as coating materials because of their high hardness, excellent wear resistance and superior corrosion resistance. Using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques, the electrochemical properties of different coatings deposited on different steels under different conditions were examined in this study. Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), titanium diboride (TiB2), and titanium boronitride with different boron concentrations (TiBN-1&2) w...

  19. [Effects of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization/P24 peptide composite biomaterial on the adhesion, proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfeng; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong; Chen, Liaobin

    2014-10-01

    In the present research, the effects of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization/P24 peptide composite biomaterials on the adhesion, proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated. The experiments were divided into three groups due to biomaterials used: Group A (composite materials of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization and P24, a peptide of bone morphogenetic protein-2); Group B (sintered bone modified with surface mineralization) and Group C (sintered bone only). The three groups were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before the experiments, respectively. Then MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the surfaces of the three kinds of material, respectively. The cell adhesion rate was assessed by precipitation method. The proliferative ability of MC3T3-E1 cells were measured with MTT assay. And the ALP staining and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were performed to assess the differentiation of cells into osteoblasts. The SEM results showed that the materials in the three groups retained the natural pore structure and the pore sizes were in the range between 200-850 μm. The adhesive ratio measurements and MTT assay suggested that adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in Group A were much higher than those in Group B and Group C (P bone modified with surface mineralization/P24 composite material was confirmed to improve the adhesion rate and proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, and maintained their morphology.

  20. Surface modification of biomaterials based on high-molecular polylactic acid and their effect on inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages: perspective for personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Ksenia S; Gudima, Alexandru; Filimonov, Victor D; Klüter, Harald; Mamontova, Evgeniya M; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) based implants can cause inflammatory complications. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammation. To provide higher biocompatibility of PLA-based implants with local innate immune cells their surface properties have to be improved. In our study surface modification technique for high-molecular PLA (MW=1,646,600g/mol) based biomaterials was originally developed and successfully applied. Optimal modification conditions were determined. Treatment of PLA films with toluene/ethanol=3/7 mixture for 10min with subsequent exposure in 0.001M brilliant green dye (BGD) solution allows to entrap approximately 10(-9)mol/cm(2) model biomolecules. The modified PLA film surface was characterized by optical microscopy, SERS, FT-IR, UV and TG/DTA/DSC analysis. Tensile strain of modified films was determined as well. The effect of PLA films modified with BGD on the inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated. We developed in vitro test-system by differentiating primary monocyte-derived macrophages on a coating material. Type 1 and type 2 inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL18) secretion and histological biomarkers (CD206, stabilin-1) expression were analyzed by ELISA and confocal microscopy respectively. BGD-modified materials have improved thermal stability and good mechanical properties. However, BGD modifications induced additional donor-specific inflammatory reactions and suppressed tolerogenic phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, our test-system successfully demonstrated specific immunomodulatory effects of original and modified PLA-based biomaterials, and can be further applied for the examination of improved coatings for implants and identification of patient-specific reactions to implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M; Webber, Mark A; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p=0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8±0.7MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6hour period (additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Various Titanium-Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjuan Qu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and texture of titanium coatings can influence the growth characteristics of the adhered cells. An enhanced proliferation of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs would be beneficial. The present study was aimed to investigate whether titanium deposited at different atmospheres would affect the cell growth properties, cellular morphology, and expression of surface markers of hMSCs. Titanium-based coatings were deposited on silicon wafers under oxygen, nitrogen, or argon atmospheres by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition using two different gas pressures followed by heating at 400 °C for 2 h. The characteristics of the coated surfaces were determined via contact angle, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Human MSCs were cultivated on differently coated silicon wafers for 48 h. Subsequently, the cell proliferation rates were analyzed with an MTT assay. The phenotype of hMSCs was checked via immunocytochemical stainings of MSC-associated markers CD73, CD90, and CD105, and the adhesion, spreading, and morphology of hMSCs on coated materials via SEM. The cell proliferation rates of the hMSCs were similar on all coated silicon wafers. The hMSCs retained the MSC phenotype by expressing MSC-associated markers and fibroblast-like morphology with cellular projections. Furthermore, no significant differences could be found in the size of the cells when cultured on all various coated surfaces. In conclusion, despite certain differences in the contact angles and the zeta potentials of various titanium-based coatings, no single coating markedly improved the growth characteristics of hMSCs.

  3. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  4. Metallic Biomaterials: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing.

  5. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  6. An introduction to biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Consensus Definitions, Fundamental Concepts, and a Standardized Approach to Applied Biomaterials Sciences, J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Wound Healing BiologyCutaneous Wound Pathobiology: Raison d'etre for Tissue Engineering, L.K. Macri and R.A.F. ClarkOsseous Wound Healing, A. Nawab, M. Wong, D. Kwak, L. Schutte, A. Sharma, and J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Cellular MechanicsCell and Tissue Mechanobiology, W. Guo, P. Alvarez, and Y. WangBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Materials-Host InteractionsCell-Material In

  7. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  8. Double Pulse LIBS of Titanium-Based PVD-Coatings with Submicron Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ermalitskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for double pulse LIBS in the process of a direct layer-by-layer analysis of the titanium-based PVD-coatings on polished flat blank samples of steel and silicon and also of the TiAlN/TiN-coating on a milling cutter is considered. A method is proposed to control thickness of the radiation evaporated layer by defocusing the laser beam with respect to the surface, making it possible to attain the depth resolution of 0.1 μm. The Ti and Ti-Zr-coatings produced using the ion-assisted condensation method and subjected to streams of the nitrogen plasma in a magnetic-plasma compressor are studied.

  9. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Sophie C.; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M.; Webber, Mark A.; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M.; Shepherd, Duncan E.T.; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p = 0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8 ± 0.7 MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6 hour period (< 28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. - Highlights: • Titanium implants were additively manufactured with surface connected reservoirs. • Implants

  10. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulati...

  11. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  12. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FUNCTIONAL BIOMATERIALS: Design of Novel Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama-Elbert, Se; Hubbell, Ja

    2001-08-01

    The field of biomaterials has recently been focused on the design of intelligent materials. Toward this goal, materials have been developed that can provide specific bioactive signals to control the biological environment around them during the process of materials integration and wound healing. In addition, materials have been developed that can respond to changes in their environment, such as a change in pH or cell-associated enzymatic activity. In designing such novel biomaterials, researchers have sought not merely to create bio-inert materials, but rather materials that can respond to the cellular environment around them to improve device integration and tissue regeneration.

  14. Biomaterials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Sharma, Gayatri

    2018-05-01

    There is a growing demand for novel biomaterials for the replacement and repairing of soft and hard tissues such as bones, cartilage and blood vessels, decaying teeth, arthritic hips, injured tissues or even entire organs. The main aim of biomaterial research is to find the appropriate combination of chemical and physical properties matched with tissues replaced in the host. It improves the quality of life. On increasing number of people each year with increasing demands on these materials with higher expectations related to quality of life arising from an aging population. Now a day there is an ever-increasing search for novel biomaterials as the material requirements for complex biomedical devices increases with time. Many materials such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and glasses are being investigated as biomaterials. They are very useful in various fields due to their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. This paper includes various eco-friendly biomaterials and their application in various fields.

  15. The effect of simulated inflammatory conditions on the surface properties of titanium and stainless steel and their importance as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca-García, Abril; Pérez-Alvarez, J.; Barrera, C.C.; Medina, J.C.; Almaguer-Flores, A.; Sánchez, R. Basurto

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the surface modifications induced by the immersion in solutions that simulate inflammatory conditions of pure titanium (cpTi) and medical grade stainless steel (SS). The inflammatory conditions were simulated using a mixture of Hartman solution and 50 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) at pH = 5.2. The samples were immersed by 7 days refreshing the solution every day to keep the reactivity of the H_2O_2. The surface characteristics that were investigated were: elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry; wettability and surface energy by sessile drop contact angle and point of zero charge by titration. Moreover, the variations in the electrochemical response were evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) performed before and after the treatment using the Hartman solution as the electrolyte. The XPS results indicated that for both metallic samples, oxidation of the surface was promoted and/or the oxide layer was thicker after the immersion. The roughness and the solid-liquid surface energy were increased; the samples showed a more hydrophilic character after the treatment. However, the surface energy of the solid estimated using the Van Oss–Chaudhury–Good approach showed different trends between the cpTi and the SS surfaces; the polar component decreased for cpTi, while it increased for SS. Finally, the electrochemical results indicated that the corrosion resistance (R_c_o_r) and the pore resistance (R_p_o) significantly decreased for cpTi, while both resistances were not significantly different for the SS. This is indicative of a higher dissolution of the cpTi compared to SS and the lower R_p_o means that the species are easily transported through the surface layer, which can be explained in terms of the formation of a porous TiO_x layer, not observed on the SS. The cpTi surface

  16. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world. PMID:26885506

  17. Polysialic acid immobilized on silanized glass surfaces: a test case for its use as a biomaterial for nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Stephanie; Stark, Yvonne; Bruns, Stephanie; Haile, Yohannes; Scheper, Thomas; Grothe, Claudia; Behrens, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The immobilization of polysialic acid (polySia) on glass substrates has been investigated with regard to the applicability of this polysaccharide as a novel, biocompatible and bioresorbable material for tissue engineering, especially with regard to its use in nerve regeneration. PolySia, a homopolymer of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid, is involved in post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The degradation of polySia can be controlled which makes it an interesting material for coating and for scaffold construction in tissue engineering. Here, we describe the immobilization of polySia on glass surfaces via an epoxysilane linker. Whereas glass surfaces will not actually be used in nerve regeneration scaffolds, they provide a simple and efficient means for testing various methods for the investigation of immobilized polySia. The modified surfaces were investigated with contact angle measurements and the quantity of immobilized polySia was examined by the thiobarbituric acid assay and a specific polySia-ELISA. The interactions between the polySia-modified surface and immortalized Schwann cells were evaluated via cell adhesion and cell viability assays. The results show that polySia can be immobilized on glass surfaces via the epoxysilane linker and that surface-bound polySia has no toxic effects on Schwann cells. Therefore, as a key substance in the development of vertebrates and as a favourable substrate for the cultivation of Schwann cells, it offers interesting features for the use in nerve guidance tubes for treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  18. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nano biomaterials 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Lee, S.Ch.; Zhang, Sh.; Akasaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that nano materials have developed rapidly over the past few decades. Based on their unique physicochemical properties and special mechanical properties, nano materials have provided application possibility in many different fields. Currently, as nano biomaterials, they are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, dental/bone implant, and biosensors. For example, nano biomaterials have been used in tissue engineering because of their satisfactory bioactivity, high mechanical properties, and large surface area to adsorb specific proteins. Many kinds of nano biomaterials are used to prepare composite scaffolds to get better biocompatibility and higher ability in repairing specific tissues. Several antibacterial metallic nano biomaterials are used to coat implant surfaces to improve the speed of healing fractures. In addition, lots of nano biomaterials have the potential to break the limitations of the traditional delivery systems. They can load larger amount of drugs and provide stable drug release for long time at the targeted sites, such as tumors. Moreover, they can combine with polymers to furnish simultaneous drug delivery systems with the controllable release rate. Besides these applications, more and more nano biomaterials show great potential to be applied as highly sensitive biosensors because they have higher ability in loading firmly or interacting completely with recognition aptamers.

  19. The effect of simulated inflammatory conditions on the surface properties of titanium and stainless steel and their importance as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-García, Abril [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Pérez-Alvarez, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Barrera, C.C. [Posgrado en Ciencias Médicas, Odontológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Medina, J.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Almaguer-Flores, A. [Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Sánchez, R. Basurto [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, México (Mexico); and others

    2016-09-01

    This work compares the surface modifications induced by the immersion in solutions that simulate inflammatory conditions of pure titanium (cpTi) and medical grade stainless steel (SS). The inflammatory conditions were simulated using a mixture of Hartman solution and 50 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at pH = 5.2. The samples were immersed by 7 days refreshing the solution every day to keep the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The surface characteristics that were investigated were: elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry; wettability and surface energy by sessile drop contact angle and point of zero charge by titration. Moreover, the variations in the electrochemical response were evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) performed before and after the treatment using the Hartman solution as the electrolyte. The XPS results indicated that for both metallic samples, oxidation of the surface was promoted and/or the oxide layer was thicker after the immersion. The roughness and the solid-liquid surface energy were increased; the samples showed a more hydrophilic character after the treatment. However, the surface energy of the solid estimated using the Van Oss–Chaudhury–Good approach showed different trends between the cpTi and the SS surfaces; the polar component decreased for cpTi, while it increased for SS. Finally, the electrochemical results indicated that the corrosion resistance (R{sub cor}) and the pore resistance (R{sub po}) significantly decreased for cpTi, while both resistances were not significantly different for the SS. This is indicative of a higher dissolution of the cpTi compared to SS and the lower R{sub po} means that the species are easily transported through the surface layer, which can be explained in terms of the formation of a porous TiO{sub x} layer, not

  20. Multi-functional biomimetic surfaces of PLA based biomaterials created by printing of functional PLA-b-PEO colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Knotek, P.; Yang, Y.; Zárubová, Jana; Machová, Luďka; Janoušková, Olga; Proks, Vladimír; Kučka, Jan; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František; Kubies, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2 (Suppl) (2016), s. 74 ISSN 2157-7552. [International Conference on Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine /5./. 12.09.2016-14.09.2016, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : biomimetic surfaces * RGD * PLA-b-PEO copolymer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C)

  1. Biomaterials a basic introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qizhi

    2014-01-01

    Part IBiomaterials ScienceBiomaterials Science and EngineeringLearning ObjectivesMaterials Science and EngineeringMultilevels of Structure and Categorization of MaterialsFour Categories of MaterialsDefinitions of Biomaterials, Biomedical Materials, and Biological MaterialsBiocompatibilityChapter HighlightsActivitiesSimple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesBibliographyToxicity and CorrosionLearning ObjectivesElements in the BodyBiological Roles and Toxicities of Trace ElementsSelection of Metallic Elements in Medical-Grade AlloysCorrosion of MetalsEnvironment inside the BodyMinimization of Toxicity of Metal ImplantsChapter HighlightsLaboratory Practice 1Simple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesAdvanced Topic: Biological Roles of Alloying ElementsBibliographyMechanical Properties of BiomaterialsLearning ObjectivesRole of Implant BiomaterialsMechanical Properties of General ImportanceHardnessElasticity: Resilience and StrechabilityMechanical Properties Terms Used in the Medical CommunityFailureEssent...

  2. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  3. Designer biomaterials for mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials engineered with specific bioactive ligands, tunable mechanical properties and complex architecture have emerged as powerful tools to probe cell sensing and response to physical properties of their material surroundings, and ultimately provide designer approaches to control cell function.

  4. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  5. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon...

  6. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  7. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sophie C. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jamshidi, Parastoo [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Eisenstein, Neil M. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham Research Park, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston B15 2SQ (United Kingdom); Webber, Mark A. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hassanin, Hany [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kingston University, London SW15 3DW (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Duncan E.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Addison, Owen [School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p = 0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8 ± 0.7 MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6 hour period (< 28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. - Highlights: • Titanium implants were additively manufactured with surface connected reservoirs. • Implants

  8. Viscoelasticity of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, W.G.; Hatakeyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of Biomaterials is divided into three sections. The first offers a materials design lesson on the architectural arrangement of biopolymers in collagen. Included also are reviews on solution properties of polysacchardies, chiral and liquid crystalline solution characteristics of cellulose derivatives, and viscoelastic properties of wood and wood fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The second section, Biogels and Gelation, discusses the molecular arrangements of highly hydrated biomaterials such as mucus, gums, skinlike tissue, and silk fibroin. The physical effects that result from the transition from a liquid to a solid state are the subject of the third section, which focuses on relaxation phenomena. Gel formation, the conformation of domain structures, and motional aspects of complex biomaterials are described in terms of recent experimental advances in various fields. A relevant chapter on the effects of ionizing radiation on connective tissue is abstracted separately

  9. Advanced biomaterials and biodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are the fastest-growing emerging field of  biodevices. Design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Recently, a variety of scaffolds/carriers have been evaluated for tissue regeneration, drug delivery, sensing and imaging.  Liposomes and microspheres have been developed for sustained delivery. Several anti-cancer drugs have been successfully formulated using biomaterial. The targeting of drugs to certain physiological sites has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment with improved drug bioavailability and reduction of dosing frequency. Biodevices-based targeting of drugs may improve the therapeutic success by limiting the adverse drug effects and resulting in more patient compliance and attaining a higher adherence level. Advanced biodevices hold merit as a drug carrier with high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, high stability, as well as the feasibility...

  10. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  11. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  12. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical "antigen." In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a "combined" immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  13. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan N. Christo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  14. Design of a nitrogen-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy with optimized properties for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordin, D.M.; Busardo, D.; Cimpean, A.; Vasilescu, C.; Höche, D.; Drob, S.I.; Mitran, V.; Cornen, M.; Gloriant, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a superelastic Ni-free Ti-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by the implantation of nitrogen ions for the first time. The N-implanted surface was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and the superficial mechanical properties were evaluated by nano-indentation and by ball-on-disk tribological tests. To investigate the biocompatibility, the corrosion resistance of the N-implanted Ti alloy was evaluated in simulated body fluids (SBF) complemented by in-vitro cytocompatibility tests on human fetal osteoblasts. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of a titanium-based nitride on the substrate surface. Consequently, an increase in superficial hardness and a significant reduction of friction coefficient were observed compared to the non-implanted sample. Also, a better corrosion resistance and a significant decrease in ion release rates have been obtained. Cell culture experiments indicated that the cytocompatibility of the N-implanted Ti alloy was superior to that of the corresponding non-treated sample. Thus, this new functional N-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy presents the optimized properties that are required for various medical devices: superelasticity, high superficial mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and excellent cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • A superelastic Ni-free Ti-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by implantation of nitrogen ions. • Much higher superficial hardness and wear resistance were obtained. • A clear enhancement of the corrosion resistance in SBF was observed. • In-vitro tests performed on human fetal osteoblasts indicated an excellent level of cytocompatibility

  15. Design of a nitrogen-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy with optimized properties for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordin, D.M. [INSA de Rennes, Laboratoire Chimie-Métallurgie, UMR CNRS 6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Busardo, D. [Quertech Ingénierie, 9 rue de la Girafe, 14000 Caen (France); Cimpean, A. [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Spl. Independentei 91-95, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vasilescu, C. [Institute of Physical Chemistry «Ilie Murgulescu» of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Höche, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht -Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Drob, S.I. [Institute of Physical Chemistry «Ilie Murgulescu» of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mitran, V. [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Spl. Independentei 91-95, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Cornen, M. [INSA de Rennes, Laboratoire Chimie-Métallurgie, UMR CNRS 6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Gloriant, T., E-mail: Thierry.Gloriant@insa-rennes.fr [INSA de Rennes, Laboratoire Chimie-Métallurgie, UMR CNRS 6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a superelastic Ni-free Ti-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by the implantation of nitrogen ions for the first time. The N-implanted surface was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and the superficial mechanical properties were evaluated by nano-indentation and by ball-on-disk tribological tests. To investigate the biocompatibility, the corrosion resistance of the N-implanted Ti alloy was evaluated in simulated body fluids (SBF) complemented by in-vitro cytocompatibility tests on human fetal osteoblasts. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of a titanium-based nitride on the substrate surface. Consequently, an increase in superficial hardness and a significant reduction of friction coefficient were observed compared to the non-implanted sample. Also, a better corrosion resistance and a significant decrease in ion release rates have been obtained. Cell culture experiments indicated that the cytocompatibility of the N-implanted Ti alloy was superior to that of the corresponding non-treated sample. Thus, this new functional N-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy presents the optimized properties that are required for various medical devices: superelasticity, high superficial mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and excellent cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • A superelastic Ni-free Ti-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by implantation of nitrogen ions. • Much higher superficial hardness and wear resistance were obtained. • A clear enhancement of the corrosion resistance in SBF was observed. • In-vitro tests performed on human fetal osteoblasts indicated an excellent level of cytocompatibility.

  16. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  17. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  18. Silk-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Gregory H; Diaz, Frank; Jakuba, Caroline; Calabro, Tara; Horan, Rebecca L; Chen, Jingsong; Lu, Helen; Richmond, John; Kaplan, David L

    2003-02-01

    Silk from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been used as biomedical suture material for centuries. The unique mechanical properties of these fibers provided important clinical repair options for many applications. During the past 20 years, some biocompatibility problems have been reported for silkworm silk; however, contamination from residual sericin (glue-like proteins) was the likely cause. More recent studies with well-defined silkworm silk fibers and films suggest that the core silk fibroin fibers exhibit comparable biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo with other commonly used biomaterials such as polylactic acid and collagen. Furthermore, the unique mechanical properties of the silk fibers, the diversity of side chain chemistries for 'decoration' with growth and adhesion factors, and the ability to genetically tailor the protein provide additional rationale for the exploration of this family of fibrous proteins for biomaterial applications. For example, in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering these properties are particularly relevant and recent results with bone and ligament formation in vitro support the potential role for this biomaterial in future applications. To date, studies with silks to address biomaterial and matrix scaffold needs have focused on silkworm silk. With the diversity of silk-like fibrous proteins from spiders and insects, a range of native or bioengineered variants can be expected for application to a diverse set of clinical needs.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  20. EPR analysis of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.

    2001-01-01

    There is the review of electron spin resonance application for paramagnetic individual investigation in biomaterials. Especially the bone tissue and tooth enamel can be taken into account. The material composition (e.g. Mn 2+ and Cr 3+ ions) can be measured, also after irradiation (X, γ radiations) when paramagnetic signal appears as a result of physical radiation effects

  1. Hot topics in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, Eric W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The expert coverage of the eight chapters in this book reflects the diverse nature of the field of biomaterials science and encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields, highlighting key classes of novel materials and exploring the underlying science and potential applications.

  2. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Medical advances that have prolonged the average life span have generated increased need for new materials that can be used as tissue and organ replacements, drug delivery systems and/or components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis. The first man-made plastic used as surgical implant was celluloid, applied for cranial defect repair. However, the first users applied commercial materials with no regard for their purity, biostability and post-operative interaction with the organism. Thus, these materials evoked a strong tissue reaction and were unacceptable. The first polymer which gained acceptance for man-made plastic was poly(methyl methacrylate). But the first polymer of choice, precursor of the broad class of materials known today as hydrogels, was poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) synthesized in the fifties by Wichterle and Lim. HEMA and its various combinations with other, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, polymers are till now the most often used hydrogels for medical purposes. In the early fifties, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking, also with hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of phenomena associated with mechanism of reactions, topology of network, and relations between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by Charlesby (1960) and Chapiro (1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in application of radiation to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents published by Japanese and American scientists. Among others, the team of the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment headed by Kaetsu as well as Hoffman and his colleagues from the Center of Bioengineering, University of Washington have created the base for spreading interest in the field of biomaterials formed by means of

  3. Biomimetic approaches to modulate cellular adhesion in biomaterials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmany, Maria B; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins possess critical biological characteristics that provide a platform for cellular adhesion and activation of highly regulated signaling pathways. However, ECM-based biomaterials can have several limitations, including poor mechanical properties and risk of immunogenicity. Synthetic biomaterials alleviate the risks associated with natural biomaterials but often lack the robust biological activity necessary to direct cell function beyond initial adhesion. A thorough understanding of receptor-mediated cellular adhesion to the ECM and subsequent signaling activation has facilitated development of techniques that functionalize inert biomaterials to provide a biologically active surface. Here we review a range of approaches used to modify biomaterial surfaces for optimal receptor-mediated cell interactions, as well as provide insights into specific mechanisms of downstream signaling activation. In addition to a brief overview of integrin receptor-mediated cell function, so-called "biomimetic" techniques reviewed here include (i) surface modification of biomaterials with bioadhesive ECM macromolecules or specific binding motifs, (ii) nanoscale patterning of the materials and (iii) the use of "natural-like" biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  5. Nanostructured titanium-based materials for medical implants: Modeling and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny; Valiev, Ruslan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of titanium-based implantable devices can provide them with superior mechanical properties and enhanced biocompatibity. An overview of advanced fabrication technologies of nanostructured, high strength, biocompatible Ti and shape memory Ni-Ti alloy for medical implants is given. C...

  6. A new approach to the rationale discovery of polymeric biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Joachim; Welsh, William J.; Knight, Doyle

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate both the need for new approaches to biomaterials discovery as well as the significant promise inherent in the use of combinatorial and computational design strategies. The key observation of this Leading Opinion Paper is that the biomaterials community has been slow to embrace advanced biomaterials discovery tools such as combinatorial methods, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling in spite of the significant promise shown by these discovery tools in materials science, medicinal chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It seems that the complexity of living cells and their interactions with biomaterials has been a conceptual as well as a practical barrier to the use of advanced discovery tools in biomaterials science. However, with the continued increase in computer power, the goal of predicting the biological response of cells in contact with biomaterials surfaces is within reach. Once combinatorial synthesis, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling are integrated into the biomaterials discovery process, a significant acceleration is possible in the pace of development of improved medical implants, tissue regeneration scaffolds, and gene/drug delivery systems. PMID:17644176

  7. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue

  9. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-05-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue.

  10. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  11. Biomaterials: An Introduction for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Renee B.

    1996-01-01

    Contains an overview of biomaterials, an interdisciplinary field in which research combines medicine, biological sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Biomaterials are substances which improve quality of life by augmenting or replacing bodily tissues or functions. Highlights problems associated with collection development and literature…

  12. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF

  13. Preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuejun; Tang Yuefeng; Lv Chuntang; Zhou Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials was reported. In order to obtain uniform porous biomaterials, disk samples were formed by the mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders and monodispersed polystyrene microspheres, and then HAP uniform porous materials with different diameter and different porosity (diameter: 436 ± 25 nm, 892 ± 20 nm and 1890 ± 20 nm, porosity: 46.5%, 41.3% and 34.7%, respectively) were prepared by sintering these disk samples at 1250 deg. C for 5 h. The pure phase of HAP powders fabricated by the hydrothermal technology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface and size distribution of pores in HAP biomaterials were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size distribution in porous HAP biomaterials was tested by mercury intrusion method

  14. The pathology of the foreign body reaction against biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R; Jung, F

    2017-03-01

    The healing process after implantation of biomaterials involves the interaction of many contributing factors. Besides their in vivo functionality, biomaterials also require characteristics that allow their integration into the designated tissue without eliciting an overshooting foreign body reaction (FBR). The targeted design of biomaterials with these features, thus, needs understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the FBR. Much effort has been put into research on the interaction of engineered materials and the host tissue. This elucidated many aspects of the five FBR phases, that is protein adsorption, acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body giant cell formation, and fibrous capsule formation. However, in practice, it is still difficult to predict the response against a newly designed biomaterial purely based on the knowledge of its physical-chemical surface features. This insufficient knowledge leads to a high number of factors potentially influencing the FBR, which have to be analyzed in complex animal experiments including appropriate data-based sample sizes. This review is focused on the current knowledge on the general mechanisms of the FBR against biomaterials and the influence of biomaterial surface topography and chemical and physical features on the quality and quantity of the reaction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 927-940, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interfaces in graded coatings on titanium-based implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Esteban, S; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C F; Gremillard, L; Saiz, E; Tomsia, A P

    2009-03-15

    Graded bilayered glass-ceramic composite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates were fabricated using an enameling technique. The layers consisted of a mixture of glasses in the CaO-MgO-Na(2)O-K(2)O-P(2)O(5) system with different amounts of calcium phosphates (CPs). Optimum firing conditions have been determined for the fabrication of coatings having good adhesion to the metal, while avoiding deleterious reactions between the glass and the ceramic particles. The final coatings do not crack or delaminate. The use of high-silica layers (>60 wt % SiO(2)) in contact with the alloy promotes long-term stability of the coating; glass-metal adhesion is achieved through the formation of a nanostructured Ti(5)Si(3) layer. A surface layer containing a mixture of a low-silica glass ( approximately 53 wt % SiO(2)) and synthetic hydroxyapatite particles promotes the precipitation of new apatite during tests in vitro. The in vitro behavior of the coatings in simulated body fluid depends both on the composition of the glass matrix and the CP particles, and is strongly affected by the coating design and the firing conditions.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulation. In this review, we discuss the molecular events that contribute to macrophage activation and fusion with a focus on the role of the inflammasome, signaling pathways such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB, and the putative involvement of micro RNAs in the regulation of these processes.

  17. Biomaterials in orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Michiardi, A; Castaño, O; Planell, J.A

    2008-01-01

    At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field. PMID:18667387

  18. Trends in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kothiyal, G P

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials research requires the union of materials scientists, engineers, biologists, biomedical doctors, and surgeons. Societal implications have invoked tremendous interest in this area of research in recent years. What started as a search for strong and durable implant materials has now led to path-breaking developments in tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, and tissue scaffolds. Viable applications of mesoporous structures, polymer biocomposites, and fibers (synthetic and natural) in the areas of clinical orthopedics, controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, orthodontics, etc., have emerged as relatively recent concepts. This book presents recent results related to both materials aspects and implant issues. The focus is on structural, magnetic, antibacterial, bioactivity/compatibility, mechanical, and other related properties and the implication of these results on biomedical applications. The book discusses technical problems faced by the surgeon during implant fixation in total hip repla...

  19. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, V; Zykova, A; Smolik, J; Rogovska, R; Donkov, N; Goltsev, A; Dubrava, T; Rassokha, I; Georgieva, V

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  1. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Dirk; Verboket, René; Schaible, Alexander; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP, without coating or ...

  2. Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element, which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.

  3. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    With advancements in biological and engineering sciences, the definition of an ideal biomaterial has evolved over the past 50 years from a substance that is inert to one that has select bioinductive properties and integrates well with adjacent host tissue. Biomaterials are a fundamental component of tissue engineering, which aims to replace diseased, damaged, or missing tissue with reconstructed functional tissue. Most biomaterials are less than satisfactory for pediatric patients because the scaffold must adapt to the growth and development of the surrounding tissues and organs over time. The pediatric community, therefore, provides a distinct challenge for the tissue engineering community. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  5. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  6. Assessment of Surface Area Characteristics of Dental Implants with Gradual Bioactive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czan, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Miklos, Matej; Záušková, Lucia; Mezencevová, Viktória

    2017-10-01

    Since most of the implant surface is in direct contact with bone tissue, shape and integrity of said surface has great influence on successful osseointegration. Among other characteristics that predetermine titanium of different grades of pureness as ideal biomaterial, titanium shows high mechanical strength making precise miniature machining increasingly difficult. Current titanium-based implants are often anodized due to colour coding. This anodized layer has important functional properties for right usage and also bio-compatibility of dental implants. Physical method of anodizing and usage of anodizing mediums has a significant influence on the surface quality and itself functionality. However, basic requirement of the dental implant with satisfactory properties is quality of machined surface before anodizing. Roughness, for example, is factor affecting of time length of anodizing operation and so whole productivity. The paper is focused on monitoring of surface and area characteristics, such as roughness or surface integrity after different cutting conditions of miniature machining of dental implants and their impact on suitability for creation of satisfactory anodized layer with the correct biocompatible functional properties.

  7. Predicting biomaterial property-dendritic cell phenotype relationships from the multivariate analysis of responses to polymethacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Peng Meng; Pallassana, Narayanan; Bowden, Rebeca; Cunningham, Barry; Joy, Abraham; Kohn, Joachim; Babensee, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in orchestrating the host responses to a wide variety of foreign antigens and are essential in maintaining immune tolerance. Distinct biomaterials have been shown to differentially affect the phenotype of DCs, which suggested that biomaterials may be used to modulate immune response towards the biologic component in combination products. The elucidation of biomaterial property-DC phenotype relationships is expected to inform rational design of immuno-modulatory biomaterials. In this study, DC response to a set of 12 polymethacrylates (pMAs) was assessed in terms of surface marker expression and cytokine profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) determined that surface carbon correlated with enhanced DC maturation, while surface oxygen was associated with an immature DC phenotype. Partial square linear regression, a multivariate modeling approach, was implemented and successfully predicted biomaterial-induced DC phenotype in terms of surface marker expression from biomaterial properties with R2prediction = 0.76. Furthermore, prediction of DC phenotype was effective based on only theoretical chemical composition of the bulk polymers with R2prediction = 0.80. These results demonstrated that immune cell response can be predicted from biomaterial properties, and computational models will expedite future biomaterial design and selection. PMID:22136715

  8. On the nature of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David F

    2009-10-01

    The situations in which biomaterials are currently used are vastly different to those of just a decade ago. Although implantable medical devices are still immensely important, medical technologies now encompass a range of drug and gene delivery systems, tissue engineering and cell therapies, organ printing and cell patterning, nanotechnology based imaging and diagnostic systems and microelectronic devices. These technologies still encompass metals, ceramics and synthetic polymers, but also biopolymers, self assembled systems, nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. These changes imply that our original concepts of biomaterials and our expectations of their performance also have to change. This Leading Opinion Paper addresses these issues. It concludes that many substances which hitherto we may not have thought of as biomaterials should now be considered as such so that, alongside the traditional structural biomaterials, we have substances that have been engineered to perform functions within health care where their performance is directly controlled by interactions with tissues and tissue components. These include engineered tissues, cells, organs and even viruses. This essay develops the arguments for a radically different definition of a biomaterial.

  9. Cell reactions with biomaterials: the microscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. S.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and results of optical microscopy that can be used to observe cell reactions to biomaterials are Interference Reflection Microscopy (IRM, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM, Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy (SPRM and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy (FRETM and Standing Wave Fluorescence Microscopy. The last three are new developments, which have not yet been fully perfected. TIRFM and SPRM are evanescent wave methods. The physics of these methods depend upon optical phenomena at interfaces. All these methods give information on the dimensions of the gap between cell and the substratum to which it is adhering and thus are especially suited to work with biomaterials. IRM and FRETM can be used on opaque surfaces though image interpretation is especially difficult for IRM on a reflecting opaque surface. These methods are compared with several electron microscopical methods for studying cell adhesion to substrata. These methods all yield fairly consistent results and show that the cell to substratum distance on many materials is in the range 5 to 30 nm. The area of contact relative to the total projected area of the cell may vary from a few per cent to close to 100% depending on the cell type and substratum. These methods show that those discrete contact areas well known as focal contacts are frequently present. The results of FRETM suggest that the separation from the substratum even in a focal contact is about 5 nm.

  10. Mechanically-competent and cytocompatible polycaprolactone-borophosphosilicate hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibakar; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2017-11-01

    Organic-inorganic class II hybrid materials have domain sizes at the molecular level and chemical bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. We have previously reported the synthesis of class II hybrid biomaterials from alkoxysilane-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) and borophosphosilicate (B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 ) glass (BPSG) through a non-aqueous sol-gel process. In the present study, the mechanical properties and degradability of these PCL/BPSG hybrid biomaterials were studied and compared to those of their conventional composite counterparts. The compressive strength, modulus and toughness of the hybrid biomaterials were significantly greater compared to the conventional composites, likely due to the covalent bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. A hybrid biomaterial (50wt% PCL and 50wt% BPSG) exhibited compressive strength, modulus and toughness values of 32.2 ± 3.5MPa, 573 ± 85MPa and 1.54 ± 0.03MPa, respectively; whereas the values for composite of similar composition were 18.8 ± 1.6MPa, 275 ± 28MPa and 0.76 ± 0.03MPa, respectively. Degradation in phosphate-buffered saline was slower for hybrid biomaterials compared to their composite counterparts. Thus, these hybrid materials possess superior mechanical properties and more controlled degradation characteristics compared to their corresponding conventional composites. To assess in vitro cytocompatibility, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were seeded onto the surfaces of hybrid biomaterials and polycaprolactone (control). Compared to polycaprolactone, cells on the hybrid material displayed enhanced spreading, focal adhesion formation, and cell number, consistent with excellent cytocompatibility. Thus, based on their mechanical properties, degradability and cytocompatibility, these novel biomaterials have potential for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering and related applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Deposition and Characterization of the Titanium-Based Coating by a Multi-Chamber Detonation Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseenko M.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces some of the aspects of the deposition of titanium-based coating (80-120 μm thick on aluminium samples using a multi-chamber detonation sprayer (MCDS. The characteristic feature of MCDS is that the powder is accelerated by using combustion products that are formed in MCDS chambers and are converged before entering the nozzle, where they interact with the two-phase gas-powder cloud. The microstructures and properties of the coating were characterized with the use of scanning electronic microscopes (SEM, optical microscope (OM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD techniques, and Vickers hardness tester with a 50 g test load. Wear tests were carried out using a computer controlled pin-on-disc type tribometer. It was established that MCDS has provided the conditions for formation of a dense titanium-based coating with a porosity of less than 1.0%, microhardness 810±250 HV0.05 and a specific wear rate of 2.077∙10-4 mm3(m∙N-1.

  12. In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Câmara Marques Pereira-Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

  13. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  14. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  15. Macrophages, Foreign Body Giant Cells and Their Response to Implantable Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biomaterials, when implanted in vivo, elicit cellular and tissue responses. These responses include the inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the implanted materials. Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are tactically situated throughout the tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells and foreign materials in addition to orchestrating inflammatory processes. Macrophages and their fused morphologic variants, the multinucleated giant cells, which include the foreign body giant cells (FBGCs are the dominant early responders to biomaterial implantation and remain at biomaterial-tissue interfaces for the lifetime of the device. An essential aspect of macrophage function in the body is to mediate degradation of bio-resorbable materials including bone through extracellular degradation and phagocytosis. Biomaterial surface properties play a crucial role in modulating the foreign body reaction in the first couple of weeks following implantation. The foreign body reaction may impact biocompatibility of implantation devices and may considerably impact short- and long-term success in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, necessitating a clear understanding of the foreign body reaction to different implantation materials. The focus of this review article is on the interactions of macrophages and foreign body giant cells with biomaterial surfaces, and the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of biomaterial surfaces that play a role in regulating the foreign body response. Events in the foreign body response include protein adsorption, adhesion of monocytes/macrophages, fusion to form FBGCs, and the consequent modification of the biomaterial surface. The effect of physico-chemical cues on macrophages is not well known and there is a complex interplay between biomaterial properties and those that result from interactions with the local environment. By having a

  16. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  18. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  19. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  20. An unscaled parameter to measure the order of surfaces: a new surface elaboration to increase cells adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigerelle, M; Anselme, K; Dufresne, E; Hardouin, P; Iost, A

    2002-08-01

    We present a new parameter to quantify the order of a surface. This parameter is scale-independent and can be used to compare the organization of a surface at different scales of range and amplitude. To test the accuracy of this roughness parameter versus a hundred existing ones, we created an original statistical bootstrap method. In order to assess the physical relevance of this new parameter, we elaborated a great number of surfaces with various roughness amplitudes on titanium and titanium-based alloys using different physical processes. Then we studied the influence of the roughness amplitude on in vitro adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblasts. It was then shown that our new parameter best discriminates among the cell adhesion phenomena than others' parameters (Average roughness (Ra em leader )): cells adhere better on isotropic surfaces with a low order, provided this order is quantified on a scale that is more important than that of the cells. Additionally, on these low ordered metallic surfaces, the shape of the cells presents the same morphological aspect as that we can see on the human bone trabeculae. The method used to prepare these isotropic surfaces (electroerosion) could be undoubtedly and easily applied to prepare most biomaterials with complex geometries and to improve bone implant integration. Moreover, the new order parameter we developed may be particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of the mechanism of bone cell installation on a relief and of the formation of bone cell-material interface.

  1. Handheld skin printer: in situ formation of planar biomaterials and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Navid; Cheng, Richard; Leng, Lian; Sotoudehfar, Mohammad; Ba, Phoenix Qing; Bakhtyar, Nazihah; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G; Günther, Axel

    2018-05-15

    We present a handheld skin printer that enables the in situ formation of biomaterial and skin tissue sheets of different homogeneous and architected compositions. When manually positioned above a target surface, the compact instrument (weight <0.8 kg) conformally deposits a biomaterial or tissue sheet from a microfluidic cartridge. Consistent sheet formation is achieved by coordinating the flow rates at which bioink and cross-linker solution are delivered, with the speed at which a pair of rollers actively translate the cartridge along the surface. We demonstrate compatibility with dermal and epidermal cells embedded in ionically cross-linkable biomaterials (e.g., alginate), and enzymatically cross-linkable proteins (e.g., fibrin), as well as their mixtures with collagen type I and hyaluronic acid. Upon rapid crosslinking, biomaterial and skin cell-laden sheets of consistent thickness, width and composition were obtained. Sheets deposited onto horizontal, agarose-coated surfaces were used for physical and in vitro characterization. Proof-of-principle demonstrations for the in situ formation of biomaterial sheets in murine and porcine excisional wound models illustrate the capacity of depositing onto inclined and compliant wound surfaces that are subject to respiratory motion. We expect the presented work will enable the in situ delivery of a wide range of different cells, biomaterials, and tissue adhesives, as well as the in situ fabrication of spatially organized biomaterials, tissues, and biohybrid structures.

  2. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  3. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC (Australia). Molecular Science

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be `biocompatible`, such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving `biocompatibility` is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a `foreign` material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the `bulk` chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  4. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be 'biocompatible', such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving 'biocompatibility' is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a 'foreign' material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the 'bulk' chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  5. Pulmonary emboli from blood-biomaterial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.E.; Ramberg, K.; McEnroe, C.S.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of surface thrombosis and subsequent embolization remains entrenched as a yet incompletely surmounted barrier to the development of truly satisfactory intravascular prosthetic devices. A baboon ex vivo shunt was used to determine the interaction of Indium-111 platelets and potential biomaterials. The uptake of Indium-111 platelets was monitored continuously by gamma camera scanning. Several of the materials tested demonstrated a saw-toothed pattern of platelet activity, with accumulation followed by rapid decline. Neither PTFE nor Dacron exhibited this pattern. Post shunt scans of the animals' chests showed discrete foci of platelet activity in the lungs, corresponding to each embolic event noted on the material's scan. In conclusion, the search for a smooth surface as a blood material interface may produce a material which accumulates and then sloughs significant platelet aggregates. It is crucial that these materials be subjected to vigorous testing to determine their safety prior to initiation of clinical trials

  6. On the use of titanium hydride for powder injection moulding of titanium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrenoo-Morelli, E.; Bidaux, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Titanium and titanium-based alloys are excellent materials for a number of engineering applications because of their high strength, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, non magnetic characteristic and biocompatibility. The current processing steps are usually costly, and there is a growing demand for net-shape solutions for manufacturing parts of increasing complexity. Powder injection moulding is becoming a competitive alternative, thanks to the advances in production of good quality base-powders, binders and sintering facilities. Titanium hydride powders, have the attractiveness of being less reactive than fine titanium powders, easier to handle, and cheaper. This paper summarizes recent advances on PIM of titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 powders, including shape-memory NiTi alloys. (author)

  7. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  8. Synthesis of self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, F.; Wen, Y.; Chan, K.C.; Yue, T.M.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Zhu, S.L.; Yang, X.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide was synthesized for the first time by ultrafast anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte containing 10% HNO 3 . The nanoporous oxide has through-holes with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The as-formed oxides are amorphous, and were transformed to crystalline structures by annealing. The performance of a dye sensitized solar cell using nanoporpous Ti–10Zr oxide (TZ10) was further studied. It was found that the TZ10 film could increase both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit photovoltage of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell was 6.99%, an increase of 20.7% as compared to that using a pure TiO 2 (P25) film. - Graphical abstract: The nanoporous Ti–xZr(x=10, 30) oxide layers are fabricated by anodizing in a dilute nitric acid solvent. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC by a covering of a Ti–10Zr thin film is increased by 20.7%, with an η of 7.69% , a short circuit current of 12.4 mA/cm 2 , a open circuit voltage of 0.833 V, and a fill factor of 0.679. - Highlights: • Self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal (TiZr) oxide was synthesized. • The TiZr oxides have through-hole nanopores with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. • The nanoporous Ti–10Zr oxide can improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSSC

  9. Synthesis of self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, F. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Wen, Y. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Chan, K.C., E-mail: mfkcchan@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Yue, T.M. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Zhou, Y.Z. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Zhu, S.L.; Yang, X.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide was synthesized for the first time by ultrafast anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte containing 10% HNO{sub 3}. The nanoporous oxide has through-holes with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The as-formed oxides are amorphous, and were transformed to crystalline structures by annealing. The performance of a dye sensitized solar cell using nanoporpous Ti–10Zr oxide (TZ10) was further studied. It was found that the TZ10 film could increase both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit photovoltage of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell was 6.99%, an increase of 20.7% as compared to that using a pure TiO{sub 2} (P25) film. - Graphical abstract: The nanoporous Ti–xZr(x=10, 30) oxide layers are fabricated by anodizing in a dilute nitric acid solvent. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC by a covering of a Ti–10Zr thin film is increased by 20.7%, with an η of 7.69% , a short circuit current of 12.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a open circuit voltage of 0.833 V, and a fill factor of 0.679. - Highlights: • Self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal (TiZr) oxide was synthesized. • The TiZr oxides have through-hole nanopores with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. • The nanoporous Ti–10Zr oxide can improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSSC.

  10. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  11. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, Jean; Demanget, Nicolas; Pellier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II–V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease. (paper)

  12. Cell-biomaterial mechanical interaction in the framework of tissue engineering: insights, computational modeling and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Herrera, Jose A; Reina-Romo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is critical in order to get a functional tissue engineering product. Cell-biomaterial interaction is referred to here as the phenomenon involved in adherent cells attachment to the biomaterial surface, and their related cell functions such as growth, differentiation, migration or apoptosis. This process is inherently complex in nature involving many physico-chemical events which take place at different scales ranging from molecular to cell body (organelle) levels. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the mechanical environment at the cell-biomaterial location may play an important role in the subsequent cell function, which remains to be elucidated. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in the physics and mechanics of cell-biomaterial interaction is reviewed with an emphasis on focal adhesions. The paper is focused on the different models developed at different scales available to simulate certain features of cell-biomaterial interaction. A proper understanding of cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the development of predictive models in this sense, may add some light in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields.

  13. Hydration behaviors of calcium silicate-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hsi; Lin, Feng-Huie; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-06-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)-based biomaterials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), have become the most popular and convincing material used in restorative endodontic treatments. However, the commercially available CS-based biomaterials all contain different minor additives, which may affect their hydration behaviors and material properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydration behavior of CS-based biomaterials with/without minor additives. A novel CS-based biomaterial with a simplified composition, without mineral oxides as minor additives, was produced. The characteristics of this biomaterial during hydration were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The hydration behaviors of commercially available gray and white MTAs with mineral oxide as minor additives were also evaluated for reference. For all three test materials, the XRD analysis revealed similar diffraction patterns after hydration, but MTAs presented a significant decrease in the intensities of Bi 2 O 3 -related peaks. SEM results demonstrated similar porous microstructures with some hexagonal and facetted crystals on the outer surfaces. In addition, compared to CS with a simplified composition, the FTIR plot indicated that hydrated MTAs with mineral oxides were better for the polymerization of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), presenting Si-O band shifting to higher wave numbers, and contained more water crystals within CSH, presenting sharper bands for O-H bending. Mineral oxides might not result in significant changes in the crystal phases or microstructures during the hydration of CS-based biomaterials, but these compounds affected the hydration behavior at the molecular level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  15. Microgel Mechanics in Biomaterial Design

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels a...

  16. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  17. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  18. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  19. Nanotechnology in medicine: nanofilm biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Paul R

    2013-12-13

    By interrogating nature at the length scale of important biological molecules (proteins, DNA), nanotechnology offers great promise to biomedicine. We review here our recent work on nanofilm biomaterials: "nanoscopically" thin, functional, polymer-based films serving as biocompatible interfaces. In one thrust, films containing carbon nanotubes are shown to be highly antimicrobial and, thus, to be promising as biomedical device materials inherently resistive to microbial infection. In another thrust, strategies are developed toward films of independently controllable bioactivity and mechanical rigidity - two key variables governing typical biological responses.

  20. Real-time in vivo detection of biomaterial-induced reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wendy F.; Ma, Minglin; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Dang, Tram T.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The non-specific host response to implanted biomaterials is often a key challenge of medical device design. To evaluate biocompatibility, measuring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells in response to biomaterial surfaces is a well-established method. However, the detection of ROS in response to materials implanted in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we develop a bioluminescence whole animal imaging approach to observe ROS released in response to...

  1. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, AD; Strafford, S; Posada-Estefan, O; Thomson, CL; Hussaein, SA; Edwards, TJ; Malinowski, M; Hondow, N; Metzger, NK; Brown, CTA; Routledge, MN; Brown, AP; Duggal, MS; Jha, A

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluat...

  2. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  3. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  4. Properties and clinical relevance of osteoinductive biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This thesis had two main goals: (¿) to investigate parameters influencing osteoinductive potential of biomaterials in order to unravel the mechanism underlying osteoinduction and (¿¿) to investigate performance of osteoinductive biomaterials orthotopically in order to get insight into their clinical

  5. Biomaterials and tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    functional components are not generally considered to be biomaterials since by definition they are not in ... The requirements in these cases will be varied depending upon the stress transfer system within the ... few widely used biomaterials in clinical practice but rather a whole range of metals and alloys, ceramic and ...

  6. Biomaterial applications in neural therapy and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harmanvir Ghuman; Michel Modo

    2017-01-01

    The use of biomaterials,such as hydrogels,as a scaffold to deliver cells and drugs is becoming increasingly common to treat neurological conditions,including stroke.With a limited intrinsic ability to regenerate after injury,innovative tissue engineering strategies have shown the potential of biomaterials in facilitating neural tissue regeneration and functional recovery.Using biomaterials can not only promote the survival and integration of transplanted cells in the existing circuitry,but also support controlled site specific delivery of therapeutic drugs.This review aims to provide the reader an understanding of the brain tissue microenvironment after injury,biomaterial criteria that support tissue repair,commonly used natural and synthetic biomaterials,benefits of incorporating cells and neurotrophic factors,as well as the potential of endogenous neurogenesis in repairing the injured brain.

  7. Leveraging advances in biology to design biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max; Mooney, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials have dramatically increased in functionality and complexity, allowing unprecedented control over the cells that interact with them. From these engineering advances arises the prospect of improved biomaterial-based therapies, yet practical constraints favour simplicity. Tools from the biology community are enabling high-resolution and high-throughput bioassays that, if incorporated into a biomaterial design framework, could help achieve unprecedented functionality while minimizing the complexity of designs by identifying the most important material parameters and biological outputs. However, to avoid data explosions and to effectively match the information content of an assay with the goal of the experiment, material screens and bioassays must be arranged in specific ways. By borrowing methods to design experiments and workflows from the bioprocess engineering community, we outline a framework for the incorporation of next-generation bioassays into biomaterials design to effectively optimize function while minimizing complexity. This framework can inspire biomaterials designs that maximize functionality and translatability.

  8. Characterization of Anodized Titanium Based Novel Paradigm Supercapacitors: Impact of Salt Identity and Frequency on Dielectric Values, Power, and Energy Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    solution, sufficient charge carriers to counteract the applied but not cause ion- lock , are energy densities at their maximum. For the salt identities and...OF ANODIZED TITANIUM- BASED NOVEL PARADIGM SUPERCAPACITORS: IMPACT OF SALT IDENTITY AND FREQUENCY ON DIELECTRIC VALUES, POWER, AND ENERGY DENSITIES...SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZATION OF ANODIZED TITANIUM-BASED NOVEL PARADIGM SUPERCAPACITORS: IMPACT OF SALT IDENTITY AND FREQUENCY ON DIELECTRIC VALUES, POWER

  9. Nanoporous biomaterials for uremic toxin adsorption in artificial kidney systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wee-Keat; Ishikawa, Kunio; Othman, Radzali; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Hemodialysis, one of the earliest artificial kidney systems, removes uremic toxins via diffusion through a semipermeable porous membrane into the dialysate fluid. Miniaturization of the present hemodialysis system into a portable and wearable device to maintain continuous removal of uremic toxins would require that the amount of dialysate used within a closed-system is greatly reduced. Diffused uremic toxins within a closed-system dialysate need to be removed to maintain the optimum concentration gradient for continuous uremic toxin removal by the dialyzer. In this dialysate regenerative system, adsorption of uremic toxins by nanoporous biomaterials is essential. Throughout the years of artificial kidney development, activated carbon has been identified as a potential adsorbent for uremic toxins. Adsorption of uremic toxins necessitates nanoporous biomaterials, especially activated carbon. Nanoporous biomaterials are also utilized in hemoperfusion for uremic toxin removal. Further miniaturization of artificial kidney system and improvements on uremic toxin adsorption capacity would require high performance nanoporous biomaterials which possess not only higher surface area, controlled pore size, but also designed architecture or structure and surface functional groups. This article reviews on various nanoporous biomaterials used in current artificial kidney systems and several emerging nanoporous biomaterials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1232-1240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Research: Applications and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs, is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.

  11. Application of ion beams for polymeric carbon based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelyn, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beams have been shown to be quite suitable for the modification and analysis of carbon based biomaterials. Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC), made from cured phenolic resins, has a high chemical inertness that makes it useful as a biomaterial in medicine for drug delivery systems and for the manufacture of heart valves and other prosthetic devices. Low and high-energy ion beams have been used, with both partially and fully cured phenolic resins, to enhance biological cell/tissue growth on, and to increase tissue adhesion to GPC surfaces. Samples bombarded with energetic ion beams in the keV to MeV range exhibited increased surface roughness, measured using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ion beams were also used to perform nuclear reaction analyses of GPC encapsulated drugs for use in internal drug delivery systems. The results from the high energy bombardment were more dramatic and are shown in this paper. The interaction of energetic ions has demonstrated the useful application of ion beams to enhance the properties of carbon-based biomaterials

  12. Interactions between bone cells and biomaterials: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Sabrina; Drevelle, Olivier; Jann, Jessica; Lauzon, Marc-Antoine; Foruzanmehr, Mohammadreza; Grenier, Guillaume; Roux, Sophie; Faucheux, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    As the populations of the Western world become older, they will suffer more and more from bone defects related to osteoporosis (non-union fractures, vertebral damages), cancers (malignant osteolysis) and infections (osteomyelitis). Autografts are usually used to fill these defects, but they have several drawbacks such as morbidity at the donor site and the amount and quality of bone that can be harvested. Recent scientific milestones made in biomaterials development were shown to be promising to overcome these limitations. Cell interactions with biomaterials can be improved by adding at their surface functional groups such as adhesive peptides and/or growth factors. The development of such biomimetic materials able to control bone cell responses can only proceed if it is based on a sound understanding of bone cell behavior and regulation. This review focuses on bone physiology and the regulation of bone cell differentiation and function, and how the latest advances in biomimetic materials can be translated within promising clinical outcomes.

  13. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) structures and their characterization for CGL2-galectin-mediated binding of ECM glycoproteins to biomaterial surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauerzapfe, B.; Křenek, Karel; Schmiedel, J.; Wakarchuk, W.W.; Pelantová, Helena; Křen, Vladimír; Elling, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2009), s. 141-159 ISSN 0282-0080 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200503; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) DAAD-AV ČR projekt PPP-D7-CZ 26/04-05D/03/44448 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : chemo-enzymatic sysnthesis * galectin binding * biomaterials Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2009

  14. Bioresorption and degradation of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debarun; Zhang, Ziyang; Winkler, Thomas; Mour, Meenakshi; Gunter, Christina; Morlock, Michael; Machens, Hans-Gunther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2012-01-01

    The human body is a composite structure, completely constructed of biodegradable materials. This allows the cells of the body to remove and replace old or defective tissue with new material. Consequently, artificial resorbable biomaterials have been developed for application in regenerative medicine. We discuss here advantages and disadvantages of these bioresorbable materials for medical applications and give an overview of typically used metals, ceramics and polymers. Methods for the quantification of bioresorption in vitro and in vivo are described. The next challenge will be to better understand the interface between cell and material and to use this knowledge for the design of “intelligent” materials that can instruct the cells to build specific tissue geometries and degrade in the process.

  15. New biomaterials for orthopedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong KL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin L Ong, Brian Min Yun, Joshua B WhiteExponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: With the increasing use of orthopedic implants worldwide, there continues to be great interest in the development of novel technologies to further improve the effective clinical performance of contemporary treatment modalities and devices. Continuing research interest also exists in developing novel bulk biomaterials (eg, polycarbonate urethanes, silicon or novel formulations of existing but less widely used biomaterials (eg, polyaryletherketones, polyetheretherketone. There is also growing focus on customizing the material properties of bioabsorbables and composite materials with fillers such as bioactive ceramics. In terms of tissue engineering, more recent developments have focused on basic engineering and biological fundamentals to use cells, signaling factors, and the scaffold material itself to better restore tissue and organ structure and function. There has also been recent controversy with the use of injectables as a nonsurgical approach to treat joint disorders, but more attention is being directed toward the development of newer formulations with different molecular weights. The industry has also continuously sought to improve coatings to supplement the function of existing implants, with the goal of improving their osseointegrative qualities and incorporating antimicrobial properties. These include the use of bone morphogenetic protein, bisphosphonates, calcium phosphate, silicon nitride, and iodine. Due to the widespread use of bone graft materials, recent developments in synthetic graft materials have explored further development of bioactive glass, ceramic materials, and porous titanium particles. This review article provides an overview of ongoing efforts in the above research areas.Keywords: coatings, scaffolds, bioabsorbables, bone graft, injectables

  16. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lesley W; Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue's biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Polymeric biomaterials structure and function, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitriu, Severian

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume

  18. Bacterial biofilm formation versus mammalian cell growth on titanium-based mono- and bi-functional coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Subbiahdoss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials-associated-infections (BAI are serious complications in modern medicine. Although non-adhesive coatings, like polymer-brush coatings, have been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, they do not support cell growth. Bi-functional coatings are supposed to prevent biofilm formation while supporting tissue integration. Here, bacterial and cellular responses to poly(ethylene glycol (PEG brush-coatings on titanium oxide presenting the integrin-active peptide RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (bioactive “PEG-RGD” were compared to mono-functional PEG brush-coatings (biopassive “PEG” and bare titanium oxide (TiO2 surfaces under flow. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983 was deposited on the surfaces under a shear rate of 11 s-1 for 2 h followed by seeding of U2OS osteoblasts. Subsequently, both S. epidermidis and U2OS cells were grown simultaneously on the surfaces for 48 h under low shear (0.14 s-1. After 2 h, staphylococcal adhesion was reduced to 3.6±1.8 × 103 and 6.0±3.9 × 103 cm-2 on PEG and PEG-RGD coatings respectively, compared to 1.3±0.4 × 105 cm-2 for the TiO2 surface. When allowed to grow for 48 h, biofilms formed on all surfaces. However, biofilms detached from the PEG and PEG-RGD coatings when exposed to an elevated shear (5.6 s-1 U2OS cells neither adhered nor spread on PEG brush-coatings, regardless of the presence of biofilm. In contrast, in the presence of biofilm, U2OS cells adhered and spread on PEG-RGD coatings with a significantly higher surface coverage than on bare TiO2. The detachment of biofilm and the high cell surface coverage revealed the potential significance of PEG-RGD coatings in the context of the “race for the surface” between bacteria and mammalian cells.

  19. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  20. New Titanium-Based Catalysts for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Youngkeun; Yoon, Seungwoong; Hwang, Yongtaek; Song, Bogeun

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a polymer with relatively low cost and high performance, which is widely used in various applications such as bottles, textile fibers, films and engineering plastics for automobiles and electric industries. Commercial catalysts used for synthesis of PET are in general antimony (Sb) compounds. Antimony(III) oxide, antimony(III) acetate and antimony(III) glycolate are used as a catalyst in 95% of PET manufacturing industries worldwide. The few organoantimony compounds that have been identified in environmental and biological samples are all in the form of methylated Sb-species. The Sb trace element is extremely toxic to mammals, and interferes with embryonic and fetal development, also, carcinogenic to humans. In addition to being found in drinking water, food packaging and soft-drink bottles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Sb species concentration lower than 20 ppb are acceptable for drinking water. According to a recent study, in 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. Therefore, a very important challenge for polyester catalysis is to come-up with a new Sb-free catalysts with low environmental impact. Intensive efforts have been made to find other stable and more environmental friendly non-antimony catalysts, such as those based on titanium. Titanium-based catalysts have been known for many years and actually are used for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) production, however, polycondensation (PC) of PET manufacture is not well studied in literature. To date, only few esterification processes have been applied for the synthesis of PET by titanium catalysts. Herein, we report an efficient synthesis characterization and polymerization of PET for a series of new nontoxic organotitanium

  1. The dorsal skinfold chamber: window into the dynamic interaction of biomaterials with their surrounding host tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Laschke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of biomaterials into the human body has become an indispensable part of almost all fields of modern medicine. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for appropriate approaches, which can be used to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials for distinct clinical indications. The dorsal skinfold chamber is a sophisticated experimental model, which has been proven to be extremely valuable for the systematic in vivo analysis of the dynamic interaction of small biomaterial implants with the surrounding host tissue in rats, hamsters and mice. By means of intravital fluorescence microscopy, this chronic model allows for repeated analyses of various cellular, molecular and microvascular mechanisms, which are involved in the early inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response to biomaterials during the initial 2-3 weeks after implantation. Therefore, the dorsal skinfold chamber has been broadly used during the last two decades to assess the in vivo performance of prosthetic vascular grafts, metallic implants, surgical meshes, bone substitutes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for locally or systemically applied drug delivery systems. These studies have contributed to identify basic material properties determining the biocompatibility of the implants and vascular ingrowth into their surface or internal structures. Thus, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into the complex interactions of biomaterials with the surrounding soft tissues of the host but also represents an important tool for the future development of novel biomaterials aiming at an optimisation of their biofunctionality in clinical practice.

  2. Biomaterials and Culture Technologies for Regenerative Therapy of Liver Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roman A; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Regenerative approach has emerged to substitute the current extracorporeal technologies for the treatment of diseased and damaged liver tissue. This is based on the use of biomaterials that modulate the responses of hepatic cells through the unique matrix properties tuned to recapitulate regenerative functions. Cells in liver preserve their phenotype or differentiate through the interactions with extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, the intrinsic properties of the engineered biomaterials, such as stiffness and surface topography, need to be tailored to induce appropriate cellular functions. The matrix physical stimuli can be combined with biochemical cues, such as immobilized functional groups or the delivered actions of signaling molecules. Furthermore, the external modulation of cells, through cocultures with nonparenchymal cells (e.g., endothelial cells) that can signal bioactive molecules, is another promising avenue to regenerate liver tissue. This review disseminates the recent approaches of regenerating liver tissue, with a focus on the development of biomaterials and the related culture technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Varoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.

  4. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  5. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  6. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  7. Biomaterials innovation bundling technologies and life

    CERN Document Server

    Styhre, A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances in the life sciences means that there is now a far more detailed understanding of biological systems on the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Sited at the intersection between the life sciences, the engineering sciences and the design sciences, innovations in the biomaterials industry are expected to garner increasing attention and play a key role in future development. This book examines the biomaterials innovations taking place in corporations and in academic research settings today.

  8. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  9. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  10. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomaterials and medical devices a perspective from an emerging country

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to biomaterials with the focus on the current development and future direction of biomaterials and medical devices research and development in Indonesia. It is the first biomaterials book written by selected academic and clinical experts experts on biomaterials and medical devices from various institutions and industries in Indonesia. It serves as a reference source for researchers starting new projects, for companies developing and marketing products and for governments setting new policies. Chapter one covers the fundamentals of biomaterials, types of biomaterials, their structures and properties and the relationship between them. Chapter two discusses unconventional processing of biomaterials including nano-hybrid organic-inorganic biomaterials. Chapter three addresses biocompatibility issues including in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in vitro cell models, biocompatibility data and its related failure. Chapter four describes degradable biomaterial for medical implants...

  12. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  13. Integrated Circuit-Based Biofabrication with Common Biomaterials for Probing Cellular Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Yeh, J Andrew; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in bioengineering have enabled the development of biomedical tools with modifiable surface features (small-scale architecture) to mimic extracellular matrices and aid in the development of well-controlled platforms that allow for the application of mechanical stimulation for studying cellular biomechanics. An overview of recent developments in common biomaterials that can be manufactured using integrated circuit-based biofabrication is presented. Integrated circuit-based biofabrication possesses advantages including mass and diverse production capacities for fabricating in vitro biomedical devices. This review highlights the use of common biomaterials that have been most frequently used to study cellular biomechanics. In addition, the influence of various small-scale characteristics on common biomaterial surfaces for a range of different cell types is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboket, René; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma), demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and bovine cancellous bone (BS) were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo. PMID:25802865

  15. Characterization of bone marrow mononuclear cells on biomaterials for bone tissue engineering in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Dirk; Verboket, René; Schaible, Alexander; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma), demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and bovine cancellous bone (BS) were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo.

  16. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Henrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, and bovine cancellous bone (BS were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo.

  17. Evaluation of Biomaterials Using Micro-Computerized Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torris, A. T. Arun; Columbus, K. C. Soumya; Saaj, U. S.; Krishnan, Kalliyana V.; Nair, Manitha B.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography or Micro-CT is a high resolution, non-invasive, x-ray scanning technique that allows precise three-dimensional imaging and quantification of micro-architectural and structural parameters of objects. Tomographic reconstruction is based on a cone-beam convolution-back-projection algorithm. Micro-architectural and structural parameters such as porosity, surface area to volume ratio, interconnectivity, pore size, wall thickness, anisotropy and cross-section area of biomaterials and bio-specimens such as trabecular bone, polymer scaffold, bio-ceramics and dental restorative were evaluated through imaging and computer aided manipulation of the object scan data sets.

  18. Antibacterial Behavior of Additively Manufactured Porous Titanium with Nanotubular Surfaces Releasing Silver Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Loozen, L.; Paganelli, F. L.; Bakhshandeh, S.; Lietaert, K.; Groot, J. A.; Fluit, A. C.; Boel, C. H E; Alblas, J.; Vogely, H. C.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has enabled fabrication of geometrically complex and fully interconnected porous biomaterials with huge surface areas that could be used for biofunctionalization to achieve multifunctional biomaterials. Covering the huge surface area of such porous titanium with

  19. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  20. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed A.; Mohammed, Abdul Samad; Al-Aqeeli, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  1. A new method using insert-based systems (IBS) to improve cell behavior study on flexible and rigid biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Grenade, Charlotte; Moniotte, Nicolas; Rompen, Eric; Vanheusden, Alain; Mainjot, Amélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies about biomaterials biological properties are essential screening tests. Yet cell cultures encounter difficulties related to cell retention on material surface or to the observation of both faces of permeable materials. The objective of the present study was to develop a reliable in vitro method to study cell behavior on rigid and flexible/permeable biomaterials elaborating two specific insert-based systems (IBS-R and IBS-F respectively). IBS-R was designed as a specific cylin...

  2. Cathodic Polarization Coats Titanium Based Implant Materials with Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a bioactive surface coating that enhances bone healing and bone growth is a strong focus of on-going research for bone implant materials. Enamel matrix derivate (EMD is well documented to support bone regeneration and activates growth of mesenchymal tissues. Thus, it is a prime candidate for coating of existing implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercially available implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bio-available surface layer of EMD. After coating, XPS revealed EMD-related bindings on the surface while SIMS showed incorporation of EMD into the surface. The hydride layer of the original surface could be activated for coating in an integrated one-step process that did not require any pre-treatment of the surface. SEM images showed nano-spheres and nano-rods on coated surfaces that were EMD-related. Moreover, the surface roughness remained unchanged after coating, as it was shown by optical profilometry. The mass peaks observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the integrity of EMD after coating. Assessment of the bioavailability suggested that the modified surfaces were active for osteoblast like MC3M3-E1 cells in showing enhanced Coll-1 gene expression and ALP activity.

  3. Microgel mechanics in biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E; Lyon, L Andrew

    2014-08-19

    The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels and their colloidal analogues, microgels, have been and continue to be heavily investigated as viable materials for biological applications because they offer numerous, facile avenues in tailoring chemical and physical properties to approach biologically harmonious integration. Mechanical properties in particular are recently coming into focus as an important manner in which biological responses can be altered. In this Account, we trace how mechanical properties of microgels have moved into the spotlight of research efforts with the realization of their potential impact in biologically integrative systems. We discuss early experiments in our lab and in others focused on synthetic modulation of particle structure at a rudimentary level for fundamental drug delivery studies. These experiments elucidated that microgel mechanics are a consequence of polymer network distribution, which can be controlled by chemical composition or particle architecture. The degree of deformability designed into the microgel allows for a defined response to an imposed external force. We have studied deformation in packed colloidal phases and in translocation events through confined pores; in all circumstances, microgels exhibit impressive deformability in response to their environmental constraints. Microgels further translate their mechanical properties when assembled in films to the properties of the bulk material. In particular, microgel films have been a large focus in our lab as building blocks for self

  4. Thromboelastometric and platelet responses to silk biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Banani; Schlimp, Christoph J; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Redl, Heinz; Kundu, S C

    2014-05-13

    Silkworm's silk is natural biopolymer with unique properties including mechanical robustness, all aqueous base processing and ease in fabrication into different multifunctional templates. Additionally, the nonmulberry silks have cell adhesion promoting tri-peptide (RGD) sequences, which make it an immensely potential platform for regenerative medicine. The compatibility of nonmulberry silk with human blood is still elusive; thereby, restricts its further application as implants. The present study, therefore, evaluate the haematocompatibility of silk biomaterials in terms of platelet interaction after exposure to nonmulberry silk of Antheraea mylitta using thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The mulberry silk of Bombyx mori and clinically used Uni-Graft W biomaterial serve as references. Shortened clotting time, clot formation times as well as enhanced clot strength indicate the platelet mediated activation of blood coagulation cascade by tested biomaterials; which is comparable to controls.

  5. Manufacturing Cell Therapies Using Engineered Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Amr A; Saha, Krishanu

    2017-10-01

    Emerging manufacturing processes to generate regenerative advanced therapies can involve extensive genomic and/or epigenomic manipulation of autologous or allogeneic cells. These cell engineering processes need to be carefully controlled and standardized to maximize safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Engineered biomaterials with smart and tunable properties offer an intriguing tool to provide or deliver cues to retain stemness, direct differentiation, promote reprogramming, manipulate the genome, or select functional phenotypes. This review discusses the use of engineered biomaterials to control human cell manufacturing. Future work exploiting engineered biomaterials has the potential to generate manufacturing processes that produce standardized cells with well-defined critical quality attributes appropriate for clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel hydroxyapatite biomaterial covalently linked to raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meme, L; Santarelli, A; Marzo, G; Emanuelli, M; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D; Putignano, A; Dioguardi, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Since raloxifene, a drug used in osteoporosis therapy, inhibits osteoclast, but not osteoblast functions, it has been suggested to improve recovery during implant surgery. The present paper describes an effective method to link raloxifene, through a covalent bond, to a nano-Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial by interfacing with (3-aminopropyl)-Triethoxysilane as assessed by Infra Red-Fourier Transformed (IR-FT) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). To evaluate the safety of this modified new material, the vitality of osteoblast-like cells cultured with the new biomaterial was then investigated. Raloxifene-conjugated HAbiomaterial has been shown to be a safe material easy to obtain which could be an interesting starting point for the use of a new functional biomaterial suitable in bone regeneration procedures.

  7. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Lun Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future.

  8. Gloss measurements and rugometric inspection in dental biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Costa, Manuel F. M.; Yebra, Ana; Rubiño, Manuel; Pérez, María. M.

    2013-11-01

    In dental applications, optimizing appearance is desirable and increasingly demanded by patients. The specular gloss is among the major appearance properties of dental biomaterials, and its relationship with surface roughness has been reported. Roughness and gloss are key surface aspects that complement each other. We have experimentally analyzed the specular gloss and surface roughness of two different types of dental-resin composites and pre-sintered and sintered zirconia ceramics. We have studied two shades of both composite types and two sintered zirconia ceramics: colored and uncolored. Moreover, a surface treatment was applied to one specimen of each dental resin. Gloss measurements were performed with a standardized reflectometer and the corresponding gloss percentages were calculated. All the samples were submitted to rugometric non-invasive inspection with the MICROTOP.06.MFC laser microtopographer in order to determine meaningful statistical parameters such as the average roughness (Ra) and the root-mean-square deviation (Rq). For a comparison of the different biomaterials, the uncertainties associated to the measure of the surface gloss and roughness were also determined. The differences between the two shades of both kinds of composites proved significant in the case of the roughness parameters but not for the specular gloss. The surface treatment applied to the dental-resin composites increased the average roughness but the changes in the specular gloss were significant only for the A2 enamel nano-composite. For the zirconia ceramic the sintered process resulted in an increase in the surface roughness with a decrease of the specular gloss, corroborating that the relationship between the gloss and the roughness shows the expected behavior.

  9. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  10. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  11. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  12. Incorporation of Biomaterials in Multicellular Aggregates Modulates Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt-Leal, Andrés M.; Carpenedo, Richard L.; Ungrin, Mark; Zandstra, Peter W.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials are increasingly being used to engineer the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular stem cell microenvironment in order to tailor niche characteristics and direct cell phenotype. To date, stem cell-biomaterial interactions have largely been studied by introducing stem cells into artificial environments, such as 2D cell culture on biomaterial surfaces, encapsulation of cell suspensions within hydrogel materials, or cell seeding on 3D polymeric scaffolds. In this study, microparticles fabricated from different materials, such as agarose, PLGA and gelatin, were stably integrated, in a dose-dependent manner, within aggregates of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) prior to differentiation as a means to directly examine stem cell-biomaterial interactions in 3D. Interestingly, the presence of the materials within the stem cell aggregates differentially modulated the gene and protein expression patterns of several differentiation markers without adversely affecting cell viability. Microparticle incorporation within 3D stem cell aggregates can control the spatial presentation of extracellular environmental cues (i.e. soluble factors, extracellular matrix and intercellular adhesion molecules) as a means to direct the differentiation of stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In addition, these results suggest that the physical presence of microparticles within stem cell aggregates does not compromise PSC differentiation, but in fact the choice of biomaterials can impact the propensity of stem cells to adopt particular differentiated cell phenotypes. PMID:20864164

  13. Trimethylamine (fishy odor) adsorption by biomaterials: effect of fatty acids, alkanes, and aromatic compounds in waxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-03-02

    Thirteen plant leaf materials were selected to be applied as dried biomaterial adsorbents for polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) adsorption. Biomaterial adsorbents were efficient in adsorbing gaseous TMA up to 100% of total TMA (100 ppm) within 24 h. Sansevieria trifasciata is the most effective plant leaf material while Plerocarpus indicus was the least effective in TMA adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) was found to be lower potential adsorbent to adsorb TMA when compared to biomaterial adsorbents. As adsorption data, the Langmuir isotherm supported that the gaseous TMA adsorbed monolayer on the adsorbent surface and was followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Wax extracted from plant leaf could also adsorb gaseous TMA up to 69% of total TMA within 24 h. Another 27-63% of TMA was adsorbed by cellulose and lignin that naturally occur in high amounts in plant leaf. Subsequently, the composition appearing in biomaterial wax showed a large quantity of short-chain fatty acids (≤C18) especially octadecanoic acid (C18), and short-chain alkanes (C12-C18) as well as total aromatic components dominated in the wax, which affected TMA adsorption. Hence, it has been demonstrated that plant biomaterial is a superior biosorbent for TMA removal.

  14. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E* ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana P L; Shaikh, Afnan Q; Reitzig, Manuela; Kovalenko, Daria A; Michael, Jan; Beutner, René; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Scharnweber, Dieter; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an adsorption and

  16. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. L. Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an

  17. Collagen based Biomaterials from CLRI: An Inspiration from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collagen-based Smart Biomaterials · Smart materials: As smart people see them · Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care · Questions of Value to this presentation ... Collagen based biomaterials · COLLAGEN IN VISION CARE · Slide 57 · Bandage lens: A smart device · Work at CLRI: In summary.

  18. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wers, E.; Lefeuvre, B.; Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A.; Oudadesse, H.

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS_2 human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  19. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wers, E., E-mail: wers.eric@hotmail.com [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Lefeuvre, B. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Oudadesse, H. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS{sub 2} human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  20. Elastin as a biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Hest, J.C.M. van; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Biomaterials based upon elastin and elastin-derived molecules are increasingly investigated for their application in tissue engineering. This interest is fuelled by the remarkable properties of this structural protein, such as elasticity, self-assembly, long-term stability, and biological activity.

  1. Biomaterials and the U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-10

    genetics, immunology, cell biology, micro- biology (including procaryotes and eucaryotes as well as heterotropha and autotrophs), biochemistry...expression in a marine animal and associated cellular events. Metallothionein genes offer a mechanism for detoxification of chemical effluents, as well as...cross-linked, would have interesting structural and cellular effector properties for a biomaterial. In addition, the regular cross-linking sequences

  2. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  3. Bringing Radiotracing to Titanium-Based Antineoplastics: Solid Phase Radiosynthesis, PET and ex Vivo Evaluation of Antitumor Agent [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel solid-phase based 45Ti radiolabeling methodology and the implementation of 45Ti-PET in titanium-based antineoplastics using the showcase compound [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic). This development is intended to allow elucidation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of promising new...

  4. Self-assembly of protein-based biomaterials initiated by titania nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstater, Jacob H; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2013-12-03

    Protein-based biomaterials are a promising strategy for creating robust highly selective biocatalysts. The assembled biomaterials must sufficiently retain the near-native structure of proteins and provide molecular access to catalytically active sites. These requirements often exclude the use of conventional assembly techniques, which rely on covalent cross-linking of proteins or entrapment within a scaffold. Here we demonstrate that titania nanotubes can initiate and template the self-assembly of enzymes, such as ribonuclease A, while maintaining their catalytic activity. Initially, the enzymes form multilayer thick ellipsoidal aggregates centered on the nanotube surface; subsequently, these nanosized entities assemble into a micrometer-sized enzyme material that has enhanced enzymatic activity and contains as little as 0.1 wt % TiO2 nanotubes. This phenomenon is uniquely associated with the active anatase (001)-like surface of titania nanotubes and does not occur on other anatase nanomaterials, which contain significantly fewer undercoordinated Ti surface sites. These findings present a nanotechnology-enabled mechanism of biomaterial growth and open a new route for creating stable protein-based biomaterials and biocatalysts without the need for chemical modification.

  5. New biomaterials obtained with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1982-01-01

    In present-day surgery and medicine use is increasingly made of materials foreign to the organism in order to remedy a physiological defect either temporarily or permanently. These materials, known as ''biomaterials'', take widely varying forms: plastics, metals, cements, ceramics, etc. Biomaterials can be classified in accordance with their function: (a) Devices designed to be fully implanted in the human body in order to replace an anatomical structure, either temporarily or permanently, such as articular, vascular, mammary and osteosynthetic prostheses, etc.; (b) Devices having prolonged contact with mucous tissues, such as intra-uterine devices, contact lenses, etc.; (c) Extracorporeal devices designed to treat blood such as artificial kidneys, blood oxygenators, etc.; and (d) Biomaterials can also be taken to mean chemically inert, implantable materials designed to produce a continuous discharge of substances containing pharmacologically active molecules, such as contraceptive devices or ocular devices (for treating glaucoma). The two most important criteria for a biomaterial are those of biological compatibility and biological functionality. Techniques using ionizing radiation as an energy source provide an excellent tool for synthesizing or modifying the properties of plastics. The properties of polymers can be improved, new polymers can be synthesized without chemical additives (often the cause of incompatibility with tissue or blood) and without increased temperature, and polymerization can be induced in the solid state using deep-frozen monomers. Also, radiation-induced modifications in polymers can be applied to semi-finished or finished products. Examples are also given of marketed biomaterials that have been produced using radiation chemistry techniques

  6. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  7. Bio-tribocorrosion in biomaterials and medical implants

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yu

    2013-01-01

    During their service life, most biomaterials and medical implants are vulnerable to tribological damage. In addition, the environments in which they are placed are often corrosive. The combination of triobology, corrosion and the biological environment has been named 'bio-tribocorrosion'. Understanding this complex phenomenon is critical to improving the design and service life of medical implants. This important book reviews recent key research in this area. After an introduction to the topography of bio-tribocorrosion, Part one discusses different types of tribocorrosion including fatigue-corrosion, fretting-corrosion, wear-corrosion and abrasion-corrosion. The book also discusses the prediction of wear in medical devices. Part two looks at biological effects on tribocorrosion processes, including how proteins interact with material surfaces and the evolution of surface changes due to bio-tribocorrosion resulting from biofilms and passive films. Part three reviews the issue of bio-tribocorrosion in clinical...

  8. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  9. Scattering and Absorption Properties of Biomaterials for Dental Restorative Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Oliveras, A.; Rubiño, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2013-08-01

    The physical understanding of the optical properties of dental biomaterials is mandatory for their final success in restorative applications.Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function,the refractive index, and the surface conditions (roughness). We have employed the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method to combine transmittance and reflectance measurements performed using an integrating-sphere setup with the results of the previous scattering-anisotropygoniometric measurements. This has led to the determination of the absorption and the scattering coefficients. The aim was to optically characterize two different dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and one type of zirconia ceramic, and comparatively study them. The experimental procedure was conducted under repeatability conditions of measurement in order to determine the uncertainty associated to the optical properties of the biomaterials. Spectral variations of the refraction index and the scattering anisotropy factor were also considered. The whole experimental procedure fulfilled all the necessary requirements to provide optical-property values with lower associated uncertainties. The effective transport coefficient presented a similar spectral behavior for the two composites but completely different for the zirconia ceramic. The results demonstrated that the scattering anisotropy exerted a clearly distinct impact on the optical properties of the zirconia ceramic compared with those of the dental-resin composites.

  10. Titanium implants with modified surfaces: Meta-analysis of in vivo osteointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Michael, E-mail: michael.gasik@aalto.fi [Aalto University Foundation, School of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 16200, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Braem, Annabel [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Chaudhari, Amol; Duyck, Joke [Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, BIOMAT Research Cluster, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7a, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vleugels, Jozef [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-04-01

    Titanium-based implants are widely used in modern clinical practice, but their “optimal” properties in terms of porosity and topology, roughness and hydrophilic parameters are being a subject of intensive discussions. Recent in vitro results have shown a possibility to optimize the surface of an implant with maximal repelling of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and improvement in human osteogenic and endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this work, these different grades titanium implants were tested in vivo using the same analytical methodology. In addition to material parameters, key histomorphometrical parameters such a regeneration area, bone adaptation area and bone-to-implant contact were determined after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation in rabbit animal model. Porous implants have more clear differences than non-porous ones, with the best optimum values obtained on hydrothermally treated electrophoretically deposited titanium. These in vivo data correlate well with the optimal prediction made by in vitro tests. - Highlights: • Various titanium specimens were studied in vivo on osteointegration vs their properties. • Non-porous implants had a better performance when coated with bioactive glass. • Porous implants have shown the best results for hydrothermally treated specimens. • Good correlation was found with the previous in vitro tests. • New analysis of the in vivo data has shown benefits to assess biomaterials performance.

  11. Titanium implants with modified surfaces: Meta-analysis of in vivo osteointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasik, Michael; Braem, Annabel; Chaudhari, Amol; Duyck, Joke; Vleugels, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Titanium-based implants are widely used in modern clinical practice, but their “optimal” properties in terms of porosity and topology, roughness and hydrophilic parameters are being a subject of intensive discussions. Recent in vitro results have shown a possibility to optimize the surface of an implant with maximal repelling of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and improvement in human osteogenic and endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this work, these different grades titanium implants were tested in vivo using the same analytical methodology. In addition to material parameters, key histomorphometrical parameters such a regeneration area, bone adaptation area and bone-to-implant contact were determined after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation in rabbit animal model. Porous implants have more clear differences than non-porous ones, with the best optimum values obtained on hydrothermally treated electrophoretically deposited titanium. These in vivo data correlate well with the optimal prediction made by in vitro tests. - Highlights: • Various titanium specimens were studied in vivo on osteointegration vs their properties. • Non-porous implants had a better performance when coated with bioactive glass. • Porous implants have shown the best results for hydrothermally treated specimens. • Good correlation was found with the previous in vitro tests. • New analysis of the in vivo data has shown benefits to assess biomaterials performance

  12. Corrosion behaviour of electropolished AISI 316L austenitic biomaterial in physiological solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatkalíková, V.; Markovičová, L.; Škorvanová, M.

    2017-11-01

    Due to suitable mechanical properties, satisfactory corrosion resistance and relatively low cost, austenitic stainless steels are important biomaterials for manufacture of implants and various medical instruments and devices. Their corrosion properties and biocompatibility are significantly affected by protective passive surface film quality, which depends on used mechanical and chemical surface treatment. This article deals with corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel, which is the most widely used Cr-Ni-Mo austenitic biomaterial. Corrosion behaviour of five various surfaces (original, electropolished, three surfaces with combined treatment finished by electropolishing) is evaluated on the bases of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests performed in physiological solution at the temperature of 37± 0.5 °C.

  13. In-vitro responses of T lymphocytes to poly(butylene succinate) based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Montree; Patntirapong, Somying; Janvikul, Wanida; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai

    2017-04-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBSu) and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composites are biocompatible and good candidates as bone graft materials. However, little is known about the responses of T lymphocytes to these biomaterials, which play an important role in the success of bone grafting. Activated T lymphocytes were cultured onto 32 mm diameter films (PBSu/TCP films), that had previously been placed in 6-well culture plates, for 8, 24 and 72 hours. A plastic-well culture plate was used as a control surface. The effects of PBSu-based biomaterials on T lymphocytes were examined by the using flow cytometry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These biomaterials were non-toxic to T lymphocytes, allowing their normal DNA synthesis and activation. All materials induced only transient activation of T lymphocytes, which existed no longer than 72 hours. Proportions of four main CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte subpopulations were not affected by these biomaterials. Moreover, PBSu and PBSu/TCP significantly suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 genes by 15-35% and 21-26%, respectively. In contrast, a PBSu/TCP composite (at PBSu:TCP=60:40) significantly stimulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 genes by 17% and 19%, respectively. PBSu and PBSu/TCP composites were non-toxic to T lymphocytes and did not induce unfavorable responses of T lymphocytes. The tested biomaterials down-regulated key proinflammatory cytokine genes and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in T lymphocytes. These suggest that the biomaterials studied are good candidates as bone graft materials.

  14. Feasibility of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) films as biomimetic coating for polymeric biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) films generated via spontaneous adsorption from aqueous solutions onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) surfaces have been investigated as biomimetic coatings for polymeric biomaterials. Two attributes as biomedical coatings, namely a......-on-disk tribometry, employing compliant PDMS as tribopairs, has shown that BSM coatings generated on PDMS surface via spontaneous adsorption from aqueous solution has effective lubricating properties, but for very limited duration only....

  15. The effect of cerium valence states at cerium oxide nanoparticle surfaces on cell proliferation

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and controlling cell proliferation on biomaterial surfaces is critical for scaffold/artificial-niche design in tissue engineering. The mechanism by which underlying integrin ligates with functionalized biomaterials to induce cell

  16. Review of biomaterials for electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchen, Fahima; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, François; Heckman, Emily; Grote, James G.

    2018-03-01

    Much work has been done developing and utilizing biomaterials over the last decade. Biomaterials not only includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), but nucleobases and silk. These materials are abundant, inexpensive, non-fossil fuel-based and green. Researchers have demonstrated their potential to enhance the performance of organic and inorganic electronic and photonic devices, such as light emitting diodes, thin film transistors, capacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding and electro-optic modulators. Starting around the year 2000, with only a hand full of researchers, including researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and researchers at the Chitose Institute of Technology (CIST), it has grown into a large US, Asia and European consortium, producing over 3400 papers, three books, many book chapters and multiple patents. Presented here is a short overview of the progress in this exciting field of nano bio-engineering.

  17. Formation of blood clot on biomaterial implants influences bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Goss, Ben; Lutton, Cameron; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-12-01

    The first step in bone healing is forming a blood clot at injured bones. During bone implantation, biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood, leading to a blood clot formation on its surface prior to bone regeneration. Despite both situations being similar in forming a blood clot at the defect site, most research in bone tissue engineering virtually ignores the important role of a blood clot in supporting healing. Dental implantology has long demonstrated that the fibrin structure and cellular content of a peri-implant clot can greatly affect osteoconduction and de novo bone formation on implant surfaces. This article reviews the formation of a blood clot during bone healing in relation to the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels. It is implicated that PRP gels are dramatically altered from a normal clot in healing, resulting in conflicting effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that the effect of clots on bone regeneration depends on how the clots are formed. Factors that influence blood clot structure and properties in relation to bone healing are also highlighted. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control blood clot formation, which ultimately alter the healing microenvironment of bone. Of particular interest are modification of surface chemistry of biomaterials, which displays functional groups at varied composition for the purpose of tailoring blood coagulation activation, resultant clot fibrin architecture, rigidity, susceptibility to lysis, and growth factor release. This opens new scope of in situ blood clot modification as a promising approach in accelerating and controlling bone regeneration.

  18. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  19. Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsushita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride.

  20. Trends in prosthetic biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranjit Singh Bhasin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important criterion for the success of dental implants is the selection of a suitable implant biomaterial. To improve the biologic performance of an implant, it is necessary to select a material that does not elicit any negative biological response and at the same time maintains adequate function. It is mandatory for a dentist to have a comprehensive knowledge of various biomaterials used for dental implants. The material of choice for fabrication of the dental implant till date is titanium. With the advancements in the field of implants, zirconia seems to be propitious in the future. However, more advanced in vitro and in vivo studies are required before reaching any such conclusion. To increase the success of zirconia implants, care should be taken to reduce the incidence of mechanical failures. Such failures can be taken care of by having a thorough technical knowledge of implant designing and manufacturing defects. This article attempts to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various dental implant biomaterials. Focus is placed on the recent advances in this field with the recently introduced zirconia and its comparison to conventional titanium.

  1. Biomaterial associated impairment of local neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Kormos, R L; Hardesty, R L; Simmons, R L; Mora, E M; Cardona, M; Griffith, B L

    1990-01-01

    The effect of biomaterials on neutrophil function was studied in vitro to determine if these materials activated neutrophils and to determine the subsequent response of these neutrophils to further stimulation. Two biomaterials--polyurethane, a commonly used substance, and Velcro pile (used in the Jarvik 7 heart)--were evaluated. Two control substances, polyethylene and serum-coated polystyrene, were used for comparison. Neutrophil superoxide release was measured following incubation with these materials for 10, 30, and 120 min in the absence of additional stimulation and after stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The authors observed that the incubation of neutrophils on both polyurethane and Velcro resulted in substantially increased superoxide release that was greater after the 10 min than after the 30 or 120 min association. These activated neutrophils exhibited a poor additional response to fMLP but responded well to PMA. The effect of implantation of the Novacor left ventricular assist device on peripheral blood neutrophil function was also evaluated. The peripheral blood neutrophils exhibited normal superoxide release and chemotaxis. These studies suggest that biomaterials may have a profound local effect on neutrophils, which may predispose the patient to periprosthetic infection, but that the reactivity of circulating neutrophils is unimpaired.

  2. Biomaterials based strategies for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Su, Wei; Shah, Vishva; Hobson, Divia; Yildirimer, Lara; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo; Zhao, Xin

    2017-09-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff commonly occurs as among one of the most frequently experienced tendon disorders. While treatment typically involves surgical repair, failure rates to achieve or sustain healing range from 20 to 90%. The insufficient capacity to recover damaged tendon to heal to the bone, especially at the enthesis, is primarily responsible for the failure rates reported. Various types of biomaterials with special structures have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing and tendon regeneration, and have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the anatomy of the rotator cuff and then discuss various design strategies to augment rotator cuff repair. Furthermore, we highlight current biomaterials used for repair and their clinical applications as well as the limitations in the literature. We conclude this article with challenges and future directions in designing more advanced biomaterials for augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in biomaterials for preventing tissue adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Ruoyu; das Neves, José; Tang, Jincheng; Xiao, Junyuan; Ni, Qing; Liu, Xinnong; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Dechun; Cui, Wenguo; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-09-10

    Adhesion is one of the most common postsurgical complications, occurring simultaneously as the damaged tissue heals. Accompanied by symptoms such as inflammation, pain and even dyskinesia in particular circumstances, tissue adhesion has substantially compromised the quality of life of patients. Instead of passive treatment, which involves high cost and prolonged hospital stay, active intervention to prevent the adhesion from happening has been accepted as the optimized strategy against this complication. Herein, this paper will cover not only the mechanism of adhesion forming, but also the biomaterials and medicines used in its prevention. Apart from acting as a direct barrier, biomaterials also show promising anti-adhesive bioactivity though their intrinsic physical and chemical are still not completely unveiled. Considering the diversity of human tissue organization, it is imperative that various biomaterials in combination with specific medicine could be tuned to fit the microenvironment of targeted tissues. With the illustration of different adhesion mechanism and solutions, we hope this review can become a beacon and further inspires the development of anti-adhesion biomedicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biocompatibility of titanium based implants treated with plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maendl, S.; Sader, R.; Thorwarth, G.; Krause, D.; Zeilhofer, H.-F.; Horch, H.H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the biocompatibility of titanium before and after oxygen PIII is investigated using a rat animal model. Pure titanium (grade 2) and pre-anodized titanium were implanted with oxygen at elevated temperatures between 200 and 550 deg. C and subsequently analyzed for oxygen content and phase composition. No deterioration of the tensile strength and the yield strength was detected after the implantation. The mechanical stability of the osseointegration was determined with a pull-out test, where an increased shear strength was measured after PIII treatment. Only a slight improvement of the bone contact area, from an already excellent starting value, was observed for pure titanium. In contrast, a significant improvement was found for anodized titanium after PIII treatment. This astonishing difference can be explained with the surface topography and the phase composition of the anodized titanium samples

  5. Biomimetic oligosaccharide and peptide surfactant polymers designed for cardiovascular biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Mark Andrew

    A common problem associated with cardiovascular devices is surface induced thrombosis initiated by the rapid, non-specific adsorption of plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Control of the initial protein adsorption is crucial to achieve the desired longevity of the implanted biomaterial. The cell membrane glycocalyx acts as a non-thrombogenic interface through passive (dense oligosaccharide structures) and active (ligand/receptor interactions) mechanisms. This thesis is designed to investigate biomimicry of the cell glycocalyx to minimize non-specific protein adsorption and promote specific ligand/receptor interactions. Biomimetic macromolecules were designed through the molecular-scale engineering of polymer surfactants, utilizing a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone to which hydrophilic (dextran, maltose, peptide) and hydrophobic alkyl (hexanoyl or hexanal) chains are simultaneously attached. The structure was controlled through the molar feed ratio of hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic groups, which also provided control of the solution and surface-active properties. To mimic passive properties, a series of oligomaltose surfactants were synthesized with increasing saccharide length (n = 2, 7, 15 where n is number of glucose units) to investigate the effect of coating height on protein adsorption. The surfactants were characterized by infra red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies for structural properties and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry for surface activity. Protein adsorption under dynamic flow (5 dyn/cm2) was reduced by 85%--95% over the bare hydrophobic substrate; platelet adhesion dropped by ˜80% compared to glass. Peptide ligands were incorporated into the oligosaccharide surfactant to promote functional activity of the passive coating. The surfactants were synthesized to contain 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% peptide ligand density and were stable on hydrophobic surfaces. The peptide surface density was

  6. Effects of sterilization and storage on the properties of ALP-grafted biomaterials for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, S; Pan, G; Vernè, E; Spriano, S; Cassinelli, C; Mazzucco, L

    2012-01-01

    Grafting of the biomaterial surfaces with biomolecules is nowadays a challenging research field for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, very few research works investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the properties of functionalized biomaterials. In this study, the effects of different sterilization techniques (e.g. gamma and electron beam irradiation, ethylene oxide) on the enzymatic activity of bioactive glasses and Ti6Al4V grafted with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been analyzed. Sterility maintenance and in vitro bioactivity of the sterilized surfaces have also been investigated. Finally the effect of packaging and storage conditions has been considered. (paper)

  7. CyclinD1, CDK4, and P21 expression by IEC-6 cells in response to NiTi alloy and polymeric biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhanhui; Yan, Jun; Zheng, Qi; Wang, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate how cells recognize biomaterials, mRNA that was expressed in attached Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) on various suture substrates was evaluated. The expressed cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21) mRNA were then isolated and detected using the real time- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. As a result, cyclin D1 gene expression was affected by cell-polymer adhesion and was associated with cell proliferation. In addition, CDK4 gene expression was affected by cell proliferation rather than by cell-biomaterial interaction. The p21 mRNA gene expression was higher in cells on more hydrophilic surfaces than on hydrophobic surfaces. Further, the cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21 gene expression were also influenced by the surface chemistry of suture materials. We concluded that the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21 mRNA was a powerful method for studying cell-biomaterial interactions or the evaluation of the carcinogenic activity of biomaterials. - Highlights: ►We evaluated the effects of biomaterials on the cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21 expression. ►Cell-polymer adhesion and cell proliferation affected cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression. ►The p21 expression was higher on more hydrophilic surfaces than on hydrophobic. ►They were also influenced by surface chemistry of biomaterials.

  8. Characterization and properties of shock and corrosion resistant of titanium based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoiu, P.; Rosso, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spraying technologies are an effective way to ensure surface protection against destructive effects of wear, corrosion and oxidizing phenomena. These technologies can be applied in majority of industrial sectors in order to improve properties of new parts or for reconditioning worn out parts technology. Ideally, it would be comfortable to have a material able to resist to all type of wear, but the work condition intricacy combined with economic reason have lead to the development of a big number of powder materials that are used in thermal spraying technologies. The titanium powders are suitable for coating layers which have a good behavior in 'metal on metal friction', toughness, shock and corrosion resistance. In particular, titanium layers obtained by plasma spraying are used in different aerospace and non aerospace applications due to the combination of low density, very good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. The accomplishment of new titanium thermal layers is effectively used in order to increase the lifetime of different engine parts securing the thermal protection in use, resistance to high corrosion and oxidizing phenomena. This paper deals about the mechanical properties of Ti based coatings applied by plasma spray process on steel substrates, the obtained results show the possibility to apply titanium coatings where special and high performance materials are needed. (author)

  9. Microstructure Effects on Spall Strength of Titanium-based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rene; Hofmann, Douglas; Thadhani, Naresh; Georgia Tech Team; GT-JPL Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The spall strength of Ti-based metallic glass composites is investigated as a function of varying volume fractions (0-80%) of in-situ formed crystalline dendrites. With increasing dendrite content, the topology changes such that neither the harder glass nor the softer dendrites dominate the microstructure. Plate-impact experiments were performed using the 80-mm single-stage gas gun over impact stresses up to 18 GPa. VISAR interferometry was used to obtain rear free-surface velocity profiles revealing the velocity pullback spall failure signals. The spall strengths were higher than for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and remained high up to impact stress. The influence of microstructure on the spall strength is indicated by the constants of the power law fit with the decompression strain rate. Differences in fracture behavior reveal void nucleation as a dominant mechanism affecting the spall strength. The microstructure with neither 100% glass nor with very high crystalline content, provides the most tortuous path for fracture and therefore highest spall strength. The results allow projection of spall strength predictions for design of in-situ formed metallic glass composites. ARO Grant # W911NF-09 ``1-0403 NASA JPL Contract # 1492033 ``Prime # NNN12AA01C; NSF GRFP Grant #DGE-1148903; and NDSE & G.

  10. Current concepts of regenerative biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of any implant system is to achieve firm fixation to the bone and this could be influenced by biomechanical as well as biomaterial selection. An array of materials is used in the replacement of missing teeth through implantation. The appropriate selection of biomaterials directly influences the clinical success and longevity of implants. Thus the clinician needs to have adequate knowledge of the various biomaterials and their properties for their judicious selection and application in his/her clinical practice. The recent materials such as bioceramics and composite biomaterials that are under consideration and investigation have a promising future. For optimal performance, implant biomaterials should have suitable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and structural biostability in the physiological environment. This article reviews the various implant biomaterials and their ease of use in implant dentistry.

  11. Improving the fatigue performance of porous metallic biomaterials produced by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Apers, Yanni; Lietaert, Karel; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the fatigue properties of porous metallic biomaterials produced by additive manufacturing. Cylindrical porous samples with diamond unit cells were produced from Ti6Al4V powder using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). After measuring all morphological and quasi-static properties, compression-compression fatigue tests were performed to determine fatigue strength and to identify important fatigue influencing factors. In a next step, post-SLM treatments were used to improve the fatigue life of these biomaterials by changing the microstructure and by reducing stress concentrators and surface roughness. In particular, the influence of stress relieving, hot isostatic pressing and chemical etching was studied. Analytical and numerical techniques were developed to calculate the maximum local tensile stress in the struts as function of the strut diameter and load. With this method, the variability in the relative density between all samples was taken into account. The local stress in the struts was then used to quantify the exact influence of the applied post-SLM treatments on the fatigue life. A significant improvement of the fatigue life was achieved. Also, the post-SLM treatments, procedures and calculation methods can be applied to different types of porous metallic structures and hence this paper provides useful tools for improving fatigue performance of metallic biomaterials. Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) are increasingly being used for producing customized porous metallic biomaterials. These biomaterials are regularly used for biomedical implants and hence a long lifetime is required. In this paper, a set of post-built surface and heat treatments is presented that can be used to significantly improve the fatigue life of porous SLM-Ti6Al4V samples. In addition, a novel and efficient analytical local stress method was developed to accurately quantify the influence of the post

  12. Alkalescent nanotube films on a titanium-based implant: A novel approach to enhance biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanxian [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Dong, Chaofang, E-mail: cfdong@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Sefei [Department of Stomatology, The PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Wu, Junsheng; Xiao, Kui; Huang, Yunhua; Li, Xiaogang [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-03-01

    The interfacial pH value has a marked effect on cell viability because the pro-mineralization activity of osteoblasts increases at alkaline extracellular pH, whereas the pro-resorptive activity of osteoclasts increases under more acidic conditions. To obtain the more favorable alkaline interface, we developed a novel nanotube layer that was incorporated with magnesium oxide on a titanium implant substrate (MgO/NT/Ti) via ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation. This facile immersion-annealing process successfully created a homogeneous magnesium oxide layer with sustained release kinetics and superior hydrophilicity according to the surface characterization and microenvironment measurement. The titania nanotubes on the substrate with an anatase phase exhibited a lower passivation current and a more positive corrosion potential compared with pure titanium, which guaranteed a reasonable corrosion resistance, even when it was wrapped with a magnesium oxide layer. In vitro cell cultures showed that MgO/NT/Ti significantly increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The resulting alkalescent microenvironment created by the MgO layer encouraged the cells to spread into polygonal shapes, accelerated the differentiation stage to osteoblast and induced a higher expression of vinculin. In summary, the incorporated alkalescent microenvironment of MgO/NT/Ti provided a viable approach to stimulate cell proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation and to improve the implant osseointegration. - Highlights: • We developed a novel nanotube layer incorporated with magnesium oxide to obtain a favorable alkaline interface. • The homogeneous magnesium oxide layer exhibited sustained release kinetics. • The resulting alkalescent microenvironment provided a viable approach to improve the implant osseointegration.

  13. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    OpenAIRE

    Christo, Susan N.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestati...

  14. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  15. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials, traditionally defined as materials used in medical devices, have been used since antiquity, but recently their degree of sophistication has increased significantly. Biomaterials made today are routinely information rich and incorporate biologically active components derived from nature. In the future, biomaterials will assume an even greater role in medicine and will find use in a wide variety of non-medical applications through biologically inspired design and incorporation of ...

  16. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends (editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  17. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J

    2009-11-26

    Biomaterials, traditionally defined as materials used in medical devices, have been used since antiquity, but recently their degree of sophistication has increased significantly. Biomaterials made today are routinely information rich and incorporate biologically active components derived from nature. In the future, biomaterials will assume an even greater role in medicine and will find use in a wide variety of non-medical applications through biologically inspired design and incorporation of dynamic behaviour.

  18. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, S.

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup

  19. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, S

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup 2

  20. Reproducible Biofilm Cultivation of Chemostat-Grown Escherichia coli and Investigation of Bacterial Adhesion on Biomaterials Using a Non-Constant-Depth Film Fermenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Claudia; Jandt, Klaus D.; Siegismund, Daniel; Kujau, Marian J.; Zang, Emerson; Rettenmayr, Markus; Bossert, Jörg; Roth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials-associated infections are primarily initiated by the adhesion of microorganisms on the biomaterial surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation. Understanding the fundamental microbial adhesion mechanisms and biofilm development is crucial for developing strategies to prevent such infections. Suitable in vitro systems for biofilm cultivation and bacterial adhesion at controllable, constant and reproducible conditions are indispensable. This study aimed (i) to modify the previously described constant-depth film fermenter for the reproducible cultivation of biofilms at non-depth-restricted, constant and low shear conditions and (ii) to use this system to elucidate bacterial adhesion kinetics on different biomaterials, focusing on biomaterials surface nanoroughness and hydrophobicity. Chemostat-grown Escherichia coli were used for biofilm cultivation on titanium oxide and investigating bacterial adhesion over time on titanium oxide, poly(styrene), poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and glass. Using chemostat-grown microbial cells (single-species continuous culture) minimized variations between the biofilms cultivated during different experimental runs. Bacterial adhesion on biomaterials comprised an initial lag-phase I followed by a fast adhesion phase II and a phase of saturation III. With increasing biomaterials surface nanoroughness and increasing hydrophobicity, adhesion rates increased during phases I and II. The influence of materials surface hydrophobicity seemed to exceed that of nanoroughness during the lag-phase I, whereas it was vice versa during adhesion phase II. This study introduces the non-constant-depth film fermenter in combination with a chemostat culture to allow for a controlled approach to reproducibly cultivate biofilms and to investigate bacterial adhesion kinetics at constant and low shear conditions. The findings will support developing and adequate testing of biomaterials surface modifications eventually preventing biomaterial

  1. Effect of metal selection and porcelain firing on the marginal accuracy of titanium-based metal ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Tamer E; Attia, Mazen; Mosleh, Ihab; Elhosary, Mohamed; Hamza, Tamer; Shen, Chiayi

    2010-01-01

    Titanium is the most biocompatible metal used for dental casting; however, there is concern about its marginal accuracy after porcelain application since this aspect has direct influence on marginal fit. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that metal selection and the porcelain firing procedure have on the marginal accuracy of metal ceramic prostheses. Cast CP Ti, milled CP Ti, cast Ti-6Al-7Nb, and cast Ni-Cr copings (n=5) were fired with compatible porcelains (Triceram for titanium-based metals and VITA VMK 95 for Ni-Cr alloy). The Ni-Cr alloy fired with its porcelain served as the control. Photographs of metal copings placed on a master die were made. Marginal discrepancy was determined on the photographs using an image processing program at 8 predetermined locations before airborne-particle abrasion for porcelain application, after firing of the opaque layer, and after firing of the dentin layer. Repeated-measures 2-way ANOVA was used to investigate the effect of metal selection and firing stage, and paired t tests were used to determine the effect of each firing stage within each material group (alpha=.05). ANOVA showed that both metal selection and firing stage significantly influenced the measured marginal discrepancy (Pcast Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy (P=.003). Titanium copings fabricated by CAD/CAM demonstrated the least marginal discrepancy among all groups, while the base metal (Ni-Cr) groups exhibited the most discrepancy of all groups tested. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid laser technology and doped biomaterials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Písařík, Petr; Trávníčková, Martina; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 417, Sep (2017), s. 73-83 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : hybrid PLD * Cr: DLC * Ti: DLC. comparison of properties * in vitro tests Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) (FGU-C) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  3. Biomaterials and scaffolds in reparative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Matthew, Howard; Kohn, Joachim; Mikos, Antonios G.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Yip, Christopher M.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Most approaches currently pursued or contemplated within the framework of reparative medicine, including cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, are dependent on our ability to synthesize or otherwise generate novel materials, fabricate or assemble materials into appropriate 2-D and 3-D forms, and precisely tailor material-related physical and biological properties so as to achieve a desired clinical response. This paper summarizes the scientific and technological opportunities within the fields of biomaterials science and molecular engineering that will likely establish new enabling technologies for cellular and molecular therapies directed at the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of diseased or damaged organs and tissues.

  4. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  5. Minimizing Skin Scarring through Biomaterial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing continues to be a major burden to patients, though research in the field has expanded significantly. Due to an aging population and increasing comorbid conditions, the cost of chronic wounds is expected to increase for patients and the U.S. healthcare system alike. With this knowledge, the number of engineered products to facilitate wound healing has also increased dramatically, with some already in clinical use. In this review, the major biomaterials used to facilitate skin wound healing will be examined, with particular attention allocated to the science behind their development. Experimental therapies will also be evaluated.

  6. Strategies to balance covalent and non-covalent biomolecule attachment within collagen-GAG biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Jacquelyn C; Gonnerman, Emily A; Bailey, Ryan C; Harley, Brendan A C

    2014-09-01

    Strategies to integrate instructive biomolecular signals into a biomaterial are becoming increasingly complex and bioinspired. While a large majority of reports still use repeated treatments with soluble factors, this approach can be prohibitively costly and difficult to translate in vivo for applications where spatial control over signal presentation is necessary. Recent efforts have explored the use of covalent immobilization of biomolecules to the biomaterial, via both bulk (ubiquitous) as well as spatially-selective light-based crosslinking, as a means to both enhance stability and bioactivity. However, little is known about how processing conditions during immobilization impact the degree of unintended non-covalent interactions, or fouling, that takes place between the biomaterial and the biomolecule of interest. Here we demonstrate the impact of processing conditions for bulk carbodiimide (EDC) and photolithography-based benzophenone (BP) crosslinking on specific attachment vs. fouling of a model protein (Concanavalin A, ConA) within collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffolds. Collagen source significantly impacts the selectivity of biomolecule immobilization. EDC crosslinking intensity and ligand concentration significantly impacted selective immobilization. For benzophenone photoimmobilization we observed that increased UV exposure time leads to increased ConA immobilization. Immobilization efficiency for both EDC and BP strategies was maximal at physiological pH. Increasing ligand concentration during immobilization process led to enhanced immobilization for EDC chemistry, no impact on BP immobilization, but significant increases in non-specific fouling. Given recent efforts to covalently immobilize biomolecules to a biomaterial surface to enhance bioactivity, improved understanding of the impact of crosslinking conditions on selective attachment versus non-specific fouling will inform the design of instructive biomaterials for applications across tissue

  7. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, A.D., E-mail: a.anastasiou@leeds.ac.uk [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Strafford, S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Posada-Estefan, O. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Thomson, C.L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hussain, S.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cambridge Graphene Centre, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Edwards, T.J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Malinowski, M. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hondow, N. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Routledge, M.N. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, A.P. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Duggal, M.S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Jha, A. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  8. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, A.D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C.L.; Hussain, S.A.; Edwards, T.J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A.; Routledge, M.N.; Brown, A.P.; Duggal, M.S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  9. Design Concept of Dialyzer Biomaterials: How to Find Biocompatible Polymers Based on the Biointerfacial Water Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Although various types of materials have been used widely in dialyzers, most biomaterials lack the desired functional properties to interface with blood and have not been engineered for optimum performance. Therefore, there is increasing demand to develop novel materials to address such problems in the dialysis arena. Numerous parameters of polymeric biomaterials can affect biocompatibility in a controlled manner. The mechanisms responsible for the biocompatibility of polymers at the molecular level have not been clearly demonstrated, although many theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to try and understand them. Moreover, water interactions have been recognized as fundamental for the blood response to contact with polymers. We have proposed the 'intermediate water' concept and hypothesized that intermediate water, which prevents the proteins and blood cells from directly contacting the polymer surface, or nonfreezing water on the polymer surface, plays an important role in the biocompatibility of polymers. This chapter provides an overview of the recent experimental progress of biocompatible polymers measured by thermal, spectroscopic, and surface force techniques. Additionally, it highlights recent developments in the use of biocompatible polymeric biomaterials for dialyzers and provides an overview of the progress made in the design of multifunctional biomedical polymers by controlling the biointerfacial water structure through precision polymer synthesis. Key Messages: Intermediate water was found only in hydrated biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, DNA and RNA) and hydrated biocompatible synthetic polymers. Intermediate water could be one of the main screening factors for the design of appropriate dialyzer materials. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Routes towards Novel Collagen-Like Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian V. Golser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Collagen plays a major role in providing mechanical support within the extracellular matrix and thus has long been used for various biomedical purposes. Exemplary, it is able to replace damaged tissues without causing adverse reactions in the receiving patient. Today’s collagen grafts mostly are made of decellularized and otherwise processed animal tissue and therefore carry the risk of unwanted side effects and limited mechanical strength, which makes them unsuitable for some applications e.g., within tissue engineering. In order to improve collagen-based biomaterials, recent advances have been made to process soluble collagen through nature-inspired silk-like spinning processes and to overcome the difficulties in providing adequate amounts of source material by manufacturing collagen-like proteins through biotechnological methods and peptide synthesis. Since these methods also open up possibilities to incorporate additional functional domains into the collagen, we discuss one of the best-performing collagen-like type of proteins, which already have additional functional domains in the natural blueprint, the marine mussel byssus collagens, providing inspiration for novel biomaterials based on collagen-silk hybrid proteins.

  11. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  12. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Biomaterials for integration with 3-D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly fabricate small-sized human-based tissue models, or organoids, for diagnostics, pathology modeling, and drug development. A number of bioprinting modalities have been explored, including cellular inkjet printing, extrusion-based technologies, soft lithography, and laser-induced forward transfer. Despite the innovation of each of these technologies, successful implementation of bioprinting relies heavily on integration with compatible biomaterials that are responsible for supporting the cellular components during and after biofabrication, and that are compatible with the bioprinting device requirements. In this review, we will evaluate a variety of biomaterials, such as curable synthetic polymers, synthetic gels, and naturally derived hydrogels. Specifically we will describe how they are integrated with the bioprinting technologies above to generate bioprinted constructs with practical application in medicine.

  14. Immunologically active biomaterials for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar A; Mooney, David J

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of immunological regulation has progressed tremendously alongside the development of materials science, and at their intersection emerges the possibility to employ immunologically active biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy. Strong and sustained anticancer, immune responses are required to clear large tumor burdens in patients, but current approaches for immunotherapy are formulated as products for delivery in bolus, which may be indiscriminate and/or shortlived. Multifunctional biomaterial particles are now being developed to target and sustain antigen and adjuvant delivery to dendritic cells in vivo, and these have the potential to direct and prolong antigen-specific T cell responses. Three-dimensional immune cell niches are also being developed to regulate the recruitment, activation and deployment of immune cells in situ to promote potent antitumor responses. Recent studies demonstrate that materials with immune targeting and stimulatory capabilities can enhance the magnitude and duration of immune responses to cancer antigens, and preclinical results utilizing material-based immunotherapy in tumor models show a strong therapeutic benefit, justifying translation to and future testing in the clinic.

  15. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials : Current Trends (editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the

  16. A Radially Organized Multipatterned Device as a Diagnostic Tool for the Screening of Topographies in Tissue Engineering Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babo, P.S.; Klymov, A.; Riet, J. te; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Gomes, M.E.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nanotextured biomaterial surfaces have been widely studied for their capacity to drive the regeneration of organized tissues. Nanotopographical features in the shape of groove-ridge patterns aim at mimicking the extracellular matrix organization. However, to date, a wide array of groove

  17. Biomaterials science an introduction to materials in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Lemons, Jack E; Yaszemski, Michael J; Yaszemski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of this bestselling title provides the most up-to-date comprehensive review of all aspects of biomaterials science by providing a balanced, insightful approach to learning biomaterials. This reference integrates a historical perspective of materials engineering principles with biological interactions of biomaterials. Also provided within are regulatory and ethical issues in addition to future directions of the field, and a state-of-the-art update of medical and biotechnological applications. All aspects of biomaterials science are thoroughly addressed, from tissue engineering to cochlear prostheses and drug delivery systems. Over 80 contributors from academia, government and industry detail the principles of cell biology, immunology, and pathology. Focus within pertains to the clinical uses of biomaterials as components in implants, devices, and artificial organs. This reference also touches upon their uses in biotechnology as well as the characterization of the physical, chemical, biochemi...

  18. A Review of Injectable and Implantable Biomaterials for Treatment and Repair of Soft Tissues in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Feng Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major topics concerning the development of nanomedicine are drug delivery and tissue engineering. With the advance in nanotechnology, scientists and engineers now have the ability to fabricate functional drug carriers and/or biomaterials that deliver and release drugs locally as well as promote tissue regeneration. In this short review, we address the use of nanotechnology in the fabrication of biomaterials (i.e., nanoparticles and nanofibers and their therapeutic function in wound healing as dressing materials. Furthermore, we discuss the use of surface nanofeatures to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation, which is a crucial step in wound healing associated with tissue regeneration. Given that nanotechnology-based biomaterials exhibit superior pharmaceutical performance as compared to the traditional medicine, this short review provides current status and future directions of how nanotechnology is and will be used in biomedical field, especially in wound healing.

  19. Study on MCP-1 related to inflammation induced by biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Tingting; Sun Jiao; Zhang Ping

    2009-01-01

    The study of inflammation is important for understanding the reaction between biomaterials and the human body, in particular, the interaction between biomaterials and immune system. In the current study, rat macrophages were induced by multiple biomaterials with different biocompatibilities, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 8% of organic tin, a positive control material with cellular toxicity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304), cultured with PRMI-1640, were detached from cells cultured with the supernatant of macrophages containing TNF-α and IL-1β because of stimulation by biomaterials. The cells were then treated with different biomaterials. Then both TNF-α and IL-1β in macrophages were detected by ELISA. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by RT-PCR. The results suggested that the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was elevated by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and American NPG alloy (p < 0.001). The level of MCP-1 cultured in supernatant of macrophages was higher than in PRMI-1640 with the same biomaterials. And the exposure to PTFE, PLGA and NPG resulted in the high expression of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) following cytokine stimulation. MCP-1 was also significantly expressed in β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and calcium phosphate cement samples (CPC) (p < 0.01). Thus, TNF-α, IL-1β and MCP-1 had played an important role in the immune reaction induced by biomaterials and there was a close relationship between the expression of cytokines and biomcompatibility of biomaterials. Furthermore, these data suggested that MCP-1 was regulated by TNF-α and IL-1β, and activated by both cytokines and biomaterials. The data further suggested that the expression of MCP-1 could be used as a marker to indicate the degree of immune reaction induced by biomaterials.

  20. Development of advanced antimicrobial and sterilized plasma polypropylene grafted muga (Antheraea assama) silk as suture biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Dolly; Choudhury, Arup Jyoti; Chutia, Joyanti; Pal, Arup Ratan; Khan, Mojibur; Choudhury, Manash; Pathak, Pallabi; Das, Gouranga; Patil, Dinkar S

    2014-04-01

    Surface modification of silk fibroin (SF) materials using environmentally friendly and non-hazardous process to tailor them for specific application as biomaterials has drawn a great deal of interest in the field of biomedical research. To further explore this area of research, in this report, polypropylene (PP) grafted muga (Antheraea assama) SF (PP-AASF) suture is developed using plasma treatment and plasma graft polymerization process. For this purpose, AASF is first sterilized in argon (Ar) plasma treatment followed by grafting PP onto its surface. AASF is a non-mulberry variety having superior qualities to mulberry SF and is still unexplored in the context of suture biomaterial. AASF, Ar plasma treated AASF (AASFAr) and PP-AASF are subjected to various characterization techniques for better comparison and the results are attempted to correlate with their observed properties. Excellent mechanical strength, hydrophobicity, antibacterial behavior, and remarkable wound healing activity of PP-AASF over AASF and AASFAr make it a promising candidate for application as sterilized suture biomaterial. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 3D printing of biomaterials with mussel-inspired nanostructures for tumor therapy and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongshi; Luo, Jian; Sun, Zhe; Xia, Lunguo; Shi, Mengchao; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2016-12-01

    Primary bone cancer brings patients great sufferings. To deal with the bone defects resulted from cancer surgery, biomaterials with good bone-forming ability are necessary to repair bone defects. Meanwhile, in order to prevent possible tumor recurrence, it is essential that the remaining tumor cells around bone defects are completely killed. However, there are few biomaterials with the ability of both cancer therapy and bone regeneration until now. Here, we fabricated a 3D-printed bioceramic scaffold with a uniformly self-assembled Ca-P/polydopamine nanolayer surface. Taking advantage of biocompatibility, biodegradability and the excellent photothermal effect of polydopamine, the bifunctional scaffolds with mussel-inspired nanostructures could be used as a satisfactory and controllable photothermal agent, which effectively induced tumor cell death in vitro, and significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice. In addition, owing to the nanostructured surface, the prepared polydopamine-modified bioceramic scaffolds could support the attachment and proliferation of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), and significantly promoted the formation of new bone tissues in rabbit bone defects even under photothermal treatment. Therefore, the mussel-inspired nanostructures in 3D-printed bioceramic exhibited a remarkable capability for both cancer therapy and bone regeneration, offering a promising strategy to construct bifunctional biomaterials which could be widely used for therapy of tumor-induced tissue defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Localized immunosuppressive environment in the foreign body response to implanted biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David M; Basaraba, Randall J; Hohnbaum, April C; Lee, Eric J; Grainger, David W; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes

    2009-07-01

    The implantation of synthetic biomaterials initiates the foreign body response (FBR), which is characterized by macrophage infiltration, foreign body giant cell formation, and fibrotic encapsulation of the implant. The FBR is orchestrated by a complex network of immune modulators, including diverse cell types, soluble mediators, and unique cell surface interactions. The specific tissue locations, expression patterns, and spatial distribution of these immune modulators around the site of implantation are not clear. This study describes a model for studying the FBR in vivo and specifically evaluates the spatial relationship of immune modulators. We modified a biomaterials implantation in vivo model that allowed for cross-sectional in situ analysis of the FBR. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the localization of soluble mediators, ie, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10, IL-6, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and MCP-1; specific cell types, ie, macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes; and cell surface markers, ie, F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, and Ly-6C, at early, middle, and late stages of the FBR in subcutaneous implant sites. The cytokines IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta were localized to implant-adherent cells that included macrophages and foreign body giant cells. A better understanding of the FBR in vivo will allow the development of novel strategies to enhance biomaterial implant design to achieve better performance and safety of biomedical devices at the site of implant.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Porous Structure of Biomaterial and Fluid Flowing Through Biomaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A Cellular Automata model of simulating body fluid flowing into porous bioceramic implants generated with stochastic methods is described, of which main parameters and evolvement rule are determined in terms of flow behavior of body fluid in porous biomaterials. The model is implemented by GUI( Graphical User Interface) program in MATLAB, and the results of numerical modeling show that the body fluid percolation is related to the size of pores and porosity.

  4. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomaterials for intervertebral disc regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Robert D; Setton, Lori A

    2017-06-01

    The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. While a field still in early development, bioengineering-based strategies employing novel biomaterials are emerging as promising alternatives for clinical treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mini Review: Biomaterials for Enhancing Neuronal Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangellaris, Olivia V.; Gillette, Martha U.

    2018-04-01

    As they differentiate from neuroblasts, nascent neurons become highly polarized and elongate. Neurons extend and elaborate fine and fragile cellular extensions that form circuits enabling long-distance communication and signal integration within the body. While other organ systems are developing, projections of differentiating neurons find paths to distant targets. Subsequent post-developmental neuronal damage is catastrophic because the cues for reinnervation are no longer active. Advances in biomaterials are enabling fabrication of micro-environments that encourage neuronal regrowth and restoration of function by recreating these developmental cues. This mini-review considers new materials that employ topographical, chemical, electrical, and/or mechanical cues for use in neuronal repair. Manipulating and integrating these elements in different combinations will generate new technologies to enhance neural repair.

  7. Tribological characteristics of dental metal biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a report of the examination of the tribological wear characteristics of certain dental metal biomaterials. In the study, tests were undertaken on the following materials: 316L steel, NiCrMo alloy, technically pure titanium (ASTM-grade 2 and Ti6Al4V ELI alloy (ASTM-grade 5. The tribological tests were performed in artificial saliva to determine the coefficient of friction and wear factor; the traces of wear were then ascertained through SEM. The significance of variations in the wear factor, was subsequently assessed by the U Mann-Whitney test. The resistance to wear in the ball-on-disc test under in vitro conditions was observed for the tested materials in the following order: NiCrMo>316L>Ti6Al4V>Ti grade 2.

  8. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  9. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humar Matjaž

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  10. Chitosan dan Aplikasi Klinisnya Sebagai Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of new materials with both organic and inorganic structures is of great interest to obtain special material properties. Chitosan [2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucan] can be obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and the supporting material of crustaceans, insects, fungi etc. Chitosan is unique polysaccharide and has been widely used in various biomedical application due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, non-immunogenic and non-carcinogenic character. In the past few years, chitosan and some of its modifications have been reported for use in biomedical applications such as artificial skin, wound dressing, anticoagulant, suture, drug delivery, vaccine carrier and dietary fibers. Recently, the use of chitosan and its derivatives has received much attention as temporary scaffolding to promotie mineralization or stimulate endochodral ossification. This article aims to give a broad overview of chitosan and its clinical applications as biomaterial.

  11. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Controlling fungal biofilms with functional drug delivery denture biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianchuan; Jiang, Fuguang; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), caused by colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces, is a significant clinical concern. We show here that modification of conventional denture materials with functional groups can significantly increase drug binding capacity and control drug release rate of the resulting denture materials for potentially managing CADS. In our approach, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based denture resins were surface grafted with three kinds of polymers, poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PNVP), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), through plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. With a grafting yield as low as 2 wt%, the three classes of new functionalized denture materials showed significantly higher drug binding capacities toward miconazole, a widely used antifungal drug, than the original PMMA denture resin control, leading to sustained drug release and potent biofilm-controlling effects against Candida. Among the three classes of functionalized denture materials, PNVP-grafted resin provided the highest miconazole binding capability and the most powerful antifungal and biofilm-controlling activities. Drug binding mechanisms were studied. These results demonstrated the importance of specific interactions between drug molecules and functional groups on biomaterials, shedding lights on future design of CADS-managing denture materials and other related devices for controlled drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, María F; Garcia-Uriostegui, Lorena; Rodríguez, Ofelia; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Salinas, Antonio J; Toriz, Guillermo; Vallet-Regí, María; Delgado, Ezequiel

    2017-09-26

    This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS) simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm -1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm -1 corresponding to -NH 3+ /COO - pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%). This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion.

  14. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Villegas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm−1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm−1 corresponding to -NH3+/COO− pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%. This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion.

  15. Calcium-based biomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Lin, Jing; Fu, Lian-Hua; Huang, Peng

    2018-01-22

    Calcium-based (CaXs) biomaterials including calcium phosphates, calcium carbonates, calcium silicate and calcium fluoride have been widely utilized in the biomedical field owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, CaXs biomaterials have been strategically integrated with imaging contrast agents and therapeutic agents for various molecular imaging modalities including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging or multimodal imaging, as well as for various therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy, gene therapy, hyperthermia therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiation therapy, or combination therapy, even imaging-guided therapy. Compared with other inorganic biomaterials such as silica-, carbon-, and gold-based biomaterials, CaXs biomaterials can dissolve into nontoxic ions and participate in the normal metabolism of organisms. Thus, they offer safer clinical solutions for disease theranostics. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art progress in CaXs biomaterials, which covers from their categories, characteristics and preparation methods to their bioapplications including diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics. Moreover, the current trends and key problems as well as the future prospects and challenges of CaXs biomaterials are also discussed at the end.

  16. Rectocele repair using biomaterial augmentation: current documentation and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Mellgren, Anders; Zetterström, Jan

    2005-11-01

    Although the etiology of rectocele remains debated, surgical innovations are currently promoted to improve anatomic outcome while avoiding dyspareunia and alleviating rectal emptying difficulties following rectocele surgery. Use of biomaterials in rectocele repair has become widespread in a short time, but the clinical documentation of their effectiveness and complications is limited. Medline and the Cochrane database were searched electronically from 1964 to May 2005 using the Pubmed and Ovid search engines. All English language publications including any of the search terms "rectocele," "implant," "mesh," "biomaterial," "prolapse," "synthetical," "pelvic floor," "biological," and "compatibility" were reviewed. This review outlines the basic principles for use of biomaterials in pelvic reconstructive surgery and provides a condensation of peer-reviewed articles describing clinical use of biomaterials in rectocele surgery. Historical and new concepts in rectocele surgery are discussed. Factors of importance for human in vivo biomaterial compatibility are presented together with current knowledge from clinical studies. Potential risks and problems associated with the use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic reconstructive surgery in general are described. Although use of biomaterials in rectocele and other pelvic organ prolapse surgery offers exciting possibilities, it raises treatment costs and may be associated with unknown and potentially severe complications at short and long term. Clinical benefits are currently unknown and need to be proven in clinical studies. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain that the objective of surgical treatment is to improve anatomic outcome and alleviate rectal emptying difficulties, describe the efficacy of biomaterials in rectocele repair, and summarize the potential risks and problems associated with use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic

  17. Irradiation of bioresorbable biomaterials for controlled surface degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, M.; Gilmore, B.F.; Miller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers increasingly are the materials of choice for implantable orthopaedic fixation devices. Controlled degradation of these polymers is vital for preservation of mechanical properties during tissue repair and controlled release of incorporated agents such as osteoconductive or a...

  18. Engineering Biomaterials to Integrate and Heal: The Biocompatibility Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryers, James D.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on one of the major failure routes of implanted medical devices, the foreign body reaction (FBR)—that is, the phagocytic attack and encapsulation by the body of the so-called “biocompatible” biomaterials comprising the devices. We then review strategies currently under development that might lead to biomaterial constructs that will harmoniously heal and integrate into the body. We discuss in detail emerging strategies to inhibit the FBR by engineering biomaterials that elicit more biologically pertinent responses. PMID:22592568

  19. Bone regeneration with biomaterials and active molecules delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Este, Matteo; Eglin, David; Alini, Mauro; Kyllonen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The combination of biomaterials and drug delivery strategies is a promising avenue towards improved synthetic bone substitutes. With the delivery of active species biomaterials can be provided with the bioactivity they still lack for improved bone regeneration. Recently, a lot of research efforts have been put towards this direction. Biomaterials for bone regeneration have been supplemented with small or biological molecules for improved osteoprogenitor cell recruitment, osteoinductivity, anabolic or angiogenic response, regulation of bone metabolism and others. The scope of this review is to summarize the most recent results in this field.

  20. Radiation techniques in the formulation of synthetic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, Isao

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the uses of various radiation techniques, such as radiation polymerization, grafting, and crosslinking, for the formulation of synthetic biomaterials. The biomaterials are divided into four categories: Biocompatible polymers, immobilized proteins, immobilized cells, and drug delivery systems. The recent achievements in each category are described, and the contributions of novel radiation techniques to this field are discussed. Work on drug delivery systemsis also reviewed, and the status of the practical applications of drug delivery systems for therapy is summarized. Future trends in the field of radiation-synthesized biomaterials are indicated. (orig.)

  1. A Bone-Implant Interaction Mouse Model for Evaluating Molecular Mechanism of Biomaterials/Bone Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Dan, Xiuli; Wang, Ting; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2016-11-01

    The development of an optimal animal model that could provide fast assessments of the interaction between bone and orthopedic implants is essential for both preclinical and theoretical researches in the design of novel biomaterials. Compared with other animal models, mice have superiority in accessing the well-developed transgenic modification techniques (e.g., cell tracing, knockoff, knockin, and so on), which serve as powerful tools in studying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we introduced the establishment of a mouse model, which was specifically tailored for the assessment of bone-implant interaction in a load-bearing bone marrow microenvironment and could potentially allow the molecular mechanism study of biomaterials by using transgenic technologies. The detailed microsurgery procedures for developing a bone defect (Φ = 0.8 mm) at the metaphysis region of the mouse femur were recorded. According to our results, the osteoconductive and osseointegrative properties of a well-studied 45S5 bioactive glass were confirmed by utilizing our mouse model, verifying the reliability of this model. The feasibility and reliability of the present model were further checked by using other materials as objects of study. Furthermore, our results indicated that this animal model provided a more homogeneous tissue-implant interacting surface than the rat at the early stage of implantation and this is quite meaningful for conducting quantitative analysis. The availability of transgenic techniques to mechanism study of biomaterials was further testified by establishing our model on Nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the distribution of Nestin + cells was demonstrated to be recruited to the surface of 45S5 glass as early as 3 days postsurgery, indicating that Nestin + lineage stem cells may participate in the subsequent regeneration process. In summary, the bone-implant interaction mouse model could serve as a potential candidate to evaluate the early stage tissue

  2. A new method using insert-based systems (IBS) to improve cell behavior study on flexible and rigid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, Charlotte; Moniotte, Nicolas; Rompen, Eric; Vanheusden, Alain; Mainjot, Amélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire

    2016-12-01

    In vitro studies about biomaterials biological properties are essential screening tests. Yet cell cultures encounter difficulties related to cell retention on material surface or to the observation of both faces of permeable materials. The objective of the present study was to develop a reliable in vitro method to study cell behavior on rigid and flexible/permeable biomaterials elaborating two specific insert-based systems (IBS-R and IBS-F respectively). IBS-R was designed as a specific cylindrical polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) system to evaluate attachment, proliferation and morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) on grade V titanium and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic discs characteristics of dental prostheses. The number of cells, their covering on discs and their morphology were determined from MTS assays and microscopic fluorescent images after 24, 48 and 72 h. IBS-F was developed as a two components system to study HGFs behavior on guided bone regeneration polyester membranes. The viability and the membrane barrier effect were evaluated by metabolic MTS assays and by scanning electron microscopy. IBS-R and IBS-F were shown to promote (1) easy and rapid handling; (2) cell retention on biomaterial surface; (3) accurate evaluation of the cellular proliferation, spreading and viability; (4) use of non-toxic material. Moreover IBS-F allowed the study of the cell migration through degradable membranes, with an access to both faces of the biomaterial and to the bottom of culture wells for medium changing.

  3. Hybrid biomaterials based on calcium carbonate and polyaniline nanoparticles for application in photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Yslas, Edith; Marini, Yazmin Amar; Vásquez-Quitral, Patricio; Sánchez, Marianela; Riveros, Ana; Yáñez, Diego; Cavallo, Pablo; Kogan, Marcelo J; Acevedo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Inorganic materials contain remarkable properties for drug delivery, such as a large surface area and nanoporous structure. Among these materials, CaCO3 microparticles (CMPs) exhibit a high encapsulation efficiency and solubility in acidic media. The extracellular pH of tumor neoplastic tissue is significantly lower than the extracellular pH of normal tissue facilitating the release of drug-encapsulating CMPs in this area. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) absorbs light energy and transforms it into localized heat to produce cell death. This work aimed to generate hybrid CMPs loaded with PANI for photothermal therapy (PTT). The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with CaCO3 and carboxymethyl cellulose in a simple, reproducible manner. The CMP-PANI-Cys particles were developed for the first time and represent a novel type of hybrid biomaterial. Resultant nanoparticles were characterized utilizing scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. In vitro HeLa cells in dark and irradiated conditions showed that CMP-PANI-Cys and PANI-Cys are nontoxic at the assayed concentrations. Hybrid biomaterials displayed high efficiency for potential PTT compared with PANI-Cys. In summary, hierarchical hybrid biomaterials composed of CMPs and PANI-Cys combined with near infrared irradiation represents a useful alternative in PTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineering tolerance using biomaterials to target and control antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostanoski, Lisa H; Gosselin, Emily A; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when cells of the adaptive immune system incorrectly recognize and attack "self" tissues. Importantly, the proliferation and differentiation of these cells is triggered and controlled by interactions with antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells. Thus, modulating the signals transduced by APCs (e.g., cytokines, costimulatory surface proteins) has emerged as a promising strategy to promote tolerance for diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and lupus. However, many approaches have been hindered by non-specific activity of immunosuppressive or immunoregulatory cues, following systemic administration of soluble factors via traditional injections routes (e.g., subcutaneous, intravenous). Biomaterials offer a unique opportunity to control the delivery of tolerogenic signals in vivo via properties such as controlled particle size, tunable release kinetics, and co-delivery of multiple classes of cargo. In this review, we highlight recent reports that exploit these properties of biomaterials to target APCs and promote tolerance via three strategies, i) passive or active targeting of particulate carriers to APCs, ii) biomaterial-mediated control over antigen localization and processing, and iii) targeted delivery of encapsulated or adsorbed immunomodulatory signals. These reports represent exciting advances toward the goal of more effective therapies for autoimmune diseases, without the broad suppressive effects associated with current clinically-approved therapies.

  5. Evolving the use of peptides as biomaterials components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Joel H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is part of a debate on the statement that “the use of short synthetic adhesion peptides, like RGD, is the best approach in the design of biomaterials that guide cell behavior for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering”. We take the position that although there are some acknowledged disadvantages of using short peptide ligands within biomaterials, it is not necessary to discard the notion of using peptides within biomaterials entirely, but rather to reinvent and evolve their use. Peptides possess advantageous chemical definition, access to non-native chemistries, amenability to de novo design, and applicability within parallel approaches. Biomaterials development programs that require such aspects may benefit from a peptide-based strategy. PMID:21515167

  6. Simulation of Protein and Peptide-Based Biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daggett, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to pursue realistic molecular modeling studies of the stability, dynamics, structure, function, and folding of proteins and protein-based biomaterials in solution...

  7. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address various topics within the general theme of “mechanics of biomaterials”. This editorial aims to present the context within which the studies of this Special Issue could be better understood. I, therefore, try to identify some of the most important research trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials.

  8. Design and development of reactive injectable and settable polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2013-12-01

    Injectable and settable biomaterials are a growing class of therapeutic technologies within the field of regenerative medicine. These materials offer advantages compared to prefabricated implants because of their ability to be utilized as part of noninvasive surgical procedures, fill complex defect shapes, cure in situ, and incorporate cells and other active biologics. However, there are significant technical barriers to clinical translation of injectable and settable biomaterials, such as achieving clinically relevant handling properties and benign reaction conditions. This review focuses on the engineering challenges associated with the design and development of injectable and chemically settable polymeric biomaterials. Additionally, specific examples of the diverse chemistries utilized to overcome these challenges are covered. The future translation of injectable and settable biomaterials is anticipated to improve patient outcomes for a number of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  9. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang; Changchun Zhou; Hongsong Fan; Yujiang Fan; Qing Jiang; Ping Song; Hongyuan Fan; Yu Chen; Xingdong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1) m...

  10. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  11. Conducting polymer-based multilayer films for instructive biomaterial coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, John G; Li, Hetian; Chow, Jacqueline K; Geissler, Sydney A; McElroy, Austin B; Nguy, Lindsey; Hernandez, Derek S; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the design, fabrication and testing of conformable conducting biomaterials that encourage cell alignment. Materials & methods: Thin conducting composite biomaterials based on multilayer films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives, chitosan and gelatin were prepared in a layer-by-layer fashion. Fibroblasts were observed with fluorescence microscopy and their alignment (relative to the dipping direction and direction of electrical current passed through the films)...

  12. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Tappa; Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

    2018-01-01

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and c...

  13. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking in...

  14. Preparation and mechanical property of polymer-based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P; Chen, G; Zheng, X F

    2010-01-01

    The porous polymer-based biomaterial has been synthesized from PLGA, dioxane and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by low-temperature deposition process. The deformation behaviours and fracture mechanism of polymer-based biomaterials were investigated using the compression test and the finite element (FE) simulation. The results show that the stress-strain curve of compression process includes linear elastic stage I, platform stage II and densification stage III, and the fracture mechanism can be considered as brittle fracture.

  15. Stem cells in skin regeneration: biomaterials and computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eTartarini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of diabetes and tumors, associated with global demographic issues (aging and life styles, has pointed out the importance to develop new strategies for the effective management of skin wounds. Individuals affected by these diseases are in fact highly exposed to the risk of delayed healing of the injured tissue that typically leads to a pathological inflammatory state and consequently to chronic wounds. Therapies based on stem cells have been proposed for the treatment of these wounds, thanks to the ability of stem cells to self-renew and specifically differentiate in response to the target bimolecular environment. Here we discuss how advanced biomedical devices can be developed by combining stem cells with properly engineered biomaterials and computational models. Examples include composite skin substitutes and bioactive dressings with controlled porosity and surface topography for controlling the infiltration and differentiation of the cells. In this scenario, mathematical frameworks for the simulation of cell population growth can provide support for the design of bio-constructs, reducing the need of expensive, time-consuming and ethically controversial animal experimentation.

  16. Biomaterial imaging with MeV-energy heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Toshio; Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishihara, Akihiko; Matsuo, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, ion beams with MeV-energy excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi 3 -keV ions, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi 3 ion, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary ion yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-energy beam. On the other hand, intact molecular ion distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular ions in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary ion sensitivity with MeV-energy heavy ions is very useful in biomaterial analysis

  17. Clinical validation of a nanodiamond-embedded thermoplastic biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kee, Theodore; Liang, Zhangrui; Hsiou, Desiree; Miya, Darron; Wu, Brian; Osawa, Eiji; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Sung, Eric C; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2017-11-07

    Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising drug delivery and imaging agents due to their uniquely faceted surfaces with diverse chemical groups, electrostatic properties, and biocompatibility. Based on the potential to harness ND properties to clinically address a broad range of disease indications, this work reports the in-human administration of NDs through the development of ND-embedded gutta percha (NDGP), a thermoplastic biomaterial that addresses reinfection and bone loss following root canal therapy (RCT). RCT served as the first clinical indication for NDs since the procedure sites involved nearby circulation, localized administration, and image-guided treatment progress monitoring, which are analogous to many clinical indications. This randomized, single-blind interventional treatment study evaluated NDGP equivalence with unmodified GP. This progress report assessed one control-arm and three treatment-arm patients. At 3-mo and 6-mo follow-up appointments, no adverse events were observed, and lesion healing was confirmed in the NDGP-treated patients. Therefore, this study is a foundation for the continued clinical translation of NDs and other nanomaterials for a broad spectrum of applications. Published under the PNAS license.

  18. Applications of Biomaterials in Corneal Endothelial Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Hu, Fung-Rong; Young, Tai-Horng

    2016-11-01

    When corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are diseased or injured, corneal endothelium can be surgically removed and tissue from a deceased donor can replace the original endothelium. Recent major innovations in corneal endothelial transplantation include replacement of diseased corneal endothelium with a thin lamellar posterior donor comprising a tissue-engineered endothelium carried or cultured on a thin substratum with an organized monolayer of cells. Repairing CECs is challenging because they have restricted proliferative ability in vivo. CECs can be cultivated in vitro and seeded successfully onto natural tissue materials or synthetic polymeric materials as grafts for transplantation. The optimal biomaterials for substrata of CEC growth are being investigated. Establishing a CEC culture system by tissue engineering might require multiple biomaterials to create a new scaffold that overcomes the disadvantages of single biomaterials. Chitosan and polycaprolactone are biodegradable biomaterials approved by the Food and Drug Administration that have superior biological, degradable, and mechanical properties for culturing substratum. We successfully hybridized chitosan and polycaprolactone into blended membranes, and demonstrated that CECs proliferated, developed normal morphology, and maintained their physiological phenotypes. The interaction between cells and biomaterials is important in tissue engineering of CECs. We are still optimizing culture methods for the maintenance and differentiation of CECs on biomaterials.

  19. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20-3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science.

  20. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20–3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science. PMID:28116309

  1. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Olga J G M; Hendrikse, Simone I S; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Meijer, E W

    2017-10-30

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials. Due to the dynamic character required for interaction with natural tissue, supramolecular biomaterials are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application area, and thereby the design criteria of these multi-component fibrous biomaterials, they are used as elastomeric materials or hydrogel systems. Elastomeric materials are designed to have load bearing properties whereas hydrogels are proposed to support in vitro cell culture. Although the chemical structures and systems designed and studied today are rather simple compared to the complexity of the ECM, the first examples of these functional supramolecular biomaterials reaching the clinic have been reported. The basic concept of many of these supramolecular biomaterials is based on their ability to adapt to cell behavior as a result of dynamic non-covalent interactions. In this review, we show the translation of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers into multi-component functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.

  2. [Cartilage tissue reconstruction by the polymer biomaterials--early macroscopic and histological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scierski, Wojciech; Polok, Aleksandra; Namysłowski, Grzegorz; Nozyński, Jerzy; Turecka, Lucyna; Urbaniec, Natalia; Pamuła, Elzbieta

    2009-09-01

    The surgical treatment of large cartilage defects in the region of head and neck is often impossible because of the atrophy of surrounding tissues and lack of suitable material for reconstruction. In the surgical treatment many of methods and reconstructive materials have been used. For many years the suitable synthetic material for the cartilage defects reconstruction has been searched for. Was to evaluate two different biomaterials with proper mechanical and biological features for the cartilage replacement. Two type of biomaterials in this study were used: resorbable polymer - poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) acting as a supportive matrix. A thin layer of sodium hyaluronate (Hyal) was also deposited on the surface as well in the pore walls of PLG scaffolds in order to provide biologically active molecules promoting differentiation and regeneration of the tissue. The studies were performed on the 50 animals--rabbits divided into 2 groups. The animals were operated in the general anaesthesia. The incision was done along the edge of the rabbit's auricle. Perichondrium and cartilage of the auricle on the surface 4 x 3 cm were prepared. Subperichondrically 1 x 1 cm fragment of the cartilage was removed by the scissors. This fragment was then replaced by the biomaterials: PLG in first group of 25 rabbits and PLG-Hyal in second group 25 rabbits. The tissues were sutured with polyglycolide Safil 3-0. The animals obtained Enrofloxacin for three days after the operation. Then 1, 4 and 12 weeks after the surgery the animals were painlessly euthanized by an overdose of Morbital. Implants and surrounding tissues were excised and observed macroscopically and using an optical microscope. In all the observation periods we observed proper macroscopic healing process of biomaterials. We didn't stated strong inflammatory process and necrosis around the implanted biomaterials. The histological and macroscopic examinations indicated that both materials developed in this study have

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  4. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  6. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  7. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves. PMID:19939265

  8. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  9. Novel nanostructured biomaterials: implications for coronary stent thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagkiozaki V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Varvara Karagkiozaki,1,2 Panagiotis G Karagiannidis,1 Nikolaos Kalfagiannis,1 Paraskevi Kavatzikidou,1 Panagiotis Patsalas,3 Despoina Georgiou,1 Stergios Logothetidis11Lab for Thin Films – Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Epirus, GreeceBackground: Nanomedicine has the potential to revolutionize medicine and help clinicians to treat cardiovascular disease through the improvement of stents. Advanced nanomaterials and tools for monitoring cell–material interactions will aid in inhibiting stent thrombosis. Although titanium boron nitride (TiBN, titanium diboride, and carbon nanotube (CNT thin films are emerging materials in the biomaterial field, the effect of their surface properties on platelet adhesion is relatively unexplored.Objective and methods: In this study, novel nanomaterials made of amorphous carbon, CNTs, titanium diboride, and TiBN were grown by vacuum deposition techniques to assess their role as potential stent coatings. Platelet response towards the nanostructured surfaces of the samples was analyzed in line with their physicochemical properties. As the stent skeleton is formed mainly of stainless steel, this material was used as reference material. Platelet adhesion studies were carried out by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. A cell viability study was performed to assess the cytocompatibility of all thin film groups for 24 hours with a standard immortalized cell line.Results: The nanotopographic features of material surface, stoichiometry, and wetting properties were found to be significant factors in dictating platelet behavior and cell viability. The TiBN films with higher nitrogen contents were less thrombogenic compared with the biased carbon films and control

  10. Incorporation of a bioceramic in polymeric matrix for the production of a composite biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R. C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M.O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) into a chitosan matrix for the production of membranes was proposed as a biomaterial with possible application in the treatment of bone tissue. The incorporation process was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Dispersive Energy (EDX) and X-Ray Fluorescence (FRX). SEM images showed the presence of CaCO 3 on the surface of the polymer matrix, the particles presented spherical, cubic and lamellar forms. Through the EDX analysis, the presence of calcium was observed, thus evidencing the proposed incorporation, confirmed by the FRX analysis that showed the presence of calcium in all membranes

  11. Biomaterials for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues: The possible role of APA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Marco; Giacomelli, Luca; Larosa, Claudio

    2011-01-06

    Examples of programmed tissue response after the interaction of cells with biomaterials are a hot topic in current dental research. We propose here the use of anodic porous alumina (APA) for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues. In particular, APA may trigger cell growth by the controlled release of specific growth factors and/or ions. Moreover, APA may be used as a scaffold to promote generation of new tissue, due to the high interconnectivity of pores and the high surface roughness displayed by this material.

  12. Dual-functioning peptides discovered by phage display increase the magnitude and specificity of BMSC attachment to mineralized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, Harsha; Miller, Sharon J; Kohn, David H

    2017-07-01

    Design of biomaterials for cell-based therapies requires presentation of specific physical and chemical cues to cells, analogous to cues provided by native extracellular matrices (ECM). We previously identified a peptide sequence with high affinity towards apatite (VTKHLNQISQSY, VTK) using phage display. The aims of this study were to identify a human MSC-specific peptide sequence through phage display, combine it with the apatite-specific sequence, and verify the specificity of the combined dual-functioning peptide to both apatite and human bone marrow stromal cells. In this study, a combinatorial phage display identified the cell binding sequence (DPIYALSWSGMA, DPI) which was combined with the mineral binding sequence to generate the dual peptide DPI-VTK. DPI-VTK demonstrated significantly greater binding affinity (1/K D ) to apatite surfaces compared to VTK, phosphorylated VTK (VTK phos ), DPI-VTK phos , RGD-VTK, and peptide-free apatite surfaces (p biomaterial surfaces and subsequently increase cell proliferation and differentiation. These new peptides expand biomaterial design methodology for cell-based regeneration of bone defects. This strategy of combining cell and material binding phage display derived peptides is broadly applicable to a variety of systems requiring targeted adhesion of specific cell populations, and may be generalized to the engineering of any adhesion surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Nina; Schulze, Margit; Tobiasch, Edda

    2010-01-01

    The reconstruction of hard and soft tissues is a major challenge in regenerative medicine, since diseases or traumas are causing increasing numbers of tissue defects due to the aging of the population. Modern tissue engineering is increasingly using three-dimensional structured biomaterials in combination with stem cells as cell source, since mature cells are often not available in sufficient amounts or quality. Biomaterial scaffolds are developed that not only serve as cell carriers providing mechanical support, but actively influence cellular responses including cell attachment and proliferation. Chemical modifications such as the incorporation of chemotactic factors or cell adhesion molecules are examined for their ability to enhance tissue development successfully. E.g. growth factors have been investigated extensively as substances able to support cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Thus, continuously new patents and studies are published, which are investigating the advantages and disadvantages of different biomaterials or cell types for the regeneration of specific tissues. This review focuses on biomaterials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics and corresponding composites used as scaffold materials to support cell proliferation and differentiation for hard and soft tissues regeneration. In addition, the local delivery of drugs by scaffold biomaterials is discussed.

  14. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tappa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  15. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Karthik; Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    2018-02-07

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  16. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one, and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities, this review also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development. PMID:23507726

  17. Microjet impingement followed by scanning electron microscopy as a qualitative technique to compare cellular adhesion to various biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R G; ap Gwynn, I; Bundy, K J; Rahn, B A

    1995-12-01

    Adhesion of cells to biomaterial surfaces is one of the major factors which mediates their biocompatibility. Quantitative or qualitative cell adhesion measurements would be useful for screening new implant materials. Microjet impingement has been evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, to determine to what extent it measures cell adhesion. The shear forces of the impingement, on the materials tested here, are seen to be greater than the cohesive strength of the cells in the impinged area, causing their rupture. The cell bodies are removed during impingement, leaving the sites of adhesion and other cellular material behind. Thus the method is shown not to provide quantification of cell adhesion forces for the metals and culture plastic tested. It is suggested that with highly adherent biomaterials, the distribution and patterns of these adhesion sites could be used for qualitative comparisons for screening of implant surfaces.

  18. INTERACTION OF BIOMATERIALS CONTAINING CALCIUM HYDROXYAPATITE/ POLY-L-LACTIDE WITH THE SIMULATED BODY FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of biomaterials is to replace a part or a function of the body in a safe, physiologically and economically acceptable way. The process of the reconstruction of bone defects has always been a big problem in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery. Since hydroxyapatite (HAp was detected as a component, the predominant constituent and the integral element of Mammalian bones, the development of the phospate ceramics as potential materials for implantation was enabled. This study investigated whether and in which way biomaterial calcium hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA interacts with the ionic composition of the human plasma. The simulated body fluid (SBF is an artificial fluid that has the ionic composition and ionic concentration similar to the human blood plasma. HAp/PLLA was incubated for 1, 2, 3 and 5 weeks in SBF. The surfaces of both treated and untreated materials were analyzed on a scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and were also exposed to the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, while SBF was submitted to the measuring of pH and electrical conductivity. However, our results indicate that the degradational changes of the material HAp/PLLA in SBF start from the surface of the treated material and that observed changes are the consequence of dissolution of its polymer component and the precipitation of the material similar to hydroxyapatite on its surface. This material shows good characteristics that place it among good candidates for the application in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. Engineered biomaterial and biophysical stimulation as combinatorial strategies to address prosthetic infection by pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2017-10-01

    A plethora of antimicrobial strategies are being developed to address prosthetic infection. The currently available methods for implant infection treatment include the use of antibiotics and revision surgery. Among the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus species pose significant challenges particularly, with regard to hospital acquired infections. In order to combat such life threatening infectious diseases, researchers have developed implantable biomaterials incorporating nanoparticles, antimicrobial reinforcements, surface coatings, slippery/non-adhesive and contact killing surfaces. This review discusses a few of the biomaterial and biophysical antimicrobial strategies, which are in the developmental stage and actively being pursued by several research groups. The clinical efficacy of biophysical stimulation methods such as ultrasound, electric and magnetic field treatments against prosthetic infection depends critically on the stimulation protocol and parameters of the treatment modality. A common thread among the three biophysical stimulation methods is the mechanism of bactericidal action, which is centered on biophysical rupture of bacterial membranes, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bacterial membrane depolarization evoked by the interference of essential ion-transport. Although the extent of antimicrobial effect, normally achieved through biophysical stimulation protocol is insufficient to warrant therapeutic application, a combination of antibiotic/ROS inducing agents and biophysical stimulation methods can elicit a clinically relevant reduction in viable bacterial numbers. In this review, we present a detailed account of both the biomaterial and biophysical approaches for achieving maximum bacterial inactivation. Summarizing, the biophysical stimulation methods in a combinatorial manner with material based strategies can be a more potent solution to control bacterial infections. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B

  20. Giant cells around bone biomaterials: Osteoclasts or multi-nucleated giant cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Zohdi, Hamoon; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2016-12-01

    Recently accumulating evidence has put into question the role of large multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) around bone biomaterials. While cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials, it was originally thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were bone-resorbing osteoclasts whereas foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) were found associated with a connective tissue foreign body reaction resulting in fibrous encapsulation and/or material rejection. Despite the great majority of bone grafting materials routinely found with large osteoclasts, a special subclass of bone biomaterials has more recently been found surrounded by large giant cells virtually incapable of resorbing bone grafts even years after their implantation. While original hypotheses believed that a 'foreign body reaction' may be taking place, histological data retrieved from human samples years after their implantation have put these original hypotheses into question by demonstrating better and more stable long-term bone volume around certain bone grafts. Exactly how or why this 'special' subclass of giant cells is capable of maintaining long-term bone volume, or methods to scientifically distinguish them from osteoclasts remains extremely poorly studied. The aim of this review article was to gather the current available literature on giant cell markers and differences in expression patterns between osteoclasts and MNGCs utilizing 19 specific markers including an array of CD-cell surface markers. Furthermore, the concept of now distinguishing between pro-inflammatory M1-MNGCs (previously referred to as FBGCs) as well as wound-healing M2-MNGCs is introduced and discussed. This review article presents 19 specific cell-surface markers to distinguish between osteoclasts and MNGCs including an array of CD-cell surface markers. Furthermore, the concept of now distinguishing between pro-inflammatory M1-MNGCs (often

  1. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1 mechanical properties that mimic the host tissues; (2 sufficient bioactivities to form bio-bonding between implants and surrounding tissues; and (3 a degradation rate that matches tissue regeneration and biodegradability. This article reviews the development of metal implants and their applications in biomedical engineering. Development trends and future perspectives of metallic biomaterials are also discussed.

  2. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Zhou, Changchun; Fan, Hongsong; Fan, Yujiang; Jiang, Qing; Song, Ping; Fan, Hongyuan; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-12-22

    Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1) mechanical properties that mimic the host tissues; (2) sufficient bioactivities to form bio-bonding between implants and surrounding tissues; and (3) a degradation rate that matches tissue regeneration and biodegradability. This article reviews the development of metal implants and their applications in biomedical engineering. Development trends and future perspectives of metallic biomaterials are also discussed.

  3. Research in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering: Achievements and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Maurizio; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Research on biomaterials and related subjects has been active in Italy. Starting from the very first examples of biomaterials and biomedical devices, Italian researchers have always provided valuable scientific contributions. This trend has steadily increased. To provide a rough estimate of this, it is sufficient to search PubMed, a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics, with the keywords "biomaterials" or "tissue engineering" and sort the results by affiliation. Again, even though this is a crude estimate, the results speak for themselves, as Italy is the third European country, in terms of publications, with an astonishing 3,700 products in the last decade.

  4. Fatigue crack propagation in additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Amin Yavari, S; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-07-01

    Additively manufactured porous titanium implants, in addition to preserving the excellent biocompatible properties of titanium, have very small stiffness values comparable to those of natural bones. Although usually loaded in compression, biomedical implants can also be under tensional, shear, and bending loads which leads to crack initiation and propagation in their critical points. In this study, the static and fatigue crack propagation in additively manufactured porous biomaterials with porosities between 66% and 84% is investigated using compact-tension (CT) samples. The samples were made using selective laser melting from Ti-6Al-4V and were loaded in tension (in static study) and tension-tension (in fatigue study) loadings. The results showed that displacement accumulation diagram obtained for different CT samples under cyclic loading had several similarities with the corresponding diagrams obtained for cylindrical samples under compression-compression cyclic loadings (in particular, it showed a two-stage behavior). For a load level equaling 50% of the yield load, both the CT specimens studied here and the cylindrical samples we had tested under compression-compression cyclic loading elsewhere exhibited similar fatigue lives of around 10 4 cycles. The test results also showed that for the same load level of 0.5F y , the lower density porous structures demonstrate relatively longer lives than the higher-density ones. This is because the high bending stresses in high-density porous structures gives rise to local Mode-I crack opening in the rough external surface of the struts which leads to quicker formation and propagation of the cracks. Under both the static and cyclic loading, all the samples showed crack pathways which were not parallel to but made 45 ° angles with respect to the notch direction. This is due to the fact that in the rhombic dodecahedron unit cell, the weakest struts are located in 45 ° direction with respect to the notch direction

  5. Biomaterial imaging with MeV-energy heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio, E-mail: seki@sakura.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Aoki, Takaaki [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ishihara, Akihiko [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Life Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, ion beams with MeV-energy excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi{sub 3}-keV ions, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi{sub 3} ion, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary ion yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-energy beam. On the other hand, intact molecular ion distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular ions in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary ion sensitivity with MeV-energy heavy ions is very useful in biomaterial analysis.

  6. Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2016-03-01

    Orthopaedic devices are the most common surgical devices associated with implant-related infections and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common causative pathogen in chronic bone infections (osteomyelitis). Treatment of these chronic bone infections often involves combinations of antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site via a biomaterial spacer. The gold standard biomaterial for local antibiotic delivery against osteomyelitis, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, bears many limitations. Such shortcomings include limited antibiotic release, incompatibility with many antimicrobial agents, and the need for follow-up surgeries to remove the non-biodegradable cement before surgical reconstruction of the lost bone. Therefore, extensive research pursuits are targeting alternative, biodegradable materials to replace PMMA in osteomyelitis applications. Herein, we provide an overview of the primary clinical treatment strategies and emerging biodegradable materials that may be employed for management of implant-related osteomyelitis. We performed a systematic review of experimental biomaterials systems that have been evaluated for treating established S. aureus osteomyelitis in an animal model. Many experimental biomaterials were not decisively more efficacious for infection management than PMMA when delivering the same antibiotic. However, alternative biomaterials have reduced the number of follow-up surgeries, enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy by delivering agents that are incompatible with PMMA, and regenerated bone in an infected defect. Understanding the advantages, limitations, and potential for clinical translation of each biomaterial, along with the conditions under which it was evaluated (e.g. animal model), is critical for surgeons and researchers to navigate the plethora of options for local antibiotic delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First step toward near-infrared continuous glucose monitoring: in vivo evaluation of antibody coupled biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Karolien; Kodeck, Valérie; Van De Walle, Elke; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Declercq, Heidi; Dubruel, Peter; Vlaminck, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in diabetic care. Long-term CGM systems however require an accurate sensor as well as a suitable measuring environment. Since large intravenous sensors are not feasible, measuring inside the interstitial fluid is considered the best alternative. This option, unfortunately, has the drawback of a lag time with blood glucose values. A good strategy to circumvent this is to enhance tissue integration and enrich the peri-implant vasculature. Implants of different optically transparent biomaterials (poly(methyl-methacrylate) [PMMA] and poly(dimethylsiloxane) [PDMS]) – enabling glucose monitoring in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum – were surface-treated and subsequently implanted in goats at various implantation sites for up to 3 months. The overall in vivo biocompatibility, tissue integration, and vascularization at close proximity of the surfaces of these materials were assessed. Histological screening showed similar tissue reactions independent of the implantation site. No significant inflammation reaction was observed. Tissue integration and vascularization correlated, to some extent, with the biomaterial composition. A modification strategy, in which a vascular endothelial-cadherin antibody was coupled to the biomaterials surface through a dopamine layer, showed significantly enhanced vascularization 3 months after subcutaneous implantation. Our results suggest that the developed strategy enables the creation of tissue interactive NIR transparent packaging materials, opening the possibility of continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:25304314

  8. Biomaterials and host versus graft response: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velnar, Tomaz; Bunc, Gorazd; Klobucar, Robert; Gradisnik, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials and biotechnology are increasing becoming an important area in modern medicine. The main aim in this area is the development of materials, which are biocompatible to normal tissue. Tissue-implant interactions with molecular, biological and cellular characteristics at the implant-tissue interface are important for the use and development of implants. Implantation may cause an inflammatory and immune response in tissue, foreign body reaction, systemic toxicity and imminent infection. Tissue-implant interactions determine the implant life-period. The aims of the study are to consider the biological response to implants. Biomaterials and host reactions to implants and their mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26894284

  9. Oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrintaj, Payam; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Sefat, Farshid; Rezaeian, Iraj; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-05-01

    The science and engineering of biomaterials have improved the human life expectancy. Tissue engineering is one of the nascent strategies with an aim to fulfill this target. Tissue engineering scaffolds are one of the most significant aspects of the recent tissue repair strategies; hence, it is imperative to design biomimetic substrates with suitable features. Conductive substrates can ameliorate the cellular activity through enhancement of cellular signaling. Biocompatible polymers with conductivity can mimic the cells' niche in an appropriate manner. Bioconductive polymers based on aniline oligomers can potentially actualize this purpose because of their unique and tailoring properties. The aniline oligomers can be positioned within the molecular structure of other polymers, thus painter acting with the side groups of the main polymer or acting as a comonomer in their backbone. The conductivity of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials can be tailored to mimic the electrical and mechanical properties of targeted tissues/organs. These bioconductive substrates can be designed with high mechanical strength for hard tissues such as the bone and with high elasticity to be used for the cardiac tissue or can be synthesized in the form of injectable hydrogels, particles, and nanofibers for noninvasive implantation; these structures can be used for applications such as drug/gene delivery and extracellular biomimetic structures. It is expected that with progress in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering, more innovative constructs will be proposed in the near future. This review discusses the recent advancements in the use of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The tissue engineering applications of aniline oligomers and their derivatives have recently attracted an increasing interest due to their electroactive and biodegradable properties. However, no reports have systematically reviewed

  10. Photon absorption of calcium phosphate-based dental biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Tekin, H. O.; Kara, U.; Vega C, H. R.; Fernandes Z, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Effective atomic number and mass energy absorption buildup factors for four calcium phosphate-based biomaterials used in dental treatments were calculated for 0.015 to 15 MeV photons. The mass energy absorption coefficients were calculated for 0.5 to 40 mean free paths of photons. In the energy region important for dental radiology the Zeff for all studied biomaterials are larger in comparison to larger energies. In x-rays for dental radiology and the energy absorption buildup factors are low, however CbMDI bio material shows a resonance at 80 keV. (Author)

  11. An Overview of Biomaterials in Periodontology and Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dan Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material is a crucial factor for the restoration of the tooth or periodontal structure in dentistry. Various biomaterials have been developed and clinically applied for improved periodontal tissue regeneration and osseointegration, especially in periodontology and dental implantology. Furthermore, the biomimetic approach has been the subject of active research in recent years. In this review, the most widely studied biomaterials (bone graft material, barrier membrane, and growth or differentiation factors and biomimetic approaches to obtain optimal tissue regeneration by making the environment almost similar to that of the extracellular matrix are discussed and specifically highlighted.

  12. Immune responses to implants - a review of the implications for the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; Rammelt, Stefan; Scharnweber, Dieter; Simon, Jan C

    2011-10-01

    A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such biomaterials requires an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials. One focus of this review is to outline the up-to-date knowledge on immune responses to biomaterials. Understanding the complex interactions of host response and material implants reveals the need for and also the potential of "immunomodulating" biomaterials. Based on this knowledge, we discuss strategies of triggering appropriate immune responses by functional biomaterials and highlight recent approaches of biomaterials that mimic the physiological extracellular matrix and modify cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling the porosity of collagen, gelatin and elastin biomaterials by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalova, A.; Nathala, Chandra S.R.; Bliznakova, I.; Stoyanova, E.; Zhelyazkova, A.; Ganz, T.; Lueftenegger, S.; Husinsky, W.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the structural investigation of self-organized micropores generated in thin gelatin, collagen, and collagen–elastin films after single and multishot irradiation with pulse durations ranging from 30–100 fs at 800 nm. We systematically studied the effect of laser parameters: laser energy, number of pulses, and pulse duration on the development of the micropores. This work showed that applying laser pulses at different rates significantly modified the thin film surface. The results clearly revealed that femtosecond laser treatment of thin films of biomaterials: gelatin, collagen and collagen–elastin, results in creation of micro/nanopores with different size of cavity formations. Experimentally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to influence the dimensions of the pore sizes, ranging from 100 nm to 2 μm by tuning the laser parameters. We are currently further exploring the possibility of structuring these biomaterials by applying a time delay between separate pulses. First results from cell culture experiments on laser created surface foam of collagen–elastin were successfully obtained, showing the potential of the method to cultivate cells on superficial porous substrates and the preferable selectivity of the cells to proliferate on the laser modified parts of the biopolymer substrate.

  14. Controlling the porosity of collagen, gelatin and elastin biomaterials by ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalova, A., E-mail: a_daskalova@code.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nathala, Chandra S.R. [IAP, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Femtolasers Productions GmbH, Fernkorngasse10, 1100 Vienna (Austria); Bliznakova, I. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, E. [IBIR, Department of Molecular Immunology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 73, Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhelyazkova, A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ganz, T. [Femtolasers Productions GmbH, Fernkorngasse10, 1100 Vienna (Austria); Lueftenegger, S.; Husinsky, W. [IAP, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-02-15

    We report on the structural investigation of self-organized micropores generated in thin gelatin, collagen, and collagen–elastin films after single and multishot irradiation with pulse durations ranging from 30–100 fs at 800 nm. We systematically studied the effect of laser parameters: laser energy, number of pulses, and pulse duration on the development of the micropores. This work showed that applying laser pulses at different rates significantly modified the thin film surface. The results clearly revealed that femtosecond laser treatment of thin films of biomaterials: gelatin, collagen and collagen–elastin, results in creation of micro/nanopores with different size of cavity formations. Experimentally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to influence the dimensions of the pore sizes, ranging from 100 nm to 2 μm by tuning the laser parameters. We are currently further exploring the possibility of structuring these biomaterials by applying a time delay between separate pulses. First results from cell culture experiments on laser created surface foam of collagen–elastin were successfully obtained, showing the potential of the method to cultivate cells on superficial porous substrates and the preferable selectivity of the cells to proliferate on the laser modified parts of the biopolymer substrate.

  15. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-01-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ) and 0.048 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm −2 . The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkus, Burak, E-mail: burakderkus@gmail.com; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin–chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. - Highlights: • Various nanocomposite biomaterials were developed for efficient immobilization of proteins. • CNTs enhance the immobilization efficiency owing to their conducting and surface enhancement features. • Gelatin–chitosan–CNTs structure is promising immobilization matrix thanks to its effective CNTs binding capacity.

  17. Degradation characteristics of irradiated poly-(caprolactonechitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warastuti, Y.; Suryani, N.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation purpose was to study degradation characteristics of poly-(caprolactone -chitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. A composite membrane has been synthesized using blending and stirring method with acetic acid solvent and then molded into thin film. Electron beam radiation dose 0 - 30 kGy were done in order to evaluate radiation effects. SBF absorption with various immersing times and degradation for 0 -12 weeks were conducted. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identification functional groups of composite and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was applied to analyse micro structural surface of membrane before and after immersion. The irradiation process indicate that SBF absorption decrease because NH 2 groups in chitosan which contributes to the hydrophilicity was broken. The composite III indicate maximum absorption (58,2% ± 2,22) due to its smallest concentration of polycaprolactone and highest concentration of chitosan that caused decrease of hydrophobicity. Optimum degradation of composite III (1,3% ± 0,98) was reached after 8 weeks of immersion time. FTIR spectrum indicate the unity of typical peaks of the constituent materials and specific spectrum of CO 3 2- of carbonated apatite which was formed because immersion of SBF. Microstructural analysis using SEM indicate the formation of needle like apatite layer or calcium phosphate precipitate over all surface membrane. All the results indicate that these composite meet the requirements to biomaterial. (author)

  18. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Smart Bio-Materials and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Bozzini, Sabrina; Candiani, Gabriele; Cigada, Alberto; De Nardo, Luigi; Farè, Silvia; Ganazzoli, Fabio; Gastaldi, Dario; Levi, Marinella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Migliavacca, Francesco; Osellame, Roberto; Petrini, Paola; Raffaini, Giuseppina; Resnati, Giuseppe; Vena, Pasquale; Vesentini, Simone; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The present article reviews on different research lines, namely: drug and gene delivery, surface modification/modeling, design of advanced materials (shape memory polymers and biodegradable stents), presently developed at Politecnico di Milano, Italy. For gene delivery, non-viral polycationic-branched polyethylenimine (b-PEI) polyplexes are coated with pectin, an anionic polysaccharide, to enhance the polyplex stability and decrease b-PEI cytotoxicity. Perfluorinated materials, specifically perfluoroether, and perfluoro-polyether fluids are proposed as ultrasound contrast agents and smart agents for drug delivery. Non-fouling, self-assembled PEG-based monolayers are developed on titanium surfaces with the aim of drastically reducing cariogenic bacteria adhesion on dental implants. Femtosecond laser microfabrication is used for selectively and spatially tuning the wettability of polymeric biomaterials and the effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface properties of polymethylmethacrylate are studied. Innovative functionally graded Alumina-Ti coatings for wear resistant articulating surfaces are deposited with PLD and characterized by means of a combined experimental and computational approach. Protein adsorption on biomaterials surfaces with an unlike wettability and surface-modification induced by pre-adsorbed proteins are studied by atomistic computer simulations. A study was performed on the fabrication of porous Shape Memory Polymeric structures and on the assessment of their potential application in minimally invasive surgical procedures. A model of magnesium (alloys) degradation, in a finite element framework analysis, and a bottom-up multiscale analysis for modeling the degradation mechanism of PLA matrices was developed, with the aim of providing valuable tools for the design of bioresorbable stents.

  19. Osteoinductive biomaterials: current knowledge of properties, experimental models and biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas, A.M.C.; Yuan, Huipin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    In the past thirty years, a number of biomaterials have shown the ability to induce bone formation when implanted at heterotopic sites, an ability known as osteoinduction. Such biomaterials – osteoinductive biomaterials – hold great potential for the development of new therapies in bone

  20. Macrophage phagocytic activity toward adhering staphylococci on cationic and patterned hydrogel coatings versus common biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Domingues, Joana; Roest, Steven; Wang, Yi; van der Mei, Henny C.; Libera, Matthew; van Kooten, Theo G.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Biomaterial-associated-infection causes failure of biomaterial implants. Many new biomaterials have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit bacterial colonization and stimulate tissue-cell-integration, but neglect the role of immune cells. This paper compares macrophage phagocytosis of adhering

  1. The Effect of Biomaterials Used for Tissue Regeneration Purposes on Polarization of Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone); N. Grotenhuis (Nienke); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractActivation of macrophages is critical in the acute phase of wound healing after implantation of surgical biomaterials. To understand the response of macrophages, they are often cultured in vitro on biomaterials. Since a wide range of biomaterials is currently used in the clinics, we

  2. Expansion and differentiation of germline-derived pluripotent stem cells on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Mareike; Šarić, Tomo; Denecke, Bernd; Peinkofer, Gabriel; Bovi, Manfred; Groll, Jürgen; Ko, Kinarm; Salber, Jochen; Halbach, Marcel; Schöler, Hans R; Zenke, Martin; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-05-01

    Stem cells with broad differentiation potential, such as the recently described germline-derived pluripotent stem cells (gPS cells), are an appealing source for tissue engineering strategies. Biomaterials can inhibit, support, or induce proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Here we identified (1) polymers that maintain self-renewal and differentiation potential of gPS cells for feeder-free expansion and (2) polymers supporting the cardiomyogenic fate of gPS cells by analyzing a panel of polymers of an established biomaterial bank previously used to assess growth of diverse stem cell types. Identification of cytocompatible gPS cell/biomaterial combinations required analysis of several parameters, including morphology, viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation potential. Pluripotency of gPS cells was visualized by the endogenous Oct4-promoter-driven GFP and by Sox2 and Nanog immunofluorescence. Viability assay, proliferation assay, and flow cytometry showed that gPS cells efficiently adhere and are viable on synthetic polymers, such as Resomer(®) LR704 (poly(L-lactic-D,L-lactic acid), poly(tetrafluor ethylene) (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and on gelatine-coated tissue culture polystyrene. Expansion experiments showed that Resomer LR704 is an alternative substrate for feeder-free gPS cell maintenance. Resomer LR704, PTFE, and PVDF were found to be suitable for gPS cell differentiation. Spontaneous beating in embryoid bodies cultured on Resomer LR704 occurred already on day 8 of differentiation, much earlier compared to the other surfaces. This indicates that Resomer LR704 supports spontaneous cardiomyogenic differentiation of gPS cells, which was also confirmed on molecular, protein and functional level.

  3. Hydroxyapatite, a biomaterial: Its chemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The surface area and particle size of HAP powder prepared by chemical precipitation route, were also ... chemical precipitation method (Jarcho 1978). The powders .... den snail shell, Helix aspersa, was done by taking tris-HCl buffer solution.

  4. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care. Ophthalmology. Wound healing. Burn Dressing. Tumor Treatment. Tissue Engineered devices. for cardio-vascular functions; For managing chronic illnesses including diabetic ulcers and foot. Smart shoe.

  5. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  6. Gradient biomaterials and their influences on cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindan; Mao, Zhengwei; Tan, Huaping; Han, Lulu; Ren, Tanchen; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration participates in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. The cells specifically migrate to destiny sites induced by the gradually varying concentration (gradient) of soluble signal factors and the ligands bound with the extracellular matrix in the body during a wound healing process. Therefore, regulation of the cell migration behaviours is of paramount importance in regenerative medicine. One important way is to create a microenvironment that mimics the in vivo cellular and tissue complexity by incorporating physical, chemical and biological signal gradients into engineered biomaterials. In this review, the gradients existing in vivo and their influences on cell migration are briefly described. Recent developments in the fabrication of gradient biomaterials for controlling cellular behaviours, especially the cell migration, are summarized, highlighting the importance of the intrinsic driving mechanism for tissue regeneration and the design principle of complicated and advanced tissue regenerative materials. The potential uses of the gradient biomaterials in regenerative medicine are introduced. The current and future trends in gradient biomaterials and programmed cell migration in terms of the long-term goals of tissue regeneration are prospected. PMID:23741610

  7. Antibiotic-Releasing Silk Biomaterials for Infection Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Valentin, Thomas; Panilaitis, Bruce; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective treatment of infections in avascular and necrotic tissues can be challenging due to limited penetration into the target tissue and systemic toxicities. Controlled release polymer implants have the potential to achieve the high local concentrations needed while also minimizing systemic exposure. Silk biomaterials possess unique characteristics for antibiotic delivery including biocompatibility, tunable biodegradation, stabilizing effects, water-based processing and diverse material f...

  8. PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopedic, and Spinal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S. M.; Devine, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature. PMID:17686513

  9. A Multidisciplined Teaching Reform of Biomaterials Course for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Feng; Pu, Fang; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Zhou, Gang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The biomaterials science has advanced in a high speed with global science and technology development during the recent decades, which experts predict to be more obvious in the near future with a more significant position for medicine and health care. Although the three traditional subjects, such as medical science, materials science and biology…

  10. Logic of Biomaterial devices from CLRI for wound management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Logic of Biomaterial devices from CLRI for wound management. Designing of biodegradable scaffolds. Designing the scaffold. Host drugs and growth factors. Design controlled drug release only to the wound area (based on pH differentials). Smartness is built in ...

  11. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of

  12. Harnessing the potential of biomaterials for brain repair after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anup; Payne, Samantha L.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2018-03-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease for which no clinical treatment exists to regenerate lost tissue. Strategies for brain repair in animal models of stroke include the delivery of drug or cell-based therapeutics; however, the complex anatomy and functional organization of the brain presents many challenges. Biomaterials may alleviate some of these challenges by providing a scaffold, localizing the therapy to the site of action, and/or modulating cues to brain cells. Here, the challenges associated with delivery of therapeutics to the brain and the biomaterial strategies used to overcome these challenges are described. For example, innovative hydrogel delivery systems have been designed to provide sustained trophic factor delivery for endogenous repair and to support transplanted cell survival and integration. Novel treatments, such as electrical stimulation of transplanted cells and the delivery of factors for the direct reprogramming of astrocytes into neurons, may be further enhanced by biomaterial delivery systems. Ultimately, improved clinical translation will be achieved by combining clinically relevant therapies with biomaterials strategies.

  13. Engineering Biomaterials to Influence Oligodendroglial Growth, Maturation, and Myelin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lauren N; Lampe, Kyle J

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people suffer from damage or disease to the nervous system that results in a loss of myelin, such as through a spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Diminished myelin levels lead to further cell death in which unmyelinated neurons die. In the central nervous system, a loss of myelin is especially detrimental because of its poor ability to regenerate. Cell therapies such as stem or precursor cell injection have been investigated as stem cells are able to grow and differentiate into the damaged cells; however, stem cell injection alone has been unsuccessful in many areas of neural regeneration. Therefore, researchers have begun exploring combined therapies with biomaterials that promote cell growth and differentiation while localizing cells in the injured area. The regrowth of myelinating oligodendrocytes from neural stem cells through a biomaterials approach may prove to be a beneficial strategy following the onset of demyelination. This article reviews recent advancements in biomaterial strategies for the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocytes, and presents new data indicating appropriate properties for oligodendrocyte precursor cell growth. In some cases, an increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation alongside neurons is further highlighted for functional improvements where the biomaterial was then tested for increased myelination both in vitro and in vivo. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Role of biomaterials in neurorestoration after spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and technology SCI remains one of the most severe and disabling disorders affecting young people. Spinal cord lesions result in permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, causing an enormous impact on patient’s personal, social, familial and professional life. There is currently no effective treatment available to improve severe neurologic deficits and to decrease disability. Tissue-engineering techniques have developed a variety of scaffolds, made by biomaterials, used alone, incapsulated with cells or embedded with molecules, which are delivered to lesion site to achieve neural regeneration. Biomaterials may provide structural support and/or serve as a delivery vehicle for factors to arrest growth inhibition and promote axonal growth. Biomaterials acts like cell-carriers for the injury site, but also as reservoirs for growth factors or biomolecules. Hydrogels are a promising therapeutical strategy in spinal cord repair. Nano-fibers provide a three-dimensional network, which mimic closely the native extracellular matrix, thus offering a better support for cell attachment and proliferation than traditional micro-structure. New strategies like pharmacologic treatments, cell therapies, gene therapies and biomaterial tissue engineering should combine to increase their synergistic effect and to obtain the expected functional recovery in spinal cord injured patients

  15. Current and future biocompatibility aspects of biomaterials for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Aherwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of biomaterials has turn into an electrifying area because these materials improve the quality and longevity of human life. The first and foremost necessity for the selection of the biomaterial is the acceptability by human body. However, the materials used in hip implants are designed to sustain the load bearing function of human bones for the start of the patient’s life. The most common classes of biomaterials used are metals, polymers, ceramics, composites and apatite. These five classes are used individually or in combination with other materials to form most of the implantation devices in recent years. Numerous current and promising new biomaterials i.e. metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite are discussed to highlight their merits and their frailties in terms of mechanical and metallurgical properties in this review. It is concluded that current materials have their confines and there is a need for more refined multi-functional materials to be developed in order to match the biocompatibility, metallurgical and mechanical complexity of the hip prosthesis.

  16. Advances in the development of supramolecular polymeric biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, O.J.G.M.; Dankers, P.Y.W.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine applications aim to recreate or repair the living functional environment of the human body. Many biomaterials that are designed and synthesized in recent years are inspired by the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is responsible for mechanical, structural, and biochemical support

  17. Cell Physiology and Interactions of Biomaterials and Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hunkeler, D.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2003), s. 193-197 ISSN 0032-3918 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 840.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Biomaterials * Cell physiology * Encapsulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. Biomaterials Influence Macrophage-Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interaction In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grotenhuis (Nienke); S.F. De Witte (Samantha Fh); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important cells in wound healing. We hypothesized that the cross-talk between macrophages and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs) is biomaterial dependent, thereby influencing processes involved in wound healing. Materials and

  19. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  20. Semi-confined compression of microfabricated polymerized biomaterial constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Christopher; Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Simmons, Craig A; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Ruogang

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical parameters in engineering functional tissue because of their established influence on cellular behaviour. However, identifying ideal combinations of mechanical, biomaterial and chemical stimuli to obtain a desired cellular response requires high-throughput screening technologies, which may be realized through microfabricated systems. This paper reports on the development and characterization of a MEMS device for semi-confined biomaterial compression. An array of these devices would enable studies involving mechanical deformation of three-dimensional biomaterials, an important parameter in creating physiologically relevant microenvironments in vitro. The described device has the ability to simultaneously apply a range of compressive mechanical stimuli to multiple polymerized hydrogel microconstructs. Local micromechanical strains generated within the semi-confined hydrogel cylinders are characterized and compared with those produced in current micro- and macroscale technologies. In contrast to previous work generating unconfined compression in microfabricated devices, the semi-confined compression model used in this work generates uniform regions of strain within the central portion of each hydrogel, demonstrated here to range from 20% to 45% across the array. The uniform strains achieved simplify experimental analysis and improve the utility of the compression platform. Furthermore, the system is compatible with a wide variety of polymerizable biomaterials, enhancing device versatility and usability in tissue engineering and fundamental cell biology studies

  1. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part I: Morphology expression and proliferation of human and rat osteoblasts on the biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The biocompatibility evaluation of calcium phosphate based biomaterials is performed by tissue culture in vitro model. Three kinds of bioceramic materials which are potential to deal with bone trauma and/or conduct tissue growth are recommodated. The biological research results show that human and animal osteoblast cells anchor the materials surface in two hours in culture. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated the normal cell distribution and proliferation on both of dense and porous biomaterials. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate stimulate cell proliferation. However, DNA and protein synthesis were considerably limited and the apoptosis phenomenon would be present on the hydroxyapatite (HA) materials by adding Al, Mg elements. Several important methods of biocompatibility evaluation of implant materials are described and the related biological molecular techniques such as tissue culture, cell transfection, cellular DNA stain, and Lowry assay are involved in the present research.

  2. Nanophotonics of biomaterials and inorganic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, P; Agocs, E; Kalas, B; Fodor, B; Lohner, T; Nador, J; Saftics, A; Kurunczi, S; Novotny, T; Perez-Feró, E; Nagy, R; Hamori, A; Horvath, R; Hózer, Z; Fried, M

    2017-01-01

    Optical methods have been used for the sensitive characterization of surfaces and thin films for more than a century. The first ellipsometric measurement was conducted on metal surfaces by Paul Drude in 1889. The word ‘ellipsometer’ was first used by Rothen in a study of antigen-antibody interactions on polished metal surfaces in 1945. The ‘bible’ of ellipsometry has been published in the second half of the ‘70s. The publications in the topic of ellipsometry started to increase rapidly by the end of the ‘80s, together with concepts like surface plasmon resonance, later new topics like photonic crystals emerged. These techniques find applications in many fields, including sensorics or photovoltaics. In optical sensorics, the highest sensitivities were achieved by waveguide interferometry and plasmon resonance configurations. The instrumentation of ellipsometry is also being developed intensively towards higher sensitivity and performance by combinations with plasmonics, scatterometry, imaging or waveguide methods, utilizing the high sensitivity, high speed, non-destructive nature and mapping capabilities. Not only the instrumentation but also the methods of evaluation show a significant development, which leads to the characterization of structures with increasing complexity, including photonic, porous or metal surfaces. This article discusses a selection of interesting applications of photonics in the Centre for Energy Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. (paper)

  3. UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus enhances adhesion and differentiation of osteoblasts on bone-associated biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Shankari N; Huet, Yvette M; Gruber, Helen E; Hudson, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Titanium alloys (Ti) are the preferred material for orthopedic applications. However, very often, these metallic implants loosen over a long period and mandate revision surgery. For implant success, osteoblasts must adhere to the implant surface and deposit a mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we utilized UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus as a novel osteoconductive coating for Ti surfaces. S. aureus expresses surface adhesins capable of binding to bone and biomaterials directly. Furthermore, interaction of S. aureus with osteoblasts activates growth factor-related pathways that potentiate osteogenesis. Although UV-killed S. aureus cells retain their bone-adhesive ability, they do not stimulate significant immune modulator expression. All of the abovementioned properties were utilized for a novel implant coating so as to promote osteoblast recruitment and subsequent cell functions on the bone-implant interface. In this study, osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and mineralized ECM synthesis were measured on Ti surfaces coated with fibronectin with and without UV-killed bacteria. Osteoblast adhesion was enhanced on Ti alloy surfaces coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces, while cell proliferation was sustained comparably on both surfaces. Osteoblast markers such as collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were increased on Ti alloy coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces.

  4. Hydroxyapatite, a biomaterial: Its chemical synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High bioactivity of prepared HAP powder due to the formation of apatite on its surface was observed. Author Affiliations. Anjuvan Singh1. Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 411, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 10 February 2010; Manuscript revised: 20 July 2012 ...

  5. Progress in atomizing high melting intermetallic titanium based alloys by means of a novel plasma melting induction guiding gas atomization facility (PIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, R.; Schimansky, F.P.; Wagner, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1994-12-31

    For the production of intermetallic titanium based alloy powders a novel gas atomization facility has been put into operation: By means of a plasma torch the alloy is melted in a water cooled copper crucible in skull melting technique. To the tap hole of the crucible, a novel transfer system is mounted which forms a thin melt stream and guides it into the gas nozzle. This transfer system consists of a ceramic free induction heated water cooled copper funnel. Gas atomization of {gamma}-TiAl (melting temperature 1400 C) and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (2130 C) proved the possibility to produce ceramic free pre-alloyed powders with this novel facility. The TiAl powder particles are spherical; about 20 wt.% are smaller than 45 {mu}m. The oxygen and copper pick up during atomization do not exceed 250 and 35 {mu}g/g respectively. The Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} powder particles are almost spherical. Only about 10 wt.% are <45 {mu}m whereas the O{sub 2} and Cu contamination is also kept at a very low level (250 and 20 {mu}g/g respectively). (orig.)

  6. DFT study on the impact of the methylaluminoxane cocatalyst in ethylene oligomerization using a titanium-based catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad

    2015-01-26

    A computational study within the framework of density functional theory is presented on the oligomerization of ethylene to yield 1-hexene using [(η5-C5H4CMe2C6H5)]TiCl3/MAO] catalyst. This study explicitly takes into account a methylaluminoxane (MAO) cocatalyst model, where the MAO cluster has become an anionic species after having abstracted one chloride anion, yielding a cationic activated catalyst. Hence, the reaction profile was calculated using the zwitterionic system, and the potential energy surface has been compared to the cationic catalytic system. Modest differences were found between the two free energy profiles. However, we show for the first time that the use of a realistic zwitterionic model is required to obtain a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship between the energy barriers and reaction energies.

  7. DFT study on the impact of the methylaluminoxane cocatalyst in ethylene oligomerization using a titanium-based catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Basset, Jean-Marie; Toulhoat, Hervé ; De Bruin, Theodorus J M

    2015-01-01

    A computational study within the framework of density functional theory is presented on the oligomerization of ethylene to yield 1-hexene using [(η5-C5H4CMe2C6H5)]TiCl3/MAO] catalyst. This study explicitly takes into account a methylaluminoxane (MAO) cocatalyst model, where the MAO cluster has become an anionic species after having abstracted one chloride anion, yielding a cationic activated catalyst. Hence, the reaction profile was calculated using the zwitterionic system, and the potential energy surface has been compared to the cationic catalytic system. Modest differences were found between the two free energy profiles. However, we show for the first time that the use of a realistic zwitterionic model is required to obtain a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship between the energy barriers and reaction energies.

  8. Real-time in vivo detection of biomaterial-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy F; Ma, Minglin; Bratlie, Kaitlin M; Dang, Tram T; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2011-03-01

    The non-specific host response to implanted biomaterials is often a key challenge of medical device design. To evaluate biocompatibility, measuring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells in response to biomaterial surfaces is a well-established method. However, the detection of ROS in response to materials implanted in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we develop a bioluminescence whole animal imaging approach to observe ROS released in response to subcutaneously-implanted materials in live animals. We compared the real-time generation of ROS in response to two representative materials, polystyrene and alginate, over the course of 28 days. High levels of ROS were observed near polystyrene, but not alginate implants, and persisted throughout the course of 28 days. Histological analysis revealed that high levels of ROS correlated not only with the presence of phagocytic cells at early timepoints, but also fibrosis at later timepoints, suggesting that ROS may be involved in both the acute and chronic phase of the foreign body response. These data are the first in vivo demonstration of ROS generation in response to implanted materials, and describe a novel technique to evaluate the host response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oscillatory device for use with linear tribometer, for tribological evaluation of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, J. N.; Siqueira, C. J. M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Cambraia, H. N.

    2017-07-01

    Orthopedic implants still have limitations regarding their durability, despite being in use for over fifty years. Particles arising from wear due to the relative motion of their surfaces remain responsible for aseptic failure. This paper presents a device to be coupled with a reciprocal linear tribometer to reproduce the ex vivo wear of biomaterials, allowing the measurement of force and coefficient of friction. The device consists of a structure connected to the tribometer that transforms its reciprocal linear motion into one that is oscillatory for the mechanical assembly that contains the samples to test the desired biomaterials. The tribological pair used for testing consisted of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) in conjunction with the austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L in dry lubrication. The results showed that the values of the coefficient of friction in the linear mode and oscillatory mode and the UHMWPE life curve in the oscillatory mode were consistent with those cited in the literature for tests in a dry lubrication environment. Moreover, the UHMWPE sample life curve showed a reduction in the wear rate that can be explained by the preponderance of a wear mechanism over the others. The volumetric wear showed an increase with the number of cycles.

  10. Gamma irradiation processing of Hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suljovrujic, E.; Ignjatovic, N.; Uskokovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As is well known, Hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) is a composite biomaterial, used for substitution and repair of hard bone tissue. It consists of a non-bioresorptive ceramic (HAp) and a bioresorptive polymer PLLA component, with mechanical properties similar to those of bones can be produced. On the other hand, a radiation processing is a main wide used step in certain modern technologies, and can be utilized for sterilization of implants based on sensitive polymers and composites. In this paper, the relation between the structure and properties is investigated for the case of HAp/PLLA composite where structure changes are created by gamma irradiation. The irradiation, to various absorbed doses (10, 25, 50, 100 and 300 KGy) of gamma radiation, was performed in a 60 Co radiation facility, in air at room temperature, at a dose rate of 9 kGy/h. Since the morphology of Hap/PLLA composite biomaterial is very sensitive to these procedures, surface microstructure was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Structural changes occurring in the material, mostly changes in PLLA, which is more sensitive to irradiation than HAp, were studied by wade angle X-ray structural analyses (WAXS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements (DSC) were used to study the changes in thermal behaviour and crystallinity. Effects of radiation on the HAp/PLLA composite thermal stability were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Conclusions derived using different methods were compared

  11. Composite Biomaterials Based on Sol-Gel Mesoporous Silicate Glasses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Fiorilli, Sonia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone and stimulate the growth of new tissue while dissolving over time, which makes them ideal materials for regenerative medicine. The advent of mesoporous glasses, which are typically synthesized via sol-gel routes, allowed researchers to develop a broad and versatile class of novel biomaterials that combine superior bone regenerative potential (compared to traditional melt-derived glasses) with the ability of incorporating drugs and various biomolecules for targeted therapy in situ. Mesoporous glass particles can be directly embedded as a bioactive phase within a non-porous (e.g., microspheres), porous (3D scaffolds) or injectable matrix, or be processed to manufacture a surface coating on inorganic or organic (macro)porous substrates, thereby obtaining hierarchical structures with multiscale porosity. This review provides a picture of composite systems and coatings based on mesoporous glasses and highlights the challenges for the future, including the great potential of inorganic–organic hybrid sol-gel biomaterials. PMID:28952496

  12. Optimized in vitro procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of magnesium-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Porchetta, Dario; Kopp, Alexander; Ptock, Christoph; Müller, Ute; Heiland, Max; Schwade, Max; Behr, Björn; Kröger, Nadja; Kluwe, Lan; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel peptide-based platform for the dual presentation of biologically active peptide motifs on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Fraioli, Roberta; Albericio, Fernando; Manero, José María; Gil, F Javier

    2014-05-14

    Biofunctionalization of metallic materials with cell adhesive molecules derived from the extracellular matrix is a feasible approach to improve cell-material interactions and enhance the biointegration of implant materials (e.g., osseointegration of bone implants). However, classical biomimetic strategies may prove insufficient to elicit complex and multiple biological signals required in the processes of tissue regeneration. Thus, newer strategies are focusing on installing multifunctionality on biomaterials. In this work, we introduce a novel peptide-based divalent platform with the capacity to simultaneously present distinct bioactive peptide motifs in a chemically controlled fashion. As a proof of concept, the integrin-binding sequences RGD and PHSRN were selected and introduced in the platform. The biofunctionalization of titanium with this platform showed a positive trend towards increased numbers of cell attachment, and statistically higher values of spreading and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells compared to control noncoated samples. Moreover, it displayed statistically comparable or improved cell responses compared to samples coated with the single peptides or with an equimolar mixture of the two motifs. Osteoblast-like cells produced higher levels of alkaline phosphatase on surfaces functionalized with the platform than on control titanium; however, these values were not statistically significant. This study demonstrates that these peptidic structures are versatile tools to convey multiple biofunctionality to biomaterials in a chemically defined manner.

  14. Investigation of biomaterials by human epithelial gingiva cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neunzehn Jörg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In modern medicine and dentistry the use of biomaterials is a fast developing field of increasing interest. Especially in dentistry the interaction between biomaterials like implant materials and the soft tissue in the oral cavity is in the focus of daily research. In this context the high importance of testing materials and their surfaces concerning their biocompatibility towards corresponding cells is very likely. For this purpose this study investigates cells derived from human gingival biopsies on different materials and surfaces. Methods Cells in this study were cultivated out of human biopsies by a grow out explant technique and were sub cultivated on titanium, zirconium dioxide and collagen membrane specimens. To characterise the cells on the material surfaces used in this study immunohistochemical and histological staining techniques as well as different methods of microscopy (light microscopy and SEM were applied. Results With the aid of the explant technique and the chosen cell cultivation method it was possible to investigate the human gingiva derived cells on different materials. The data of the present study show that the human gingival cells attach and proliferate on all three tested materials by exhibiting characteristic gingival keratinocyte protein expression even after long periods of culture e.g. up to 70 days. Conclusions It could be shown that the three tested materials titanium, zirconium dioxide and collagen membrane (and their special surfaces are good candidates for the application as materials in the dental gingival environment or, in the case of the collagen membrane as scaffold/cell-carrier for human gingival cells in tissue engineering.

  15. Highly Stable Aptamers Selected from a 2′-Fully Modified fGmH RNA Library for Targeting Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam D.; Kim, Dongwook; Liu, Rihe

    2014-01-01

    When developed as targeting ligands for the in vivo delivery of biomaterials to biological systems, RNA aptamers immediately face numerous obstacles, in particular nuclease degradation and post-selection 2′ modification. This study aims to develop a novel class of highly stable, 2′-fully modified RNA aptamers that are ideal for the targeted delivery of biomaterials. We demonstrated the facile transcription of a fGmH (2′-F-dG, 2′-OMe-dA/dC/dU) RNA library with unexpected hydrophobicity, the direct selection of aptamers from a fGmH RNA library that bind Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (SpA) as a model target, and the superior nuclease and serum stability of these aptamers compared to 2′-partially modified RNA variants. Characterizations of fGmH RNA aptamers binding to purified SpA and to endogenous SpA present on the surface of S. aureus cells demonstrate fGmH RNA aptamer selectivity and stability. Significantly, fGmH RNA aptamers were able to functionalize, stabilize, and further deliver aggregation-prone silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to S. aureus with SpA-dependent antimicrobial effects. This study describes a novel aptamer class with considerable potential to improve the in vivo applicability of nucleic acid-based affinity molecules to biomaterials. PMID:25443790

  16. Highly stable aptamers selected from a 2'-fully modified fGmH RNA library for targeting biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam D; Kim, Dongwook; Liu, Rihe

    2015-01-01

    When developed as targeting ligands for the in vivo delivery of biomaterials to biological systems, RNA aptamers immediately face numerous obstacles, in particular nuclease degradation and post-selection 2' modification. This study aims to develop a novel class of highly stable, 2'-fully modified RNA aptamers that are ideal for the targeted delivery of biomaterials. We demonstrated the facile transcription of a fGmH (2'-F-dG, 2'-OMe-dA/dC/dU) RNA library with unexpected hydrophobicity, the direct selection of aptamers from a fGmH RNA library that bind Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (SpA) as a model target, and the superior nuclease and serum stability of these aptamers compared to 2'-partially modified RNA variants. Characterizations of fGmH RNA aptamers binding to purified SpA and to endogenous SpA present on the surface of S. aureus cells demonstrate fGmH RNA aptamer selectivity and stability. Significantly, fGmH RNA aptamers were able to functionalize, stabilize, and specifically deliver aggregation-prone silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to S. aureus with SpA-dependent antimicrobial effects. This study describes a novel aptamer class with considerable potential to improve the in vivo applicability of nucleic acid-based affinity molecules to biomaterials.

  17. Mounting of Biomaterials for Use in Ophthalmic Cell Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G; Dunphy, Siobhan E; Shadforth, Audra M A; Dawson, Rebecca A; Walshe, Jennifer; Zakaria, Nadia

    2017-11-01

    When used as scaffolds for cell therapies, biomaterials often present basic handling and logistical problems for scientists and surgeons alike. The quest for an appropriate mounting device for biomaterials is therefore a significant and common problem. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the factors to consider when choosing an appropriate mounting device including those experienced during cell culture, quality assurance, and surgery. By way of example, we draw upon our combined experience in developing epithelial cell therapies for the treatment of eye diseases. We discuss commercially available options for achieving required goals and provide a detailed analysis of 4 experimental designs developed within our respective laboratories in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Belgium.

  18. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Hanagata, Taro Takemura and Takashi Minowa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data.

  19. Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles Bearing 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ligands as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Bellia, Francesco; Vecchio, Graziella

    2017-03-28

    Cyclodextrins are used as building blocks for the development of a host of polymeric biomaterials. The cyclodextrin polymers have found numerous applications as they exhibit unique features such as mechanical properties, stimuli responsiveness and drug loading ability. Notwithstanding the abundance of cyclodextrin polymers studied, metal-chelating polymers based on cyclodextrins have been poorly explored. Herein we report the synthesis and the characterization of the first metal-chelating β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands. The metal ions (Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ ) can modulate the assembly of the polymer nanoparticles. Moreover, the protective activity of the new chelating polymer against self- and metal-induced Aβ aggregation and free radical species are significantly higher than those of the parent compounds. These synergistic effects suggest that the incorporation of hydroxyquinoline moieties into a soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer could represent a promising strategy to design multifunctional biomaterials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal O. Kean

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  2. Structural analysis and application to biomaterials of the silk fibroins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Silk fibroin from Bombyx mori silkworm has outstanding mechanical properties despite being spun from aqueous solution. I have clarified two distinct structures in the solid state; silk I and silk II, which mean the structures before and after spinning, by using solid state NMR. Moreover, I have been developing several kinds of biomaterials, such as bone regeneration materials and vascular grafts. In this paper, I present two topics: one is the structural analyses of the silk fibroin in detail, the other is applications of silk fibroins to tissue engineering. In the case of vascular regeneration, I have developed the small diameter vascular grafts made by silk fibroins. The new grafts from silk fibroins have good patency, and these grafts were commonly covered with cells and platelets at 4 weeks after implantation. For bone tissue engineering, I performed structural analyses of a new silk-like peptide, E n (AGSGAG) 4 , in order to consider the molecular design of biomaterials for bone regeneration. (author)

  3. Diversification and enrichment of clinical biomaterials inspired by Darwinian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D W; Watson, G S; Watson, J A; Lee, D-J; Lee, J-M; Jung, H-S

    2016-09-15

    Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions. It is possible to engineer these essential elements into clinical biomaterials via bioinspired implementation of concepts, processes and mechanisms played out during Darwinian evolution; mechanisms such as, directed, computational, accelerated evolutions and artificial selection contrived in the laboratory. These dynamos for innovation can be used during biomaterials fabrication, but also to choose optimal designs in the regeneration process. Further evolutionary information can help at the design stage; gleaned from the historical evolution of material adaptations compared across phylogenies to changes in their environment and habitats. Taken together, harnessing evolutionary mechanisms and evolutionary pathways, leading to ideal adaptations, will eventually provide a new class of Darwinian and evolutionary biomaterials. This will provide bioengineers with a more diversified and more efficient innovation tool for biomaterial design, synthesis and function than currently achieved with synthetic materials chemistry programmes and rational based materials design approach, which require reasoned logic. It will also inject further creativity, diversity and richness into the biomedical technologies that

  4. Freeze-Casting of Porous Biomaterials: Structure, Properties and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Deville

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The freeze-casting of porous materials has received a great deal of attention during the past few years. This simple process, where a material suspension is simply frozen and then sublimated, provides materials with unique porous architectures, where the porosity is almost a direct replica of the frozen solvent crystals. This review focuses on the recent results on the process and the derived porous structures with regards to the biomaterials applications. Of particular interest is the architecture of the materials and the versatility of the process, which can be readily controlled and applied to biomaterials applications. A careful control of the starting formulation and processing conditions is required to control the integrity of the structure and resulting properties. Further in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to validate the potential of this new class of porous materials.

  5. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  6. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka; Takemura, Taro; Minowa, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data. (topical review)

  7. Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation process on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Zahra; Hedayati, Reza; Pouran, Behdad; Apachitei, Iulian; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-01

    Metallic porous biomaterials are recently attracting more attention thanks to the additive manufacturing techniques which help produce more complex structures as compared to conventional techniques. On the other hand, bio-functional surfaces on metallic biomaterials such as titanium and its alloys are necessary to enhance the biological interactions with the host tissue. This study discusses the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), as a surface modification technique to produce bio-functional layers, on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on the cubic unit cell. For this purpose, the PEO process with two different oxidation times was applied on scaffolds with four different values of relative density. The effects of the PEO process were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscopy as well as static and dynamic (fatigue) mechanical testing under compression. SEM results indicated pore formation on the surface of the scaffolds after oxidation with a thickness of 4.85±0.36μm of the oxide layer after 2min and 9.04±2.27μm after 5min oxidation (based on optical images). The static test results showed the high effect of relative density of porous structure on its mechanical properties. However, oxidation did not influence most of the mechanical properties such as maximum stress, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption, although its effect on the elastic modulus was considerable. Under fatigue loading, none of the scaffolds failed even after 10 6 loading cycles at 70% of their yield stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty: Biomechanics and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy F; Rahgozar, Paymon; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis is a debilitating condition. The complexity of the joint makes management particularly challenging. Treatment of PIP arthritis requires an understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. PIP joint arthroplasty is one treatment option that has evolved over time. Advances in biomaterials have improved and expanded arthroplasty design. This article reviews biomechanics and arthroplasty design of the PIP joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In silico design of anti-atherogenic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tomasini, Michael D; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Petersen, Latrisha K; Welsh, William J; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2013-10-01

    Atherogenesis, the uncontrolled deposition of modified lipoproteins in inflamed arteries, serves as a focal trigger of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Polymeric biomaterials have been envisioned to counteract atherogenesis based on their ability to repress scavenger mediated uptake of oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages. Following the conceptualization in our laboratories of a new library of amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs), assembled from sugar backbones, aliphatic chains and poly(ethylene glycol) tails, a more rational approach is necessary to parse the diverse features such as charge, hydrophobicity, sugar composition and stereochemistry. In this study, we advance a computational biomaterials design approach to screen and elucidate anti-atherogenic biomaterials with high efficacy. AMs were quantified in terms of not only 1D (molecular formula) and 2D (molecular connectivity) descriptors, but also new 3D (molecular geometry) descriptors of AMs modeled by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) followed by all-atom MD simulations. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for anti-atherogenic activity were then constructed by screening a total of 1164 descriptors against the corresponding, experimentally measured potency of AM inhibition of oxLDL uptake in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Five key descriptors were identified to provide a strong linear correlation between the predicted and observed anti-atherogenic activity values, and were then used to correctly forecast the efficacy of three newly designed AMs. Thus, a new ligand-based drug design framework was successfully adapted to computationally screen and design biomaterials with cardiovascular therapeutic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical methods and models for mechanical properties of soft biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonggang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the most commonly used theoretical methods and models for the mechanical properties of soft biomaterials, which include phenomenological hyperelastic and viscoelastic models, structural biphasic and network models, and the structural alteration theory. We emphasize basic concepts and recent developments. In consideration of the current progress and needs of mechanobiology, we introduce methods and models for tackling micromechanical problems and their applications to cell biology. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in this field are discussed.

  11. Double site-bond percolation model for biomaterial implants

    OpenAIRE

    Mely, H.; Mathiot, J. -F.

    2011-01-01

    9 figures - 10 pages; We present a double site-bond percolation model to account, on the one hand, for the vascularization and/or resorption of biomaterial implant in bones, and on the other hand, for its mechanical continuity. The transformation of the implant into osseous material, and the dynamical formation/destruction of this osseous material is accounted for by creation and destruction of links and sites in two, entangled, networks. We identify the relevant parameters to describe the im...

  12. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: ...

  13. β-pyrophosphate : a potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, A. D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C. L.; Hussaein, S. A.; Edwards, T. J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N. K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Routledge, M. N.; Brown, A. P.; Duggal, M. S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors acknowledge support from the sponsors of this work; the EPSRC LUMIN (EP/K020234/1) and EU-Marie-Curie-IAPP LUSTRE (324538) projects. Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral trans...

  14. Synthesis of a nanocomposite biomaterial for implant tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Montes, Angélica

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve health and quality of life, the challenge to develop new biomaterials has become extremely relevant. In this project, our main objective is to obtain a nanocomposite biopolymer that serves as a temporal synthetic extracellular matrix for cell growth and tissue regeneration. This matrix consists of a hydrogel lm of chitosan or agarose doped with di erent ceramic nanoparticles: titanium dioxide (TiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Once developed, this composite will be tested...

  15. Effect of Hyaluronic Acid Incorporation Method on the Stability and Biological Properties of Polyurethane-Hyaluronic Acid Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Amaliris; Rathnam, Kashmila R.; Masters, Kristyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The high failure rate of small diameter vascular grafts continues to drive the development of new materials and modification strategies that address this clinical problem, with biomolecule incorporation typically achieved via surface-based modification of various biomaterials. In this work, we examined whether the method of biomolecule incorporation (i.e., bulk vs. surface modification) into a polyurethane (PU) polymer impacted biomaterial performance in the context of vascular applications. Specifically, hyaluronic acid (HA) was incorporated into a poly(ether urethane) via bulk copolymerization or covalent surface tethering, and the resulting PU-HA materials characterized with respect to both physical and biological properties. Modification of PU with HA by either surface or bulk methods yielded materials that, when tested under static conditions, possessed no significant differences in their ability to resist protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion, while supporting endothelial cell culture. However, only bulk-modified PU-HA materials were able to fully retain these characteristics following material exposure to flow, demonstrating a superior ability to retain the incorporated HA and minimize enzymatic degradation, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion. Thus, despite bulk methods rarely being implemented in the context of biomolecule attachment, these results demonstrate improved performance of PU-HA upon bulk, rather than surface, incorporation of HA. Although explored only in the context of PU-HA, the findings revealed by these experiments have broader implications for the design and evaluation of vascular graft modification strategies. PMID:24276670

  16. Novel biomaterials: plasma-enabled nanostructures and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mariotti, Davide; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Fang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Material processing techniques utilizing low-temperature plasmas as the main process tool feature many unique capabilities for the fabrication of various nanostructured materials. As compared with the neutral-gas based techniques and methods, the plasma-based approaches offer higher levels of energy and flux controllability, often leading to higher quality of the fabricated nanomaterials and sometimes to the synthesis of the hierarchical materials with interesting properties. Among others, nanoscale biomaterials attract significant attention due to their special properties towards the biological materials (proteins, enzymes), living cells and tissues. This review briefly examines various approaches based on the use of low-temperature plasma environments to fabricate nanoscale biomaterials exhibiting high biological activity, biological inertness for drug delivery system, and other features of the biomaterials make them highly attractive. In particular, we briefly discuss the plasma-assisted fabrication of gold and silicon nanoparticles for bio-applications; carbon nanoparticles for bioimaging and cancer therapy; carbon nanotube-based platforms for enzyme production and bacteria growth control, and other applications of low-temperature plasmas in the production of biologically-active materials. (topical review)

  17. Designing protein-based biomaterials for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagner, Jennifer E; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) can be assembled into 3-D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of ELPs. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomaterial-induced alterations of neutrophil superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Mora, E; Jeong, M H; Simmons, R L

    1992-08-01

    Because periprosthetic infection remains a vexing problem for patients receiving implanted devices, we evaluated the effect of several materials on neutrophil free radical production. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were incubated with several sterile, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free biomaterials used in surgically implantable prosthetic devices: polyurethane, woven dacron, and velcro. Free radical formation as the superoxide (O2-) anion was evaluated by cytochrome c reduction in neutrophils that were exposed to the materials and then removed and in neutrophils allowed to remain in association with the materials. Neutrophils exposed to polyurethane or woven dacron for 30 or 60 min and then removed consistently exhibited an enhanced release of O2- after simulation via receptor engagement with formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Enhanced reactivity to stimulation via protein kinase C with phorbol myristate acetate, however, was not consistently observed. The cells evaluated for O2- release during continuous association with the biomaterials showed enhanced metabolic activity during short periods of association (especially with polyurethane and woven dacron). Although O2- release by neutrophils in association with these materials decreased with longer periods of incubation, it was not obliterated. These studies, therefore, show that several commonly used biomaterials activate neutrophils soon after exposure and that this activated state diminishes with prolonged exposure but nevertheless remains measurable. The diminishing level of activity with prolonged exposure, however, suggests that ultimately a depletion of reactivity may occur and may result in increased susceptibility to periprosthetic infection.

  19. Atomic force microscopy for university students: applications in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontomaris, S V; Stylianou, A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool used in the investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including biomaterials. It provides the ability to acquire high resolution images of biomaterials at the nanoscale. It also provides information about the response of specific areas under controlled applied force, which leads to the mechanical characterization of the sample at the nanoscale. The wide range of information provided by AFM has established it as a powerful research tool. In this paper, we present a general overview of the basic operation and functions of AFM applications in biomaterials. The basic operation of AFM is explained in detail with a focus on the real interactions that take place at the nanoscale level during imaging. AFM’s ability to provide the mechanical characterization (force curves) of specific areas at the nanoscale is also explained. The basic models of applied mechanics that are used for processing the data obtained by the force curves are presented. The aim of this paper is to provide university students and young scientists in the fields of biophysics and nanotechnology with a better understanding of AFM. (review)

  20. Biomaterial property-controlled stem cell fates for cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI affects more than 8 million people in the United States alone. Due to the insufficient regeneration capacity of the native myocardium, one widely studied approach is cardiac tissue engineering, in which cells are delivered with or without biomaterials and/or regulatory factors to fully regenerate the cardiac functions. Specifically, in vitro cardiac tissue engineering focuses on using biomaterials as a reservoir for cells to attach, as well as a carrier of various regulatory factors such as growth factors and peptides, providing high cell retention and a proper microenvironment for cells to migrate, grow and differentiate within the scaffolds before implantation. Many studies have shown that the full establishment of a functional cardiac tissue in vitro requires synergistic actions between the seeded cells, the tissue culture condition, and the biochemical and biophysical environment provided by the biomaterials-based scaffolds. Proper electrical stimulation and mechanical stretch during the in vitro culture can induce the ordered orientation and differentiation of the seeded cells. On the other hand, the various scaffolds biochemical and biophysical properties such as polymer composition, ligand concentration, biodegradability, scaffold topography and mechanical properties can also have a significant effect on the cellular processes.

  1. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation

  2. Silk fibroin as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Johanna; Midha, Swati; Ghosh, Sourabh; Ito, Keita; Hofmann, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a fibrous protein which is produced mainly by silkworms and spiders. Its unique mechanical properties, tunable biodegradation rate and the ability to support the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells along the osteogenic lineage, have made SF a favorable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. SF can be processed into various scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified, which provides an impressive toolbox and allows SF scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing SF, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Silk fibroin is a natural biomaterial with remarkable biomedical and mechanical properties which make it favorable for a broad range of bone tissue engineering applications. It can be processed into different scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified which provides a unique toolbox and allows silk fibroin scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing silk fibroin, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Canham, L T; Anderson, S I

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, several studies revealed the requirement for silicon in bone development, while bioactive silicate glasses simultaneously pioneered the current era of bioactive materials. Considerable research has subsequently focused on the chemistry and biological function of silicon in bone, demonstrating that the element has at least two separate effects in the extracellular matrix: (i) interacting with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans during their synthesis, and (ii) forming ionic substitutions in the crystal lattice structure of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the dissolution products of bioactive glass (predominantly silicic acids) have significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Researchers have sought to capitalize on these effects and have generated a diverse array of biomaterials, which include bioactive glasses, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites and pure, porosified silicon, but all these materials share similarities in the mechanisms that result in their bioactivity. This review discusses the current data obtained from original research in biochemistry and biomaterials science supporting the role of silicon in bone, comparing both the biological function of the element and analysing the evolution of silicon-containing biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Ye, Feng [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Bu, Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation.

  6. Design strategies and applications of nacre-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Ethan Michael; Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyan; Guo, Jinshan; Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik; Rahn, Kevin Michael; Armstrong, April Dawn; Xia, Jingfen; Qian, Guoying; Yang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine relies heavily on materials capable of implantation without significant foreign body reactions and with the ability to promote tissue differentiation and regeneration. The field of bone tissue engineering in particular requires materials capable of providing enhanced mechanical properties and promoting osteogenic cell lineage commitment. While bone repair has long relied almost exclusively on inorganic, calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and their composites or on non-degradable metals, the organically derived shell and pearl nacre generated by mollusks has emerged as a promising alternative. Nacre is a naturally occurring composite material composed of inorganic, calcium carbonate plates connected by a framework of organic molecules. Similar to mammalian bone, the highly organized microstructure of nacre endows the composite with superior mechanical properties while the organic phase contributes to significant bioactivity. Studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated nacre's biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteogenic potential, which are superior to pure inorganic minerals such as hydroxyapatite or non-degradable metals. Nacre can be used directly as a bulk implant or as part of a composite material when combined with polymers or other ceramics. While nacre has demonstrated its effectiveness in multiple cell culture and animal models, it remains a relatively underexplored biomaterial. This review introduces the formation, structure, and characteristics of nacre, and discusses the present and future uses of this biologically-derived material as a novel biomaterial for orthopedic and other tissue engineering applications. Mussel derived nacre, a biological composite composed of mineralized calcium carbonate platelets and interplatelet protein components, has recently gained interest as a potential alternative ceramic material in orthopedic biomaterials, combining the

  7. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin-chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  9. [Materials/Biomaterials in Clinical Practice - a Short Review and Current Trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, T; Meyer, F; Walcher, F; Lohmann, C; Jockenhövel, S; Gries, T; Hoffmann, W

    2017-04-01

    Biomaterials play a major role in interventional medicine and surgery. However, the development of biomaterials is still in its early phases in spite of the huge progress made within the last decades. On the one hand, this is because our knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes associated with biomaterials is still increasing exponentially. On the other hand, a wide variety of advanced materials with highly interesting properties is being developed currently. This review provides a short introduction into the variety of materials in use as well as their application in interventional medicine and surgery. Also the importance of biomaterials for tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine and the functionalisation of biomaterials, including sterilisation methods are discussed. For the future, an even broader interdisciplinary scientific collaboration is necessary in order to develop novel biomaterials and facilitate their translation into clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Free Electron Laser Induced Forward Transfer Method of Biomaterial for Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaoru

    Biomaterial, such as chitosan, poly lactic acid, etc., containing fluorescence agent was deposited onto biology hard tissue, such as teeth, fingernail of dog or cat, or sapphire substrate by free electron laser induced forward transfer method for direct write marking. Spin-coated biomaterial with fluorescence agent of rhodamin-6G or zinc phthalochyamine target on sapphire plate was ablated by free electron laser (resonance absorption wavelength of biomaterial : 3380 nm). The influence of the spin-coating film-forming temperature on hardness and adhesion strength of biomaterial is particularly studied. Effect of resonance excitation of biomaterial target by turning free electron laser was discussed to damage of biomaterial, rhodamin-6G or zinc phtarochyamine for direct write marking

  11. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  12. Fabrication of Nanostructures on Implantable Biomaterials for Biocompatibility Enhancement and Infection Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luting

    An implant or implantable medical device, which is used to replace or restore the function of traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs, or acts as a fraction of or the whole biological structure, has been used in many different parts of the body for various applications (such as orthopedics, cardiovascular stents, or drug delivery systems for medical treatment). The best performance of the vast majority of implants is achieved when the biomaterial used promotes some biological activity (such as bone regeneration) while minimizing undesirable activity (such as infection, one of the most common reasons for the failure of many implants). The surface of the implant, through its interactions with proteins, bacteria and tissue forming cells, plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implant. Therefore, in this study, we sought to employ various nanofabrication techniques for tailoring implant surfaces to minimize bacteria and promote mammalian cell functions without using drugs. Titanium (Ti) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) are commonly used biomaterials in orthopedic implants. Further surface modification is needed to support osseointegration while inhibiting bacteria attachment. Herein, temperature controlled atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized to provide unique nanostructured TiO2 coatings on commercial Ti. In vitro bacteria experiments revealed that the nano-TiO2 coatings showed promising antimicrobial efficacy towards Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria ( MRSA). Impressively, cell results indicated that this nano-TiO 2 coating stimulated osteoblast (or bone forming cell) adhesion and proliferation while suppressing undesirable fibroblast functions. The same procedure was performed on PEEK and also resulted in enhanced osteoblast functions and produced antimicrobial properties. In another study, to isolate the effect of surface chemistry on cell and bacteria activities, a

  13. Effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) of based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Zenobio, Madelon Aparecida; Gonçalves Zenobio, Elton; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da; Socorro Nogueira, Maria do

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the interaction of radiation parameters of four biomaterials as attenuators to measure the transmitted X-rays spectra, the mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number by spectrometric system comprising the CdTe detector. The biomaterial BioOss"® presented smaller mean energy than the other biomaterials. The μ/ρ and Z_e_f_f of the biomaterials showed their dependence on photon energy. The data obtained from analytical methods of x-ray spectra, µ/ρ and Z_e_f_f_, using biomaterials as attenuators, demonstrated that these materials could be used as substitutes for dentin, enamel and bone. Further, they are determinants for the characterization of the radiation in tissues or equivalent materials. - Highlights: • Measure of the transmitted x-rays spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials as attenuators. • Determination effective atomic number using four dental biomaterials. • Determination of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ) of the biomaterials samples calculated by the WinXCOM software. • Determination of the chemical composition of calcium phosphate biomaterials.

  14. Evaluation of chemical surface treatment methods for mitigation of PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, C.; Marks, C.; Olender, A.; Farias, J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of its mission to propose innovative and safe technologies to mitigate Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), EPRI recently initiated a program to evaluate potential new chemical surface treatments that might delay the occurrence of PWSCC such that no failure of components would be observed during their lifetime. Among the initial screening of more than thirty technologies, seven were selected for a more detailed review. The selected technologies were: nickel and nickel alloy plating, organic inhibitors, chromium-based inhibitors, silicon carbide, titanium-based inhibitors, rare earth metal (REM)-based inhibitors and encapsulation. The conclusions of the review of these technologies were that two of them were worth pursuing, titanium-based and REM-based inhibitors, and that evaluating the radiological consequences of injecting these products in the primary system, as well as assessing their efficacy to mitigate PWSCC, should be prioritized as the next required steps in qualification for implementation. (authors)

  15. NASA's Needs for Biomaterials within the HEDS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    The part to be played by materials scientists to further NASA's exploration missions cannot be underestimated. To quote Jerome Groopman (New Yorker, February 14, 2000), "The rocket science will be the easy part". The four main risks on the Critical Path Road Map during a three-year sojourn to Mars are osteoporosis, psychological problems, radiation induced cancer and acute medical trauma. NASA's microgravity materials science program has investigations in membrane fabrication, bone growth and materials for radiation protection. These programs will be reviewed in the context of the four main risks, as will other potential uses of biomaterials and applications of biomimetic processing.

  16. Dosimetry by stimulated exoelectronic emission of apatites and dental biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, R.

    1982-02-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of stimulated exoelectronic emission, the goal of which is the development of a dosimetry available in case of accidental irradiation. The first part is devoted to a review of the various theoretical models suggested by several authors on the exoemission phenomenon, and to the description of the experimental set up: counter and detector electronic circuits. The second part gives the experimental results obtained with the different products studied: fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite (considered to be the major constituent of bones and teeth), tricalcic phosphate and dental biomaterials: porcelain and some canal obturation substances [fr

  17. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  18. Controlled release of cytokines using silk-biomaterials for macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew R D; Spiller, Kara L; Freytes, Donald O; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Polarization of macrophages into an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is important for clearing pathogens and wound repair, however chronic activation of either type of macrophage has been implicated in several diseases. Methods to locally control the polarization of macrophages is of great interest for biomedical implants and tissue engineering. To that end, silk protein was used to form biopolymer films that release either IFN-γ or IL-4 to control the polarization of macrophages. Modulation of the solubility of the silk films through regulation of β-sheet (crystalline) content enabled a short-term release (4-8 h) of either cytokine, with smaller amounts released out to 24 h. Altering the solubility of the films was accomplished by varying the time that the films were exposed to water vapor. The released IFN-γ or IL-4 induced polarization of THP-1 derived macrophages into the M1 or M2 phenotypes, respectively. The silk biomaterials were able to release enough IFN-γ or IL-4 to repolarize the macrophage from M1 to M2 and vice versa, demonstrating the well-established plasticity of macrophages. High β-sheet content films that are not soluble and do not release the trapped cytokines were also able to polarize macrophages that adhered to the surface through degradation of the silk protein. Chemically conjugating IFN-γ to silk films through disulfide bonds allowed for longer-term release to 10 days. The release of covalently attached IFN-γ from the films was also able to polarize M1 macrophages in vitro. Thus, the strategy described here offers new approaches to utilizing biomaterials for directing the polarization of macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie John Ray Foster

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 μm and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1% of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for

  20. Stress-sensitive tissue regeneration in viscoelastic biomaterials subjected to modulated tensile strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Laurence A; Floren, Michael L; Paulino, Alexandre T; Belfiore, Carol J

    2011-09-01

    This research contribution addresses the mechanochemistry of intra-tissue mass transfer for nutrients, oxygen, growth factors, and other essential ingredients that anchorage-dependent cells require for successful proliferation on biocompatible surfaces. The unsteady state reaction-diffusion equation (i.e., modified diffusion equation) is solved according to the von Kármán-Pohlhausen integral method of boundary layer analysis when nutrient consumption and tissue regeneration are stimulated by harmonically imposed stress. The mass balance with diffusion and stress-sensitive kinetics represents a rare example where the Damköhler and Deborah numbers appear together in an effort to simulate the development of mass transfer boundary layers in porous viscoelastic biomaterials. The Boltzmann superposition integral is employed to calculate time-dependent strain in terms of the real and imaginary components of dynamic compliance for viscoelastic solids that transmit harmonic excitation to anchorage-dependent cells. Rates of nutrient consumption under stress-free conditions are described by third-order kinetics which include local mass densities of nutrients, oxygen, and attached cells that maintain dynamic equilibrium with active protein sites in the porous matrix. Thinner nutrient mass transfer boundary layers are stabilized at shorter dimensionless diffusion times when the stress-free intra-tissue Damköhler number increases above its initial-condition-sensitive critical value. The critical stress-sensitive intra-tissue Damköhler number, above which it is necessary to consider the effect of harmonic strain on nutrient consumption and tissue regeneration, is proportional to the Deborah number and corresponds to a larger fraction of the stress-free intra-tissue Damköhler number in rigid biomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  2. Teaching technological innovation and entrepreneurship in polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Newell R

    2011-01-01

    A model for incorporating an entrepreneurship module has been developed in an upper-division and graduate-level engineering elective on Polymeric Biomaterials (27-311/42-311/27-711/42-711) at Carnegie Mellon University. A combination of lectures, assignments, and a team-based project were used to provide students with a framework for applying their technical skills in the development of new technologies and a basic understanding of the issues related to translational research and technology commercialization. The specific approach to the project established in the course, which represented 20% of the students' grades, and the grading rubric for each of the milestones are described along with suggestions for generalizing this approach to different applications of biomaterials or other engineering electives. Incorporating this model of entrepreneurship into electives teaches students course content within the framework of technological innovation and many of the concepts and tools need to practice it. For students with situational or individual interest in the project, it would also serve to deepen their understanding of the traditional course components as well as provide a foundation for integrating technological innovation and lifelong learning. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Biodesigned Nanocomposite Biomaterial for Auricular Cartilage Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyer, Leila; Jell, Gavin; Esmaeili, Ali; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-05-01

    Current biomaterials for auricular replacement are associated with high rates of infection and extrusion. The development of new auricular biomaterials that mimic the mechanical properties of native tissue and promote desirable cellular interactions may prevent implant failure. A porous 3D nanocomposite scaffold (NS) based on POSS-PCU (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocage into polycarbonate based urea-urethane) is developed with an elastic modulus similar to native ear. In vitro biological interactions on this NS reveal greater protein adsorption, increased fibroblast adhesion, proliferation, and collagen production compared with Medpor (the current synthetic auricular implant). In vivo, the POSS-PCU with larger pores (NS2; 150-250 μm) have greater tissue ingrowth (≈5.8× and ≈1.4 × increase) than the POSS-PCU with smaller pores (NS1; 100-50 μm) and when compared to Medpor (>100 μm). The NS2 with the larger pores demonstrates a reduced fibrotic encapsulation compared with NS1 and Medpor (≈4.1× and ≈1.6×, respectively; P response for all materials may indicate that the elastic modulus and pore size of the implant scaffold could be important design considerations for influencing fibrotic responses to auricular and other soft tissue implants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  5. Preparation of mica/apatite glass-ceramics biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Sheng Xiaoxian; Dan Xiaohong; Xiang Qijun

    2006-01-01

    Glass-ceramics have become more and more important biomaterials. In this work mica glass/apatite composites with various compositions were prepared by casting and subsequent heat treatments. The effects of composition, phase constitution and crystallinity on mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and transverse rupture strength (TRS), were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests. Results show that addition of apatite composition in mica glass accelerates the crystallization process and induces the formation of fluoroapatite phase, and the nucleation of apatite crystals occurs before that of mica crystals. The fuoroapatite in this work is needle-like, which is almost the same to that in human bone. The transverse rupture strength increases with the content of fluoroapatite and the crystallinity increasing, except that at a low apatite content the mechanical properties are lower than those of mica glass under the same processing conditions. The transverse rupture strength and elastic modulus obtained in this work fall in the range of those of human bone. SBF immersion test demonstrates good bioactivity of this biomaterial

  6. Biomaterials Derived from Silk-Tropoelastin Protein Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiuli; Rnjak, Jelena; Weiss, Anthony S.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A structural protein blend system based on silkworm silk fibroin and recombinant human tropoelastin is described. Silk fibroin, a semicrystalline fibrous protein with beta-sheet crystals provides mechanical strength and controllable biodegradation, while tropoelastin, a noncrystallizable elastic protein provides elasticity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) indicated that silk becomes miscible with tropoelastin at different blend ratios, without macrophase separation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed secondary structural changes of the blend system (beta-sheet content) before and after methanol treatment. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation demonstrated that blending silk and tropoelastin at different ratios resulted in modification of mechanical features, with resilience from ~68% to ~97%, and elastic modulus between 2~9Mpa, depending on the ratio of the two polymers. Some of these values are close to those of native aortic elastin or elastin-like polypeptides. Significantly, during blending and drying silk-tropoelastin form micro- and nano-scale porous morphologies which promote human mesenchymal stem cell attachment and proliferation. These blends offer a new protein biomaterial system for cell support and tailored biomaterial properties to match mechanical needs. PMID:20674969

  7. Applications of carbon nanotubes-based biomaterials in biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizu, Stefania; Savadogo, Oumarou; Poulin, Philippe; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2006-07-01

    One of the facets of nanotechnology applications is the immense opportunities they offer for new developments in medicine and health sciences. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have particularly attracted attention for designing new monitoring systems for environment and living cells as well as nanosensors. Carbon nanotubes-based biomaterials are also employed as support for active prosthesis or functional matrices in reparation of parts of the human body. These nanostructures are studied as molecular-level building blocks for the complex and miniaturized medical device, and substrate for stimulation of cellular growth. The CNTs are cylindrical shaped with caged molecules which can act as nanoscale containers for molecular species, well required for biomolecular recognition and drug delivery systems. Endowed with very large aspect ratios, an excellent electrical conductivity and inertness along with mechanical robustness, nanotubes found enormous applications in molecular electronics and bioelectronics. The ballistic electrical behaviour of SWNTs conjugated with functionalization promotes a large variety of biosensors for individual molecules. Actuative response of CNTs is considered very promising feature for nanodevices, micro-robots and artificial muscles. An description of CNTs based biomaterials is attempted in this review, in order to point out their enormous potential for biomedical nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology.

  8. Engineering the hematopoietic stem cell niche: Frontiers in biomaterial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Sun; Mahadik, Bhushan P.; Harley, Brendan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in the generation of the body’s blood and immune cells. This process takes place primarily in the bone marrow in specialized ‘niche’ microenvironments, which provide signals responsible for maintaining a balance between HSC quiescence, self-renewal, and lineage specification required for life-long hematopoiesis. While our understanding of these signaling mechanisms continues to improve, our ability to engineer them in vitro for the expansion of clinically relevant HSC populations is still lacking. In this review, we focus on development of biomaterials-based culture platforms for in vitro study of interactions between HSCs and their local microenvironment. The tools and techniques used for both examining HSC-niche interactions as well as applying these findings towards controlled HSC expansion or directed differentiation in 2D and 3D platforms are discussed. These novel techniques hold the potential to push the existing boundaries of HSC cultures towards high-throughput, real-time, and single-cell level biomimetic approaches that enable a more nuanced understanding of HSC regulation and function. Their application in conjunction with innovative biomaterial platforms can pave the way for engineering artificial bone marrow niches for clinical applications as well as elucidating the pathology of blood-related cancers and disorders. PMID:26356030

  9. Biomaterials based on photosynthetic membranes as potential sensors for herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Placido, Tiziana; Longobardi, Francesco; Agostiano, Angela

    2011-08-15

    In this study, ultrathin film multilayers of Photosystem II-enriched photosynthetic membranes (BBY) were prepared and immobilized on quartz substrates by means of a Layer by Layer procedure exploiting electrostatic interactions with poly(ethylenimine) as polyelectrolyte. The biomaterials thus obtained were characterized by means of optical techniques and Atomic Force Microscopy, highlighting the fact that the Layer by Layer approach allowed the BBYs to be immobilized with satisfactory results. The activity of these hybrid materials was evaluated by means of optical assays based on the Hill Reaction, indicating that the biosamples, which preserved about 65% of their original activity even ten weeks after preparation, were both stable and active. Furthermore, an investigation of the biochips' sensitivity to the herbicide terbutryn, as a model analyte, gave interesting results: inhibition of photosynthetic activity was observed at terbutryn concentrations higher than 10(-7)M, thus evidencing the potential of such biomaterials in the environmental biosensor field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  11. Biodegradable Polyphosphazene Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Delivery of Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Baillargeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradable biomaterials continue to play a major role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for delivering therapeutic agents. Although the chemistry of polyphosphazenes has been studied extensively, a systematic review of their applications for a wide range of biomedical applications is lacking. Polyphosphazenes are synthesized through a relatively well-known two-step reaction scheme which involves the substitution of the initial linear precursor with a wide range of nucleophiles. The ease of substitution has led to the development of a broad class of materials that have been studied for numerous biomedical applications including as scaffold materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The objective of this review is to discuss the suitability of poly(amino acid esterphosphazene biomaterials in regard to their unique stimuli responsive properties, tunable degradation rates and mechanical properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The application of these materials in areas such as tissue engineering and drug delivery is discussed systematically. Lastly, the utility of polyphosphazenes is further extended as they are being employed in blend materials for new applications and as another method of tailoring material properties.

  12. Surface free energy predominates in cell adhesion to hydroxyapatite through wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Ando, Hiroshi; Namba, Saki; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2016-05-01

    The initial adhesion of cells to biomaterials is critical in the regulation of subsequent cell behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate a mechanism through which the surface wettability of biomaterials can be improved and determine the effects of biomaterial surface characteristics on cellular behaviors. We investigated the surface characteristics of various types of hydroxyapatite after sintering in different atmospheres and examined the effects of various surface characteristics on cell adhesion to study cell-biomaterial interactions. Sintering atmosphere affects the polarization capacity of hydroxyapatite by changing hydroxide ion content and grain size. Compared with hydroxyapatite sintered in air, hydroxyapatite sintered in saturated water vapor had a higher polarization capacity that increased surface free energy and improved wettability, which in turn accelerated cell adhesion. We determined the optimal conditions of hydroxyapatite polarization for the improvement of surface wettability and acceleration of cell adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    injection” protocol for myogenic cell transplantation throughout large volumes of muscles in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient: eighteen months follow-up...Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions Catherine L. Ward, Benjamin T. Corona...investigation was to determine if sodium percarbonate (SPO), an oxygen generating biomaterial, is capable of maintaining resting skeletal muscle

  14. Analytical relationships for prediction of the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.; Hedayati, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques have motivated an increasing number of researchers to study regular porous biomaterials that are based on repeating unit cells. The physical and mechanical properties of such porous biomaterials have therefore received increasing attention

  15. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials : The effects of topology and material type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Hedayati, R.; Li, Y; Lietaert, K.; Tümer, N.; Fatemi, A.; Rans, C.D.; Pouran, B.; Weinans, H.H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is,

  16. Computational prediction of the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured porous metallic biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of additively manufactured porous biomaterials has recently received increasing attention. While there is a relatively large body of data available on the static mechanical properties of such biomaterials, their fatigue behavior is not yet well-understood. That is partly

  17. BoneSource hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C D; Costantino, P D; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

    1998-01-01

    BoneSource-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general properties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems.

  18. Tailoring of new polymeric biomaterials for the repair of medium-sized corneal perforations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, MJ; Blaauwgeers, HGT; Kuijer, R; Jongsma, FHM; de Brabander, J; Nuijts, RMMA; Koole, LH

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymeric biomaterials can be designed such that they become suitable for surgical closure of medium-sized perforations in the cornea, the transparent tissue in the front of the eye. Such a biomaterial must meet stringent requirements in terms of

  19. Infection resistance of degradable versus non-degradable biomaterials : An assessment of the potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rochford, Edward T. J.

    Extended life expectancy and medical development has led to an increased reliance on biomaterial implants and devices to support or restore human anatomy and function. However, the presence of an implanted biomaterial results in an increased susceptibility to infection. Due to the severity of the

  20. New Models for Patient-specific Evaluation of the Effect of Biomaterials on Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grotenhuis (Nienke)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBiomaterials are often used in many fields of medicine to restore or replace tissue. These biomaterials always elicit a reaction of the immune system, called the foreign body reaction, which can lead to complications in patients and failure of the device. Macrophages are key players