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Sample records for titanium wire rope

  1. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  2. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  3. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length

  4. Develop discard criteria for non-spin wire ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial project objective was to correlate the level of internal broken wire indications, obtained using a magnetic rope test instrument, with rope strength loss and then to propose a given indication level at which non-spin ropes...

  5. Wire Rope Failure on the Guppy Winch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figert, John

    2016-01-01

    On January 6, 2016 at El Paso, the Guppy winch motor was changed. After completion of the operational checks, the load bar was being reinstalled on the cargo pallet when the motor control FORWARD relay failed in the energized position. The pallet was pinned at all locations (each pin has a load capacity of 16,000 lbs.) while the winch was running. The wire rope snapped before aircraft power could be removed. After disassembly, the fractured wire rope was shipped to ES4 lab for further characterization of the wire rope portion of the failure. The system was being operated without a clear understanding of the system capability and function. The proximate cause was the failure of the K48 -Forward Winch Control Relay in the energized position, which allowed the motor to continuously run without command from the hand controller, and operation of the winch system with both controllers connected to the system. This prevented the emergency stop feature on the hand controller from functioning as designed. An electrical checkout engineering work instruction was completed and identified the failed relay and confirmed the emergency stop only paused the system when the STOP button on both connected hand controllers were depressed simultaneously. The winch system incorporates a torque limiting clutch. It is suspected that the clutch did not slip and the motor did not stall or overload the current limiter. Aircraft Engineering is looking at how to change the procedures to provide a checkout of the clutch and set to a slip torque limit appropriate to support operations.

  6. Acoustic Emission from Elevator Wire Ropes During Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenjie; Chai, Mengyu; Li, Lichan; Li, Yongquan; Duan, Quan

    The acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to monitor the tensile testing process for two kinds of elevator wire ropes in our work. The AE signals from wire breaks were obtained and analyzed by AE parameters and waveforms. The results showed that AE technique can be a useful tool to monitor wire break phenomenon of wire ropes and effectively capture information of wire break signal. The relationship between AE signal characteristics and wire breaks is investigated and it is found that the most effective acoustic signal discriminators are amplitude and absolute energy. Moreover, the wire break signal of two kinds of ropes is a type of burst signal and it is believed that the waveform and spectrum can be applied to analyze the AE wire break signals.

  7. New constructions of wire ropes for the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŠŠaderová Jana

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The wire ropes are used in different industrial fields. Their construction depends on the type of equipment and its purpose. Most frequently we meet with ropes at different transport and hoisting equipments and very freqently in the civil industry. For users characteristics are important which must meet requirements of the individual regulations and standards of the selection of wire ropes for the concrete equipment. The most important is the factor of safety being safeguarded by the corresponding bearing capacity of the rope. The service life of rope is interesting for the user, too, because of having an influence on the economy of the equipment on which the rope is working. These problems are solved by the grant project at our department . We are aimed at questions of the optimization of construction of wire rope with regard to their geometric construction and service life. Respectively on the basis of elaborated computer software eightstrand ropes of parallel construction were disigned and produced at the Drôtov ň a Hlohovec. The results of the fatigue tests confirmed their better qualitative properties, longer service life and economy advantages for users, too. Their using is possible and suitable on the new hoisting eguipment on the surface, in the undeground and in the hole drilling industry. By the application of the computer technique is also possible to improve the parametres of six-strands` construction of rope, the classic and parallel constructions, especially their bearing capacity. This fact follows from the knowledge that for the production of rope we use calculated diameters of wires, which secure better utilization of the metal cross-section of the wire ropes.

  8. Role of steel wire ropes in mine safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peake, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Today there are an estimated 2 300 steel wire ropes installed in roughly 200 underground mines in South Africa. These mines employ more than 280 000 workers underground and hoist several millions of tonnes of rock to the surface every month...

  9. Pull-pull position control of dual motor wire rope transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Jiao, Zongxia; Yan, Liang; Yu, Qian; Shang, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    Wire rope transmission is very efficient because of the small total moving object mass. The wire rope could only transmit pulling force. Therefore it has to be kept in a tightened state during transmission; in high speed applications the dynamic performance depends on the rope's stiffness, which can be adjusted by the wire rope tension. To improve the system dynamic performance output, this paper proposes a novel pull-pull method based on dual motors connected by wire ropes, for precise, high speed position control applications. The method can regulate target position and wire rope tension simultaneously. Wire ropes remain in a pre-tightening state at all times, which prevents the influence of elasticity and reduces the position tracking error in the changing direction process. Simulations and experiments were conducted; the results indicate that both position precision and superior dynamic performance can be synchronously achieved. The research is relevant to space craft precision pointing instruments.

  10. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  11. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  12. Defect detection of elevator wire rope by using wavelet analysis; Wavelet kaiseki ni yoru elevator rope no sonsho kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, M.; Kawata, A.; Hayashi, S. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tokui, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Building Techno-Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-31

    Detecting strand breakage and local wear of elevator wire rope uses currently a method using a rope tester. This method magnetizes a rope with electric magnet and detects defected part as leakage flux. Pulsed signals are issued from the defected part, variation in magnetic flux leakage due to rope swinging produces noise, and both get mixed together. Therefore, the detection is performed finally by visual check and palpation. This paper discusses a method that analyzes measurement data derived by the rope tester by using wavelet conversion, and detects the defected part automatically without being confused by noise. The pulsed signals generated from the defected part can be detected from noise by decomposing multiplex resolution using the Haar basis. As a result of the experiment, cases that may be overlooked in visual check because of S/N ratio being too small or the pulsed signals being too weak were all detected. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  14. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  15. Signal Acquisition and Processing in the Magnetic Defectoscopy of Steel Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jovičić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The system that resolves the problem of wire rope defects using a magnetic method of inspection is presented in this paper. Implementation of the system should provide for full monitoring of wire rope condition, according to the prescribed international standards. The purpose of this system, in addition to identifying defects in the rope, is to determine to what extent damage has been done. The measurement procedure provides for a better understanding of the defects that occur, as well as the rejection criteria of used ropes, that way increasing their security. Hardware and software design of appliance for recording defects and test results are presented in this paper.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  17. Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Takehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines. To use these machines more safely, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of the contact between them. In this study, we represent a wire rope by a numerical model of a flexible body. This flexible body is expressed in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF, and the model includes the normal contact force and the frictional force between the wire rope and the pulley. The normal contact force is expressed by spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is expressed by the Quinn method. The advantage of the Quinn method is that it reduces the numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in Coulomb friction at zero velocity. By using the numerical model, simulations are performed, and the validity of this model is shown by comparing its results with those of an experiment. Through numerical simulations, we confirm the proposed model for the contact between the wire rope and the pulley. We confirmed that the behavior of the wire rope changes when both the bending elastic modulus of the wire rope and the mass added to each end of the wire rope are changed.

  18. Investigation into the effects of steel wire rope specimen length on breaking force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Brien, TM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available (2000). The methodology employed was to test different length of triangular strand and non-spin rope to destruction, and to evaluate these results against SABS 0293:1996. For each rope construction, specimens were prepared both with and without cut wires...

  19. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  20. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  1. A finite element model for independent wire rope core with double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Istanbul Technical University, Institute of Informatics, Computational Science and ... a little work has been done using the double helical geometry and real ... Finite element approach has been embedded in wire rope analysis since 1999.

  2. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  3. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which...

  4. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  5. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  6. Analysis of optimum wire rope configuration for equal unidirectional torsional stiffness for flexible steering shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Najaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and modeling of Low Stiffness Resilience Shaft (LSRS for the Semi-Active Steering (SAS system using wire ropes is discussed in this paper, along with the static structural torsion test simulation of the wire ropes in order to determine the best possible configuration which serves the purpose of an LSRS. The importance of this study arises due to the unidirectional torsional properties of a wire rope. For an effective operational LSRS, the wire ropes need to have similar angular deflection in both the clockwise and anti-clockwise direction. LSRS, an integral component of the SAS is a flexible shaft that can replace the conventional rigid shaft of the steering system and allows active control to be performed. 3D solid models of the simple strand and the 4 strand wire ropes used in finite element analysis were generated in CAD software SolidWorksTM. The single strand and the different configuration of wire ropes required to function the LSRS effectively were then analyzed using Finite element simulation in ANSYSTM. A single wire rope could not be used because its construction has inconsistency in the torsional stiffness in clockwise and anti-clockwise direction. The single-strand right-direction lay wire rope is found to have 16.05% angular deflection percentage difference in the clockwise and anticlockwise directions which indicates that using a single strand wire rope for the LSRS will cause the vehicle to have a variable response in the clockwise and anti clockwise direction upon turning the steering wheel. Due to this inconsistency, two variations namely Variation 1 and Variation 2 with arrangement of 4 strand wire rope were devised so that the angular deflection percentage difference would be negligible. Simulation results indicated that Variation 1 of the two variations with an angular deflection percentage difference of 0.34% in the clockwise and anti-clockwise direction respectively is best suited for the use in LSRS as it has

  7. A quantitative assessment of the weakening of wire ropes based on the magnetic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasniewski, J.; Lankosz, L.; Tytko, A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of magnetic defectoscopes and defectographs in the nondestructive testing of wire ropes. Emphasizes the need for laboratory pre-calibration where quantitave results are required. Individual system calibration is recommended where instruments with a 95% confidence level in reading are used, e.g. MD-8 defectograph and DLS unit, but improved tolerances achieved in sensor head manufacture have made possible a universal calibration characteristic for use with defectoscopes and a wide variety of heads. A chart is given covering all heads and induction sensors available in Poland. Describes methods of interpreting presented results to indicate degree of wear due to fatigue, abrasion and corrosion in ropes with constituent wires of differing profile. States that the form of rope wear can be deduced from the character of the defectograph pulse readings. Formulae relating the degree of rope weakening to these readings and also to the integrated output are given. Briefly describes a method for determining the loss of rope cross sectional area based on Hall effect chart records. Outlines the use of the MD-9 and MD-10 defectoscopes in assessing rope wear in discrete ranges. Suggests that regular measurements permit an accurate determination of the character of progressive wear and further that pulse analysis of MD-10 results can permit a quantitative determination of wear. 4 refs.

  8. Wire rope isolators for vibration isolation of equipment and structures – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, P S; Rahman, M E; Lau, H H; Moussa, Leblouba

    2015-01-01

    Vibrations and shocks are studied using various techniques and analyzed to predict their detrimental effect on the equipment and structures. In cases, where the effects of vibration become unacceptable, it may cause structural damage and affect the operation of the equipment. Hence, adding a discrete system to isolate the vibration from source becomes necessary. The Wire Rope Isolator (WRI) can be used to effectively isolate the system from disturbing vibrations. The WRI is a type of passive isolator that exhibits nonlinear behavior. It consists of stranded wire rope held between two metal retainer bars and the metal wire rope is made up of individual wire strands that are in frictional contact with each other, hence, it is a kind of friction-type isolator. This paper compiles the research work on wire rope isolators. This paper presents the research work under two categories, namely monotonic and cyclic loading behaviors of WRI. The review also discusses the different terminologies associated with vibration isolation system and highlights the comparison between various isolation systems. (paper)

  9. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  10. An analytical study on the static vertical stiffness of wire rope isolators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P. S.; Rahman, M. E.; Ho, Lau Hieng [Curtin University Sarawak, Miri (Malaysia); Moussa, Leblouba [University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-01-15

    The vibrations caused by earthquake ground motions or the operations of heavy machineries can affect the functionality of equipment and cause damages to the hosting structures and surrounding equipment. A Wire rope isolator (WRI), which is a type of passive isolator known to be effective in isolating shocks and vibrations, can be used for vibration isolation of lightweight structures and equipment. The primary advantage of the WRI is that it can provide isolation in all three planes and in any orientation. The load-supporting capability of the WRI is identified from the static stiffness in the loading direction. Static stiffness mainly depends on the geometrical and material properties of the WRI. This study develops an analytical model for the static stiffness in the vertical direction by using Castigliano's second theorem. The model is validated by using the experimental results obtained from a series of monotonic loading tests. The flexural rigidity of the wire ropes required in the model is obtained from the transverse bending test. Then, the analytical model is used to conduct a parametric analysis on the effects of wire rope diameter, width, height, and number of turns (loops) on vertical stiffness. The wire rope diameter influences stiffness more than the other geometric parameters. The developed model can be accurately used for the evaluation and design of WRIs.

  11. Research on magnetic excitation model of magnetic flux leakage for coal mine hoisting wire rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the optimal design of a magnetic excitation model for developing a nondestructive sensor for coal mine hoist wire ropes. The model was established using axial-symmetry finite-element analysis and calculations. The influence of the excitation device parameters on the local magnetization effect of the wire rope was investigated in detail using the axial-symmetry finite-element model. The excitation model parameters of the sensor were optimally designed using a combination of finite-element analysis and an optimization method. The experiments were performed to measure the leakage flux and evaluate the performance of the optimally designed sensor. The results show that the sensor based on the newly designed excitation model can not only improve the signal-to-noise ratio for defect detection in a coal mine hoist wire rope by 11% compared to an existing sensor but also reliably detect small defects with a high detection speed (5 m/s along the length of the coal mine wire rope.

  12. Evaluation of Composite Wire Ropes Using Unsaturated Magnetic Excitation and Reconstruction Image with Super-Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Tan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the exact residual lifetime of wire rope involves the security of industry manufacturing, mining, tourism, and so on. In this paper, a novel testing technology was developed based on unsaturated magnetic excitation, and a fabricating prototype overcame the shortcomings of traditional detection equipment in terms of volume, sensibility, reliability, and weight. Massive artificial discontinuities were applied to examine the effectiveness of this new technology with a giant magneto resistance(GMR sensor array, which included types of small gaps, curling wires, wide fractures, and abrasion. A resolution enhancement method, which was adopted for multiframe images, was proposed for promoting magnetic flux leakage images of a few sensors. Characteristic vectors of statistics and geometry were extracted, then we applied a radial basis function neural network to achieve a quantitative recognition rate of 91.43% with one wire-limiting error. Experimental results showed that the new device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life with high lift-off distance and high reliability, and the system could provide useful options to evaluate the lifetime of wire rope.

  13. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  14. Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang

    2016-08-25

    Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF), the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP) neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision.

  15. Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang

    2016-01-01

    Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF), the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP) neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision. PMID:27571077

  16. Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF, the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision.

  17. Experimental study on vertical static stiffnesses of polycal wire rope isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, P. S.; Moussa, Leblouba; Khandoker, Noman; Yuk Shyh, Ting; Rahman, M. E.; Hieng Ho, Lau

    2017-07-01

    Wire rope isolator is one of the most effective isolation system that can be used to attenuate the vibration disturbances and shocks during the operation of machineries. This paper presents the results of investigation on static elastic stiffnesses (both in tension and in compression) of Polycal Wire Rope Isolator (PWRI) under quasi-static monotonic loading conditions. It also studied effect of variations in height and width of PWRI on its static stiffnesses. Suitable experimental setup was designed and manufactured to meet the test conditions. The results show that their elastic stiffnesses for both tension and compression loading conditions are highly influenced by their geometric dimensions. It is found that their compressive stiffness reduced by 55% for an increment of 20% in their height to width ratio. Therefore, the stiffness of PWRI can be fine-tuned by controlling their dimensions according to the requirements of the application.

  18. 175 years of wire rope. A reminiscence of Mining Councillor Albert's invention; 175 Jahre Drahtseil. Eine Erinnerung an Oberbergrat Alberts Erfindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampe, Wolfgang [NLA Niedersachsen, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rueckbrodt, Kai [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    There is a vague consensus that the wire rope can be designated as the most sustainable invention from the mining industry in Harz mountains. Such wire ropes are not to be excluded any longer from the today's life. These ropes really seem quite self-evident not only in the mining industry. The name of the Mining Councillor Wilhelm August Julius Albert inseparably is connected with wire ropes. The development of the first, in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Federal Republic of Germany) successfully used wire rope consisting of iron wires succeeded to him. The year 2009 is the 175th anniversary of the invention of wire ropes. In 2009, the mountain city Clausthal-Zellerfeld evoked this anniversary with a week-long festival. At 22nd and 23th July1834, two wire ropes consisting of iron wires with a length of 605 m were put into operation for the first time at the 408 m deep pit Caroline in Clausthal-Zellerfeld. Instead of the past belt conveyors or hemp ropes, the new hoisting ropes proved to be a great success so that other pits also were retrofitted, accordingly.

  19. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  20. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  1. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  2. The development of natural-draught cooling towers of prestressed wire-rope network construction of aerodynamic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Jasch, E.

    1975-01-01

    Natural-draught cooling towers carried to a height of up to 200 m will be required for the dissipation of the residual heat from the thermal processes of large-capacity power stations to be erected in future. The structural problems involved in such large-size towers can be overcome by using prestressed wire-rope network construction. A structural concept is discussed which proposes to use a cooling tower shell constructed of a prestressed, planked wire-rope network of circular hyperbolic form carried by a spacer ring attached to the central mast. Comments are given on the ensuing problems of aerodynamics, stress-strength assessment, and erection. (orig.) [de

  3. Thermal properties of Fiber ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Nielsen, Ole Wennerberg; Oland, Espen

    There is a trend within the oil and gas market to shift from steel wire ropes to fiber ropes for lifting, hoisting and mooring applications. The cost of fiber ropes is about 2-3 times that of steel wire ropes, but the natural buoyancy of fiber ropes reduces the overall weight resulting in smaller...

  4. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  5. Deterioration mechanisms of drum winder ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, M

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available the mentioned uncertainties. The investigations of this report generally only considered triangular strand ropes. Rope fatigue studies and tests were carried out, bending stresses in wire ropes were analysed and measured, contact stresses on ropes were... of the ropes. Under such circumstances broken wires will be generated by the tension-tension fatigue loading of the ropes. However, rope service lives of 100 000 winding cycles will be achievable for triangular strand ropes if the lubrication of a rope...

  6. Making ropes work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gower, E. [WRCA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The article looks at types of rope for different applications of surface mining ropes. The Wire Rope Corp. of America (WRCA), a leading producer, has over the last three years introduced shovel hoist rope, a new line of dragline ropes and a new drag rope designed for reverse bend fairlead systems. Each of these is discussed in the short article, with results from actual field use.

  7. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  8. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  9. Nickel-Titanium Wire as Suture Material: A New Technique for the Fixation of Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Song, Tao

    2018-01-29

    To introduce nickel-titanium wire as suture material for closure of incisions in cleft lip procedures. Closure of skin incisions using nickel-titanium wire as suture material, with postoperative follow-up wound evaluation. There was excellent patient satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome. Nickel-titanium wire is an excellent alternative for suture closure of cleft lip surgical incisions.

  10. Experimental study on titanium wire drawing with ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Shan, Xiaobiao; Guo, Kai; Yang, Yuancai; Xie, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries, however, they are classified as difficult-to-machine materials. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the die to overcome the difficulties during conventional titanium wire drawing processes at the room temperature. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the variation of axial stress within the contacting region and study the change of the drawing stress with several factors in terms of the longitudinal amplitude and frequency of the applied ultrasonic vibration, the diameter reduction ratio, and the drawing force. An experimental testing equipment was established to measure the drawing torque and rotational velocity of the coiler drum during the wire drawing process. The result indicates the drawing force increases with the growth of the drawing velocity and the reduction ratio, whether with or without vibrations. Application of either form of ultrasonic vibrations contributes to the further decrease of the drawing force, especially the longitudinal vibration with larger amplitude. SEM was employed to detect the surface morphology of the processed wires drawn under the three circumstances. The surface quality of the drawn wires with ultrasonic vibrations was apparently improved compared with those using conventional method. In addition, the longitudinal and torsional composite vibration was more effective for surface quality improvement than pure longitudinal vibration, however, at the cost of weakened drawing force reduction effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiographic changes in the operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation – tight rope technique vs. K-wire fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Klemens; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Andruszkow, Hagen; Gradl, Gertraud; Kobbe, Philipp; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Operative treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular joint luxation is common. A new option is made available by the tight rope technique. It claims to provide adequate outcome with the use of a minimally invasive technique. First clinical studies justified its medical use, but the equivalence to established surgical methods remains unclear. We therefore analyzed radiographic data from patients that were treated with the tight rope system (TR) and compared them to those treated with K-wires (KW) fixation. Retrospective study with inclusion criteria: surgery for acromioclavicular joint luxation between 2004 and 2011, classified as Rockwood type III, no concomitant injury, first event injury. We compared pre- and post-operative X-rays with those taken at the end of treatment. Clinical data from follow-ups and radiographic data were evaluated. The main outcome variable was the remaining distance between the acromion and clavicle (ACD), as well as the coracoid process and clavicle (CCD). 27 patients (TR: n=16; KW: n=11) with comparable demographics and injury severity were included. Surgery reduced ACD (TR: p=0.002; KW: p<0.001) and CCD (TR: p=0.001; KW: p=0.003). Heterotopic ossification or postoperative osteolysis was not significantly associated with either one of the procedures. Three patients (18.75%) in the TR group showed impaired wound healing, migrating K-wires were recorded in 2 patients (18.2%) and impingement syndrome occurred in 1 patient (9.1%) with K-wires. Posttraumatic arthritis was not seen. There was a loss of reduction in 2 cases within the TR-group (12.51%) and 1 in the KW-group (9.1%). At last follow up, ACD and CCD were wider in both groups compared to the healthy side. This study shows that the Tight rope system is an effective alternative in the treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular luxation and comparable to the established methods

  12. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic mechanical properties of straight titanium alloy arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, R P; Wilson, T W

    1990-10-01

    Eight straight-wire materials were studied: an orthodontic titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) product, TMA; three orthodontic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) products, Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol; three prototype alloys, a martensitic, an austenitic, and a biphasic alloy; and a hybrid shape-memory-effect product, Biometal. Each wire was prepared with a length-to-cross-sectional area of at least 3600 cm-1. With an Autovibron Model DDV-II-C used in the tensile mode, each sample was scanned from -120 to +200 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min. From the data base, plots of the log storage modulus, log tan delta, and percent change in length vs. temperature were generated. Results showed that the dynamic mechanical properties of the alloys within this TI system are quite different. The Ti-Mo alloy, TMA, was invariant with temperature, having a modulus of 7.30 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (10.6 x 10(6) psi). The three cold-worked alloys--Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol--appeared to be similar, having a modulus of 5.74 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (8.32 x 10(6) psi). The biphasic shape-memory alloy displayed a phase transformation near ambient temperature; whereas the hybrid shape-memory product, Biometal, underwent a 3-5% change in length during its transformation between 95 and 125 degrees C. Among the Ni-Ti wires tested, several different types of alloys were represented by this intermetallic material.

  14. Non-Destructive Detection of Wire Rope Discontinuities from Residual Magnetic Field Images Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic methods are commonly employed to detect wire rope discontinuities. However, determining the residual strength of wire rope based on the quantitative recognition of discontinuities remains problematic. We have designed a prototype device based on the residual magnetic field (RMF of ferromagnetic materials, which overcomes the disadvantages associated with in-service inspections, such as large volume, inconvenient operation, low precision, and poor portability by providing a relatively small and lightweight device with improved detection precision. A novel filtering system consisting of the Hilbert-Huang transform and compressed sensing wavelet filtering is presented. Digital image processing was applied to achieve the localization and segmentation of defect RMF images. The statistical texture and invariant moment characteristics of the defect images were extracted as the input of a radial basis function neural network. Experimental results show that the RMF device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life of test equipment by reducing the friction between the detection device and the wire rope by accommodating a high lift-off distance.

  15. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing and Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition-Based Automated Damage Detection and Quantification for Wire Rope Non-Destructive Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Seunghee

    2018-01-02

    In this study, a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method, known to be a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for continuum ferromagnetic structures, was used to detect local damage when inspecting steel wire ropes. To demonstrate the proposed damage detection method through experiments, a multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using a Hall sensor array and magnetic yokes to adapt to the wire rope. To prepare the damaged wire-rope specimens, several different amounts of artificial damages were inflicted on wire ropes. The MFL sensor head was used to scan the damaged specimens to measure the magnetic flux signals. After obtaining the signals, a series of signal processing steps, including the enveloping process based on the Hilbert transform (HT), was performed to better recognize the MFL signals by reducing the unexpected noise. The enveloped signals were then analyzed for objective damage detection by comparing them with a threshold that was established based on the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. The detected MFL signals that exceed the threshold were analyzed quantitatively by extracting the magnetic features from the MFL signals. To improve the quantitative analysis, damage indexes based on the relationship between the enveloped MFL signal and the threshold value were also utilized, along with a general damage index for the MFL method. The detected MFL signals for each damage type were quantified by using the proposed damage indexes and the general damage indexes for the MFL method. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) based multi-stage pattern recognition method using extracted multi-scale damage indexes was implemented to automatically estimate the severity of the damage. To analyze the reliability of the MFL-based automated wire rope NDE method, the accuracy and reliability were evaluated by comparing the repeatedly estimated damage size and the actual damage size.

  16. Steel wire ropes. Proven performer of shaft winding systems; Stahldrahtseile. Bewaehrte Leistungstraeger von Schachtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindern, Winfried [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Bochum (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Sicherheit - Seilpruefstelle; Gronau, Olivier [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Bochum (Germany). DMT-Prueflab. fuer Zerstoerungsfreie und Zerstoerende Pruefung - Seilpruefstelle

    2010-04-15

    In particular, the DMT centre for safety rope inspection in Bochum (Federal Republic of Germany) accomplishes non-destructive examinations of ropes of shaft winding systems as well as of its final connections outside of the mining industry used as high-strength draft members in buildings such as bridges, broadcasting poles, fire-places and roof structures and in many areas of conveying engineering. The test laboratory is accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In the year 1990, the former institute for mine safety in Leipzig (Federal Republic for Germany) was integrated to DMT and forms the branch office of DMT in Leipzig. The Saarland hard coal district is cared for by a further branch office of the DMT in Saarbruecken (Federal Republic of Germany). The knowledge existing at all three locations, further experiences and the research results today are used commonly and developed further.

  17. Performance test of twised-wired titanium evaporators for in-situ Tic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Konosuke; Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Obara, Kenjiro; Murakami, Yoshio

    1984-06-01

    In order to establish the titanium evaporation source for in-situ TiC deposition, performance test has been made for several types of twisted-wired, ohmic-heating titanium evaporators. The evaporator which exhibited the best performance consists of three tungsten wires twisted as the core of the composite, three titanium wires and a molybdenum wire densely wound around the core, and a thin tungsten wire coarsely wound at the outermost side of the composite. The molybdenum wire around the core plays an important role in wetting the core surface uniformly with the melt of titanium. The tungsten wire at the outermost side prevents the molten titanium from dropping to the inside wall of the vacuum vessel. A typical size of the evaporator is 4 mm in diameter and 140 mm in length. In this case 2--2.5g of titanium, which corresponds to 70 - 80 % of charged amount (3.2g), can be evaporated at a rate of about 0.14 g/min. On the basis of the experimental results, the applicability of the evaporator to JT-60 is discussed. (author)

  18. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  19. Influence of stress and phase on corrosion of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nadav; Hell, Jess; Berzins, David W

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of stress and phase transformation on the corrosion properties of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire. The phase transformation profiles of superelastic nickel-titanium (Sentalloy, GAC International, Bohemia, NY) and beta-titanium (TMA, Ormco, Orange, Calif) archwires were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. The force/deflection behavior of the wires at 37 degrees C was measured in a 3-point bending test per modified American Dental Association specification no. 32. Electrochemical testing consisted of monitoring the open circuit potential (OCP) for 2 hours followed by polarization resistance and cyclic polarization tests on archwire segments engaged in a 5-bracket simulation apparatus with bend deflections of 0.75, 1.5, or 3 mm in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Nondeflected segments were also tested. Sentalloy was additionally examined for bending and corrosion at 5 degrees C, where it exists as martensite and is devoid of stress-induced phase transformation. OCP at 2 hours and corrosion current density (i(corr)) were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (alpha = .05) (n = 10 per deflection). Significant differences (P Sentalloy wires at 5 degrees C, but not for Sentalloy at 37 degrees C. Significant differences (P Sentalloy (37 degrees C) peaked at 0.75 mm deflection before the wire's stress-induced phase transformation point and then decreased with further deflection and transformation. The i(corr) values for TMA and Sentalloy at 5 degrees C, both of which do not undergo phase transformation with deformation, continuously increased from 0 to 1.5 mm deflection before decreasing at the 3.0-mm deflection. Stress increased the corrosion rate in nickel-titanium and beta-titanium orthodontic wires. Alterations in stress/strain associated with phase transformation in superelastic nickel-titanium might alter the corrosion rate in ways different from wires not undergoing phase

  20. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  1. Metallurgical characterization of a new nickel-titanium wire for rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Clark, William A T; Kovarik, Libor; Buie, Caesar; Liu, Jie; Ben Johnson, William

    2009-11-01

    A novel thermomechanical processing procedure has been developed that yields a superelastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (M-Wire) that laboratory testing shows has improved mechanical properties compared with conventional SE austenitic NiTi wires used for manufacture of rotary instruments. The objective of this study was to determine the origin of the improved mechanical properties. Specimens from 2 batches of M-Wire prepared under different processing conditions and from 1 batch of standard-processed SE wire for rotary instruments were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro-x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric analyses. The processing for M-Wire yields a microstructure containing martensite, that the proportions of NiTi phases depend on processing conditions, and that the microstructure exhibits pronounced evidence of alloy strengthening. The presence of Ti(2)Ni precipitates in both microstructures indicates that M-Wire and the conventional SE wire for rotary instruments are titanium-rich.

  2. Material and biofilm load of K wires in toe surgery: titanium versus stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Martin; Graf, Susanne; Gersbach, Silke; Hintermann, Beat; Ilchmann, Thomas; Knupp, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Recurrence rates for toe deformity correction are high and primarily are attributable to scar contractures. These contractures may result from subclinical infection. We hypothesized that (1) recurrence of toe deformities and residual pain are related to low-grade infections from biofilm formation on percutaneous K wires, (2) biofilm formation is lower on titanium (Ti) K wires compared with stainless steel (SS) K wires, and (3) clinical outcome is superior with the use of Ti K wires compared with SS K wires. In this prospective nonrandomized, comparative study, we investigated 135 lesser toe deformities (61 patients; 49 women; mean ± SD age, 60 ± 15 years) temporarily fixed with K wires between August 2010 and March 2011 (81 SS, 54 Ti). K wires were removed after 6 weeks. The presence of biofilm-related infections was analyzed by sonication. High bacterial loads (> 500 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were detected on all six toes requiring revision before 6 months. Increased bacterial load was associated with pain and swelling but not recurrence of the deformity. More SS K wires had greater than 100 CFU/mL bacteria than Ti K wires. For K wires with a bacterial count greater than 100 CFU/mL, toes with Ti K wires had a lower recurrence rate, less pain, and less swelling than toes with SS K wires. Ti K wires showed superior clinical outcomes to SS K wires. This appears to be attributable to reduced infection rates. Although additional study is needed, we currently recommend the use of Ti K wires for the transfixation of toe deformities. Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  4. Comparative study on the treatment of Rockwood type III acute acromioclavicular dislocation: Clinical results from the TightRope® technique vs. K-wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, K; Garving, C; Thometzki, T; Lichte, P; Knobe, M; Dienstknecht, T; Hofman, M; Pape, H-C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to address the inconsistency regarding the operative treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint separation. We compared results after single- and double TightRope ® reduction with results after acromioclavicular transfixation via K-wires only and additional ligament augmentation in acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations graded Rockwood type III, and hypothesized that the TightRope ® technique leads to better clinical and radiological results. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study and included 42 consecutive patients (mean age 43 years [24-66]) diagnosed and operatively treated between 2004 and 2012 (mean follow-up was 54.6 months [15-118]). Specific shoulder scores as well as scores reflecting the patients' overall mental and physical health status were used. Radiological evaluation was also performed. The SF12 test revealed comparability between all subgroups. Specific shoulder tests and a visual analogue scale demonstrated comparable results. Radiographic measurements showed a significant reduction in the AC distance and CC distance after surgery in all subgroups. The early complication rate was 9.5% for all patients, while late complications occurred in 14.3% of all cases. Compared to the established methods, the operative TightRope ® procedures represent a safe alternative in Rockwood III injuries. All investigated techniques predominantly led to good and excellent clinical results in acute Rockwood type III AC joint instabilities. Avoidance of material removal and shorter hospital stays appear to speak in favour for the TightRope ® technique. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 1834 till 2009 - review of 175 years of wire rope development and application in the mining industry; 1834 bis 2009 - Rueckblick auf 175 Jahre Drahtseilentwicklung und Anwendung im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, Rainer [Verein fuer Technische Sicherheit und Umweltschutz e.V. (TSU), Gotha (Germany); DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Inspector of Mines Albert is the main focus of attention in this contribution. Hence in particular the creative and technically brilliant work since his entry into the Harz mining industry are described in addition to his career. Thanks to his untiring efforts a usable wire rope was introduced into mining industry for the first time in 1834. However, the inventive genius and technical skill of Muehlenpfordt and Mummenthey, employees of the Koenigshuette in Lauterberg, also deserve praise, because they were the first to supply suitable wires for the manufacture of a rope. (orig.)

  6. Nickel-titanium wire as a flexor tendon suture material: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; Göransson, H; Viinikainen, A; Jämsä, T; Ryhänen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) is a new suture material that is easy to handle, is strong, and biocompatible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the material properties and biomechanical behaviour of 150 microm and 200 microm NiTi wires in flexor tendon repair. Braided polyester (4-0 Ethibond) was used as control. Fifty fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons were repaired using the Pennington modification of the Kessler repair or a double Kessler technique. NiTi wires were stiffer and reached higher tensile strength compared to braided polyester suture. Repairs with 200 microm NiTi wire had a higher yield force, ultimate force and better resistance to gapping than 4-0 braided polyester repairs. Repairs made with 200 microm NiTi wire achieved higher stiffness and ultimate force than repairs made with 150 microm NiTi wire.

  7. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 5: training manuals for incumbent rope inspectors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wainwright, EJ

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available An objective of this study guide for “wire rope inspectors” was to provide an overview of the training modules and to identify the most important features of winder operation and rope inspection....

  8. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature-modulated DSC provides new insight about nickel-titanium wire transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Grentzer, Thomas H

    2003-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-known method for investigating phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires; the microstructural phases and phase transformations in these wires have central importance for their clinical performance. The purpose of this study was to use the more recently developed technique of temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) to gain insight into transformations in 3 nickel-titanium orthodontic wires: Neo Sentalloy (GAC International, Islandia, NY), 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In the oral environment, the first 2 superelastic wires have shape memory, and the third wire has superelastic behavior but not shape memory. All wires had cross-section dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022 in. Archwires in the as-received condition and after bending 135 degrees were cut into 5 or 6 segments for test specimens. TMDSC analyses (Model 2910 DSC, TA Instruments, Wilmington, Del) were conducted between -125 degrees C and 100 degrees C, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C per min, an oscillation amplitude of 0.318 degrees C with a period of 60 seconds, and helium as the purge gas. For all 3 wire alloys, strong low-temperature martensitic transformations, resolved on the nonreversing heat-flow curves, were not present on the reversing heat-flow curves, and bending appeared to increase the enthalpy change for these peaks in some cases. For Neo Sentalloy, TMDSC showed that transformation between martensitic and austenitic nickel-titanium, suggested as occurring directly in the forward and reverse directions by conventional DSC, was instead a 2-step process involving the R-phase. Two-step transformations in the forward and reverse directions were also found for 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti and Nitinol SE. The TMDSC results show that structural transformations in these wires are complex. Some possible clinical implications of these observations are discussed.

  10. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  11. Evaluation of cyclic flexural fatigue of M-wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M S; Aljarbou, Fahad A; AlThumairy, Riyadh I

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of GT series X rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire nickel-titanium alloy compared with GT and Profile nickel-titanium files made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Fifteen files, size 30/0.04, of each type were used to evaluate the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance. A simple device was specifically constructed to measure the time each file type required to fail under cyclic flexural fatigue testing. The results of this experiment indicated that the GT series X files had superior cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than the other 2 file types made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy (P = .004). On the other hand, the difference between the Profile and the GT files was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that size 30/0.04 nickel-titanium rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire alloy have better cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than files of similar design and size made from the conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase transitions in coated nickel titanium arch wires: A differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Division of Orthodontics, Indian Army, 10 Corps Dental Unit, C/O 56 APO, ... Shape memory and super-elastic properties of orthodontic nickel titanium ... test did not show any significant difference in mean values of transition ... Low enthalpy values (0·92–3·59 j/g) compared to conventional ones, implied complete phase.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1429 - Guide ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1429 Guide ropes. If guide... strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of the guide rope at installation shall meet the...

  14. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  15. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  16. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina ARGALJI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. In average, the most recently launched wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346 when the latest launched wire (13.27% was compared to the control (29.63%. In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  17. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argalji, Nina; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana; Mattos, Claudia Trindade

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure) were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346) when the latest launched wire (13.27%) was compared to the control (29.63%). In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  18. Synergistic responses of superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium created by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Wire-type electric discharge machining has been applied to the manufacture of endosseous titanium implants as this computer associated technique allows extremely accurate complex sample shaping with an optimal micro textured surface during the processing. Since the titanium oxide layer is sensitively altered by each processing, the authors hypothesized that this technique also up-regulates biological responses through the synergistic effects of the superficial chemistry and micro topography. To evaluate the respective in vitro cellular responses on the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge, we used titanium-coated epoxy resin replica of the surface. An oxide layer on the titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge activated the initial responses of osteoblastic cells through an integrin-mediated mechanism. Since the mRNA expression of ALP on those replicas was up-regulated compared to smooth titanium samples, the micro topography of a titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge promotes the osteogenic potential of cells. The synergistic response of the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge was demonstrated in this study.

  19. Nickel-titanium wire in circumferential suture of a flexor tendon repair: a comparison to polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; He, M; Chong, A K S; Lim, A Y T; Ryhanen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been proposed as an alternative material for flexor tendon core suture. To our knowledge, its suitability as a circumferential suture of flexor tendon repair has not been investigated before. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of NiTi circumferential repairs and to compare them with commonly used polypropylene. Forty porcine flexor tendons were cut and repaired by simple running or interlocking mattress technique using 100 microm NiTi wire or 6-0 polypropylene. The NiTi circumferential repairs showed superior stiffness, gap resistance, and load to failure when compared to polypropylene repairs with both techniques. Nickel-titanium wire seems to be a potential material for circumferential repair of flexor tendons. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P; Pilch, J; Heller, L; Kopeček, J; Wright, J; Sedlák, P; Frost, M; Šittner, P

    2016-08-05

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Discard criteria for mine winder ropes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available , the most important finding of this report ensued from a thorough analysis of "cut-wire" tests. Very few rope samples from discarded non-spin ropes were, or could be, obtained for the establishment and verification of the discard criteria for non...-spin ropes. The effects of broken wires in non-spin ropes were therefore simulated by testing laboratory prepared specimens with selected wires cut in the outer and inner strands. These tests were a continuation of work carried in two previous SIMRAC...

  2. Case study on unusual occurrence of wire rope failure of 15/5t EOT crane at one of the plant, Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddu, P.V.; Subhakar, A.; Devender Rao, D.; Srichandan, T.T.; Harilingam, S.; Mahesh Kumar, V.V.; Kiran Kumar, I.; Thakur, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    At NFC, Production of fuel bundles and other structural involves a large number of material handling activities for transfer of materials from one plant to another. One of the widely used materials handling equipment at NFC is the Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) Crane. These EOT cranes will be tested yearly as per the statutory requirements in the presence of the competent person. Also, regular inspection and maintenance activities will be carried by the plant maintenance crew. Even with preventive maintenance and monitoring, there could be accidents due to unsafe conditions, unsafe acts or both. However, all the unusual occurrence, incidents and accidents can be prevented. This paper deals about the unusual occurrence of wire rope failure of 15/5T EOT crane at one of the plant in NFC; recommendations given by the Safety Committee, AERB and action taken by the plant to prevent reoccurrence of unusual occurrence. (author)

  3. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  4. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  5. The effect of ligation on the load deflection characteristics of nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.

  6. Nickel titanium T-loop wire dimensions for en masse retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Layene; Ribeiro, Alexandre; Parsekian Martins, Renato; Viecilli, Rodrigo; Parsekian Martins, Lídia

    2016-09-01

    To compare the force system produced by nickel-titanium T-loop springs made with wires of different dimensions. Thirty compound T-loop springs were divided into three groups according to the dimensions of the nickel-titanium wire used for its design: 0.016" × 0.022", 0.017" × 0.025", and 0.018" × 0.025". The loops were tested on the Orthodontic Force Tester machine at an interbracket distance of 23 mm and activated 9 mm. The force in the y-axis and the moment in the x-axis were registered while the calculated moment to force ratio was recorded at each .5 mm of deactivation. The data were analyzed by three analyses of variance of repeated measures to detect differences and interactions between deactivation and wire size on force, moment, and moment-force ratios (M/F). All groups had significantly different forces (P wire produced 1.78N of force while the 0.017" × 0.025" and the 0.018" × 0.025" produced 2.81 N and 3.25 N, respectively. The 0.016" × 0.022" wire produced lower moments (11.6 Nmm) than the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" wires, which produced similar moments (13.9 Nmm and 14.4Nmm, respectively). The M/F produced was different for all groups; 0.016" × 0.022" T-loops produced 6.7 mm while the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" T-loops produced 5.0 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. An interaction was detected for all variables between deactivation and groups. The larger wires tested produced higher forces with slight increase on the moments, but the M/F produced by the 0.016" × 0.022" wire was the highest found.

  7. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyung National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  8. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-15

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  9. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  10. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  11. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. Materials & Methods: This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Results: Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve’s slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12. PMID:24155596

  12. Fatigue testing of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-07-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys to manufacture NiTi files and developed new manufacturing processes. This study was aimed to examine the fatigue behavior of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM Wire). Instruments of ProFile, Typhoon (TYP), Typhoon CM (TYP CM), DS-SS0250425NEYY (NEYY), and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM (NEYY CM) (DS Dental, Johnson City, TN) all size 25/.04 were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° and 45° in air at the temperature of 23° ± 2°C, and the number of revolutions to fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites, the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section, and the surface strain amplitude (ε(a)) were noted. The new alloy yielded an improvement of over three to eight times in N(f) of CM files than that of conventional NiTi files (P wire (58%-100%) had one crack origin. The values of the fraction area occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments compared with conventional NiTi instruments (P wire at both curvatures (P Wire had a significantly higher N(f) and lower surface strain amplitude than the conventional NiTi wire files with identical design. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional quantification of pretorqued nickel-titanium wires in edgewise and prescription brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nitika; Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Stewart, Kelton T; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2013-05-01

    To quantify the three-dimensional moments and forces produced by pretorqued nickel-titanium (NiTi) rectangular archwires fully engaged in 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots of central incisor and molar edgewise and prescription brackets. Ten identical acrylic dental models with retroclined maxillary incisors were fabricated for bonding with various bracket-wire combinations. Edgewise, Roth, and MBT brackets with 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots were bonded in a simulated 2 × 4 clinical scenario. The left central incisor and molar were sectioned and attached to load cells. Correspondingly sized straight and pretorqued NiTi archwires were ligated to the brackets using 0.010-inch ligatures. Each load cell simultaneously measured three force (Fx, Fy, Fz) and three moment (Mx, My, Mz) components. The faciolingual, mesiodistal, and inciso-occluso/apical axes of the teeth corresponded to the x, y, and z axes of the load cells, respectively. Each wire was removed and retested seven times. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined the effects of wire type, wire size, and bracket type on the measured orthodontic load systems. Interactions among the three effects were examined and pair-wise comparisons between significant combinations were performed. The force and moment components on each tooth were quantified according to their local coordinate axes. The three-way ANOVA interaction terms were significant for all force and moment measurements (P .05). The pretorqued wire generates a significantly larger incisor facial crown torquing moment in the MBT prescription compared to Roth, edgewise, and the straight NiTi wire.

  14. Effect of environment on fatigue failure of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the fatigue behavior of 2 types of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments made from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire) under various environment conditions. Three conventional superelastic NiTi instruments of ProFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), and DS-SS0250425NEYY (Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and 2 new CM wire instruments of Typhoon CM and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° in air, deionized water, 17% EDTA, or deionized water after immersion in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 25 minutes, and the number of revolutions of fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites and the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section were noted. Two new CM Wire instruments yielded an improvement of >4 to 9 times in N(f) than conventional NiTi files with the same design under various environments (P Wire instruments was significantly longer in liquid media than in air (P wire had one crack origin. The values of the area fraction occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments than in conventional NiTi instruments under various environments (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the type of NiTi metal alloy (CM files vs conventional superelastic NiTi files) influences the cyclic fatigue resistance under various environments. The fatigue life of CM instruments is longer in liquid media than in air. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Brantley, William; Choe, Han-Cheol; Nakagaki, Susumu; Alapati, Satish B; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of coating on the properties of two esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires. Woowa (polymer coating; Dany Harvest) and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire (metal coating; Dentsply GAC) with cross-section dimensions of 0.016 × 0.022 inches were selected. Noncoated posterior regions of the anterior-coated Woowa and uncoated Sentalloy were used for comparison. Nominal coating compositions were determined by x-ray fluorescence (JSX-3200, JOEL). Cross-sectioned and external surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM; SSX-550, Shimadzu) and an atomic force microscope (SPM-9500J2, Shimadzu). A three-point bending test (12-mm span) was carried out using a universal testing machine (EZ Test, Shimadzu). Hardness and elastic modulus of external and cross-sectioned surfaces were obtained by nanoindentation (ENT-1100a, Elionix; n  =  10). Coatings on Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire contained 41% silver and 14% gold, respectively. The coating thickness on Woowa was approximately 10 µm, and the coating thickness on BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire was much smaller. The surfaces of both coated wires were rougher than the noncoated wires. Woowa showed a higher mean unloading force than the noncoated Woowa, although BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire showed a lower mean unloading force than Sentalloy. While cross-sectional surfaces of all wires had similar hardness and elastic modulus, values for the external surface of Woowa were smaller than for the other wires. The coating processes for Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire influence bending behavior and surface morphology.

  16. Comparison of the mechanical properties of rotary instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, or nickel-titanium alloy in R-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Gambarra-Soares, Thaiane; Elias, Carlos N; Siqueira, José F; Inojosa, Inês F J; Lopes, Weber S P; Vieira, Victor T L

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (K(3) and Revo-S SU), M-Wire (ProFile Vortex), or NiTi alloy in R-phase (K(3)XF). The test instruments were subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate resistance to bending (flexibility), cyclic fatigue, and torsional load in clockwise rotation. Data were statistically evaluated by the analysis of variance test and the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. In the bending resistance test, flexibility decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > ProFile Vortex > K(3). The ranking in the fatigue resistance test was the following: K(3)XF > K(3) > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. In the torsional assay, the angular deflection at failure decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > K(3) > ProFile Vortex. For the maximum torque values, the ranking was K(3) > K(3)XF > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. The results showed that the K(3)XF instrument, which is made of NiTi alloy in R-phase, had the overall best performance in terms of flexibility, angular deflection at failure, and cyclic fatigue resistance. In addition to the alloy from which the instrument is manufactured, the design and dimensions are important determinants of the mechanical performance of endodontic instruments. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metallurgical characterization of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Hui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Campbell, Les; Peng, Bin; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-11-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys and developed new manufacturing processes for the fabrication of NiTi files. This study aimed to examine the phase transformation behavior and microstructure of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire). Instruments of EndoSequence (ES), ProFile (PF), ProFile Vortex (Vortex), Twisted Files (TF), Typhoon (TYP), and Typhoon™ CM (TYP CM), all size 25/.04, were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructures of etched instruments were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses. The DSC analyses showed that each segment of the TYP CM and Vortex instruments had an austenite transformation completion or austenite-finish (A(f)) temperature exceeding 37°C, whereas the NiTi instruments made from conventional superelastic NiTi wire (ES, PF, and TYP) and TF had A(f) temperatures substantially below mouth temperature. The higher A(f) temperature of TYP CM instruments was consistent with a mixture of austenite and martensite structure, which was observed at room temperature with XRD. All NiTi instruments had room temperature martensite microstructures consisting of colonies of lenticular features with substantial twinning. EDS analysis indicated that the precipitates in all NiTi instruments were titanium-rich, with an approximate composition of Ti(2)Ni. The TYP CM and Vortex instruments with heat treatment contribute to increase austenite transformation temperature. The CM instrument has significant changes in the phase transformation behavior, compared with conventional superelastic NiTi instruments. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. Methods: A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi wire segments (Morelli OrtodontiaTM - Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4. 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare differences between group means. Results: When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm, during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. Conclusion: There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  19. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Murilo Gaby; Lima, Fabrício Viana Pereira; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Rezende, Fernanda Soares; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire segments (Morelli Ortodontia™--Sorocaba, SP, Brazil), 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4). 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends) of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences between group means. When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm), during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  20. Alleviation of mandibular anterior crowding with copper-nickel-titanium vs nickel-titanium wires: a double-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) vs nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in resolving crowding of the anterior mandibular dentition. Sixty patients were included in this single-center, single-operator, double-blind randomized trial. All patients were bonded with the In Ovation-R self-ligating bracket (GAC, Central Islip, NY) with a 0.022-in slot, and the amount of crowding of the mandibular anterior dentition was assessed by using the irregularity index. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients, each receiving a 0.016-in CuNiTi 35 degrees C (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) or a 0.016-in NiTi (ModernArch, Wyomissing, Pa) wire. The type of wire selected for each patient was not disclosed to the provider or the patient. The date that each patient received a wire was recorded, and all patients were followed monthly for a maximum of 6 months. Demographic and clinical characteristics between the 2 wire groups were compared with the t test or the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test. Time to resolve crowding was explored with statistical methods for survival analysis, and alignment rate ratios for wire type and crowding level were calculated with Cox proportional hazards multivariate modeling. The type of wire (CuNiTi vs NiTi) had no significant effect on crowding alleviation (129.4 vs 121.4 days; hazard ratio, 1.3; P >0.05). Severe crowding (>5 on the irregularity index) showed a significantly higher probability of crowding alleviation duration relative to dental arches with a score of wires in laboratory and clinical conditions might effectively eliminate the laboratory-derived advantage of CuNiTi wires.

  1. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI SIDE RAMP DOOR SISTEM STEEL WIRE ROPE PADA KM. DHARMA KENCANA II AKIBAT BEBAN STATIS DENGAN METODE ELEMEN HINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available KM. DHARMA KENCANA II adalah kapal tipe Ro - Ro (Passanger Ship yang memiliki rute pelayaran Surabaya - Kumai - Semarang yang mampu mengangkut penumpang dan kendaraan dalam jumlah yang relatif banyak. Untuk memudahkan akses keluar masuk kendaraan yang akan diangkut, maka kapal ini dilengkapi dengan empat buah ramp door sistem steel wire rope, salah satunya adalah ramp door yang terletak dibagian kiri lambung kapal (side ramp door. Side ramp door akan menerima beban statis secara berulang - ulang sehingga dapat mengakibatkan deformasi, keretakan, kerusakan, dll. Penelitian tentang kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door perlu diperhatikan dan dilakukan dimana tegangan yang diakibatkan oleh beban yang mengenainya tidak boleh melebihi batas maksimum σyield bahan dan σijin berdasarkan rules dari klas, adapun acuan rules yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah berdasarkan rules Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia. Analisa kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis FEM sedangkan untuk pemodelan dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis CAD. Analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa beban statis untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan letak tegangan terbesar pada konstruksi side ramp door berdasarkan empat variasi pembebanan. Hasil analisa menggunakan program berbasis FEM didapatkan hasil maximum stress terbesar terjadi pada kondisi side ramp door dengan beban kendaraan truck yaitu sebesar 93,91 N/mm2 dimana daerah paling kritis terjadi pada node 22097 yang terletak pada gading nomor 8 bagian memanjang dan gading nomor 1 bagian melintang. Tegangan ini masih dalam kondisi aman karena setelah dibandingan dengan σyield bahan sebesar 400 N/mm2 dan σijin berdasarkan rules BKI sebesar 225,24 N/mm2 menghasilkan nilai safety factor sebesar 3,87 dan 2,18.

  2. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Yu M; Lai, Yu-Lin; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H Titan, Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) with low-stress hysteresis were examined by using 3-point bending and frictional resistance tests with a universal test machine at a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and compared with the former conventional austenitic-active superelastic Ni-Ti wires (Sentalloy, Tomy International). Wire stiffness levels were derived from differentiation of the polynomial regression of the unloading curves, and values for kinetic friction were measured at constant bending deflection distances of 0, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively. Compared with conventional Sentalloy wires, the L & H Titan wire had a narrower stress hysteresis including a lower loading plateau and a higher unloading plateau. In addition, L & H Titan wires were less stiff than the Sentalloy wires during most unloading stages. Values of friction measured at deflections of 0, 2, and 3 mm were significantly (P Sentalloy wires at all bending deflections (P <.05). Stress-induced martensite formation significantly reduced the stiffness and thus could be beneficial to decrease the binding friction of superelastic Ni-Ti wires during sliding with large bending deflections. Austenitic-active alloy wires with low-stress hysteresis and lower stiffness and friction offer significant potential for further investigation.

  3. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  4. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannod, J.; Bornert, M.; Bidaux, J.-E.; Bataillard, L.; Karimi, A.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.; Hessler-Wyser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  5. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Novel Rotary Files Manufactured from Different Thermal Treated Nickel-Titanium Wires in Artificial Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşlıoglu, E; Aydın, U; Yıldırım, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the static cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal treated rotary files with a conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file. Four groups of 60 rotary files with similar file dimensions, geometries, and motion were selected. Groups were set as HyFlex Group [controlled memory wire (CM-Wire)], ProfileVortex Group (M-Wire), Twisted File Group (R-Phase Wire), and OneShape Group (conventional NiTi wire)] and tested using a custom-made static cyclic fatigue testing apparatus. The fracture time and fragment length of the each file was also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). The HyFlex group had a significantly higher mean cyclic fatigue resistance than the other three groups (P Wire alloy represented the best performance in cyclic fatigue resistance, and NiTi alloy in R-Phase had the second highest fatigue resistance. CM and R-Phase manufacturing technology processed to the conventional NiTi alloy enhance the cyclic fatigue resistance of files that have similar design and size. M-wire alloy did not show any superiority in cyclic fatigue resistance when compared with conventional NiTi wire.

  6. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant

  7. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  8. An evaluation of two types of nickel-titanium wires in terms of micromorphology and nickel ions' release following oral environment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Abdul Razzak A; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Sabbagh, Rabab; Alghoraibi, Ibrahim; Aldiry, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions. Twenty-four 20-mm-length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi Force I®) and 24 20-mm-length distal cuts of heat-activated (Therma-Ti Lite®) nickel-titanium wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments left unused and 12 segments passively exposed to oral environment for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were then immersed in artificial saliva for 1 month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heat-activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires were rougher than superelastic wires, and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure, more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat-activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure, and the same result was recorded regarding heat-activated wires. Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions; their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.

  9. Rope coiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sitichoke Amnuanpol

    2017-10-19

    Oct 19, 2017 ... The catenary is associated with the purely imaginary wave number and the helix is associated with the real wave number. ... Rope; bending; twisting; buckling instability; Froude number. PACS Nos 46.32.+x; 46.70.Hg; 61.43 .... a laser photoelectric sensor. and moment of inertia of the cross-section I = A2/2π.

  10. Orthodontic buccal tooth movement by nickel-free titanium-based shape memory and superelastic alloy wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Tomizuka, Ryo; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Okuno, Osamu; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo

    2006-11-01

    To examine the mechanical properties and the usefulness of titanium-niobium-aluminum (Ti-Nb-Al) wire in orthodontic tooth movement as compared with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. The load deflection of expansion springs was gauged with an original jig. The gradient of the superelastic region was measured during the unloading process. Expansion springs comprising the two types of alloy wires were applied to upper first molars of rats. The distance between the first molars was measured with micrometer calipers. The force magnitude of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion spring was lower than that of the Ni-Ti expansion spring over the entire deflection range. The initial force magnitude and the gradient in the superelastic region of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs were half those of the Ni-Ti expansion springs. Thus, Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs generated lighter and more continuous force. Tooth movement in the Ni-Ti group proceeded in a stepwise fashion. On the other hand, tooth movement in the Ti-Nb-Al group showed relatively smooth and continuous progression. At 17 days after insertion of expansion springs, there were no significant differences between the Ti-Nb-Al and Ni-Ti groups in the amount of tooth movement. These results indicate that Ti-Nb-Al wire has excellent mechanical properties for smooth, continuous tooth movement and suggest that Ti-Nb-Al wire may be used as a practical nickel-free shape memory and superelastic alloy wire for orthodontic treatment as a substitute for Ni-Ti wire.

  11. The Study the Vibration Condition of the Blade of the Gas Turbine Engine with an All-metal Wire Rope Damper in the Area Mount of the Blade to the Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the reliability of modern turbine engines is actual task. This is achieved due to prevent a vibration damage of the operating blades. On the department of structure and design of aircraft engines have accumulated a lot of experimental data on the protection of the blades of the gas turbine engine from a vibration. In this paper we proposed a method for calculating the characteristics of wire rope dampers in the root attachment of blade of a gas turbine engine. The method is based on the use of the finite element method and transient analysis. Contact interaction (Lagrange-Euler method) between the compressor blade and the disc of the rotor has been taken into account. Contribution of contact interaction between details in damping of the system was measured. The proposed method provides a convenient way for the iterative selection of the required parameters the wire rope elastic-damping element. This element is able to provide the necessary protection from the vibration for the blade of a gas turbine engine.

  12. Effects of Wire EDM on the Microstructure of P/M Titanium Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskić, Joško; Schauperl, Zdravko; Ćatić, Amir; Balog, Martin; Krizik, Peter; Gržeta, Biserka; Popović, Jasminka; Ortolan, Slađana Milardović; Mehulić, Ketij

    2014-12-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been recognized in dentistry for its biocompatibility, good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Conventional manufacturing processes can affect surface quality and result in poor bonding of dental ceramics to CP Ti. This is why powder metallurgy (P/M) and wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) are being introduced in the manufacturing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of WEDM on the surface composition and microstructure of P/M CP Ti samples produced for bond strength testing according to ISO 9693. Eight samples of P/M CP Ti, dimensions according to ISO 9693, were made using WEDM and divided in two groups (untreated and grinded). Microanalyses of chemical composition and microstructure of both groups were made using SEM, EDS and XDR. SEM and EDS analysis of untreated samples showed a thin layer on surfaces with fractures in it. Grinded samples showed homogenous structure with no layer and no fractures. XDR analysis showed high level of oxides on the surface of untreated samples, while after grinding only pure α-phase was found. WEDM is a suitable method of sample production for ISO 9693 if accompanied by grinding with silicon carbide papers P320-P4000.

  13. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  14. Evolution of flexural rigidity according to the cross-sectional dimension of a superelastic nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, Pascal; Tavernier, Bruno; Jordan, Laurence

    2005-08-01

    The choice of the most suitable orthodontic wire for each stage of treatment requires estimation of the forces generated. In theory, the selection of wire sequences should initially utilize a lower flexural rigidity; thus clinicians use smaller round cross-sectional dimension wires to generate lighter forces during the preliminary alignment stage. This assessment is true for conventional alloys, but not necessarily for superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi). In this case, the flexural rigidity dependence on cross-sectional dimension differs from the linear elasticity prediction because of the martensitic transformation process. It decreases with increasing deflection and this phenomenon is accentuated in the unloading process. This behaviour should lead us to consider differently the biomechanical approach to orthodontic treatment. The present study compared bending in 10 archwires made from NiTi orthodontics alloy of two cross-sectional dimensions. The results were based on microstructural and mechanical investigations. With conventional alloys, the flexural rigidity was constant for each wire and increased largely with the cross-sectional dimension for the same strain. With NiTi alloys, the flexural rigidity is not constant and the influence of size was not as important as it should be. This result can be explained by the non-constant elastic modulus during the martensite transformation process. Thus, in some cases, treatment can begin with full-size (rectangular) wires that nearly fill the bracket slot with a force application deemed to be physiologically desirable for tooth movement and compatible with patient comfort.

  15. X-ray diffraction study of low-temperature phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, M; Brantley, W A; Guo, W H; Clark, W A T; Yuasa, T; Mizoguchi, I

    2008-11-01

    Employ conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze three clinically important nickel-titanium orthodontic wire alloys over a range of temperatures between 25 and -110 degrees C, for comparison with previous results from temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) studies. The archwires selected were 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy (GAC International), and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek). Neo Sentalloy, which exhibits superelastic behavior, is marketed as having shape memory in the oral environment, and Nitinol SE and 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti also exhibit superelastic behavior. All archwires had dimensions of 0.016in.x0.022in. (0.41 mm x 0.56 mm). Straight segments cut with a water-cooled diamond saw were placed side-by-side to yield a 1 cm x 1cm test sample of each wire product for XRD analysis (Rint-Ultima(+), Rigaku) over a 2theta range from 30 degrees to 130 degrees and at successive temperatures of 25, -110, -60, -20, 0 and 25 degrees C. The phases revealed by XRD at the different analysis temperatures were in good agreement with those found in previous TMDSC studies of transformations in these alloys, in particular verifying the presence of R-phase at 25 degrees C. Precise comparisons are not possible because of the approximate nature of the transformation temperatures determined by TMDSC and the preferred crystallographic orientation present in the wires. New XRD peaks appear to result from low-temperature transformation in martensite, which a recent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has shown to arise from twinning. While XRD is a useful technique to study phases in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires and their transformations as a function of temperature, optimum insight is obtained when XRD analyses are combined with complementary TMDSC and TEM study of the wires.

  16. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhn G. Al-Barakati

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

  17. Titanium K-Shell X-Ray Production from High Velocity Wire Arrays Implosions on the 20-MA Z Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, R.C.; Coverdale, C.A.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Douglas, M.R.; Nash, T.J.; Ruiz-Comacho, J.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of the 20-MA Z accelerator [R.B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G.A. Chandler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105, (1997)] has enabled implosions of large diameter, high-wire-number arrays of titanium to begin testing Z-pinch K-shell scaling theories. The 2-cm long titanium arrays, which were mounted on a 40-mm diameter, produced between 75±15 to 125±20 kJ of K-shell x-rays. Mass scans indicate that, as predicted, higher velocity implosions in the series produced higher x-ray yields. Spectroscopic analyses indicate that these high velocity implosions achieved peak electron temperatures from 2.7±0.1 to 3.2±0.2 keV and obtained a K-shell emission mass participation of up to 12%

  18. Maxillary molar derotation and distalization by using a nickel-titanium wire fabricated on a setup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Moon; Wi, Young Joo; Koo, Hyun Mo; Kim, Min Ji; Chun, Youn Sic

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a simple appliance that uses a setup model and a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire for correcting the mesial rotation and drift of the permanent maxillary first molar. The technique involves bonding a Ni-Ti wire to the proper position of the target tooth on a setup model, followed by the fabrication of the transfer cap for indirect bonding and its transfer to the patient's teeth. This appliance causes less discomfort and provides better oral hygiene for the patients than do conventional appliances such as the bracket, pendulum, and distal jet. The treatment time is also shorter with the new appliance than with full-fixed appliances. Moreover, the applicability of the new appliance can be expanded to many cases by using screws or splinting with adjacent teeth to improve anchorage.

  19. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status.

  20. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillem-Martí, J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herranz-Díez, C. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Shaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Avenue, 46809 Fort Wayne (United States); Gil, F.J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-06-11

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future.

  1. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillem-Martí, J.; Herranz-Díez, C.; Shaffer, J.E.; Gil, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future

  2. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bedinger, George M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Titanium is a mineral commodity that is essential to the smooth functioning of modern industrial economies. Most of the titanium produced is refined into titanium dioxide, which has a high refractive index and is thus able to impart a durable white color to paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and titanium metal alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.Ilmenite and rutile are currently the principal titanium-bearing ore minerals, although other minerals, including anatase, perovskite, and titanomagnetite, could have economic importance in the future. Ilmenite is currently being mined from two large magmatic deposits hosted in rocks of Proterozoic-age anorthosite plutonic suites. Most rutile and nearly one-half of the ilmenite produced are from heavy-mineral alluvial, fluvial, and eolian deposits. Titanium-bearing minerals occur in diverse geologic settings, but many of the known deposits are currently subeconomic for titanium because of complications related to the mineralogy or because of the presence of trace contaminants that can compromise the pigment production process.Global production of titanium minerals is currently dominated by Australia, Canada, Norway, and South Africa; additional amounts are produced in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The United States accounts for about 4 percent of the total world production of titanium minerals and is heavily dependent on imports of titanium mineral concentrates to meet its domestic needs.Titanium occurs only in silicate or oxide minerals and never in sulfide minerals. Environmental considerations for titanium mining are related to waste rock disposal and the impact of trace constituents on water quality. Because titanium is generally inert in the environment, human health risks from titanium and titanium

  3. Effect of Saliva on Load-Deflection Characteristics of Superelastic Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Ghadirian, H.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Shahhoseini, T.; Haj-Fathalian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Most published results about the features of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests in a dry environment.Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared; five of them were tested in their as-received condition to provide bas...

  4. A patient with mandibular deviation and 3 mandibular incisors treated with asymmetrically bent improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuhei; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal and dental discrepancies cause asymmetric malocclusions in orthodontic patients. It is difficult to achieve adequate functional occlusion and guidance in patients with congenital absence of a mandibular incisor due to the tooth-size discrepancy. Here, we describe the orthodontic treatment of a 22-year-old woman with an asymmetric Angle Class II malocclusion, mandibular deviation to the left, and 3 mandibular incisors. The anterior teeth and maxillary canines were crowded. We used an improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wire (Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) to compensate for the asymmetric mandibular arch and an asymmetrically bent archwire to move the maxillary molars distally. A skeletal anchorage system provided traction for intermaxillary elastics, and extractions were not needed. We alleviated the crowding and created an ideal occlusion with proper overjet, overbite, and anterior guidance with Class I canine and molar relationships. This method of treatment with an asymmetrically bent nickel-titanium alloy wire provided proper Class I occlusion and anterior guidance despite the mandibular deviation to the left and 3 mandibular incisors, without the need for extractions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  6. The Mechanical Behavior Variation of Nickel - Titanium Orthodontic Wires in Different Fluoride Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilnaz haj Hemati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an orthodontic arch wire of Ni-Ti alloy made by Germany in four different mouthwashes contain fluoride was investigated in mechanical behavior. This research focused on the mechanical behavior changes in different mouthwashes. The Mouthwashes were chosen from most popular one in Iran including Oral-B, Gum, and Behsa Mouthwash. The wires after 3 month in touch with mouthwashes were studied and the result was presented. The result show that the lowest power to reshape the wire, is for the wire in Crest case (3. The maximum power assigns to wire in Behsa case (1. Also, the shortest treatment period is for wire in Behsa mouthwash case (1 with 0.087 Nm strain energy and the maximum duration of therapy is related to case (3 Crest mouthwash with 0.039 Nm. Moreover, the wires in Oral-b (0.095 Nm has the lowest and Gum mouthwash (0.140 Nm has the highest energy intake. The energy absorbed by the wires in Behsa and Crest is in the middle. Finally, it is proposed that patient could used all mouthwash but based on their condition, one product will be useful.

  7. Multi-Response Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining for Titanium Grade-5 by Weighted Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Ashok Sonawane

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of research to examine the effects of cutting parameters such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, servo voltage, peak current, wire feed rate and cable tension on surface finish, overcut and metal removal rate (MRR during Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM of grade-5 titanium (Ti-6Al-4V. Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal design method is used for experimentation. Multi-response optimization is performed by applying weighted principal component analysis (WPCA. The optimum values of cutting variables are found as a pulse on time 118 μs, pulse off time 45 μs, servo voltage 40 volts, peak current 190 Amp. , wire feed rate 5 m/min and cable tension 5 gram. On the other hand, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, simulation results indicate that pulse-on time is the primary influencing variable which affects the response characteristics contributing 76.00%. The results of verification experiments show improvement in the value of output characteristics at the optimal cutting variables settings. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the surface after machining indicates the formation of craters, resolidified material, tool material transfer and increase in the thickness of recast layer at higher values of the pulse on time.

  8. Effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T; Ghadirian, H; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Shahhoseini, T; Haj-Fathalian, M

    2012-01-01

    Most published results about the characteristics of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests on the as-received wires.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires. In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of superelastic NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared. Five specimens of each wire were tested in the as-received condition (T0) to provide baseline information and the remaining wires were divided into two groups of five. Half of them were kept inside artificial saliva for one month (T1), while the others were kept in air (T2). After 30 days, three-point bending test was done in a dental arch model and data from selected points on the unloading phase of the generated graphs were used for statistical analysis. Force I and Truflex showed significantly greater force than Sentalloy. The load values of Truflex and Force I after one month exposed to artificial saliva (T1) decreased significantly, but Sentalloy was not affected significantly. The plateau gap values were not considerably different among T0, T1 and T2. Saliva decreased the load of Force I and Truflex significantly, but it did not have a statistically significant effect on Sentalloy.

  9. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  10. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dandan; Lue Jianxia; Liu Jingfu; Jiang Guibin

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H 2 O 2 (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a ∼1.2 μm thick nanostructured coating consisting of ∼100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L -1 ), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L -1 ), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R 2 = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  11. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Environmental Science Division, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Lue Jianxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu Jingfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: jfliu@rcees.ac.cn; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2008-03-17

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a {approx}1.2 {mu}m thick nanostructured coating consisting of {approx}100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L{sup -1}), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L{sup -1}), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R{sup 2} = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  12. 30 CFR 57.19019 - Guide ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes... than shaft development, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of the guide...

  13. Adhesion of nickel–titanium shape memory alloy wires to thermoplastic materials: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antico, F C; Zavattieri, P D; Hector Jr, L G; Mance, A; Rodgers, W R; Okonski, D A

    2012-01-01

    We present a combined experimental/theoretical study aimed at enhancing adhesion between a NiTi wire and a thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) matrix in which it is embedded. NiTi wire surfaces were subjected to the following surface treatments prior to pull-out tests: (i) treatment with an acid etch or chemical conversion coating and (ii) application of a surface microgeometry to enhance mechanical interlocking between the wire and the TPO matrix. Nanometer to micron-scale NiTi wire surface features were examined with atomic force microscopy. The extent to which each treatment increased the pull-out force was quantified. Existing theoretical models of wire pull-out based upon strength of materials and linear elastic fracture mechanics are reviewed. Results from a finite element model (FEM), wherein the NiTi/TPO matrix interface is modeled with a cohesive zone model, suggest that the interface behavior strongly depends on the cohesive energy. The FEM model properly accounts for energy dissipation at the debonding front and inelastic deformation in a NiTi wire during pull-out. We demonstrate that residual stresses from the molding process significantly influence mode mixity at the debonding front. (paper)

  14. Influence of bracket-slot design on the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium alignment wires in different deflection configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Riccardo; Gatto, Elda; Borsellino, Chiara; Aceto, Pasquale; Fabiano, Francesca; Matarese, Giovanni; Perillo, Letizia; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate how different bracket-slot design characteristics affect the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alignment wires at different amounts of wire deflection. A three-bracket bending and a classic-three point bending testing apparatus were used to investigate the load-deflection properties of one superelastic 0.014-inch NiTi alignment wire in different experimental conditions. The selected NiTi archwire was tested in association with three bracket systems: (1) conventional twin brackets with a 0.018-inch slot, (2) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.018-inch slot, and (3) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.022-inch slot. Wire specimens were deflected at 2 mm and 4 mm. Use of a 0.018-inch slot bracket system, in comparison with use of a 0.022-inch system, increases the force exerted by the superelastic NiTi wires at a 2-mm deflection. Use of a self-ligating bracket system increases the force released by NiTi wires in comparison with the conventional ligated bracket system. NiTi wires deflected to a different maximum deflection (2 mm and 4 mm) release different forces at the same unloading data point (1.5 mm). Bracket design, type of experimental test, and amount of wire deflection significantly affected the amount of forces released by superelastic NiTi wires (Pwire's load during alignment.

  15. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, T.-K.; Chen, L.-K.; Chou, M.-Y.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO 2 -based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO 2 on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO 3 /ZrO 2 /SnO and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively, along with TiO 2 on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  16. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.-H. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Min-Hwei College of Health Care Management, Tainan County 736, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-K. [College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, M.-Y. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H., E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.t [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-20

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO{sub 2}-based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO{sub 2} on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, along with TiO{sub 2} on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  17. Operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocations Rockwood III and V-Comparative study between K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) vs. TightRope System(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrgoč, G; Japjec, M; Jurina, P; Gulan, G; Janković, S; Šebečić, B; Starešinić, M

    2015-11-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations usually occur in a young active population as a result of a fall on the shoulder. Rockwood divided these dislocations into six types. Optimal treatment is still a matter of discussion. Many operative techniques have been developed, but the main choice is between open and minimally-invasive arthroscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare two different surgical methods on two groups of patients to find out which method is superior in terms of benefit to the patient. The methods were evaluated through objective and subjective scores, with a focus on complications and material costs. A retrospective two-centre study was conducted in patients with acute AC joint dislocation Rockwood types III and V. The two methods conducted were an open procedure using K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 1) and an arthroscopic procedure using the TightRope System(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 2). Groups underwent procedures during a two-year period. Diagnosis was based on the clinical and radiographic examination of both AC joints. Surgical treatment and rehabilitation were performed. Sixteen patients were included in this study: Group 1 comprised 10 patients, all male, average age 41.6 years (range 17-64 years), Rockwood type III (eight patients) and Rockwood type V (two patients); Group 2 had six patients, one female and five male, average age 37.8 years (range 18-58 years), Rockwood type III (two patients) and Rockwood type V (four patients). Time from injury to surgery was shorter and patients needed less time to return to daily activities in Group 1. Duration of the surgical procedure was shorter in Group 2 compared with Group 1. Complications of each method were noted. According to the measured scores and operative outcome between dislocation Rockwood type III and V, no significant difference was found. Implant material used in Group 2 was 4.7 times more expensive than that used in Group 1

  18. Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of 5 different rotary pathfinding instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, and controlled memory wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Ertas, Hüseyin; Sen, Bilge Hakan

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of current nickel-titanium rotary path-finding instruments. Five types of nickel-titanium rotary pathfinding instruments were used in steel canals with a 90° curvature and a curvature radius of 3 mm (n = 10) and 5 mm (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue of the following instruments was tested at 4 mm from the tip: PathFile (#16 and a .02 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), G-File (#12 and a .03 taper; Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France), Scout Race (#15 and a .02 taper; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), HyFlex GPF (#15 and a .02 taper; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and ProGlider (#16 with a mean taper of .04125 and a .02 at the first 4 mm from the tip, Dentsply Maillefer). The length of the fractured parts was measured, and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). After Bonferroni correction, the new P value was set as .005. The difference in the cyclic fatigue of all the files at both curvatures was statistically significant (P values from .0035 to less than .0001). The ranking of the instruments from the highest to the lowest NCF was as follows: HyFlex GPF, G files, ProGlider, PathFile, and Scout Race. The length of the fractured part of the instruments was similar in all the groups (P > .05). All the tested instruments had a lower NCF at a curvature radius of 3 mm when compared with a curvature radius of 5 mm (P instrument was the highest, and the curvature radius had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metallurgical characterization of M-Wire nickel-titanium shape memory alloy used for endodontic rotary instruments during low-cycle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jia; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rotary instruments made of a new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy (M-Wire) have shown improved cyclic fatigue resistance and mechanical properties compared with those made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires. The objective of this study was to characterize microstructural changes of M-Wire throughout the cyclic fatigue process under controlled strain amplitude. The average fatigue life was calculated from 30 M-Wire samples that were subjected to a strain-controlled (≈ 4%) rotating bend fatigue test at room temperature and rotational speed of 300 rpm. Microstructural evolution of M-Wire has been investigated by different metallurgical characterization techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, Vickers microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy at 4 different stages (as-received state, 30%, 60%, and 90% of average fatigue life). During rotating bend fatigue test, no statistically significant difference (P > .05) was found on austenite finish temperatures between as-received M-Wire and fatigued samples. However, significant differences (P Wire are expected to have higher strength and wear resistance than similar instruments made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires because of its unique nano-crystalline martensitic microstructure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microstructural studies and wear assessments of Ti/TiC surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti produced by titanium cored wires and TIG process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfared, A., E-mail: amirmonfared25@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H.; Asgari, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process and titanium cored wires filled with micro size TiC particles were employed to produce surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti substrate for wear resistance improvement. Wire drawing process was utilized to produce several cored wires from titanium strips and titanium carbide powders. Subsequently, these cored wires were melted and coated on commercial pure Ti using TIG process. This procedure was repeated at different current intensities and welding travel speeds. Composite coating tracks were found to be affected by TIG heat input. The microstructural studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy supported by X-ray diffraction showed that the surface composite coatings consisted of {alpha} Prime -Ti, spherical and dendritic TiC particles. Also, greater volume fractions of TiC particles in the coatings were found at lower heat input. A maximum microhardness value of about 1100 HV was measured which is more than 7 times higher than the substrate material. Pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited a better performance of the surface composite coatings than the untreated material which was attributed to the presence of TiC particles in the microstructure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/TiC composite coatings were produced on the CP-Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium cored wire and TIG process were employed for production of the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing heat input, increased the volume fraction of TiC in the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum microhardness obtained in the lowest heat input. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the coatings improved due to the formation of TiC particles.

  1. Mechanical Rope and Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    well known and preventable. 2. Present testing and inspection procedures are inadequate as monitors of the production and acceptance of rope. 3...attracted serious scientific and engineering attention to the product , the system involved, or their misuse--a lack often manifested by in-service rope...state regulations. In critical app] frations involving hoisting people, such as ropes for hoisting shaft cars and aerial t’• amways , federal and state

  2. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromír; Wright, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Šittner, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 6299 (2016), 559-562 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : martensitic transformation * 3D x-ray diffraction * shape memory alloys * internal stress * NiTi wire * localized deformation * tension Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BI - Acoustics (UT-L) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  3. Effect of irrigation on surface roughness and fatigue resistance of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J-J; Tang, X-N; Ge, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of irrigation on the surface roughness and fatigue resistance of HyFlex and M3 controlled memory (CM) wire nickel-titanium instruments. Two new files of each brand were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then, the instruments were dynamically immersed in either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 10 min, followed by AFM analysis. The roughness average (Ra) and root mean square (RMS) values were analysed statistically using an independent sample t-test. Then, 36 files of each brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 (the control group) was composed of new instruments. Groups 2 and 3 were dynamically immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions for 10 min, respectively. The number of rotations to failure for various groups was analysed using the one-way analysis of variance software. For M3 files, the Ra and RMS values significantly increased (P  0.05) NaOCl. The resistance to cyclic fatigue of both HyFlex and M3 files did not significantly decrease (P > 0.05) by immersing in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Except the HyFlex files immersed in NaOCl, the surface roughness of other files exposed to irrigants increased. However, a change in the surface tomography of CM wire instruments caused by contact with irrigants for 10 min did not trigger a decrease in cyclic fatigue resistance. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  5. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  6. Effect of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Titanium Wires: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Harish Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The results suggest that using topical fluoride agents with NiTi wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wire and contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  7. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...... and medical implants, personal care products, and foods. Despite being considered to be highly biocompatible relative to other metals, Ti is released in the presence of biological fluids and tissue, especially under certain circumstances, which seem to be more likely with regard to dental implants. Although...... most of the studies reviewed have important limitations, Ti seems not to penetrate a competent skin barrier, either as pure Ti, alloy, or as Ti oxide NPs. However, there are some indications of Ti penetration through the oral mucosa. We conclude that patch testing with the available Ti preparations...

  8. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  9. Slot deformation of various stainless steel bracket due to the torque force of the beta-titanium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, M. M.; Siregar, E.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel bracket slot deformation ffects the force applied to teeth and it can impede tooth movement and prolong orthodontic treatment time. The aim of this study is to determine the slot deformation due to torque of a 0.021 × 0.025 inch Beta Titanium wire with a torsional angle of 30° and 45° for five different bracket brands: y, 3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco, and Shinye. The research also aims to compare the deformation and amount of torque among all five bracket brands at torsional angles of 30° and 45°. Fifty stainless steel edgewise brackets from the five bracket group brands (n=10) were attached to acrylic plates. The bracket slot measurements were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the, deformation was measured by calculating the average bracket slot height using a stereoscopy microscope before and after application of torque. In the second stage, the torque was measured using a torque measurement apparatus. The statistical analysis shows that slot deformations were found on all five bracket brands with a clinical permanent deformation on the Biom (2.79 μm) and Shinye (2.29 μm) brackets. The most torque was observed on the 3M bracket, followed by the Ormco, Versadent, Shinye, and Biom brackets. When the brands were compared, a correlation between bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque was found, but the correlation was not statistically significant for the 3M and Ormco brackets and the Biom and Shinye brackets. There is a difference in the amount of torque between the five brands with a torsional angle of 30° (except the 3M and Ormco brackets) and those with a torsional angle of 45°. The composition of the metal and the manufacturing process are the factors that influence the occurrence of bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque. A manufacturing process using metal injection molding (MIM) and metal compositions of AISI 303 and 17-4 PH stainless steel reduce the risk of deformation.

  10. Nasomaxillary hypoplasia with a congenitally missing tooth treated with LeFort II osteotomy, autotransplantation, and nickel-titanium alloy wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Ikemoto, Shigehiro; Ono, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    In some skeletal Class III adult patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia, the LeFort I osteotomy provides insufficient correction. This case report describes a 20-year-old woman with a combination of nasomaxillary hypoplasia and a protrusive mandible with a congenitally missing mandibular second premolar. We performed a LeFort II osteotomy for maxillary advancement. Autotransplantation of a tooth was also performed; the donor tooth was used to replace the missing permanent tooth. To increase the chance of success, we applied light continuous force with an improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wire technique before extraction and after transplantation. The patient's profile and malocclusion were corrected, and the autotransplanted tooth functioned well. The postero-occlusal relationships were improved, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were achieved. The methods used in this case represent a remarkable treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shaping ability of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium instrumentation systems in S-shaped resin canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhanli, K T; Kamaci, A; Taner, M; Erdilek, N; Celik, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shaping effects of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems in simulated S-shaped resin canals. Forty simulated S-shaped canals in resin blocks were instrumented with two traditional (ProTaper, Sendoline S5) and two M-wire (WaveOne, GT series X) NiTi systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten resin blocks were used for each system. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were captured using a stereomicroscope and superimposed with an image program. Canal transportation, material removal, and aberrations were evaluated and recorded as numeric parameters. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests with a 95% confidence interval. There were significant differences between systems in terms of transportation and material removal (Pwire or traditional NiTi) and kinematics (rotary or reciprocating motion) did not affect the shaping abilities of the systems. The extended file designs of highly tapered NiTi systems (ProTaper, WaveOne) resulted in greater deviations from the original root canal trace and more material removal when compared to less tapered systems (Sendoline S5, GT series X).

  12. Technology transfer of winder ropes research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available fault torque and slack rope have been investigated. ? A large information base has been established. Conclusions and recommendations A large part of the SIMRAC investigations were concerned with rope discard and rope deterioration in order...

  13. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  14. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the removal of filling material after using CM-wire, M-wire, and nickel-titanium instruments in both reciprocating and rotary motions in curved canals. Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were divided into 9 groups according to retreatment procedures: Reciproc R25 followed by Mtwo 40/.04 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; ProDesign R 25/.06 followed by ProDesign Logic 40/.05 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; and Gates-Glidden drills, Hedström files, and K-files up to apical size 30 followed by K-file 40 and K-file 50 up to the working length. Micro-computed tomography scans were performed before and after each reinstrumentation procedure to evaluate root canal filling removal. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (P < .05). No significant differences in filling material removal were found in the 3 groups of teeth. The use of Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 40/.05 rotary files did not enhance filling material removal after the use of reciprocating files. The use of ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files significantly reduced the amount of filling material at the apical levels compared with the use of reciprocating files. Association of reciprocating and rotary files was capable of removing a large amount of filling material in the retreatment of curved canals, irrespective of the type of alloy of the instruments. The use of a ProDesign Logic 50/.01 file for apical preparation significantly reduced the amount of remnant material in the apical portion when compared with reciprocating instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-09-01

    The orthodontist seeks an archwire-bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and -7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction.

  17. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Researching on Control Device of Prestressing Wire Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhui; Guo, Yangbo; Liu, Maoshe

    2017-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device for controlling prestress and its related research methods, the advantage of this method is that the reinforcement process is easy to operate and control the prestress of wire rope accurately. The relationship between the stress and strain of the steel wire rope is monitored during the experiment, and the one - to - one relationship between the controllable position and the pretightening force of the steel wire rope is confirmed by the 5mm steel wire rope, and the results are analyzed theoretically by the measured elastic modulus. The results show that the method can effectively control the prestressing force, and the result provides a reference method for strengthening the concrete column with prestressed steel strand.

  19. Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, Erhard; Schoberth, Achim; Leyens, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The microstructure and hardness of deposited Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated. ► Hardness is influenced by post heat treatment rather than by process parameters. ► Microstructure within the prior β-grains varies to some extent from grain to grain. ► A 600 °C/4 h treatment significantly increased the average hardness. - Abstract: Additive layer manufacturing offers a potential for time and cost savings, especially for aerospace components made from costly titanium alloys. In this paper, the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated and discussed. Blocks (7 beads wide, 7 layers high) were deposited using Ti-6Al-4V wire and a Nd:YAG laser. Two different sets of parameters are used and three different post heat treatment conditions (as-built, 600 °C/4 h, 1200 °C/2 h) are investigated. The experiments reveal elementary properties of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V material in correlation to process parameters and heat treatments, which are discussed comprehensively.

  20. Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Erhard, E-mail: erhard.brandl@eads.net [EADS Innovation Works, Metallic Technologies and Surface Engineering, D-81663 Munich (Germany); Schoberth, Achim, E-mail: achim.schoberth@eads.net [EADS Innovation Works, Metallic Technologies and Surface Engineering, D-81663 Munich (Germany); Leyens, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.leyens@tu-dresden.de [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, Chair of Materials Technology, Berndt-Bau, Helmholtzstr. 7, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure and hardness of deposited Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness is influenced by post heat treatment rather than by process parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure within the prior {beta}-grains varies to some extent from grain to grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 600 Degree-Sign C/4 h treatment significantly increased the average hardness. - Abstract: Additive layer manufacturing offers a potential for time and cost savings, especially for aerospace components made from costly titanium alloys. In this paper, the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated and discussed. Blocks (7 beads wide, 7 layers high) were deposited using Ti-6Al-4V wire and a Nd:YAG laser. Two different sets of parameters are used and three different post heat treatment conditions (as-built, 600 Degree-Sign C/4 h, 1200 Degree-Sign C/2 h) are investigated. The experiments reveal elementary properties of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V material in correlation to process parameters and heat treatments, which are discussed comprehensively.

  1. Rapid in situ growth of oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes arrays coated on a nitinol wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled to HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Wenlan; Wang, Huiju; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2016-10-01

    An oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating was in situ grown on a nitinol wire by direct electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol with ammonium fluoride and water for the first time. The morphology and composition of the resulting coating showed that the anodized nitinol wire provided a titania-rich coating. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coated fiber was used for solid-phase microextraction of different aromatic compounds coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity, and rapid mass transfer for weakly polar UV filters. Thereafter the important parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated for solid-phase microextraction of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-300 μg/L for target UV filters with limits of detection of 0.019-0.082 μg/L. The intraday and interday precision of the proposed method with the single fiber were 5.3-7.2 and 5.9-7.9%, respectively, and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.3 to 8.9% for four fibers fabricated in different batches. Finally, its applicability was evaluated by the extraction and determination of target UV filters in environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. In-situ synthesis of 3D GA on titanium wire as a binder- free electrode for electro-Fenton removing of EDTA-Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shulong; Niu, Zhuyu; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Yuancai

    2018-01-05

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could form stable complexes with toxic metals such as nickel due to its strong chelation. The three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene aerogels (GA), which was in-situ assembled by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on titanium wire as binder-free electrode, was presented as cathode for the degradation of EDTA-Ni in Electro-Fenton process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results indicated 3D GA formed three dimensional architecture with large and homogenous macropore structure and surface area. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Rotating Ring-disk Electrode (RRDE) results showed that the 3D GA cathode at pH 3 displayed the highest current density and electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), and better two-electron selectivity for ORR than other pH value, confirming the 3D-GA cathode at pH 3 has the highest electrocatalytic activity and generates more H 2 O 2 . The factors such as pH, applied current density, concentration of Fe 2+ , Na 2 SO 4, and aeration rates of air were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, 73.5% of EDTA-Ni was degraded after reaction for 2h. Mechanism analysis indicated that the production of OH on the 3D GA cathode played an important role in the removal of EDTA-Ni in the 3D GA-EF process, where the direct regeneration of Fe 2+ on the cathode would greatly reduce the consumption of H 2 O 2 . Therefore, it is of great promise for 3D-GA catalyst to be developed as highly efficient, cost-effective and durable cathode for the removal of EDTA-Ni. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Snap Loading of Synthetic Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Hennessey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Large tensile forces, known as snap loads, can occur when a slack rope becomes taut. Such forces may damage the rope or masses connected to it. Experiments are described in which one end of a rope is attached to the top of a drop tower and the bottom end is attached to a weight. The weight is raised to a certain height and then released. The force at the top of the rope and the acceleration of the weight are recorded during the first snap load that occurs. Repeated drop tests are performed on each rope. The effects of the type of rope, drop height, drop weight, whether the rope has been subjected to static precycling, and the number of previous dynamic tests are examined. A mathematical model is proposed for the rope force as a function of the displacement and velocity of the weight.

  4. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  5. Deterioration of mine winders ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project was to determine how winder design parameters affect the safe working life of rope operating of drum winders with the view to refine requirements in the code of practice for the performance, operation...

  6. The ancient art of laying rope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains...... for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes....

  7. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  8. Roping in uncertainty – measuring the tensile strength of steel wire ropes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bergh, Riaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available , cost • No CRM, no PT schemes • No re-test of the same UUT 6Enter uncertainty… ? Instrumentation ? Environment e.g. temperature and humidity ? Variability ? Resolution of force measurement ? Electromagnetic noise ? Test method ? Personnel Riaan Bergh...

  9. A novel pre-surgical maxillary orthodontic device using β-titanium wire for wide unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: preliminary study of its efficacy and impact for the maxillary formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Maki; Oyama, Tomoki; Kiya, Koichiro; Sone, Yumiko; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-02-01

    For patients with a wide, complete, unilateral cleft lip and palate, pre-surgical maxillary orthodontic treatments have been used to reduce the alveolar gap before cheiloplasty. However, most of these treatments are complicated and laborious for patients and for medical professionals. Thus, we developed an original pre-surgical orthodontic device made with two separate acrylic resin plates connected with a spring-shaped β-titanium wire (β-TW). When the device was applied on the palate, each segment of the maxilla was automatically aligned for our target formation with the elastic force of β-titanium alloy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the new device and the size of the maxilla in comparison with the conventional Hotz procedures. A total of 47 patients with a wide unilateral cleft lip and palate were retrospectively evaluated; 33 patients were treated with our new device (β-TW plate group) and 14 were treated with a Hotz plate (HP group). We evaluated the alveolar gap reduction and the size of the maxilla between the two groups, obtaining intraoral maxillary impressions at birth, at 3 months and 1 year. The width of the alveolar gap in the β-TW plate group was significantly reduced compared with that in the HP group 1 month after the treatment (p pre-surgical orthodontic treatments. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The ancient art of laying rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  11. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  12. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including rotation resistant). For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet...

  14. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  15. Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.

  16. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  17. Double the Fun with Two-Person, One-Rope Jump Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Kristin J.; Murray, Steven Ross

    2018-01-01

    One popular activity within physical education curricula today is jump rope. Jump rope is recognized as an excellent activity for developing motor skills and the affective domain, and it aligns with several recommended outcomes for physical education listed by the SHAPE America--Society of Health and Physical Educators. This article describes…

  18. Safe use of mine winding rope, volume 2: recommendations for changes in rope safety factors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available conducted in order to substantiate the recommendations. The results of these projects have shown that a new set of regulations could be recommended for drum winder ropes even though detailed knowledge on rope deterioration was still lacking. The regulations...

  19. An ad-hoc fretting wear tribotester design for thin steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llavori Iñigo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel wire ropes experience fretting wear damage when the rope runs over a sheave promoting an oscillatory motion between the wires. Consequently, wear scars appear between the contacting wires leading to an increase of the stress field and the following rupture of the wires due to fatigue. That is why the understanding and prediction of the fretting wear phenomena of thin wires is fundamental in order to improve the performance of steel wire ropes. The present research deals with the design of an ad-hoc fretting wear test machine for thin wires. The test apparatus is designed for testing thin wires with a maximum diameter of 1.0 mm, at slip amplitudes ranging from 5 to 300 μm, crossing angle between 0-90°, and contacting force ranging from 0,5 to 5 N. The working principle of displacement amplitude and contacting force as well as the crossing angle between the wires are described. Preliminary studies for understanding the fretting wear characteristics are presented, analysing 0.45 mm diameter cold-drawn eutectoid carbon steel (0.8% C wires (tensile strength higher than 3000 MPa.

  20. A model for heliospheric flux-ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Vourlidas, A.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.

    2017-12-01

    This work is presents an analytical flux-rope model, which explores different levels of complexity starting from a circular-cylindrical geometry. The framework of this series of models was established by Nieves-Chinchilla et al. 2016 with the circular-cylindrical analytical flux rope model. The model attempts to describe the magnetic flux rope topology with distorted cross-section as a possible consequence of the interaction with the solar wind. In this model, the flux rope is completely described in a non-orthogonal geometry. The Maxwell equations are solved using tensor calculus consistent with the geometry chosen, invariance along the axial direction, and with the assumption of no radial current density. The model is generalized in terms of the radial and azimuthal dependence of the poloidal current density component and axial current density component. The misalignment between current density and magnetic field is studied in detail for several example profiles of the axial and poloidal current density components. This theoretical analysis provides a map of the force distribution inside of the flux-rope. For reconstruction of the heliospheric flux-ropes, the circular-cylindrical reconstruction technique has been adapted to the new geometry and applied to in situ ICMEs with a flux-rope entrained and tested with cases with clear in situ signatures of distortion. The model adds a piece in the puzzle of the physical-analytical representation of these magnetic structures that should be evaluated with the ultimate goal of reconciling in-situ reconstructions with imaging 3D remote sensing CME reconstructions. Other effects such as axial curvature and/or expansion could be incorporated in the future to fully understand the magnetic structure.

  1. Knots, splices and rope-work an illustrated handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Verrill, A Hyatt

    2006-01-01

    This treasury of practical and ornamental knots ranges from easy half-hitches and bow-lines to intricate rope-work projects, such as rope buckles and cask slings. Detailed instructions accompany the 148 drawings.

  2. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. Teaching Jump Rope to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Schedlin, Haley; Pierce, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents strategies for jumping rope for children with visual impairments. Giving choices related to the types of rope and the use of mats is important. In addition, using appropriate instructional strategies and modifications will make jumping rope a skill that the children will enjoy and will lead to their involvement in other…

  5. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Titanium ; dream new material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Kim Seung Eon; Heoon, Yong Taek; Jung, Hui Won

    2001-11-01

    The contents of this book are history of Titanium, present situation of Titanium industry, property of Titanium alloy, types of it, development of new alloy of Titanium smelting of Titanium, cast of Titanium and heat treatment of Titanium, Titanium alloy for plane, car parts, biological health care, and sport leisure and daily life, prospect, and Titanium industrial development of Titanium in China.

  12. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  13. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  14. Kubo Resistivity of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, Walter; Dehaas, Tim; Pribyl, Pat; Vincena, Stephen; van Compernolle, Bart; Sydora, Rick; Tang, Shawn Wenjie

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are bundles of twisted magnetic fields and their associated current. They are common on the surface of the sun (and presumably all other stars) and are observed to have a large range of sizes and lifetimes. They can become unstable and resulting in coronal mass ejections that can travel to earth and indeed, have been observed by satellites. Two side by side flux ropes are generated in the LAPD device at UCLA. Using a series of novel diagnostics the following key quantities, B, u, Vp, n, Te have been measured at more than 48,000 spatial locations and 7,000 time steps. Every term in Ohm's law is also evaluated across and along the local magnetic field and the plasma resistivity derived and it is shown that Ohms law is non-local. The electron distribution function parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field was measured and found to be a drifting Kappa function. The Kubo AC conductivity at the flux rope rotation frequency, a 3X3 tensor, was evaluated using velocity correlations and will be presented. This yields meaningful results for the global resistivity. Frequency spectra and the presence of time domain structures may offer a clue to the enhanced resistivity. Work supported by the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  15. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the ejection of a magnetic flux rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CME's) are one of the most violent phenomena found on the Sun. One model to explain their occurrence is the flux rope ejection model. In this model, magnetic flux ropes form slowly over time periods of days to weeks. They then lose equilibrium and are ejected from the solar corona over a few hours. The contrasting time scales of formation and ejection pose a serious problem for numerical simulations. Aims: We simulate the whole life span of a flux rope from slow formation to rapid ejection and investigate whether magnetic flux ropes formed from a continuous magnetic field distribution, during a quasi-static evolution, can erupt to produce a CME. Methods: To model the full life span of magnetic flux ropes we couple two models. The global non-linear force-free field (GNLFFF) evolution model is used to follow the quasi-static formation of a flux rope. The MHD code ARMVAC is used to simulate the production of a CME through the loss of equilibrium and ejection of this flux rope. Results: We show that the two distinct models may be successfully coupled and that the flux rope is ejected out of our simulation box, where the outer boundary is placed at 2.5 R⊙. The plasma expelled during the flux rope ejection travels outward at a speed of 100 km s-1, which is consistent with the observed speed of CMEs in the low corona. Conclusions: Our work shows that flux ropes formed in the GNLFFF can lead to the ejection of a mass loaded magnetic flux rope in full MHD simulations. Coupling the two distinct models opens up a new avenue of research to investigate phenomena where different phases of their evolution occur on drastically different time scales. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Kinematic characteristics of motor patterns in rope skipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rope skipping seems to be an easy task to be performed. However, careful analysis of this motor skill shows how complex the execution of this task is. The objective of this study was to examine kinematic variables of jump patterns as a function of skipping frequency. Eight male university students performed a sequence of 30 rope jumps using two jump patterns (alternating support of the feet and simultaneous support of the feet at three skipping frequencies (1.5, 1.7,1.9 Hz. Frequencies were determined with a digital metronome and the rope was turned by the student himself. Rope jumping performance was recorded with two digital cameras for 3Danalysis. Passive markers were attached to the rope and to the ankle, knee and hip joints forcollection of the following dependent variables: continuous relative phase, time interval betweenthe loss of contact of the feet with the ground and cross of the rope under the feet of the volunteer,jump height, and rope height. ANOVA showed that for the pattern with alternating support ofthe feet the jump is executed at a lower height. In addition, analysis of the time interval revealeda delay in the withdrawal of the feet for crossing the rope in the case of the jump pattern with simultaneous support of the feet.

  18. Muscle Activity during Unilateral Vs. Bilateral Battle Rope Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, J.; Martin, F.; Colado, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Calatayud, J, Martin, F, Colado, JC, Benitez, JC, Jakobsen, MD, and Andersen, LL. Muscle activity during unilateral vs. bilateral battle rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res 29(10): 2854-2859, 2015High training intensity is important for efficient strength gains. Although battle rope training is m...

  19. Flux ropes in the magnetic solar convection zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution results are presented on how twisted magnetic flux ropes interact with a magnetized model envelope similar to the solar convection zone. Both the flux ropes and the atmosphere are modelled as idealized 2.5-dimensional concepts using high resolution numerical MHD simulations (on...

  20. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  1. Focused Ion Beam Nanopatterning for Carbon Nanotube Ropes Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera LA FERRARA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Focused Ion Beam (FIB technology has been used to realize electrode patterns for contacting Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs ropes for chemical gas sensor applications. Two types of transducers, based on a single rope and on bundles, have been realized starting from silicon/Si3N4 substrate. Electrical behaviour, at room temperature, in toxic gas environments, has been investigated and compared to evaluate contribution of a single rope based sensor respect to bundles one. For all the devices, upon exposure to NO2 and NH3, the conductance has been found to increase or decrease respectively. Conductance signal is stronger for sensor based on bundles, but it also evident that response time in NO2 is faster for device based on a single rope. FIB technology offers, then, the possibility to contact easily a single sensitive nanowire, as carbon nanotube rope.

  2. The modelling and analysis of the mechanics of ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, C M

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the modelling and analysis of the many types of ropes, linear fibre assemblies. The construction of these structures is very diverse and in the work these are considered from the modelling point of view. As well as the conventional twisted structures, braid and plaited structures and parallel assemblies are modelled and analysed, first for their assembly and secondly for their mechanical behaviour. Also since the components are assemblies of components, fibres into yarns, into strands, and into ropes the hierarchical nature of the construction is considered. The focus of the modelling is essentially toward load extension behaviour but there is reference to bending of ropes, encompassed by the two extremes, no slip between the components and zero friction resistance to component slip. Friction in ropes is considered both between the rope components, sliding, sawing and scissoring, and within the components, dilation and distortion, these latter modes being used to model component set, the p...

  3. Evidence for flux ropes in the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibeck, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field reconnection is a fundamental process that occurs in the magnetotail during geomagnetic substorms. Some 2D reconnection models predict the formation of a plasmoid, or closed loop of magnetic field lines, in the noon-midnight meridional plane at those times. When the 3D magnetotail magnetic field is considered, it becomes clear that reconnection produces a flux rope with an axis transverse to the earth-sun line. Three signatures mark both 2D plasmoids and 3D flux ropes: (1) a bipolar magnetic field signature, (2) tailward flow of a hot plasma, and (3) convecting isotropic energetic particle distributions. Plasmoids and flux ropes may be distinguished by (4) the axial magnetic field that only flux ropes possess. All four signatures have been identified in near-earth, middle, and distant magnetotail observations, but their interpretation is disputed. Thus, the existence of magnetotail flux ropes remains a controversial subject. 59 refs

  4. Physics of magnetic flux ropes. Geophysical Monograph, No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.; Priest, E.R.; Lee, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations

  5. Geometrical Relationship Between Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Their Solar Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cho, K.-S.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physical connection between interplanetary flux ropes (IFRs) near Earth and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by comparing the magnetic field structures of IFRs and CME source regions. The analysis is based on the list of 54 pairs of ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections) and CMEs that are taken to be the most probable solar source events. We first attempted to identify the flux rope structure in each of the 54 ICMEs by fitting models with a cylinder and torus magnetic field geometry, both with a force-free field structure. This analysis determined the possible geometries of the identified flux ropes. Then we compared the flux rope geometries with the magnetic field structure of the solar source regions. We obtained the following results: (1) Flux rope structures are seen in 51 ICMEs out of the 54. The result implies that all ICMEs have an intrinsic flux rope structure, if the three exceptional cases are attributed to unfavorable observation conditions. (2) It is possible to find flux rope geometries with the main axis orientation close to the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) in the solar source regions, the differences being less than 25°. (3) The helicity sign of an IFR is strongly controlled by the location of the solar source: flux ropes with positive (negative) helicity are associated with sources in the southern (northern) hemisphere (six exceptions were found). (4) Over two-thirds of the sources in the northern hemisphere are concentrated along PILs with orientations of 45° ± 30° (measured clockwise from the east), and over two-thirds in the southern hemisphere along PILs with orientations of 135° ± 30°, both corresponding to the Hale boundaries. These results strongly support the idea that a flux rope with the main axis parallel to the PIL erupts in a CME and that the erupted flux rope propagates through the interplanetary space with its orientation maintained and is observed as an IFR.

  6. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 4: studies towards a code of practice for rope condition assessment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Borrello, M

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the verification of the code of Practice for Rope Condition Assessment. Ropes were meant to be discarded according to the discard criteria as outlined in the code and then tested by the CSIR. The results...

  7. Magnetic reconnection during eruptive magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We perform a three-dimensional (3D) high resolution numerical simulation in isothermal magnetohydrodynamics to study the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed during an eruption of a twisted magnetic flux rope (MFR). Because the twist distribution violates the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, the kink instability occurs, and the MFR is distorted. The centre part of the MFR loses its equilibrium and erupts upward, which leads to the formation of a 3D CS underneath it. Methods: In order to study the magnetic reconnection inside the CS in detail, mesh refinement has been used to reduce the numerical diffusion and we estimate a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of the CS. Results: The refined mesh allows us to resolve fine structures inside the 3D CS: a bifurcating sheet structure signaling the 3D generalization of Petschek slow shocks, some distorted-cylindrical substructures due to the tearing mode instabilities, and two turbulence regions near the upper and the lower tips of the CS. The topological characteristics of the MFR depend sensitively on the observer's viewing angle: it presents as a sigmoid structure, an outwardly expanding MFR with helical distortion, or a flare-CS-coronal mass ejection symbiosis as in 2D flux-rope models when observed from the top, the front, or the side. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Mao Zhi-Guo; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed.It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF--4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV,a triggered gas switch,and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas.With the EEW device,nanosize powders of titanium oxides,titanium nitrides,copper oxides,and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized.The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm.The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size.The lower the pressure,the smaller the particle size is.For wire material with relatively high resistivity,such as titanium,whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process,the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k =Wd/Ws) increasing.

  9. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  10. ROPE: Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding of Natural Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widemann, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Eric X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We present a novel Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding (ROPE) of natural language. ROPE maps natural language passages from sparse concatenated one-hot representations to distributed vector representations of predetermined fixed length. We use Euclidean distance to return search results that are both grammatically and semantically similar. ROPE is based on a series of random projections of distributed word embeddings. We show that our technique typically forms a dictionary with sufficient incoherence such that sparse recovery of the original text is possible. We then show how our embedding allows for efficient and meaningful natural search and retrieval on Microsoft’s COCO dataset and the IMDB Movie Review dataset.

  11. Vortex rope instabilities in a model of conical draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkin, Sergey; Tsoy, Mikhail; Kuibin, Pavel; Shtork, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    We report on experimental studies of the formation of vortex ropes in a laboratory simplified model of hydroturbine draft tube. Work is focused on the observation of various flow patterns at the different rotational speed of turbine runner at fixed flow rate. The measurements involve high-speed visualization and pressure pulsations recordings. Draft tube wall pressure pulsations are registered by pressure transducer for different flow regimes. Vortex rope precession frequency were calculated using FFT transform. The experiments showed interesting features of precessing vortex rope like twin spiral and formation of vortex ring.

  12. Vortex rope instabilities in a model of conical draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skripkin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on experimental studies of the formation of vortex ropes in a laboratory simplified model of hydroturbine draft tube. Work is focused on the observation of various flow patterns at the different rotational speed of turbine runner at fixed flow rate. The measurements involve high-speed visualization and pressure pulsations recordings. Draft tube wall pressure pulsations are registered by pressure transducer for different flow regimes. Vortex rope precession frequency were calculated using FFT transform. The experiments showed interesting features of precessing vortex rope like twin spiral and formation of vortex ring.

  13. Rope wind-up type control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Teruaki; Watanabe, Shigeru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To hold a control rod at a certain position even if the sealed cover of the rod drive mechanism should fail. Constitution: A plurality of friction plates, engaging wheels and a threaded shaft are provided to the wind-up drum for winding up a rope which moves the control rod up and down. While the control rod is adapted to drop by its own weight upon insertion, it is adapted to stop at a predetermined position exactly with no shocks by gradually increasing braking force by the sliding friction caused from the friction plates or the like. A ratch mechanism is provided to the upper portion of the control rod so that the top of the ratch piece may automatically engage the guide passage wall of the control rod upon uncontrolled running of the control rod to prevent further uncontrolled running thereof. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui, E-mail: zhangqh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-07-10

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  15. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  16. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Pritsch Braga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics e braquetes de aço inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek, braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC. Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05 do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey. Constatou-se que: 1 a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2 o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3 o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®.An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP

  17. Deterioration and discard of mine winder ropes, volume 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, MN

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This volume 2 of the GAP 324 report discusses the parts of the project that dealt with the sinking of very deep shafts, and an initial study into the behaviour of triangular strand ropes for deep shafts....

  18. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Raji; Hasan Shojaei; Parinaz Saeidi Ghorani; Elahe Rafiei

    2014-01-01

    Background: The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, U...

  19. Regularized Biot-Savart Laws for Modeling Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Viacheslav; Downs, Cooper; Mikic, Zoran; Torok, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.

    2017-08-01

    Many existing models assume that magnetic flux ropes play a key role in solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is therefore important to develop efficient methods for constructing flux-rope configurations constrained by observed magnetic data and the initial morphology of CMEs. As our new step in this direction, we have derived and implemented a compact analytical form that represents the magnetic field of a thin flux rope with an axis of arbitrary shape and a circular cross-section. This form implies that the flux rope carries axial current I and axial flux F, so that the respective magnetic field is a curl of the sum of toroidal and poloidal vector potentials proportional to I and F, respectively. The vector potentials are expressed in terms of Biot-Savart laws whose kernels are regularized at the rope axis. We regularized them in such a way that for a straight-line axis the form provides a cylindrical force-free flux rope with a parabolic profile of the axial current density. So far, we set the shape of the rope axis by tracking the polarity inversion lines of observed magnetograms and estimating its height and other parameters of the rope from a calculated potential field above these lines. In spite of this heuristic approach, we were able to successfully construct pre-eruption configurations for the 2009 February13 and 2011 October 1 CME events. These applications demonstrate that our regularized Biot-Savart laws are indeed a very flexible and efficient method for energizing initial configurations in MHD simulations of CMEs. We discuss possible ways of optimizing the axis paths and other extensions of the method in order to make it more useful and robust.Research supported by NSF, NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and AFOSR.

  20. Production of diamond wire by Cu15 v-% Nb 'in situ' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, M.; Pinatti, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond wires are cutting tools used in the slabbing of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, as well as in cutting of concrete structures. This tool consists of a steel cable on which diamond annular segments (pearls) are mounted with spacing between them. This work has developed a new technological route to obtain the diamond wires, whose fabrication involves metal forming processes such as rotary forging and wire drawing, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments of sintering and recrystallization. It was idealized the use of Cu 15v% Nb composite wires as the high tensile strength cable, covered with an external cutting rope made of bronze 4wt% diamond composite, along the overall wire surface. Investigations were carried out on the mechanical behavior and on the microstructural evolution of the Cu 15 vol % Nb wires, which showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 960 MPa and deformation of approximately 3,0 %. The cutting external rope of 1.84 mm in diameter showed UTS = 230 MPa. On the microstructural side aspect it was observed that the diamond crystals were uniformly distributed throughout the tool bulk in the several processing steps. Cutting tests were carried out starting with an external diamond rope of 1.93 mm in diameter, which cut a marble sectional area of 1188 cm 2 , and the tool degraded to a final diameter of 1.23 mm. For marble the 'in situ' wire showed a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond saws, however their probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix and the low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond. (author)

  1. A cage position monitor based on magnetically striped rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V M

    1978-01-01

    Following the winding disaster at Markham Colliery in July 1973 recommendations to monitor the position of the cage directly at all times throughout the winding cycle, and to provide a system of communication with persons in the conveyance were made. The system adopted by MRDE was the 'magnetically striped rope'. An experimental system was installed at Maltby Colliery, South Yorkshire, and has been working successfully for well over a year. Magnetic marking of a hoist or guide rope can be carried out using permanent magnets but a much more convenient method has been devised using a pulsed electromagnet sliding on the rope. Detection is achieved by two static magnetic sensors spaced to give quadrature output. By processing the signals and using an up/down counter it is possible to sense the direction of movement and the distance travelled by the cage from a given datum. The information can be further processed to indicate velocity, overspeed and overwind, and when referenced to drum revolutions may be used to monitor rope slip in friction winders or slack rope in drum winders. When the guide rope is magnetically marked and sensed, the information must be transmitted from the cage to the surface. Such a data communication link, developed by MRDE, also provides a base for a general shaft communication system.

  2. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  3. Evaluation of international and local magnetic rope testing instrument defect detection capabilities and resolution, particularly in respect of low rotation, multi-layer rope constructions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dohm, M

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available testing machine and pre-tensioned to 9,6 tons, which is 10% of the ultimate breaking strength of a new rope. The reason for tensioning the rope is to simulate rope conditions in-service. Each contractor was required to fit his instrument to the rope...-of-strength estimate.14. The above literature indicates that instruments are commercially available which exhibit high resolution which result in acceptable non-destructive rope inspection results. At the Mine Hoisting 93 Conference in London the following...

  4. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Shojaei, Hasan; Ghorani, Parinaz Saeidi; Rafiei, Elahe

    2014-11-01

    The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA) with isolated packages were selected and sterilized before application. The samples were divided randomly between upper and lower arches in 18 patients and hence that every patient received one coated and one uncoated wire at the same time. Samples were removed and cut in equal lengths after 3 weeks and placed in phosphate buffered saline buffer. After separation of bacteria in trypsin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, the diluted solution was cultured in blood agar and bacterial colony forming units were counted. Finally, the data was analyzed using the paired t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Mean of bacterial colonization on uncoated wires was more than that of coated wires (P < 0.001). Bacterial plaque accumulation on epoxy resin coated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires is significantly lower than uncoated nickel-titanium wires.

  5. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  6. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  7. Regularized Biot–Savart Laws for Modeling Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Viacheslav S.; Downs, Cooper; Mikić, Zoran; Török, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.; Caplan, Ronald M.

    2018-01-01

    Many existing models assume that magnetic flux ropes play a key role in solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is therefore important to develop efficient methods for constructing flux-rope configurations constrained by observed magnetic data and the morphology of the pre-eruptive source region. For this purpose, we have derived and implemented a compact analytical form that represents the magnetic field of a thin flux rope with an axis of arbitrary shape and circular cross-sections. This form implies that the flux rope carries axial current I and axial flux F, so that the respective magnetic field is the curl of the sum of axial and azimuthal vector potentials proportional to I and F, respectively. We expressed the vector potentials in terms of modified Biot–Savart laws, whose kernels are regularized at the axis in such a way that, when the axis is straight, these laws define a cylindrical force-free flux rope with a parabolic profile for the axial current density. For the cases we have studied so far, we determined the shape of the rope axis by following the polarity inversion line of the eruptions’ source region, using observed magnetograms. The height variation along the axis and other flux-rope parameters are estimated by means of potential-field extrapolations. Using this heuristic approach, we were able to construct pre-eruption configurations for the 2009 February 13 and 2011 October 1 CME events. These applications demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of our new method for energizing pre-eruptive configurations in simulations of CMEs.

  8. Effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of coated nickel-titanium archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Gloria, Antonio; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Galeotti, Angela; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of esthetic and conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires. Five NiTi wires were considered for this study (Sentalloy, Sentalloy High Aesthetic, Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, Esthetic Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, and EverWhite). For each type of wire, four samples were analyzed as received and after 1 month of clinical use by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). To evaluate sliding resistance, two stainless steel plates with three metallic or three monocrystalline brackets, bonded in passive configuration, were manufactured; four as-received and retrieved samples for every wire were pulled five times at 5 mm/min for 1 minute by means of an Instron 5566, recording the greatest friction value (N). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by Student's t-test. After clinical use, surface roughness increased considerably. The SEM images showed homogeneity for the as-received control wires; however, after clinical use esthetic wires exhibited a heterogeneous surface with craters and bumps. The lowest levels of friction were observed with the as-received Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire on metallic brackets. When tested on ceramic brackets, all the wires exhibited an increase in friction (t-test; P Sentalloy, showed a statistically significant increase in friction between the as-received and retrieved groups (t-test; P < .05). Clinical use of the orthodontic wires increases their surface roughness and the level of friction.

  9. Observations of magnetic flux ropes during magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Borg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of magnetic flux ropes observed by the four Cluster spacecraft during periods of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. Using a list of 21 Cluster encounters with the reconnection process in the period 2001–2006 identified in Borg et al. (2012, we present the distribution and characteristics of the flux ropes. We find 27 flux ropes embedded in the reconnection outflows of only 11 of the 21 reconnection encounters. Reconnection processes associated with no flux rope observations were not distinguishable from those where flux ropes were observed. Only 7 of the 27 flux ropes show evidence of enhanced energetic electron flux above 50 keV, and there was no clear signature of the flux rope in the thermal particle measurements. We found no clear correlation between the flux rope core field and the prevailing IMF By direction.

  10. Tribological Aspects of the Process of Winding the Steel Rope Around the Winch Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matejić, , , ,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper winding of the steel rope around the winch drum is great importance, mostly for: prolonging the service life of the rope, reduction of deformations of the body and the sides of the drum if the winding of the rope is multilayered, increasing of the safety factors, easier unwinding of the rope while lowering the load, even running of the drive unit, etc. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the friction which occurs in the process of winding and unwinding the rope around the winch drum. Friction force is in its highest intensity when the rope passes from one layer to another, if the winding of the rope is multilayered. As the result of the research, certain mechanisms of winding of the rope from the aspects of the friction force were obtained, and the effects of the forces on the sides of the drum were analyzed.

  11. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  12. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10 16 g with a momentum of 0.57x10 22 g cm s -1 by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  13. Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Tonkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers.

  14. Apex Dips of Experimental Flux Ropes: Helix or Cusp?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Li, Hui [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B227, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Shengtai, E-mail: pwongwai@caltech.edu, E-mail: mhaw@caltech.edu [Mathematical Modeling and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B284, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We present a new theory for the presence of apex dips in certain experimental flux ropes. Previously such dips were thought to be projections of a helical loop axis generated by the kink instability. However, new evidence from experiments and simulations suggest that the feature is a 2D cusp rather than a 3D helix. The proposed mechanism for cusp formation is a density pileup region generated by nonlinear interaction of neutral gas cones emitted from fast-gas nozzles. The results indicate that density perturbations can result in large distortions of an erupting flux rope, even in the absence of significant pressure or gravitational forces. The density pileup at the apex also suppresses the m = 1 kink mode by acting as a stationary node. Consequently, more accurate density profiles should be considered when attempting to model the stability and shape of solar and astrophysical flux ropes.

  15. Magneto-inductive Sensors for Metallic Ropes in Lift Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo CANOVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an innovative system for the contemporary, selective and reliable control of integrity of multiple rope plants is presented. The system is based on magneto-inductive technology and is composed by a magnetic detector connected to an acquisition system. The core of the detector is constituted by an array of Hall sensors properly placed inside the instrument. After a brief introduction to the Non Destructive Techniques applied to the control of metallic ropes, the first part paper deals with the design and behavior of the detector and the acquisition system. In the second part of the paper a performance analysis for different rope size and experimental results on an elevator plants is presented and discussed.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1097 - GBM-ROPE; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false GBM-ROPE; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1097 GBM-ROPE; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The grape berry moth pheromone (GBM-ROPE) containing the active ingredients (Z)-9-dedecenyl acetate and (Z)-11...

  17. Flux ropes and 3D dynamics in the relaxation scaling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T P; Feng, Y; Weber, T E; Swan, H O; Sun, X; Dorf, L; Sears, J A

    2013-01-01

    Flux ropes form basic building blocks for magnetic dynamics in many plasmas, are macroscopic analogues of magnetic field lines, and are irreducibly three dimensional (3D). We have used the relaxation scaling experiment (RSX) to study flux ropes, and have found many new features involving 3D dynamics, kink instability driven reconnection, nonlinearly stable but kinking flux ropes, and large flows. (paper)

  18. Elliptic-cylindrical analytical flux-rope model for ICMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.; Vourlidas, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analytical flux-rope model for realistic magnetic structures embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. The framework of this model was established by Nieves-Chinchilla et al. (2016) with the circular-cylindrical analytical flux rope model and under the concept developed by Hidalgo et al. (2002). Elliptic-cylindrical geometry establishes the first-grade of complexity of a series of models. The model attempts to describe the magnetic flux rope topology with distorted cross-section as a possible consequence of the interaction with the solar wind. In this model, the flux rope is completely described in the non-euclidean geometry. The Maxwell equations are solved using tensor calculus consistently with the geometry chosen, invariance along the axial component, and with the only assumption of no radial current density. The model is generalized in terms of the radial dependence of the poloidal current density component and axial current density component. The misalignment between current density and magnetic field is studied in detail for the individual cases of different pairs of indexes for the axial and poloidal current density components. This theoretical analysis provides a map of the force distribution inside of the flux-rope. The reconstruction technique has been adapted to the model and compared with in situ ICME set of events with different in situ signatures. The successful result is limited to some cases with clear in-situ signatures of distortion. However, the model adds a piece in the puzzle of the physical-analytical representation of these magnetic structures. Other effects such as axial curvature, expansion and/or interaction could be incorporated in the future to fully understand the magnetic structure. Finally, the mathematical formulation of this model opens the door to the next model: toroidal flux rope analytical model.

  19. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  20. Nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhiguo; Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Jiang Weihua

    2010-01-01

    A device for nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires was designed and built. Eight wires housed in the discharge chamber are exploded one by one before opening the chamber for the collection of the produced nano-powder. To increase the rate of energy deposition into a wire, the electrical behavior of the discharge circuit including the exploding wire was simulated. The results showed that both reducing the circuit inductance and reducing the capacitance of the energy-storage capacitor (keeping the storage energy constant) can increase the energy deposition rate. To better understand the physical processes of the nano-powder formation by the wire vapor, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to record the time evolution of the wire vapor as well as the plasma. A thermal expansion lag of the dense vapor core as well as more than one times of the vapor burst was observed for the first time. Finally, nano-powders of titanium nitride, titanium dioxide, copper oxides and zinc oxide were produced by electrical explosion of wires. (authors)

  1. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  2. Evaluation of surface roughness of orthodontic wires by means of atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface roughness of different orthodontic archwires. Four nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy(®), Sentalloy(®) High Aesthetic, Titanium Memory ThermaTi Lite(®), and Titanium Memory Esthetic(®)), three β-titanium wires (TMA(®), Colored TMA(®), and Beta Titanium(®)), and one stainless-steel wire (Stainless Steel(®)) were considered for this study. Three samples for each wire were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three-dimensional images were processed using Gwiddion software, and the roughness average (Ra), the root mean square (Rms), and the maximum height (Mh) values of the scanned surface profile were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P Sentalloy High Aesthetic was the roughest (Ra  =  133.5 ± 10.8; Rms  =  165.8 ± 9.8; Mh  =  949.6 ± 192.1) of the archwires. The surface quality of the wires investigated differed significantly. Ion implantation effectively reduced the roughness of TMA. Moreover, Teflon(®)-coated Titanium Memory Esthetic was less rough than was ion-implanted Sentalloy High Aesthetic.

  3. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreover, the internal energy of the rope is found to be released during the catastrophe so as to provide energy for the upward eruption of the flux rope. As far as the magnetic energy is concerned, it provides only part of the energy release, or even increases during the catastrophe, so the internal energy may act as the dominant or even the unique energy supplier during the catastrophe.

  4. Counterstreaming electrons in small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H. Q.; Zhao, G. Q.; Wang, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (SIMFRs) are commonly observed by spacecraft at 1 AU, and their origin still remains disputed. We investigated the counterstreaming suprathermal electron (CSE) signatures of 106 SIMFRs measured by Wind during 1995-2005. We found that 79 (75%) of the 106 flux ropes contain CSEs, and the percentages of counterstreaming vary from 8% to 98%, with a mean value of 51%. CSEs are often observed in magnetic clouds (MCs), and this indicates these MCs are still attached to the Sun at both ends. CSEs are also related to heliospheric current sheets (HCSs) and the Earth's bow shock. We divided the SIMFRs into two categories: The first category is far from HCSs, and the second category is in the vicinity of HCSs. The first category has 57 SIMFRs, and only 7 of 57 ropes have no CSEs. This ratio is similar to that of MCs. The second category has 49 SIMFRs; however, 20 of the 49 events have no CSEs. This ratio is larger than that of MCs. These two categories have different origins. One category originates from the solar corona, and most ropes are still connected to the Sun at both ends. The other category is formed near HCSs in the interplanetary space.

  5. Modeling and advanced sliding mode controls of crawler cranes considering wire rope elasticity and complicated operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Le Anh; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a new mathematical model of crawler cranes is developed for heavy working conditions, with payload-lifting and boom-hoisting motions simultaneously activated. The system model is built with full consideration of wind disturbances, geometrical nonlinearities, and cable elasticities of cargo lifting and boom luffing. On the basis of this dynamic model, three versions of sliding mode control are analyzed and designed to control five system outputs with only two inputs. When used in complicated operations, the effectiveness of the controllers is analyzed using analytical investigation and numerical simulation. Results indicate the effectiveness of the control algorithms and the proposed dynamic model. The control algorithms asymptotically stabilize the system with finite-time convergences, remaining robust amid disturbances and parametric uncertainties.

  6. NECESSITY OF WIRE ROPE REPLACEMENT IN CRANE LIFTING EQUIPMENT AFTER CHANGE OF CRANE OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kuľka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a specific expertise and evaluation process relating to a foundry crane, which is installed in a steel production factory. The main task was to analyse a possibility to increase lifting speed of the crane lifting mechanism in order to improve efficiency of the production process. The steel supporting structure of the given foundry crane was considered by means of the performed experimental measurements and calculations. The presented article describes the special experimental/analytical methodology, which was used for evaluation of the crane steel construction and crane mechanisms, namely the lifting mechanisms and travelling mechanisms. There are also explained the required modifications of the individual crane construction parts.

  7. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  8. Flux rope breaking and formation of a rotating blowout jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Nishizuka, Naoto; Filippov, Boris; Magara, Tetsuya; Tlatov, Andrey G.

    2018-05-01

    We analysed a small flux rope eruption converted into a helical blowout jet in a fan-spine configuration using multiwavelength observations taken by Solar Dynamics Observatory, which occurred near the limb on 2016 January 9. In our study, first, we estimated the fan-spine magnetic configuration with the potential-field calculation and found a sinistral small filament inside it. The filament along with the flux rope erupted upwards and interacted with the surrounding fan-spine magnetic configuration, where the flux rope breaks in the middle section. We observed compact brightening, flare ribbons, and post-flare loops underneath the erupting filament. The northern section of the flux rope reconnected with the surrounding positive polarity, while the southern section straightened. Next, we observed the untwisting motion of the southern leg, which was transformed into a rotating helical blowout jet. The sign of the helicity of the mini-filament matches the one of the rotating jets. This is consistent with recent jet models presented by Adams et al. and Sterling et al. We focused on the fine thread structure of the rotating jet and traced three blobs with the speed of 60-120 km s- 1, while the radial speed of the jet is ˜400 km s- 1. The untwisting motion of the jet accelerated plasma upwards along the collimated outer spine field lines, and it finally evolved into a narrow coronal mass ejection at the height of ˜9Rsun. On the basis of detailed analysis, we discussed clear evidence of the scenario of the breaking of the flux rope and the formation of the helical blowout jet in the fan-spine magnetic configuration.

  9. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  10. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  11. The influence of drawing parameters on the mechanical properties of two beta-titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, C V; Goldberg, A J

    1983-10-01

    The total cold reduction and reduction per pass used during the drawing of fine wires affected the mechanical properties of two beta-titanium alloys. Both Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al showed increased yield strengths and low moduli of elasticity, which resulted in wires appropriate for orthodontic application.

  12. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available used, the following forms of titanium are produced: titanium sponge, sintered electrode sponge, powder, molten titanium, electroplated titanium, hydride powder, and vapor-phase depos- ited titanium. Comparing the economics of alter- native...-up for producing titanium via the Kroll process is approximately as follows: ilmenite ($0.27/kg titanium sponge); titanium slag ($0.75/kg titanium sponge); TiCl4 ($3.09/kg titanium sponge); titanium sponge raw materials costs ($5.50/kg titanium sponge); total...

  13. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  14. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  15. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  17. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  18. A novel approach to fabrication of three-dimensional porous titanium with controllable structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Qiuyan; Xu, Mingqin; Jiang, Guofeng; Zhang, Yunxia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, and State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He, Guo, E-mail: ghe@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, and State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A new approach to fabrication of porous titanium by using the molybdenum wire as space holder was developed, in which titanium liquid was cast into the entangled molybdenum wires in a vacuum environment, and followed by etching off the space holder material in an aqua regia solution. This infiltration casting and acid corrosion method fabricated the porous titanium with different porosities with a pore diameter of 0.4 mm. The porous titanium with the porosity of 32–47% exhibited the Young's modulus in the range of 23–62 GPa and the yielding strength in the range of 76–192 MPa. The adhesion and spreadability of the bovine osteoblast cells on the porous titanium were also evaluated in vitro. The porous titanium with 47% porosity has great potential for implant applications. - Highlights: • A new approach to fabrication of porous titanium was developed. • The 3D morphology of the interconnected porous structure can be exactly controlled. • The as-prepared porous titanium exhibits adequate yielding strength. • The elastic modulus of the porous titanium matches well with that of cortical bone. • The as-prepared porous titanium has great potential for implant applications.

  19. A Novel Ropes-DrivenWideband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH in which a high-frequency generating beam (HFGB is driven by an array of low-frequency driving beams (LFDBs using ropes. Two mechanisms based on frequency upconversion and multimodal harvesting work together to broaden the frequency bandwidth of the proposed vibration energy harvester (VEH. The experimental results show that the output power of generating beam (GB remains unchanged with the increasing number of driving beams (DBs, compared with the traditional arrays of beams vibration energy harvester (AB-VEH, and the output power and bandwidth behavior can be adjusted by parameters such as acceleration, rope margin, and stiffness of LFDBs, which shows the potential to achieve unlimited wideband vibration energy-harvesting for a variable environment.

  20. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  1. HOOKED FLARE RIBBONS AND FLUX-ROPE-RELATED QSL FOOTPRINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Gilchrist, Stuart A.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne, E-mail: nj.lihui@pmo.ac.cn [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-05-20

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare that begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly can be well reproduced from a Grad–Rubin nonlinear force-free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S- and inverse-J-shaped magnetic field lines, which surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multithreaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and setup of the Grad–Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J-shaped quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latter may be related to a complex pre-eruptive flux rope with more than one turn of twist, as obtained in the model. These ribbon-associated flux-rope QSL footprints are consistent with the new standard flare model in 3D, with the presence of a hyperbolic flux tube located below an inverse-teardrop-shaped coronal QSL. This is a new step forward forecasting the locations of reconnection and ribbons in solar flares and the geometrical properties of eruptive flux ropes.

  2. Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Moses F. Oduori; Enoch K. Musyoka; Thomas O. Mbuya

    2016-01-01

    The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials....

  3. HOOKED FLARE RIBBONS AND FLUX-ROPE-RELATED QSL FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui; Gilchrist, Stuart A.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare that begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly can be well reproduced from a Grad–Rubin nonlinear force-free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S- and inverse-J-shaped magnetic field lines, which surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multithreaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and setup of the Grad–Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J-shaped quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latter may be related to a complex pre-eruptive flux rope with more than one turn of twist, as obtained in the model. These ribbon-associated flux-rope QSL footprints are consistent with the new standard flare model in 3D, with the presence of a hyperbolic flux tube located below an inverse-teardrop-shaped coronal QSL. This is a new step forward forecasting the locations of reconnection and ribbons in solar flares and the geometrical properties of eruptive flux ropes.

  4. Deployment of a pentagonal hollow-rope tensegrity module

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos , Landolf; Bel Hadj Ali , Nizar; Motro , René; Smith , Ian F.C.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are spatial reticulated structures composed of cables and struts. Tensegrity systems are good candidates for adaptive and deployable structures and thus have applications in various engineering fields. A "hollow-rope" tensegrity system composed of tensegrity-ring modules has been demonstrated by the authors to be a viable system for a pedestrian bridge. This paper focuses on the deployment of pentagonal ring modules. A geometric study is performed...

  5. Design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos , Landolf; Bel Hadj Ali , Nizar; Motro , René; Smith , Ian F.C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are composed of cables and struts in a pre-stressed self-equilibrium. Although tensegrity first appeared in the 1950s, it is seldom used in civil engineering. This paper focuses on the design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge. Deployment is usually not a critical design case for traditional deployable structures. However, for tensegrity systems deployment may be critical due to the actuation required. In this paper, deploym...

  6. The Role of Kinetic Alfven Waves in Plasma Transport in an Ion-scale Flux Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Li, W.; Wang, C.; Dai, L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes, if generated by multiply X-line reconnections, would be born as a crater type one, meaning the plasma density within is relatively high. They will then evolve into typical flux ropes as plasma are transported away along the magnetic field lines [Zhang et al., 2010]. In this study, we report an ion-scale flux rope observed by MMS on November 28, 2016, which is accompanied by strong kinetic Alfven waves (KAW). The related wave parallel electric field can effectively accelerate electrons inside the flux rope by Landau resonance, resulting into a significant decrease of the electron at 90° pitch angle. The change of electron pitch angle distribution would cause the rapid plasma transport along the magnetic field lines, and help the flux rope evolve into a strong magnetic core in a short time. This wave-particle interaction would be a candidate mechanism to explain the rareness of crater flux ropes in reality.

  7. Flux Rope Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.Z. Cheng; Y. Ren; G.S. Choe; Y.-J. Moon

    2003-01-01

    A physical mechanism of flares, in particular for the flare rise phase, has emerged from our 2-1/2-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. The dynamical evolution of current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection and flux-rope acceleration subject to continuous, slow increase of magnetic shear in the arcade are studied by employing a non-uniform anomalous resistivity in the reconnecting current sheet under gravity. The simulation results directly relate the flux rope's accelerated rising motion with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The simulation results provide good quantitative agreements with observations of the acceleration of flux rope, which manifests in the form of SXR ejecta or erupting filament or CMEs, in the low corona. Moreover, for the X-class flare events studied in this paper the peak reconnection electric field is about O(10 2 V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate p articles to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 10 km. Nonthermal electrons thus generated can produce hard X-rays, consistent with impulsive HXR emission observed during the flare rise phase

  8. The sagging rope sign in achondroplasia - different from Perthes' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingade, Viraj U.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Hong, Jun-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The sagging rope sign is a radio-opaque line, seen on radiographs of the hips, with Perthes' disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause and importance of this sign in achondroplasia, and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes' disease. Serial radiograms, along with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 achondroplasic patients. Forty-two achondroplasic patients, reported at our institute (for routine outpatient consultation, spine surgeries, deformity corrections, limb-lengthening procedures) were included in this study. There were 26 males and 16 females. The sign was observed bilaterally, in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads, with presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang, seen on 3-D CT scan, corresponded to the sagging rope sign on radiographs. Presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from Perthes' disease, and its presence does not carry a bad prognosis in achondroplasia. (orig.)

  9. Time domain structures in a colliding magnetic flux rope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shawn Wenjie; Gekelman, Walter; Dehaas, Timothy; Vincena, Steve; Pribyl, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Electron phase-space holes, regions of positive potential on the scale of the Debye length, have been observed in auroras as well as in laboratory experiments. These potential structures, also known as Time Domain Structures (TDS), are packets of intense electric field spikes that have significant components parallel to the local magnetic field. In an ongoing investigation at UCLA, TDS were observed on the surface of two magnetized flux ropes produced within the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). A barium oxide (BaO) cathode was used to produce an 18 m long magnetized plasma column and a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) source was used to create 11 m long kink unstable flux ropes. Using two probes capable of measuring the local electric and magnetic fields, correlation analysis was performed on tens of thousands of these structures and their propagation velocities, probability distribution function and spatial distribution were determined. The TDS became abundant as the flux ropes collided and appear to emanate from the reconnection region in between them. In addition, a preliminary analysis of the permutation entropy and statistical complexity of the data suggests that the TDS signals may be chaotic in nature. Work done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA which is supported by DOE and NSF.

  10. Experiments and simulations of flux rope dynamics in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Thomas; Abbate, Sara; Ryutov, Dmitri

    2005-10-01

    The behavior of flux ropes is a key issue in solar, space and astrophysics. For instance, magnetic fields and currents on the Sun are sheared and twisted as they store energy, experience an as yet unidentified instability, open into interplanetary space, eject the plasma trapped in them, and cause a flare. The Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) provides a simple means to systematically characterize the linear and non-linear evolution of driven, dissipative, unstable plasma-current filaments. Topology evolves in three dimensions, supports multiple modes, and can bifurcate to quasi-helical equilibria. The ultimate saturation to a nonlinear force and energy balance is the link to a spectrum of relaxation processes. RSX has adjustable energy density β1 to β 1, non-negligible equilibrium plasma flows, driven steady-state scenarios, and adjustable line tying at boundaries. We will show magnetic structure of a kinking, rotating single line tied column, magnetic reconnection between two flux ropes, and pictures of three braided flux ropes. We use computed simulation movies to bridge the gap between the solar physics scales and experimental data with computational modeling. In collaboration with Ivo Furno, Tsitsi Madziwa-Nussinovm Giovanni Lapenta, Adam Light, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sara Abbate, Torino Polytecnico; and Dmitri Ryutov, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  11. Quasi-Static Evolution, Catastrophe, and Failed Eruption of Solar Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Ropes James Chen Beam Physics Branch Plasma Physics Division December 30, 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. i REPORT...pressure gradient force combine to balance the major radial hoop force. The macroscopic forces on the flux ropes and onset conditions are quantified...Solar physics theory 67-4989-07 Quasi-Static Evolution, Catastrophe, and “Failed” Eruption of Solar Flux Ropes James Chen1 Plasma Physics Division

  12. Transport properties of a potassium-doped single-wall carbon nanotube rope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R. S.; Kim, H. J.; Fischer, J. E.; Lefebvre, J.; Radosavljevic, M.; Hone, J.; Johnson, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Four-probe resistance vs temperature and gate voltage are reported for an individual single-wall carbon nanotube rope before and after doping in situ with potassium. All the features in R(T) from unoriented bulk material, before and after doping, are qualitatively reproduced by the rope data. The 5.3 K conductance of the pristine rope decreases with positive gate voltage, while G vs V g becomes featureless after K doping. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Simulating AIA observations of a flux rope ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations now show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. While this is the case, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities. To fully understand CMEs we need to compare equivalent quantities derived from both observations and theoretical models. This will aid in bridging the gap between observations and models. Aims: To this end, we aim to produce synthesised AIA observations from simulations of a flux rope ejection. To carry this out we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Methods: We perform a simulation where a flux rope is ejected from the solar corona. From the density and temperature of the plasma in the simulation we synthesise AIA observations. The emission is then integrated along the line of sight using the instrumental response function of AIA. Results: We sythesise observations of AIA in the channels at 304 Å, 171 Å, 335 Å, and 94 Å. The synthesised observations show a number of features similar to actual observations and in particular reproduce the general development of CMEs in the low corona as observed by AIA. In particular we reproduce an erupting and expanding arcade in the 304 Å and 171 Å channels with a high density core. Conclusions: The ejection of a flux rope reproduces many of the features found in the AIA observations. This work is therefore a step forward in bridging the gap between observations and models, and can lead to more direct interpretations of EUV observations in terms of flux rope

  14. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  15. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire.Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS, titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA, nickel-titanium (NiTi and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate.Results: The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00. Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires.  Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  16. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  17. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  19. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  20. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  1. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  2. Measurements of the Canonical Helicity Evolution of a Gyrating Kinked Flux Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, J.; Sears, J.; Intrator, T.; You, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic structures in the solar corona and planetary magnetospheres are often modelled as magnetic flux ropes governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); however, inside these structures, as exhibited in reconnection, conversions between magnetic and kinetic energies occur over a wide range of scales. Flux ropes based on the flux of canonical momentum circulation extend the flux rope concept to include effects of finite particle momentum and present the distinct advantage of reconciling all plasma regimes - e.g. kinetic, two-fluid, and MHD - with the topological concept of helicity: twists, writhes, and linkages. This presentation shows the first visualization and analysis of the 3D dynamics of canonical flux ropes and their relative helicity evolution from laboratory measurements. Ion and electron canonical flux ropes are visualized from a dataset of Mach, triple, and Ḃ probe measurements at over 10,000 spatial locations of a gyrating kinked flux rope. The flux ropes co-gyrate with the peak density and electron temperature in and out of a measurement volume. The electron and ion canonical flux ropes twist with opposite handedness and the ion flux ropes writhe around the electron flux ropes. The relative cross helicity between the magnetic and ion flow vorticity flux ropes dominates the relative ion canonical helicity and is anti-correlated with the relative magnetic helicity. The 3D nature of the kink and a reverse eddy current affect the helicity evolution. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-735426

  3. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  4. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  5. Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

    2009-01-01

    A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

  6. Transport of timber by rope-and-pulley lift in steep seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaniol, J

    1980-11-01

    This paper describes the rope-and-pulley lift used to transport timber and small items of equipment, which has been installed in tubbing in the return air drop-hole. Gives details of how the lift works and the equipment involved (winch, rope, slings, pulleys, safety and signalling arrangements). Looks at the future prospects of installing these lifts. (In French)

  7. Modeling of Local Magnetic Field Enhancements within Solar Flux Ropes

    OpenAIRE

    Romashets, E; Vandas, M; Poedts, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    To model and study local magnetic-field enhancements in a solar flux rope we consider the magnetic field in its interior as a superposition of two linear (constant alpha) force-free magnetic-field distributions, viz. a global one, which is locally similar to a part of the cylinder, and a local torus-shaped magnetic distribution. The newly derived solution for a toroid with an aspect ratio close to unity is applied. The symmetry axis of the toroid and that of the cylinder may or may not coinci...

  8. Strangeness production in nuclear collisions: Color rope formations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneev, V.D.; Amelin, N.S.; Csernai, L.P.; Gudima, K.K.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.

    1992-12-01

    Strangeness production at SPS-CERN energies is studied within the Quark Gluon String Model. This analysis indicates that the observed shape of rapidity and transverse mass distributions are reproduced fairly well for both peripheral and central heavy ion collisions. However, for central collisions the model underpredicts strange particles abundance by a factor of about 2:2:4 for K S 0 , Λ and anti Λ, respectively. This discrepancy can be considered as a possible manifestation of string-string interactions of a collective type similar to the formation of a color rope. The model predictions for coming experiments with the Pb beam at CERN are given. (orig.)

  9. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Study of rope slippage (TA 10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Weber, H.; Gerlach, A.; Sindern, W.

    1994-03-01

    The test results show that rope slippage does occur occasionally in Koepe hoists, mainly with hinged loads. The countermeasures chosen in most cases include modification of the rope lubrication (coefficient of friction), of load ratios S 1 /S 2 , (ballast, reduction of payload), or organisational measures (maintenance). Results and data are reported giving evidence that with the proposed, additional measures for preventing or managing rope slippage, the designed Koepe hoist for hinged payloads up to 85 t can be operated safely without risk of damage caused by rope slippage. It is also proven that there is no need to change ballast in case of transport of varying payloads, as this will not create the risk of undue rope slippage. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Pre-eruptive Magnetic Reconnection within a Multi-flux-rope System in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Liu, Rui; Wang, Haimin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    The solar corona is frequently disrupted by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), whose core structure is believed to be a flux rope made of helical magnetic field. This has become a “standard” picture; though, it remains elusive how the flux rope forms and evolves toward eruption. While one-third of the ejecta passing through spacecraft demonstrate a flux-rope structure, the rest have complex magnetic fields. Are they originating from a coherent flux rope, too? Here we investigate the source region of a complex ejecta, focusing on a flare precursor with definitive signatures of magnetic reconnection, i.e., nonthermal electrons, flaring plasma, and bidirectional outflowing blobs. Aided by nonlinear force-free field modeling, we conclude that the reconnection occurs within a system of multiple braided flux ropes with different degrees of coherency. The observation signifies the importance of internal structure and dynamics in understanding CMEs and in predicting their impacts on Earth.

  11. Formation and evolution of plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Raeder, J.

    2013-12-01

    The observation of plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail was crucial to establish the simultaneous presence of multiple x-lines in the tail, and has become the basis for the Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) model of substorms. While the 'classical' NENL model envisions x-lines that extend across the entire tail, recent observations have shown that neither do the x-lines and resulting plasmoids encompass the entire tail, nor do the x-lines have to lie along the y-axis. Furthermore, several x-line/plasmoid/flux-rope structures can exist simultaneously. The fragmentation of the tail by spatially and temporally limited x-lines has important consequences for the mass and energy budget of the tail. Recent ARTEMIS observations have shown that the plasmoids in the distant tail are limited in the Y direction and some flux ropes are tilted during their tailward propagation. In this study we simulate plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM). We investigate the generation mechanisms for tail plasmoids and flux-ropes and their evolution as they propagate in the magnetotail. The simulation results show that the limited extend of NENL controls the length or the Y scale of tail plasmoid and flux rope. In addition, by studying their 3D magnetic topology we find that tilted flux ropes form due to a progressive spreading of the reconnection line along the east-west direction, which produces and releases the two ends of the flux rope at different times and at different speeds. By constructing a catalogue of observational signatures of plasmoid and flux rope we compare the differences of their signatures and find that large-scale plasmoids have much weaker core fields than that found inside the small-scale flux ropes.

  12. Magnetic Flux Rope Identification and Characterization from Observationally Driven Solar Coronal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Chris; Yeates, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Formed through magnetic field shearing and reconnection in the solar corona, magnetic flux ropes are structures of twisted magnetic field, threaded along an axis. Their evolution and potential eruption are of great importance for space weather. Here we describe a new methodology for the automated detection of flux ropes in simulated magnetic fields, utilizing field-line helicity. Our Flux Rope Detection and Organization (FRoDO) code, which measures the magnetic flux and helicity content of pre-erupting flux ropes over time, as well as detecting eruptions, is publicly available. As a first demonstration, the code is applied to the output from a time-dependent magnetofrictional model, spanning 1996 June 15-2014 February 10. Over this period, 1561 erupting and 2099 non-erupting magnetic flux ropes are detected, tracked, and characterized. For this particular model data, erupting flux ropes have a mean net helicity magnitude of 2.66× {10}43 Mx2, while non-erupting flux ropes have a significantly lower mean of 4.04× {10}42 Mx2, although there is overlap between the two distributions. Similarly, the mean unsigned magnetic flux for erupting flux ropes is 4.04× {10}21 Mx, significantly higher than the mean value of 7.05× {10}20 Mx for non-erupting ropes. These values for erupting flux ropes are within the broad range expected from observational and theoretical estimates, although the eruption rate in this particular model is lower than that of observed coronal mass ejections. In the future, the FRoDO code will prove to be a valuable tool for assessing the performance of different non-potential coronal simulations and comparing them with observations.

  13. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  15. In vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium esthetic orthodontic archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Valletta, Rosa; Bucci, Rosaria; Rivieccio, Virginia; Galeotti, Angela; Michelotti, Ambrosina; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) esthetic orthodontic archwires with different surface coatings. Three fully coated, tooth-colored NiTi wires (BioCosmetic, Titanol Cosmetic, EverWhite), two ion-implanted wires (TMA Purple, Sentalloy High Aesthetic), five uncoated NiTi wires (BioStarter, BioTorque, Titanol Superelastic, Memory Wire Superelastic, and Sentalloy), one β-titanium wire (TMA), and one stainless steel wire (Stainless Steel) were considered for this study. The wire samples were placed at 37°C in airtight test tubes containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (0.1 mg/mL) for 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. The cell viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured with this medium was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (α  =  .05). The highest cytotoxic effect was reached on day 30 for all samples. The archwires exhibited a cytotoxicity on HGFs ranging from "none" to "slight," with the exception of the BioTorque, which resulted in moderate cytotoxicity on day 30. Significant differences were found between esthetic archwires and their uncoated pairs only for BioCosmetic (P  =  .001) and EverWhite (P < .001). Under the experimental conditions, all of the NiTi esthetic archwires resulted in slight cytotoxicity, as did the respective uncoated wires. For this reason their clinical use may be considered to have similar risks to the uncoated archwires.

  16. Elasticity and mechanical advantage in cables and ropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, M J

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity of the cable. This solution has several complex and interesting features, e.g. a large increase in the tension in the cable may occur upon application of F if (i) F lies in a certain range and (ii) the initial tension T 1 in the cable (before F is applied) satisfies T 1 < 0.0340 κ. Here, κ is the spring constant of a unit length of the cable. For steel cables and cables composed of other materials such as carbon nanorods where the elasticity is low, significant increases in tension are possible. Examples involving walking a tightrope and attempting to increase the tension in a rope hauling a load are considered. Two programs to solve the equations of this work are available in the electronic version of this journal

  17. Colour rope model for extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Knoll, J.

    1984-04-01

    Our goal is to investigate the possible cumulative effects of the colour fields of the observable meson multiplicity distribution in the central rapidity region in extreme relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first Chapter we overview the space-time picture of the string formation in a central heavy ion collision. We take into account trivial geometrical factors in a straight line geometry. In the second Chapter we consider the colour chargation process of heavy ions as a random walk. We calculate the expectation value and the relative standard deviation of the total effective charge square. In the third Chapter we consider the stochastic decay of a K-fold string-rope to mesons by the Schwinger-mechanism. We calculate the expected lifetime of a K-fold string and the time for the first quark antiquark pair creation. In the fourth Chapter we deal with the meson production of a K-fold rope relative to that of a single string and hence we look for a scaling between A + A and p + p collisions. (orig./HSI)

  18. Sublaminar wire migration into the medulla oblongata: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziarz, Alex; Aref, Mohammed; Vinh, Brian; Mensinkai, Arun; Almenawer, Saleh A; Reddy, Kesava

    2017-06-01

    Atlantoaxial procedures have been developed in an effort to ensure solid C1-C2 fusion. However, techniques that involve sublaminar wiring have the potential for neural structure injury. We present the management of a patient who previously underwent Gallie fusion 10 years ago and is presenting with a dislodged titanium wire that has migrated into the medulla oblongata. A 52-year-old female patient known with rheumatoid arthritis presented with truncal ataxia and food regurgitation 10 years after undergoing a C1-C2 Gallie fusion. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed that a wire from her Gallie fusion procedure migrated into the medulla oblongata. The patient underwent foramen magnum decompression with C1 bilateral laminectomy, instrumentation, and removal of a migrated wire. Six months later, a CT scan showed that all occipital screws were pulled out. In the revision surgery, new occipital screws were placed with a resultant significant improvement in patient's gait postoperatively. Wire migration as a differential diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with neurological dysfunction who underwent surgical treatment with sublaminar wire fusion techniques.

  19. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  20. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  1. The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods.

  2. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikov, V. [Gosgortechnadzor, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, V. [Intron Plus, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  3. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, V.; Sukhorukov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  4. Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging Rope When Pair-Housed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosia Zobel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day, but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively. Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24% and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24% brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43% and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53% rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.

  5. Testing a new flux rope model using the HELCATS CME catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillard, Alexis Paul; Lavarra, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We present a magnetically-driven flux rope model that computes the forces acting on a twisted magnetic flux rope from the Sun to 1AU. This model assumes a more realistic flux rope geometry than assumed before by these types of models. The balance of force is computed in an analogous manner to the well-known Chen flux-rope model. The 3-D vector components of the magnetic field measured by a probe flying through the flux rope can be extracted for any flux rope orientation imposed near the Sun. We test this model through a parametric study and a systematic comparison of the model with the HELCATS catalogues (imagery and in situ). We also report on our investigations of other physical mechanisms such as the shift of flux-surfaces associated with the magnetic forces acting to accelerate the flux rope from the lower to upper corona. Finally, we present an evaluation of this model for space-weather predictions. This work was partly funded by the HELCATS project under the FP7 EU contract number 606692.

  6. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  7. MHD Simulations of the Eruption of Coronal Flux Ropes under Coronal Streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yuhong, E-mail: yfan@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, we investigate the eruption of coronal flux ropes underlying coronal streamers and the development of a prominence eruption. We initialize a quasi-steady solution of a coronal helmet streamer, into which we impose at the lower boundary the slow emergence of a part of a twisted magnetic torus. As a result, a quasi-equilibrium flux rope is built up under the streamer. With varying streamer sizes and different lengths and total twists of the flux rope that emerges, we found different scenarios for the evolution from quasi-equilibrium to eruption. In the cases with a broad streamer, the flux rope remains well confined until there is sufficient twist such that it first develops the kink instability and evolves through a sequence of kinked, confined states with increasing height until it eventually develops a “hernia-like” ejective eruption. For significantly twisted flux ropes, prominence condensations form in the dips of the twisted field lines due to runaway radiative cooling. Once formed, the prominence-carrying field becomes significantly non-force-free due to the weight of the prominence, despite having low plasma β . As the flux rope erupts, the prominence erupts, showing substantial draining along the legs of the erupting flux rope. The prominence may not show a kinked morphology even though the flux rope becomes kinked. On the other hand, in the case with a narrow streamer, the flux rope with less than one wind of twist can erupt via the onset of the torus instability.

  8. The formation and launch of a coronal mass ejection flux rope: a narrative based on observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a data-driven narrative of the launch and early evolution of the magnetic structure that gave rise to the coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2008 December 12. The structure formed on December 7 and launched early on December 12. We interpret this structure as a flux rope based on prelaunch morphology, postlaunch magnetic measurements, and the lack of large-scale magnetic reconnection signatures at launch. We ascribe three separate onset mechanisms to the complete disconnection of the flux rope from the Sun. It took 19 hr for the flux rope to be fully removed from the Sun, by which time the segment that first disconnected was around 40 R ☉ away. This implies that the original flux rope was stretched or broken; we provide evidence for a possible bisection. A transient dark arcade was observed on the Sun that was later obscured by a bright arcade, which we interpret as the strapping field stretching and magnetically reconnecting as it disconnected from the coronal field. We identify three separate structures in coronagraph images to be manifestations of the same original flux rope, and we describe the implications for CME interpretation. We cite the rotation in the central flux rope vector of the magnetic clouds observed in situ by ACE/Wind and STEREO-B as evidence of the kink instability of the eastern segment of the flux rope. Finally, we discuss possible alternative narratives, including multiple prelaunch magnetic structures and the nonflux rope scenario. Our results support the view that, in at least some CMEs, flux rope formation occurs before launch.

  9. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science/CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M., E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  10. Formation and evolution of plasmoid and flux-rope in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yasong; Raeder, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The observation of plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail was crucial to establish the simultaneous presence of multiple x-lines in the tail, and has become the basis for the Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) model of substorms. While the "classical" NENL model envisions x-lines that extend across the entire tail, recent observations have shown that neither do the x-lines and resulting plasmoids encompass the entire tail, nor do the x-lines have to lie along the y-axis. The fragmentation of the tail by spatially and temporally limited x-lines has important consequences for the mass and energy budget of the tail. Recent ARTEMIS observations have shown that the plasmoids in the distant tail are limited in the Y direction and some flux ropes are tilted during their tailward propagation. Understanding their formation and evolution during their propagation through the magnetotail shall shred more light on the general energy and flux transport of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this study we simulate plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM). We investigate the generation mechanisms for tail plasmoids and flux-ropes and their evolution as they propagate in the magnetotail. The simulation results show that the limited extend of NENL controls the length or the Y scale of tail plasmoid and flux rope. In addition, by studying their 3D magnetic topology we find that the tilted flux rope forms due to a progressive spreading of reconnection line along the east-west direction, which produces and releases two ends of the flux rope at different times and in different speeds. By constructing a catalogue of observational signatures of plasmoid and flux rope we compare the differences of their signatures and find that large-scale plasmoids have much weaker core fields than that inside the small-scale flux ropes.

  11. Global simulation of formation and evolution of plasmoid and flux-rope in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Raeder, J.; Du, A.

    2014-12-01

    The observation of plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail was crucial to establish the simultaneous presence of multiple x-lines in the tail, and has become the basis for the Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) model of substorms. While the "classical" NENL model envisions x-lines that extend across the entire tail, recent observations have shown that neither do the x-lines and resulting plasmoids encompass the entire tail, nor do the x-lines have to lie along the y-axis. The fragmentation of the tail by spatially and temporally limited x-lines has important consequences for the mass and energy budget of the tail. Recent ARTEMIS observations have shown that the plasmoids in the distant tail are limited in the Y direction and some flux ropes are tilted during their tailward propagation. Understanding their formation and evolution during their propagation through the magnetotail shall shred more light on the general energy and flux transport of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this study we simulate plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM). We investigate the generation mechanisms for tail plasmoids and flux-ropes and their evolution as they propagate in the magnetotail. The simulation results show that the limited extend of NENL controls the length or the Y scale of tail plasmoid and flux rope. In addition, by studying their 3D magnetic topology we find that the tilted flux rope forms due to a progressive spreading of reconnection line along the east-west direction, which produces and releases two ends of the flux rope at different times and in different speeds. By constructing a catalogue of observational signatures of plasmoid and flux rope we compare the differences of their signatures and find that large-scale plasmoids have much weaker core fields than that inside the small-scale flux ropes.

  12. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125 I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained

  13. Injuries of the Sternoclavicular Joint - An Innovative Approach in the Management of a Rare Injury: Tight Rope Fixation of the Costo-Clavicular Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterkofler, Jan; Merschin, David; Langenbach, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Schulz-Drost, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The costoclavicular ligament (CCL) provides the most tight stability within the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ), followed by the most cited sternoclavicular ligaments (SCL). Their disruption may cause severe instability of the SCJ. Different treatment options, such as the use of plates, wires or autologous tendons are associated with mainly limited functional outcome. Could a stabilization of CCL next to an anatomic fixation of the SCL provide sufficient reconstruction of the SCJ? Methods: A 58-year-old male showed severe anterior and painful instability of the SCJ following a fall on his shoulder 8 weeks ago. The SCJ had been reconstructed in an open procedure with stabilization of the CCL employing 2 tight ropes and anatomical suture of the SCL. Follow-up was carried out 78 weeks after operation. Results: The reduction of the SCJ was successful. X-ray proved the anatomic position of the SCJ. Pain was decreased in between the first 6 weeks. The patient showed uneventful follow-up and returned to work 6 months after the procedureas a hard working farmer. Conclusions: Innovative stabilization of the CCL with tight ropes additional to a suture of the SCL may enable anatomic reconstruction of the SCJ considering cosmetic and functional results. Celsius.

  14. A rope-net support system for the liquid scintillator detector for the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialek, A., E-mail: abialek@snolab.ca [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Chen, M. [Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Cleveland, B. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Gorel, P.; Hallin, A. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Harvey, P.J.; Heise, J. [Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Kraus, C. [Laurentian University, Sudbury (Canada); Krauss, C.B. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Lawson, I. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Ng, C.J.; Pinkney, B. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Rogowsky, D.M. [Rogowsky Engineering Ltd, AECOM Canada Ltd (Canada); Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.; Soukup, J. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Vázquez-Jáuregui, E. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Laurentian University, Sudbury (Canada)

    2016-08-11

    The detector for the SNO+ experiment consists of 780 000 kg of liquid scintillator contained in an acrylic vessel that is surrounded by water. A mechanical system has been installed to counteract the 1.25 MN of buoyant force on the acrylic and prevent the vessel from moving. The system is a rope net, designed using a Finite Element Analysis to calculate the amount of stress on the acrylic induced by the ropes, hydrostatic pressures and gravity. A dedicated test was performed to measure strains in the acrylic arising from the complex geometry of the knots in the rope system. The ratio between measured and FEA calculated strains was 1.3.

  15. Experimental investigation of pressure fluctuations caused by a vortex rope in a draft tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, O; Ruprecht, A; Göde, E; Riedelbauch, S

    2012-01-01

    In the last years hydro power plants have taken the task of power-frequency control for the electrical grid. Therefore turbines in storage hydro power plants often operate outside their optimum. If Francis-turbines and pump-turbines operate at off-design conditions, a vortex rope in the draft tube can develop. The vortex rope can cause pressure oscillations. In addition to low frequencies caused by the rotation of the vortex rope and the harmonics of these frequencies, pressure fluctuations with higher frequencies can be observed in some operating points too. In this experimental investigation the flow structure and behavior of the vortex rope movement in the draft tube of a model pump-turbine are analyzed. The investigation focuses on the correlation of the pressure fluctuation frequency measured at the draft tube wall with the movement of the vortex rope. The movement of the vortex rope is analyzed by the velocity field in the draft tube which was measured with particle image velocimetry. Additionally, the vortex rope movement has been analyzed with the captures of high-speed-movies from the cavitating vortex rope. Besides the rotation of the vortex rope due to pressure fluctuation with low frequencies the results of the measurement also show a correlation between the rotation of the elliptical or deformed rope cross-section and the higher frequency pressure pulsation. An approximation shows that the frequencies of the pressure fluctuation and the movement of the vortex rope are also connected with the velocity of the flow. Taking into account the size and position of the cavitating vortex core as well as the velocity at the position of the surface of the cavitating vortex core the time-period of the rotation of the vortex core can be approximated. The results show that both, the low frequency pressure fluctuation and the higher frequency pressure fluctuation are correlating with the vortex rope movement. With this estimation, the period of the higher frequency

  16. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  17. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2018-01-01

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  18. A biomechanical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible wire in cervical spine fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G J; Greenberg, S S; Cohen, D S; Latta, L L; Eismont, F J

    1993-10-15

    In a bovine cervical spine model, the ultimate and fatigue strengths as well as relative magnetic resonance imaging artifact produced by titanium, cobalt chrome, and stainless-steel wires in various gauges were assessed. Single-cycle and fatigue strength of wire constructs were measured. Although larger wires generally had greater static strength, fatigue strength was mixed. Sixteen-gauge titanium, and all stainless-steel models (22-gauge braided, 18-gauge, and Songer cable) withstood 10,000 cycles without failure, whereas all other constructs rarely could withstand a similar 10,000 cycles. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on calf cervical spines instrumented with the various materials. Titanium exhibited the least artifact, stainless-steel showed the greatest artifact, and cobalt chrome an intermediate amount. Although titanium wire produces the least amount of magnetic resonance imaging artifact, it remains a poor choice for implant fixation because its notch sensitivity reduces its fatigue resistance compared with stainless steel, which remains the more dependable choice.

  19. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  20. Rope rescue in National fire-fighting and rescue system

    OpenAIRE

    SOCHACKI MARIAN

    2008-01-01

    Автор описывает организацию, функционирование и место системы спасения с высоты в Государственной спасательно-гасящей системе.The author describes organization, working and place of rope rescue in National Firefighting and Rescue System (KSRG).

  1. Fabrication of wire and flat strips with elevated recrystallization temperature of Mo monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.M.; Nesgovorov, V.V.; Kabakova, L.G.; Korzukhin, V.E.; Savitskij, E.M.; Burkhanov, G.S.; Ottenberg, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is developed for manufacturing wire and flat strip of elevated recrystallization point from single crystals fo molybdenum with micro-additions of zirconium and titanium by rotary hot forging with subsequent drawing under hydrodynamic friction conditions. Flat strip is manufactured next from a wire annealed at 1300-1400 deg C in hydrogen. Resultant wire and flat strip feature a high recrystallization point and a good shape stability. Tests on their ultimate strength on the range of temperatures between 20 and 1700 deg C have shown that the maximum temperature of the recrystallization onset is that of a wire from Mo single crystals of orientation [110], containing micro-additions of Zr and Ti, whereas loss of strength is at its highest in a wire from non-alloyed single-crystal molybdenum

  2. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  3. Non-Gaussianity and cross-scale coupling in interplanetary magnetic field turbulence during a rope-rope magnetic reconnection event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rodrigo A.; Schelin, Adriane B.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Ferreira, José L.

    2018-03-01

    In a recent paper (Chian et al., 2016) it was shown that magnetic reconnection at the interface region between two magnetic flux ropes is responsible for the genesis of interplanetary intermittent turbulence. The normalized third-order moment (skewness) and the normalized fourth-order moment (kurtosis) display a quadratic relation with a parabolic shape that is commonly observed in observational data from turbulence in fluids and plasmas, and is linked to non-Gaussian fluctuations due to coherent structures. In this paper we perform a detailed study of the relation between the skewness and the kurtosis of the modulus of the magnetic field |B| during a triple interplanetary magnetic flux rope event. In addition, we investigate the skewness-kurtosis relation of two-point differences of |B| for the same event. The parabolic relation displays scale dependence and is found to be enhanced during magnetic reconnection, rendering support for the generation of non-Gaussian coherent structures via rope-rope magnetic reconnection. Our results also indicate that a direct coupling between the scales of magnetic flux ropes and the scales within the inertial subrange occurs in the solar wind.

  4. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  5. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires′ surface texture and friction resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Aly Abbassy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Dunnett′s t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  6. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated with low friction ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando KOIKE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies investigated the mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated the ligatures. Objective This study aimed to compare the load-deflection of orthodontic wires with round section of 0.016” made of stainless steel (SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi and glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite (GFRPC. Material and method Sixty specimens obtained from 10 sectioned pre-contoured arches (TP Orthodontics, were divided into 3 groups of 20 according to each type of material (1 esthetic-type wire and 2 not esthetic and length of 50 mm. The methodology consisted of a 3-point bending test using esthetic ceramic brackets (INVU, TP Orthodontics, Edgewise, 0.022”x 0.025” as points of support. The tensile tests were performed on a mechanical test machine, at a speed of 10 mm/min, deflection of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm. Friedman’s Non Parametric Multiple comparisons test was used (P<0.05. Result The nickel-titanium wire presented smaller load/ deflection compared with stainless steel. GFRPC wires had lower strength values among all groups evaluated (P<.05. The steel wire showed permanent deformation after 3 mm deflection, NiTi wire demonstrated memory effect and the esthetic type had fractures with loss of strength. Conclusion It can be concluded that steel wires have high strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load / deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  7. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Wire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (p<0.05). The flexural strength of groups FSE and NS (PTFE and uncoated) was higher compared with that of the other groups (p<0.05). We concluded that the roughness and flexural strength of the orthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  8. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  10. High-risk adolescent girls, resiliency and a ropes course | Bloemhoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of an outdoor adventure-based recreation programme (ropes course) on the resiliency of ... potential benefits of adventure-based recreation programming in developing resiliency in ...

  11. GENESIS OF INTERPLANETARY INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE: A CASE STUDY OF ROPE–ROPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Loew, Murray H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feng, Heng Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [UnB-Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Muñoz, Pablo R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of La Serena, Av. Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Sibeck, David G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wu, De J., E-mail: abraham.chian@gmail.com [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad–Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope–rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.

  12. Studying the Formation and Evolution of Eruptive Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Solar magnetic eruptions are dramatic sources of solar activity, and dangerous sources of space weather hazards. Many of these eruptions take the form of magnetic flux ropes, i.e., magnetic fieldlines wrapping around a core magnetic flux tube. Investigating the processes which form these flux ropes both prior to and during eruption, and investigating their evolution after eruption, can give us a critical window into understanding the sources of and processes involved in these eruptions. This presentation will discuss modeling and observational investigations into these various phases of flux rope formation, eruption, and evolution, and will discuss how these different explorations can be used to develop a more complete picture of erupting flux rope dynamics. This work is funded by the NASA Living with a Star program.

  13. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 3 Rationale – Titanium Cost Build-up Material Cost Ilmenite $0.27/kg Ti sponge Titanium slag $0.75/kg Ti Sponge TiCl4 and TiO2 $3....10/kg Ti Sponge Ti Sponge raw materials costs $5.50/kg Ti Sponge Total Ti Sponge cost $9-$11/kg Ti Sponge Ti ingot $15-17/kg Ti Aluminium $1.7/kg Al Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting...

  14. ROPES reveals past land cover and pollen productivity estimates from single pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Couwenberg, John

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions of past vegetation cover commonly require pollen productivity estimates (PPEs). PPEs are calibrated in extensive and rather cumbersome surface-sample studies, and are so far only available for selected regions. Moreover, it may be questioned whether present-day pollen-landcover relationships are valid for palaeo-situations. We here introduce the ROPES approach that simultaneously derives PPEs and mean plant abundances from single pollen records. ROPES requires pollen counts and pollen accumulation rates (PARs, grains cm-2 year-1). Pollen counts are used to reconstruct plant abundances following the REVEALS approach. The principle of ROPES is that changes in plant abundance are linearly represented in observed PAR values. For example, if the PAR of pine doubles, so should the REVEALS reconstructed abundance of pine. Consequently, if a REVEALS reconstruction is ‘correct’ (i.e. ‘correct’ PPEs are used) the ratio ‘PAR over REVEALS’ is constant for each taxon along all samples of a record. With incorrect PPEs, the ratio will instead vary. ROPES starts from random (likely incorrect) PPEs, but then adjusts them using an optimization algorithm with the aim to minimize variation in the ‘PAR over REVEALS’ ratio across the record. ROPES thus simultaneously calculates mean plant abundances and PPEs. We illustrate the approach with test applications on nine synthetic pollen records. The results show that good performance of ROPES requires data sets with high underlying variation, many samples and low noise in the PAR data. ROPES can deliver first landcover reconstructions in regions for which PPEs are not yet available. The PPEs provided by ROPES may then allow for further REVEALS-based reconstructions. Similarly, ROPES can provide insight in pollen productivity during distinct periods of the past such as the Lateglacial. We see a potential to study spatial and temporal variation in pollen productivity for example in relation to site

  15. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  16. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  17. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  18. Galvanic coupling of steel and gold alloy lingual brackets with orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronis, Georgios; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). All bracket-wire combinations were immersed in acidic 0.1M NaCl 0.1M lactic acid and neutral NaF 0.3% (wt) electrolyte, and the potential differences were continuously recorded for 48 hours. The SEM/EDX analysis revealed that INC is a single-unit bracket made of a high gold (Au) alloy while IOV and STB are two-piece appliances in which the base and wing are made of SS alloys. The SS wire demonstrated austenite and martensite iron phase, while NiTi wire illustrated an intense austenite crystallographic structure with limited martensite. All bracket wire combinations showed potential differences below the threshold of galvanic corrosion (200 mV) except for INC and STB coupled with NiTi wire in NaF media. The electrochemical results indicate that all brackets tested demonstrated galvanic compatibility with SS wire, but fluoride treatment should be used cautiously with NiTi wires coupled with Au and SS brackets.

  19. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, C; Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F

    2010-01-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  20. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, C [Power Vision Engineering sarl Ch. des Champs-Courbes 1, CH-1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F, E-mail: christophe.nicolet@powervision-eng.c [Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne, EPFL Av. de Cour 33bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  1. 3DCORE: Forward modeling of solar storm magnetic flux ropes for space weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

    2018-05-01

    3DCORE forward models solar storm magnetic flux ropes called 3-Dimensional Coronal Rope Ejection (3DCORE). The code is able to produce synthetic in situ observations of the magnetic cores of solar coronal mass ejections sweeping over planets and spacecraft. Near Earth, these data are taken currently by the Wind, ACE and DSCOVR spacecraft. Other suitable spacecraft making these kind of observations carrying magnetometers in the solar wind were MESSENGER, Venus Express, MAVEN, and even Helios.

  2. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, C.; Zobeiri, A.; Maruzewski, P.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  3. A sourcebook of titanium alloy superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W

    1983-01-01

    In less than two decades the concept of supercon­ In every field of science there are one or two ductivity has been transformed from a laboratory individuals whose dedication, combined with an innate curiosity to usable large-scale applications. In the understanding, permits them to be able to grasp, late 1960's the concept of filamentary stabilization condense, and explain to the rest of us what that released the usefulness of zero resistance into the field is all about. For the field of titanium alloy marketplace, and the economic forces that drive tech­ superconductivity, such an individual is Ted Collings. nology soon focused on niobium-titanium alloys. They His background as a metallurgist has perhaps given him are ductile and thus fabricable into practical super­ a distinct advantage in understanding superconduc­ conducting wires that have the critical currents and tivity in titanium alloys because the optimization of fields necessary for large-scale devices. More than superconducting parameters in ...

  4. Multiple flux rope events at the magnetopause observations by TC-1 on 18 March 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Xiao

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From 23:10 to 23:50 UT on 18 March 2004, the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft detected eight flux ropes at the outbound crossing of the southern dawnside magnetopause. A notable guide field existed inside all ropes. In the mean time the Cluster spacecraft were staying in the magnetosheath and found that the events occurred under the condition of southward IMF Bz and dominant negative IMF By. There are six ropes that appeared quasi-periodically, with a repeated period being approximately 1-4 min. The last flux rope lasts for a longer time interval with a larger peak in the BN variations; it can thus be referred to as a typical FTE. The 18 March 2004 event is quite similar to the multiple flux rope event observed by Cluster on 26 January 2001 at the northern duskside high-latitude magnetopause. A detailed comparison of these two events is made in the paper. Preliminary studies imply that both of these multiple flux ropes events seem to be produced by component reconnection at the dayside low-latitude magnetopause.

  5. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  6. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Earth's Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, J. A.; Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Poh, G.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A major discovery by the Cluster mission and the previous generation of science missions is the presence of earthward and tailward moving magnetic flux ropes in the Earth's plasma sheet. However, the lack of high-time resolution plasma measurements severely limited progress concerning the formation and evolution of these reconnection generated structures. We use high-time resolution magnetic and electric field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission's first tail season to investigate: 1) the distribution of flux rope diameters relative to the local ion and electron inertial lengths; 2) the internal force balance sustaining these structures; and 3) the magnetic connectivity of the flux ropes to the Earth and/or the interplanetary medium; 4) the specific entropy of earthward moving flux ropes and the possible effect of "buoyancy" on how deep they penetrate into the inner magnetosphere; and 5) evidence for coalescence of adjacent flux ropes and/or the division of existing flux ropes through the formation of secondary X-lines. The results of these initial analyses will be discussed in terms of their implications for reconnection-driven magnetospheric dynamics and substorms.

  7. Sunward-propagating Solar Energetic Electrons inside Multiple Interplanetary Flux Ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Carcaboso, Fernando; Blanco, Juan J. [Dpto. de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Dresing, Nina; Klassen, Andreas; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, D-24118, Kiel (Germany); Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid [Institute of Physics/Kanzelhöhe Observatory, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Bučík, Radoslav [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Lario, David, E-mail: raul.gomezh@uah.es [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    On 2013 December 2 and 3, the SEPT and STE instruments on board STEREO-A observed two solar energetic electron events with unusual sunward-directed fluxes. Both events occurred during a time interval showing typical signatures of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The electron timing and anisotropies, combined with extreme-ultraviolet solar imaging and radio wave spectral observations, are used to confirm the solar origin and the injection times of the energetic electrons. The solar source of the ICME is investigated using remote-sensing observations and a three-dimensional reconstruction technique. In situ plasma and magnetic field data combined with energetic electron observations and a flux-rope model are used to determine the ICME magnetic topology and the interplanetary electron propagation path from the Sun to 1 au. Two consecutive flux ropes crossed the STEREO-A location and each electron event occurred inside a different flux rope. In both cases, the electrons traveled from the solar source to 1 au along the longest legs of the flux ropes still connected to the Sun. During the December 2 event, energetic electrons propagated along the magnetic field, while during the December 3 event they were propagating against the field. As found by previous studies, the energetic electron propagation times are consistent with a low number of field line rotations N < 5 of the flux rope between the Sun and 1 au. The flux rope model used in this work suggests an even lower number of rotations.

  8. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  9. Observing Formation of Flux Rope by Tether-cutting Reconnection in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Yang, Liheng; Wang, Jincheng; Zhao, Li, E-mail: zkxue@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Yunnan 650216 (China)

    2017-05-10

    Tether-cutting reconnection is considered as one mechanism for the formation of a flux rope. It has been proposed for more than 30 years; however, so far, direct observations of it are very rare. In this Letter, we present observations of the formation of a flux rope via tether-cutting reconnection in NOAA AR 11967 on 2014 February 2 by combining observations with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The tether-cutting reconnection occurs between two sets of highly sheared magnetic arcades. Comprehensive observational evidence of the reconnection is as follows: changes of the connections between the arcades, brightenings at the reconnection site, hot outflows, formation of a flux rope, slow-rise motion of the flux rope, and flux cancelation. The outflows are along three directions from the reconnection site to the footpoints with the velocities from 24 ± 1 km s{sup −1} to 69 ± 5 km s{sup −1}. Additionally, it is found that the newly formed flux rope connects far footpoints and has a left-handed twisted structure with many fine threads and a concave-up-shape structure in the middle. All the observations are in agreement with the tether-cutting model and provide evidence that tether-cutting reconnection leads to the formation of the flux rope associated with flux shear flow and cancelation.

  10. Management of displaced comminuted patellar fracture with titanium cable cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Yueping, Ouyang; Wen, Yuan

    2010-08-01

    Management of a displaced comminuted patellar fracture is challenging. Tension band wiring and lag screw fixation are not suitable for such a fracture pattern. Stainless steel wiring with various configurations has been the mainstay of treatment. However, issues of loss of fixation and breakage of wire have not been resolved yet. Partial or total patellectomy is the last resort with a detrimental effect on quadriceps power. Braided titanium cable is stronger in tensile strength and better in fatigue resistance than the stainless steel monofilament wire, and the tension of fixation could be controlled by a graded instrument in its application. We used titanium cable to treat 21 consecutive patients with displaced comminuted patellar fracture. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 24 months (12 to 32 months). The mean score at the final follow-up was 27 points (25 to 30) using the Böstman method. There was no complication except breakage of one cable at the sixth week after the operation and the fracture had united despite the breakage. This technique is simple and effective for these difficult fractures and avoided prolonged immobilisation of the knee. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  12. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  13. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  14. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  15. Chitosan patterning on titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert Chirivella, Eduardo; Pérez Feito, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Ribeiro, Sylvie; Correia, Daniela; González Martin, María Luisa; Manero Planella, José María; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in medical implants because of their excellent properties. However, bacterial infection is a frequent cause of titanium-based implant failure and also compromises its osseointegration. In this study, we report a new simple method of providing titanium surfaces with antibacterial properties by alternating antibacterial chitosan domains with titanium domains in the micrometric scale. Surface microgrooves were etched on pure titanium disks at i...

  16. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  17. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  18. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  19. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  20. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  1. A Markov chain analysis of the effectiveness of drum-buffer-rope material flow management in job shop environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints is an approach for production planning and control, which emphasizes on the constraints in the system to increase throughput. The theory of constraints is often referred to as Drum-Buffer-Rope developed originally by Goldratt. Drum-Buffer-Rope uses the drum or constraint to create a schedule based on the finite capacity of the first bottleneck. Because of complexity of the job shop environment, Drum-Buffer-Rope material flow management has very little attention to job shop environment. The objective of this paper is to apply the Drum-Buffer-Rope technique in the job shop environment using a Markov chain analysis to compare traditional method with Drum-Buffer-Rope. Four measurement parameters were considered and the result showed the advantage of Drum-Buffer-Rope approach compared with traditional one.

  2. Performance Enhancement of the Space Shuttle RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint Using a Carbon Rope Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, M. E.; McGuire, J. R.; McWhorter, B. B.; Frost, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    A carbon rope "thermal barrier" is being considered as a component to enhance performance of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle-to-case joint. Fundamental performance characteristics of the rope have been considered in this paper. In particular, resistance to erosion, ability to filter particulate matter, thermal capacitance, and flow resistance have been considered. Testing results have shown the rope to be resistant to the corrosive internal environment of the RSRM. The rope has also been shown to be an effective "slag barrier." A desirable feature of the rope would be the ability to act as a heat sink. However, analyses have indicated that the thermal capacitance of the rope is not large enough to reduce the temperature of an impinging gas stream below the ablation temperature of the 0-ring for significant time periods, The real value of the rope is its ability to act as a flow diffuser. Flow resistance test, were performed on the rope In the course of testing the rope between parallel plates, an undesirable "blow-by" phenomenon was observed when the compressive stress in the rope was smaller than the upstream gas pressure. It was found, however, that in the converging passage of the actual design, the rope would consistently "Self-seat" and thereby prevent blow-by, even in the absence of any precompression. Flow resistance values have been quantified for use in future analyses. The work presented here provides an initial thermal-fluid assessment of the rope for this application, and lays the groundwork for future development.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STIFFNESS LOSSES AND LOSSES IN BEARINGS OF ROPE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the efficiency of rope blocks, it is necessary to determine the stiffness coefficient of the ropes of blocks, taking into account the classification group of the mechanism and the wrapping angle of a block by a rope. At this one should use well-tested values of the efficiency coefficients of the rope blocks, taking into account the wrapping angle of a block by a rope and the analytically found friction coefficients of the rolling bearings given to the trunnion. Methodology. The work presents the analytical method of determining the coefficient of bearing resistance of the block when it is rotated by both the inner and outer cages, as well as the design scheme of the bearing of the block. Findings. The analysis of the lubrication method effect, the operating mode of the mechanism and the wrapping angle of a block by a rope on losses in bearings was carried out for rope blocks. The corresponding comparative tables of losses are given. Analysis of the obtained calculation results allows us to establish: 1 the main resistance affecting the cable blocks efficiency is the resistance in bearings; 2 the second largest component is the stiffness losses, depending on the operating mode, the wrapping angle of a block by a rope, the type of bearing lubrication; 3 the block efficiency when rotating the inner cage is higher than rotating the outer one by about 3% with thick lubrication and 1M mode; 4 in the sequential location of assemblies with a rolling bearing, it is necessary to strive for the design of the assembly in which the inner cage rotates; 5 with the number of blocks up to 5, one can use the recommended definitions of block bearings in the literature with an error in the efficiency value of up to 10%. Originality. The authors obtained values of resistances in the rolling bearings of the rope blocks and stiffness losses due to the girth of the block by the rope. In this case, dependences were used to determine the coefficient

  4. Cytotoxic, allergic and genotoxic activity of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Sanders, MM; Schakenraad, JM; vanHorn, [No Value

    The nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is known for its shape memory properties. These properties can be put to excellent use in various biomedical applications, such as wires for orthodontic tooth alignment and osteosynthesis staples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term

  5. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  6. Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam A.H. Wright

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers.

  7. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  8. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  9. Regularized Biot-Savart Laws for Modeling Magnetic Configurations with Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Downs, C.; Mikic, Z.; Torok, T.; Linker, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many existing models assume that magnetic flux ropes play a key role in solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is therefore important to develop efficient methods for constructing flux-rope configurations constrained by observed magnetic data and the initial morphology of CMEs. For this purpose, we have derived and implemented a compact analytical form that represents the magnetic field of a thin flux rope with an axis of arbitrary shape and a circular cross-section. This form implies that the flux rope carries axial current I and axial flux F, so that the respective magnetic field is the curl of the sum of toroidal and poloidal vector potentials proportional to I and F, respectively. We expressed the vector potentials in terms of modified Biot-Savart laws whose kernels are regularized at the axis in such a way that these laws define a cylindrical force-free flux rope with a parabolic profile of the axial current density, when the axis is straight. For the cases we have studied so far, we determined the shape of the rope axis by following the polarity inversion line of the eruptions' source region, using observed magnetograms. The height variation along the axis and other flux-rope parameters are estimated by means of potential field extrapolations. Using this heuristic approach, we were able to construct pre-eruption configurations for the 2009 February13 and 2011 October 1 CME events. These applications demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of our new method for energizing pre-eruptive configurations in MHD simulations of CMEs. We discuss possible ways of optimizing the axis paths and other extensions of the method in order to make it more useful and robust. Research supported by NSF, NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and AFOSR.

  10. Forward Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Flux Ropes in the Inner Heliosphere with 3DCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3-D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward-pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof-of-concept way a new approach to predict the southward field Bz in a CME flux rope. It combines a novel semiempirical model of CME flux rope magnetic fields (Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection) with solar observations and in situ magnetic field data from along the Sun-Earth line. These are provided here by the MESSENGER spacecraft for a CME event on 9-13 July 2013. Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection is the first such model that contains the interplanetary propagation and evolution of a 3-D flux rope magnetic field, the observation by a synthetic spacecraft, and the prediction of an index of geomagnetic activity. A counterclockwise rotation of the left-handed erupting CME flux rope in the corona of 30° and a deflection angle of 20° is evident from comparison of solar and coronal observations. The calculated Dst matches reasonably the observed Dst minimum and its time evolution, but the results are highly sensitive to the CME axis orientation. We discuss assumptions and limitations of the method prototype and its potential for real time space weather forecasting and heliospheric data interpretation.

  11. Shear behavior of concrete beams externally prestressed with Parafil ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghallab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive work has been carried out investigating the use of external prestressing system for flexural strengthening, a few studies regarding the shear behavior of externally prestressed beams can be found. Five beams, four of them were externally strengthened using Parafil rope, were loaded up to failure to investigate the effect of shear span/depth ratio, external prestressing force and concrete strength on their shear behavior. Test results showed that the shear span to depth ratio has a significant effect on both the shear strength and failure mode of the strengthened beams and the presence of external prestressing force increased the ultimate load of the tested beams by about 75%. Equations proposed by different codes for both the conventional reinforced concrete beams and for ordinary prestressed beams were used to evaluate the obtained experimental results. In general, codes equations showed a high level of conservatism in predicting the shear strength of the beams. Also, using the full strength rather than half of the concrete shear strength in the Egyptian code PC-method improves the accuracy of the calculated ultimate shear strength.

  12. Observational Evidence of a Flux Rope within a Sunspot Umbra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Zuccarello, Francesca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, Paolo, E-mail: salvo.guglielmino@oact.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2017-09-10

    We observed an elongated filamentary bright structure inside the umbra of the big sunspot in active region NOAA 12529, which differs from the light bridges usually observed in sunspots for its morphology, magnetic configuration, and velocity field. We used observations taken with the Solar Dynamic Observatory satellite to characterize this feature. Its lifetime is 5 days, during which it reaches a maximum length of about 30″. In the maps of the vertical component of the photospheric magnetic field, a portion of the feature has a polarity opposite to that of the hosting sunspot. At the same time, in the entire feature the horizontal component of the magnetic field is about 2000 G, substantially stronger than in the surrounding penumbral filaments. Doppler velocity maps reveal the presence of both upward and downward plasma motions along the structure at the photospheric level. Moreover, looking at the chromospheric level, we noted that it is located in a region corresponding to the edge of a small filament that seems rooted in the sunspot umbra. Therefore, we interpreted the bright structure as the photospheric counterpart of a flux rope touching the sunspot and giving rise to penumbral-like filaments in the umbra.

  13. The ropes and challenge course: a quasi-experimental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B B

    2000-06-01

    In answering the call for empirical documentation of the effect of ropes and challenge course participation on the psychosocial function and sport performance of athletes and teams, exploratory studies have identified postcourse changes in group cohesion and approaches to sport competition. The purpose of the current study was to utilize a pretest-posttest comparison group design to expand knowledge in this area. 35 members of a girls' high school tennis team participated. The 16 individuals who participated in a preseason program and the 19 individuals who did not comprised the treatment and comparison groups, respectively. Team members completed the Group Environment Questionnaire and the Sport Orientation Questionnaire four days prior to and two days after the course experience. A series of 2 x 2 analyses of variance, (group x time) run on each of the scales, gave a significant group x time interaction on one social cohesion scale but none for scores on the Sport Orientation Questionnaire. The findings are discussed in relation to research and the implementation of these programs with athletes.

  14. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki MURAYAMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti wire. Material and Methods: Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm, and evaluated the relationship between them. Results: Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions: A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  15. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Masaki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Iwai, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  16. Clinical Efficiency of Two Sequences of Orthodontic Wires to Correct Crowding of the Lower Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria de Castro Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared time to correction of mandibular anterior crowding using two arch wire sequences, one with conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires and the other with conventional and NiTi heat-activated arch wires. Twenty-two boys and girls (mean age: 16.68 ± 2.66 with moderate crowding (3–6 mm were assigned randomly to one of two groups and followed up for five months (six assessments when arch wires were changed. Time to crowding correction was analyzed statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were collected during the five-month follow-up, and time to correction was compared between groups using the log rank test. At the end of follow-up, mandibular crowding was corrected in 100% of the cases in the group treated with the sequence that included NiTi heat-activated arch wires, whereas about 30% of those treated with NiTi arch wires were not completely corrected. There was a significant difference in time to complete treatment between groups (log rank = 5.996; p<0.05. In the group treated with the sequence that included heat-activated wires, alignment and leveling of mandibular anterior teeth were completed earlier than in the group treated only with conventional NiTi arch wires. Clinical trial registration is found at RBR-7g5zng.

  17. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  18. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  19. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  20. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  1. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  2. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  3. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  4. Evaluation of deflection forces of orthodontic wires with different ligation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Castanha HENRIQUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL, a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL and a metal ligature (ML were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.

  5. Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R; Robbins, Jooke; Landry, Scott; McKenna, Henry A; Kraus, Scott D; Werner, Timothy B

    2016-04-01

    Entanglement in fixed fishing gear affects whales worldwide. In the United States, deaths of North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have exceeded management limits for decades. We examined live and dead whales entangled in fishing gear along the U.S. East Coast and the Canadian Maritimes from 1994 to 2010. We recorded whale species, age, and injury severity and determined rope polymer type, breaking strength, and diameter of the fishing gear. For the 132 retrieved ropes from 70 cases, tested breaking strength range was 0.80-39.63 kN (kiloNewtons) and the mean was 11.64 kN (SD 8.29), which is 26% lower than strength at manufacture (range 2.89-53.38 kN, mean = 15.70 kN [9.89]). Median rope diameter was 9.5 mm. Right and humpback whales were found in ropes with significantly stronger breaking strengths at time of manufacture than minke whales (Balaenoptera acuturostrata) (19.30, 17.13, and 10.47 mean kN, respectively). Adult right whales were found in stronger ropes (mean 34.09 kN) than juvenile right whales (mean 15.33 kN) and than all humpback whale age classes (mean 17.37 kN). For right whales, severity of injuries increased since the mid 1980s, possibly due to changes in rope manufacturing in the mid 1990s that resulted in production of stronger ropes at the same diameter. Our results suggest that broad adoption of ropes with breaking strengths of ≤ 7.56 kN (≤ 1700 lbsf) could reduce the number of life-threatening entanglements for large whales by at least 72%, and yet could provide sufficient strength to withstand the routine forces involved in many fishing operations. A reduction of this magnitude would achieve nearly all the mitigation legally required for U.S. stocks of North Atlantic right and humpback whales. Ropes with reduced breaking strength should be developed and tested to determine the feasibility of their use in a variety of fisheries. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley

  6. Coexisting Flux Rope and Dipped Arcade Sections Along One Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

    2010-05-01

    We compute the three-dimensional magnetic field of an active region in order to study the magnetic configuration of active region filaments. The nonlinear force-free field model is adopted to compute the magnetic field above the photosphere, where the vector magnetic field was observed by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27. We propose a new method to remove the 180° ambiguity of the transverse field. Next, we analyze the implications of the preprocessing of the data by minimizing the total force and torque in the observed vector fields. This step provides a consistent bottom boundary condition for the nonlinear force-free field model. Then, using the optimization method to compute the coronal field, we find a magnetic flux rope along the polarity inversion line. The magnetic flux rope aligns well with part of an Hα filament, while the total distribution of the magnetic dips coincides with the whole Hα filament. This implies that the magnetic field structure in one section of the filament is a flux rope, while the other is a sheared arcade. The arcade induced a left-bearing filament in the magnetic field of negative helicity, which is opposite to the chirality of barbs that a flux rope would induce in a magnetic field of the same helicity sign. The field strength in the center of the flux rope is about 700 G, and the twist of the field lines is ~1.4 turns.

  7. Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Zuccarello, F. P. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: paolo.romano@oact.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-10-20

    We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

  8. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  9. Electron beam additive manufacturing with wire - Analysis of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, Marek St.; Błacha, Sylwester; Pilarczyk, Jan; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    The electron beam additive manufacturing process with wire is a part of global trend to find fast and efficient methods for producing complex shapes elements from costly metal alloys such as stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys etc. whose production by other conventional technologies is unprofitable or technically impossible. Demand for additive manufacturing is linked to the development of new technologies in the automotive, aerospace and machinery industries. The aim of the presented work was to carried out research on electron beam additive manufacturing with a wire as a deposited (filler) material. The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selected technological parameters such as: wire feed rate, beam current, travelling speed, acceleration voltage on stability of the deposition process and geometric dimensions of the padding welds. The research revealed that, at low beam currents, the deposition process is unstable. The padding weld reinforcement is non-uniform. Irregularity of the width, height and straightness of the padding welds can be observed. At too high acceleration voltage and beam current, burn-through of plate and excess penetration weld can be revealed. The achieved results and gained knowledge allowed to produce, based on EBAM with wire process, whole structure from stainless steel.

  10. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  12. Continuous micron-scaled rope engineering using a rotating multi-nozzle electrospinning emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunchen; Gao, Chengcheng; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Li, Jing-Song

    2016-10-01

    Electrospinning (ES) enables simple production of fibers for broad applications (e.g., biomedical engineering, energy storage, and electronics). However, resulting structures are predominantly random; displaying significant disordered fiber entanglement, which inevitably gives rise to structural variations and reproducibility on the micron scale. Surface and structural features on this scale are critical for biomaterials, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical sciences. In this letter, a modified ES technique using a rotating multi-nozzle emitter is developed and utilized to fabricate continuous micron-scaled polycaprolactone (PCL) ropes, providing control on fiber intercalation (twist) and structural order. Micron-scaled ropes comprising 312 twists per millimeter are generated, and rope diameter and pitch length are regulated using polymer concentration and process parameters. Electric field simulations confirm vector and distribution mechanisms, which influence fiber orientation and deposition during the process. The modified fabrication system provides much needed control on reproducibility and fiber entanglement which is crucial for electrospun biomedical materials.

  13. Kinetic Simulations of Plasma Energization and Particle Acceleration in Interacting Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S.; Guo, F.; Zank, G. P.; Li, X.; Stanier, A.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction between magnetic flux ropes has been suggested as a process that leads to efficient plasma energization and particle acceleration (e.g., Drake et al. 2013; Zank et al. 2014). However, the underlying plasma dynamics and acceleration mechanisms are subject to examination of numerical simulations. As a first step of this effort, we carry out 2D fully kinetic simulations using the VPIC code to study the plasma energization and particle acceleration during coalescence of two magnetic flux ropes. Our analysis shows that the reconnection electric field and compression effect are important in plasma energization. The results may help understand the energization process associated with magnetic flux ropes frequently observed in the solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet.

  14. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION BY TIGHT ROPE TECHNIQUE (ARTHREX®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÓmez Vieira, Luis Alfredo; Visco, Adalberto; Daneu Fernandes, Luis Filipe; GÓmez Cordero, Nicolas Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope - Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation and to evaluate results obtained with this procedure. Methods: Between August 2006 and May 2007, 10 shoulders of 10 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation were submitted to arthroscopic repair using the Tight Rope - Arthrex® system. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 15 months. Age ranged from 26 to 42, mean 34 years. All patients were male. Radiology evaluation was made by trauma series x-ray. The patients were assisted in the first month weekly and after three months after the procedure. Clinical evaluation was based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: All patients were satisfied after the arthroscopic procedure and the mean UCLA score was 32,5. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope – Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation showed to be an efficient technique. PMID:26998453

  15. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  16. Nano-engineered titanium for enhanced bone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Atkins, Gerald J.; Findlay, David M.; Losic, Dusan

    2013-09-01

    Current treatment of a number of orthopaedic conditions, for example fractures, bone infection, joint replacement and bone cancers, could be improved if mechanical support could be combined with drug delivery. A very challenging example is that of infection following joint replacement, which is very difficult to treat, can require multiple surgeries and compromises both the implant and the patient's wellbeing. An implant capable of providing appropriate biomechanics and releasing drugs/proteins locally might ensure improved healing of the traumatized bone. We propose fabrication of nanoengineered titanium bone implants using bioinert titanium wires in order to achieve this goal. Titanium in the form of flat foils and wires were modified by fabrication of titania nanotubes (TNTs), which are hollow self-ordered cylindrical tubes capable of accommodating substantial drug amounts and releasing them locally. To further control the release of drug to over a period of months, a thin layer of biodegradable polymer PLGA poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) was coated onto the drug loaded TNTs. This delayed release of drug and additionally the polymer enhanced bone cell adhesion and proliferation.

  17. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  18. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 6: studies towards a code of practice for the performance, operation, testing and maintenance of drub winders.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study attempts to determine the maximum rope force in the rope of a mine winding system subsequent to a break control system failure. Four different winder ropes were evaluated: a 4000m Blair multi system; a 2300m Blair multi system; a...

  19. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  20. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  1. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  2. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  3. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  4. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. II. Flux rope eruptions with current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of a CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. In particular, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. This released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares, and the flux rope would, therefore, go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is inconsistent with the radio afterglow. Fortunately, in the latter case, i.e., the catastrophic escape, the flux rope could escape the magnetar and go to infinity in a dynamical way. This is more consistent with radio afterglow observations of giant flares. We find that the minor radius of the flux rope has important implications for its eruption. Flux ropes with larger minor radii are more prone to erupt. We stress that the CS provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection, which would further enhance the energy release during eruptions.

  5. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  6. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  9. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  10. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  11. Friction behavior and other material properties of nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum archwires following electrochemical surface refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Miriam Julia; Bourauel, Christoph; Roehlike, Jan; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Braumann, Bert

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether electrochemical surface treatment of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and titanium-molybdenum (TiMo) archwires (OptoTherm and BetaTitan; Ortho-Dent Specials, Kisdorf, Germany) reduces friction inside the bracket-archwire complex. We also evaluated further material properties and compared these to untreated wires. The material properties of the surface-treated wires (Optotherm/LoFrix and BetaTitan/LoFrix) were compared to untreated wires made by the same manufacturer (see above) and by another manufacturer (Neo Sentalloy; GAC, Bohemia, NY, USA). We carried out a three-point bending test, leveling test, and friction test using an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). In addition, a pure bending test was conducted at a special test station, and scanning electron micrographs were obtained to analyze the various wire types for surface characteristics. Finally, edge beveling and cross-sectional dimensions were assessed. Force losses due to friction were reduced by 10 percentage points (from 36 to 26%) in the NiTi and by 12 percentage points (from 59 to 47%) in the TiMo wire specimens. Most of the other material properties exhibited no significant changes after surface treatment. While the three-point bending tests revealed mildly reduced force levels in the TiMo specimens due to diameter losses of roughly 2%, these force levels remained almost unchanged in the NiTi specimens. Compared to untreated NiTi and TiMo archwire specimens, the surface-treated specimens demonstrated reductions in friction loss by 10 and 12 percentage points, respectively.

  12. Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-02-01

    In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH 2 resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750 degree C. 18 refs. 1 fig

  13. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  14. In-Situ TEM-STM Observations of SWCNT Ropes/Tubular Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, F.; Lebron-Colon, M.; Ferreira, P. J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Meador, M. A.; Marin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) prepared by the HiPco process were purified using a modified gas phase purification technique. A TEM-STM holder was used to study the morphological changes of SWCNT ropes as a function of applied voltage. Kink formation, buckling behavior, tubular transformation and eventual breakdown of the system were observed. The tubular formation was attributed to a transformation from SWCNT ropes to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures. It is likely mediated by the patching and tearing mechanism which is promoted primarily by the mobile vacancies generated due to current-induced heating and, to some extent, by electron irradiation.

  15. Nonlocal Ohms Law, Plasma Resistivity, and Reconnection During Collisions of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Sydora, R.; Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2018-01-01

    The plasma resistivity was evaluated in an experiment on the collision of two magnetic flux ropes. Whenever the ropes collide, some magnetic energy is lost as a result of reconnection. Volumetric data, in which all the relevant time-varying quantities were recorded in detail, are presented. Ohm’s law is shown to be nonlocal and cannot be used to evaluate the plasma resistivity. The resistivity was instead calculated using the AC Kubo resistivity and shown to be anomalously high in certain regions of space.

  16. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  17. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  18. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  19. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  20. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  1. Effect of wire size on maxillary arch force/couple systems for a simulated high canine malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Paul W; Toogood, Roger W; Badawi, Hisham M; Carey, Jason P; Seru, Surbhi

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the effects of copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi) archwire size on bracket-archwire mechanics through the analysis of force/couple distributions along the maxillary arch. The hypothesis is that wire size is linearly related to the forces and moments produced along the arch. An Orthodontic Simulator was utilized to study a simplified high canine malocclusion. Force/couple distributions produced by passive and elastic ligation using two wire sizes (Damon 0.014 and 0.018 inch) measured with a sample size of 144. The distribution and variation in force/couple loading around the arch is a complicated function of wire size. The use of a thicker wire increases the force/couple magnitudes regardless of ligation method. Owing to the non-linear material behaviour of CuNiTi, this increase is less than would occur based on linear theory as would apply for stainless steel wires. The results demonstrate that an increase in wire size does not result in a proportional increase of applied force/moment. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the non-linear properties of CuNiTi wires. This non-proportional force response in relation to increased wire size warrants careful consideration when selecting wires in a clinical setting. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  2. Repercussion of noni mouthwash on surface characterization of Nickel-Titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya Dilipkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maintaining oral hygiene is very important during orthodontic therapy mouthwashes are prescribed as an adjunct to improve patient's oral hygiene. Commercially available mouthwashes e.g. Chlorhexidine, Listerine, fluoride containing mouthwashes have shown to alter the surface characteristics of orthodontic wires. Hence the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Noni mouthwash on surface quality and compositional changes of Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study pre-formed 0.014 inch NiTi arch wire was used. The study comprised of two samples, one control and one test sample which were 25mm in length. Control sample was stored at room temperature without any manipulation while test sample was immersed in Noni mouthwash solution for 1.5 hours, after which the test specimen was removed from the mouthwash solution and rinsed with distilled water. Both control and test samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy analysis, to qualitatively characterize the topography of the wire surface. Electron dispersion spectrum analysis was done to evaluate the various components of both the wires. Results: No significant difference in the average surface roughness for both wire samples was observed. There was no significant difference seen in the composition of wire after immersion in Noni mouthwash. Conclusion: Noni mouthwash did not have significant influence on the surface roughness or altered the composition of the Ni-Ti wire. Hence Noni mouthwash may be prescribed as a natural, non-destructive prophylactic agent for orthodontic patients.

  3. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Shim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM- wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were performed. Products underwent a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The CM-wire and R-phase groups had the lowest elastic modulus, followed by the M-wire group. The maximum torque of the M-wire instrument was comparable to that of a conventional instrument, while those of the CM-wire and R-phase instruments were lower. The angular displacement at failure (ADF for the CM-wire and R-phase instruments was higher than that of conventional instruments, and ADF of the M-wire instruments was lower. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the thermomechanically treated NiTi instruments was higher. DSC plots revealed that NiTi instruments made with the conventional alloy were primarily composed of austenite at room temperature; stable martensite and R-phase were found in thermomechanically treated instruments.

  4. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the hardness of orthodontic brackets produced by metal injection molding (MIM) and conventional methods and different orthodontic wires (stainless steel, nickel-titanium [Ni-Ti], and beta-titanium alloys) for better clinical results. A total of 15 specimens from each brand of orthodontic brackets and wires were examined. The brackets (Elite Opti-Mim which is produced by MIM process and Ultratrimm which is produced by conventional brazing method) and the wires (stainless steel, Ni-Ti, and beta-titanium) were embedded in epoxy resin, followed by grinding, polishing, and coating. Then, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis was applied to assess their elemental composition. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness assessment. Hardness was statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney test at the 0.05 level of significance. The X-ray EDS analysis revealed different ferrous or co-based alloys in each bracket. The maximum mean hardness values of the wires were achieved for stainless steel (SS) (529.85 Vickers hardness [VHN]) versus the minimum values for beta-titanium (334.65 VHN). Among the brackets, Elite Opti-Mim exhibited significantly higher VHN values (262.66 VHN) compared to Ultratrimm (206.59 VHN). VHN values of wire alloys were significantly higher than those of the brackets. MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  5. Treatment of Patellar Lower Pole Fracture with Modified Titanium Cable Tension Band Plus Patellar Tibial Tunnel Steel "8" Reduction Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Decheng; He, Zhiliang; Shi, Hao

    2018-01-08

    To determine the efficacy of modified titanium tension band plus patellar tendon tunnel steel 8 "reduction band" versus titanium cable tension band fixation for the treatment of patellar lower pole fracture. 58 patients with lower patella fracture were enrolled in this study, including 30 patients treated with modified titanium cable tension band plus patellar tibial tunnel wire "8" tension band internal fixation (modified group), and 28 patients with titanium cable tension band fixation. All patients were followed up for 9∼15 months with an average of 11.6 months. Knee flexion was significantly improved in the modified group than in the titanium cable tension band group (111.33 ± 13 degrees versus 98.21 ± 21.70 degrees, P = 0.004). The fracture healing time showed no significant difference. At the end of the follow-up, the improvement excellent rate was 93.33% in the modified group, and 82.14% in the titanium cable tension band group. Titanium cable tension band internal fixation loosening was found in 2 cases, including 1 case of treatment by two surgeries without loose internal fixation. The modified titanium cable tension band with "8" tension band fixation showed better efficacy for lower patella fractures than titanium cable tension band fixation.

  6. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  8. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  9. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  10. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  11. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  12. IS FLUX ROPE A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR THE PROGENITOR OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.; Yang, K.; Chen, P. F., E-mail: chenpf@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-12-10

    A magnetic flux rope structure is believed to exist in most coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it has been long debated whether the flux rope exists before eruption or if it is formed during eruption via magnetic reconnection. The controversy has continued because of our lack of routine measurements of the magnetic field in the pre-eruption structure, such as solar filaments. However, recently an indirect method was proposed to infer the magnetic field configuration based on the sign of helicity and the bearing direction of the filament barbs. In this paper, we apply this method to two erupting filament events, one on 2014 September 2 and the other on 2011 March 7, and find that the first filament is supported by a magnetic flux rope and the second filament is supported by a sheared arcade, i.e., the first one is an inverse-polarity filament and the second one is a normal-polarity filament. With the identification of the magnetic configurations in these two filaments, we stress that a flux rope is not a necessary condition for the pre-CME structure.

  13. Is Flux Rope a Necessary Condition for the Progenitor of Coronal Mass Ejections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Y.; Yang, K.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    A magnetic flux rope structure is believed to exist in most coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it has been long debated whether the flux rope exists before eruption or if it is formed during eruption via magnetic reconnection. The controversy has continued because of our lack of routine measurements of the magnetic field in the pre-eruption structure, such as solar filaments. However, recently an indirect method was proposed to infer the magnetic field configuration based on the sign of helicity and the bearing direction of the filament barbs. In this paper, we apply this method to two erupting filament events, one on 2014 September 2 and the other on 2011 March 7, and find that the first filament is supported by a magnetic flux rope and the second filament is supported by a sheared arcade, i.e., the first one is an inverse-polarity filament and the second one is a normal-polarity filament. With the identification of the magnetic configurations in these two filaments, we stress that a flux rope is not a necessary condition for the pre-CME structure.

  14. IS FLUX ROPE A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR THE PROGENITOR OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Yang, K.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic flux rope structure is believed to exist in most coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it has been long debated whether the flux rope exists before eruption or if it is formed during eruption via magnetic reconnection. The controversy has continued because of our lack of routine measurements of the magnetic field in the pre-eruption structure, such as solar filaments. However, recently an indirect method was proposed to infer the magnetic field configuration based on the sign of helicity and the bearing direction of the filament barbs. In this paper, we apply this method to two erupting filament events, one on 2014 September 2 and the other on 2011 March 7, and find that the first filament is supported by a magnetic flux rope and the second filament is supported by a sheared arcade, i.e., the first one is an inverse-polarity filament and the second one is a normal-polarity filament. With the identification of the magnetic configurations in these two filaments, we stress that a flux rope is not a necessary condition for the pre-CME structure

  15. Extending "the Rubber Rope": Convergent Series, Divergent Series and the Integrating Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A well-known mathematical puzzle regarding a worm crawling along an elastic rope is considered. The resulting generalizations provide examples for use in a teaching context including applications of series summation, the use of the integrating factor for the solution of differential equations, and the evaluation of definite integrals. A number of…

  16. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  17. Design Guide for Selection and Specification of Kevlar Rope for Ocean Engineering and Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    public rtoieco cnd sol . It i Idim .buttm Is ul"rnimi.. OCEAN ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECT OFFICE CHESAPEAKE DIVISION NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING...be to have no more than one layer. This is impractical for oceano - graphic purposes. Assuming a need to spooi many layers of rope under tension

  18. An Analytical Diffusion–Expansion Model for Forbush Decreases Caused by Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbović, Mateja; Heber, Bernd; Vršnak, Bojan; Temmer, Manuela; Kirin, Anamarija

    2018-06-01

    We present an analytical diffusion–expansion Forbush decrease (FD) model ForbMod, which is based on the widely used approach of an initially empty, closed magnetic structure (i.e., flux rope) that fills up slowly with particles by perpendicular diffusion. The model is restricted to explaining only the depression caused by the magnetic structure of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We use remote CME observations and a 3D reconstruction method (the graduated cylindrical shell method) to constrain initial boundary conditions of the FD model and take into account CME evolutionary properties by incorporating flux rope expansion. Several flux rope expansion modes are considered, which can lead to different FD characteristics. In general, the model is qualitatively in agreement with observations, whereas quantitative agreement depends on the diffusion coefficient and the expansion properties (interplay of the diffusion and expansion). A case study was performed to explain the FD observed on 2014 May 30. The observed FD was fitted quite well by ForbMod for all expansion modes using only the diffusion coefficient as a free parameter, where the diffusion parameter was found to correspond to an expected range of values. Our study shows that, in general, the model is able to explain the global properties of an FD caused by a flux rope and can thus be used to help understand the underlying physics in case studies.

  19. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around three-stranded rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wan, Rong; Huang, Liuyi; Zhao, Fenfang; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Three-stranded rope is widely used in fishing gear and mooring system. Results of numerical simulation are presented for flow around a three-stranded rope in uniform flow. The simulation was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pressure and velocity fields of steady incompressible laminar and turbulent wakes behind a three-stranded rope. A three-cylinder configuration and single circular cylinder configuration are used to model the three-stranded rope in the two-dimensional simulation. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes equations, are solved by using two-dimensional finite volume method. The turbulence flow is simulated using Standard κ-ɛ model and Shear-Stress Transport κ-ω (SST) model. The drag of the three-cylinder model and single cylinder model is calculated for different Reynolds numbers by using control volume analysis method. The pressure coefficient is also calculated for the turbulent model and laminar model based on the control surface method. From the comparison of the drag coefficient and the pressure of the single cylinder and three-cylinder models, it is found that the drag coefficients of the three-cylinder model are generally 1.3-1.5 times those of the single circular cylinder for different Reynolds numbers. Comparing the numerical results with water tank test data, the results of the three-cylinder model are closer to the experiment results than the single cylinder model results.

  20. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OF FLUX-ROPE STRUCTURES AS A PRECURSOR TO AN ERUPTIVE X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting; Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang, Kai, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-10-20

    We present the quasi-periodic slipping motion of flux-rope structures prior to the onset of an eruptive X-class flare on 2015 March 11, obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The slipping motion occurred at the north part of the flux rope and seemed to successively peel off the flux rope. The speed of the slippage was 30−40 km s{sup −1}, with an average period of 130 ± 30 s. The Si iv λ 1402.77 line showed a redshift of 10−30 km s{sup −1} and a line width of 50−120 km s{sup −1} at the west legs of slipping structures, indicative of reconnection downflow. The slipping motion lasted about 40 minutes, and the flux rope started to rise up slowly at the late stage of the slippage. Then an X2.1 flare was initiated, and the flux rope was impulsively accelerated. One of the flare ribbons swept across a negative-polarity sunspot, and the penumbral segments of the sunspot decayed rapidly after the flare. We studied the magnetic topology at the flaring region, and the results showed the existence of a twisted flux rope, together with quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) structures binding the flux rope. Our observations imply that quasi-periodic slipping magnetic reconnection occurs along the flux-rope-related QSLs in the preflare stage, which drives the later eruption of the flux rope and the associated flare.

  1. RADIO DIAGNOSTICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION SITES DURING THE ERUPTION OF A FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vilmer, Nicole, E-mail: eoin.carley@obspm.fr [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-12-10

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyze a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014 April 18, while observations from the Nançay Radio Astronomy Facility allow us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration during the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence of a pre-formed flux rope that slowly rises and becomes destabilized at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet, and the escape of ≳75 keV electrons from the rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ∼5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. At the flare peak, one site of electron acceleration is located close to the flare site, while another is driven by the erupting flux rope into the corona at speeds of up to 400 km s{sup −1}. Energetic electrons then fill the erupting volume, eventually allowing the flux rope legs to be clearly imaged from radio sources at 150–445 MHz. Following the analysis of Joshi et al. (2015), we conclude that the sites of energetic electrons are consistent with flux rope eruption via a tether cutting or flux cancellation scenario inside a magnetic fan-spine structure. In total, our radio observations allow us to better understand the evolution of a flux rope eruption and its associated electron acceleration sites, from eruption initiation to propagation into the corona.

  2. Substorm topology in the ionosphere and magnetosphere during a flux rope event in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On 13 August 2002, at ~23:00 UT, about 10 min after a substorm intensification, Cluster observes a flux rope in the central magnetotail, followed by a localised fast flow event about oneminute later. Associated with the flux rope event, a traveling compression region (TCR is seen by those Cluster spacecraft which reside in the lobe. In the conjugate ionospheric region in Northern Scandinavia, the MIRACLE network observes the ionospheric equivalent currents, and the electron densities and electric fields are measured by the EISCAT radar along a meridional scanning profile. Further, the auroral evolution is observed with the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC on the IMAGE satellite. We compare in detail the substorm evolution as observed in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere, and examine whether topological correspondences to the flux rope event exist in the ionospheric signatures. The large-scale mapping of both the location and the direction of the flux rope to the ionosphere shows an excellent correspondence to a lens-shaped region of an auroral emission minimum. This region is bracketed by an auroral region equatorward of it which was preexisting to the substorm intensification, and a substorm-related auroral region poleward of it. It is characterised by reduced ionospheric conductances with respect to its environment, and downward field-aligned current (FAC observed both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. As determined from the ionospheric data, this downward FAC area is moving eastward with a speed of ~2 km s-1, in good agreement with the mapped plasma bulk velocity measured at the Cluster satellite closest to that area. Further southwestward to this leading downward FAC area, a trailing upward FAC area is observed that moves eastward with the same speed. The direction of the ionospheric electric field permits a current closure between these two FAC areas through the ionosphere. We speculate that these FAC areas may correspond to

  3. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  4. MHD Collimation Mechanism in Arched Flux Ropes Characterized Using Volumetric, Time-Dependent B-Vector Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory measurements of B(x,t) in a volume enclosing portions of two arched flux ropes show flux rope collimation driven by gradients in axial current density. These measurements verify the three predictions of a proposed MHD collimation mechanism: (1) axial magnetic forces exist in current channels with spatially varying minor radius, (2) these forces can drive counterpropagating axial flows, and (3) this process collimates the flux rope. This mechanism may explain the axial uniformity of solar loops and is relevant to other systems with current channels of varying minor radius such as solar prominences and astrophysical jets.

  5. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  6. Mechanochemistry of titanium oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemistry represents an alternative route in synthesis of nanomaterials. Mechanochemical routes are attractive because of their simplicity, flexibility, and ability to prepare materials by solid state reactions at room temperature. The aim of this work is the mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured titanium oxides of different composition starting from mixtures of Ti and TiO2, TiO and TiO2 or Ti2O3 and TiO2. Emphasis is on the Magneli phases Ti4O7 and Ti5O9 because their mixture is commercially known as EBONEX material. The materials prepared were characterized by XRPD, TG/DTA analysis, SEM and optical microscopy. Titanium monoxide and several Magneli oxides, Ti4O7, Ti5O9 and Ti6O11, are successfully prepared. The results are very interesting because the EBONEX materials were prepared at lower than usual temperature, which would decrease the effective cost of production.

  7. The investigation of the effect of niobium artificial doping with titanium on Nb3Sn superconductors properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.; Shikov, A.; Beliakov, N.; Semin, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect on titanium doping of Nb filaments, and thus on the properties of bronze processed multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires and wires with internal tin sources with copper volume fraction up to 65 %, has been analysed. Either titanium rods or rods of the Nb-50Ti alloy, inserted in the axial area of each filament, were used as a source of titanium. The influence of doping on the quantity, composition, structure and superconducting properties of intermetallic compound Nb 3 Sn after heat treatments at 570-750 degrees C with duration up to 350 h was investigated by means of electrical measurements, optical metallography and methods of microanalysis and X-ray analysis. It was shown that the non-copper critical current density of the doped wires attained 600 and 270 A/mm 2 in 12.5 and 16 T respectively for bronze processed wires and 800 and 300 A/mm 2 for wires with internal tin source. Upper critical field calculated in accordance with Kramer's extrapolation was equal to 29-32 T

  8. Processing, Structural Characterization and Comparative Studies on Uniaxial Tensile Properties of a New Type of Porous Twisted Wire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A self-developed rotary multi-cutter device cuts stainless steel wire ropes into segments to fabricate twisted wires. Stainless steel porous twisted wire materials (PTWMs with a spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by the compaction and subsequent vacuum solid-phase sintering of twisted wires. The stainless steel PTWMs show two types of typical uniaxial tensile failure modes, i.e., a 45° angle fracture mode and an auxetic failure mode (the PTWMs expand along the direction perpendicular to the tension. The effects of the sintering parameters, porosities, wire diameters, and sampling direction on the tensile properties of the PTWMs are carefully investigated. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1130 °C to 1330 °C, the tensile strength of the PTWMs with 70% target porosity increased from 7.7 MPa to 28.6 MPa and the total failure goes down to 50%. When increasing the sintering time from 90 min to 150 min, the tensile strength increases from 12.4 MPa to 19.1 MPa and the total failure elongation drops to 78.6%. The tensile strength of the PTWMs increases from 28.9 MPa to 112.7 MPa with decreasing porosity from 69.5% to 46.0%, and the total failure elongation also increases from 14.8% to 40.7%. The tensile strength and the failure strain of the PTWMs with fine wires are higher than those of the PTWMs with coarse wires under the same porosity. Sampling direction has a small influence on the tensile properties of the PTWMs.

  9. Industrial experience with titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B M; Shoesmith, D W

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author) 83 refs., 17 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Kyu-Sang; Oh, Soram; Kum, KeeYeon; Kim, Yu-Chan; Jee, Kwang-Koo; Chang, Seok Woo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM-) wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were...

  12. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  13. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Although organized and presented by joining process, many of the observations made and relationships developed, particularly those regarding the weldability and welding metallurgy of gamma titanium...

  14. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  16. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  17. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  18. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  19. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  20. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  1. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy...

  2. Multiple Flux Rope Events at the High-Latitude Magnetopause: Cluster/Rapid Observation on January 26, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zong-Ying; Pu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, Chi-Jie; Xong, Qui-Gang; Fu, Sui-Yan; Xie, Lun; Shi, Quan-Qi; Cao, Jin-Bin; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Shen, Cao; Shi, Jian-Kui; Lu, Li; Wang, Nai-Quan; Chen, Tao; Fritz, T.; Glasmeier, K.-H.; Daly, P.; Reme, H.

    2004-04-01

    From 11:10 to 11:40UT on January 26, 2001 the four Cluster II spacecraft were located in the duskside high latitude regions of the magnetosheath and magnetosheath boundary layer (MSBL). During this time Interval the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) had a negative Bz component. A detailed study on the multiple flux ropes (MFRs) observed in this period is conducted in this paper. It is found that: (1) The multiple flux ropes in the high latitude MSBL appeared quasi-periodically with a repeated time period of about 78s, which is much shorter than the averaged occurring period (about 8-11min) of the flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause (MP). (2) All the flux ropes observed in this event had a strong core magnetic field. The axial orientation of the most flux ropes is found to lie in the direction of the minimum magnetic field variance; a few flux ropes had their axes lying in the direction of the middle magnetic field variance; while for the remainders their principle axes could not be determined by the method of Principal Axis Analysis (PAA). The reason that causes this complexity relys on the different trajectories of the spacecraft passing through the flux ropes. (3) Each flux rope had a good corresponding HT frame of reference in which it was in a quasi-steady state. All flux ropes moved along the surface of the MP in a similar direction indicating that these flux ropes all came from the dawnside low latitude. Their radial scale is 1-2RE, comparable to the normal diameter of FTEs observed atthe dayside MP. (4) The energetic ions originated from the magnetosphere flowed out to the magnetosheath on the whole, while the solar wind plasma flowed into the magnetosphere along the axis of the flux ropes. The flux ropes offered channels for the transport of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere and the escaping of the magnetospheric plasma into the interplanetary space. (5) Each event was accompanied by an enhanced reversal of the dusk

  3. MMS observations of magnetic reconnection signatures of dissipating ion inertial-scale flux ropes associated with dipolarization events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Lu, S.; Le, G.; Cassak, P.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ozturk, D. S.; Zou, S.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of flux ropes is thought to be an integral part of the process that may have important consequences for the onset and subsequent rate of reconnection in the tail. Earthward flows, i.e. bursty bulk flows (BBFs), generate dipolarization fronts (DFs) as they interact with the closed magnetic flux in their path. Global hybrid simulations and THEMIS observations have shown that earthward-moving flux ropes can undergo magnetic reconnection with the near-Earth dipole field in the downtail region between the Near Earth Neutral Line and the near-Earth dipole field to create DFs-like signatures. In this study, we analyzed sequential "chains" of earthward-moving, ion-scale flux ropes embedded within DFs observed during MMS first tail season. MMS high-resolution plasma measurements indicate that these earthward flux ropes embedded in DFs have a mean bulk flow velocity and diameter of 250 km/s and 1000 km ( 2‒3 ion inertial length λi), respectively. Magnetic reconnection signatures preceding the flux rope/DF encounter were also observed. As the southward-pointing magnetic field in the leading edge of the flux rope reconnects with the northward-pointing geomagnetic field, the characteristic quadrupolar Hall magnetic field in the ion diffusion region and electron outflow jets in the north-south direction are observed. Our results strongly suggest that the earthward moving flux ropes brake and gradually dissipate due to magnetic reconnection with the near Earth magnetic field. We have also examined the occurrence rate of these dissipating flux ropes/DF events as a function of downtail distances.

  4. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF THE TRACK CABLE ON EFFORTS IN THE HAULING ROPE OF AERIAL ROPEWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Raksha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate influence of elastic deformations of the track cable arising at movement of cars, on effort in a hauling rope of the aerial ropeway. Methodology. The method of consecutive approaches was used for research influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope. Thus, definition of a tension of a track cable was carried out with use of the technique based on principles of modular configuration, the essence of which consists in formation of mathematical model by a combination of blocks of the formulas describing balance of the track cable on supports. Findings. The research has shown that influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope was insignificant (less than 1 %. That points to possibility not to consider change of the track cable length, caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device». Also it has been found that use of the tension device of a track cable increased influence of its elastic properties on loading of rope system elements. At the same time the elastic component of the track cable tension in the test flight does not depend on a car position in the adjacent span, but only determines by the parameters of the rope system. Originality. The possibility of excluding the changes of track cable length caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device» was proved. Practical value. The use of these techniques and the results will simplify the mathematical model of loading of elements of the cable system and the system «drive – traction rope – tension device» as a whole.

  5. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  6. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov–Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov and Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints. (paper)

  7. Generation of amorphous ceramic capacitor coatings on titanium using a continuous sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.G.; Walsh, M.A. III; Phillips, P.G.; Morris, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous films of ceramic capacitor materials were successfully deposited using sol-gel chemistry onto titanium wire using a continuous, computer controlled process. By repeatedly depositing and calcining very thin layers of material, smooth and even coats can be produced. Surface analyses revealed the layered nature of these thin coats, as well as the amorphous nature of the ceramic. The electrical properties of the better coatings, all composed of niobium, bismuth, zinc oxides, were then evaluated. copyright 1995 Materials Research Society

  8. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  9. Use of rope guides in uranium mining and their innovations in techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erlian.

    1984-01-01

    Thanks to some innovations and effective measures, the rope guides have been successfully used in multi-level operation in some uranium mines since the year of 1968. These innovations and measures are as follows: (1) by the use of the intermediate fixing grips of guide ropes, etc., to increase the rigidity of the guides and restrain swaying of the hoisting conveyance. (2) by the use of modified screw tensioning device to replace the weight tensioning one to cut down operation cost apparently. (3) By the use of mobile platform in the form of arc plate, or the shiftable guides as the cage stabilizer for intermediate levels to firm the cage horizontally and prevent it from vertical tilting owing to impulsive force from the motion of mine cars, etc. (Author)

  10. ON THE ROLE OF REPETITIVE MAGNETIC RECONNECTIONS IN EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES IN SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Joshi, Bhuwan [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem, extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number, supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and, hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process—including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations, and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines—agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realizability of the advocated mechanism.

  11. Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.

  12. Ion-Scale Secondary Flux Ropes Generated by Magnetopause Reconnection as Resolved by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Oieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small-scale (approx. 7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 1O km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (approx. 22 kWb).The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. lntercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non-frozen-in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle-in-cell simulation. It is concluded that these small-scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

  13. Differences in the Microbial Colonization Among Arch Wire Types, Gauges and Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Rafeeq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of orthodontic materials in the oral cavity represent a unique surface that can interact with bacteria, leading to pathogenic plaque formation and subsequent enamel demineralization, Streptococcus mutans play an important role in the initiation and progression of dental caries and they are considered the primary cause of bacteriological caries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple factors including the type of arch wire, salivary coating, cross section, and wire thickness on the levels of mutans streptococci adherence. Materials and Methods: Two types of arch wire stainless steel and nickel titanium were selected using the following criteria: round and rectangular with gauges 0.014, 0.018, 0.016 × 0.022 and 0.019 × 0.0 25 inches which were subdivided into eight groups. Bacterial adhesion was quantified by a microbial culture technique and the number of adhesive bacteria were analyzed and counted after growth in culture for each group with and without saliva coating at 15 and 60 minutes. Detection of mutans streptococci by saliva-check Mutans test. Results: There was a significant difference between arch wire types in each time interval and the highest bacterial adhesion on the NiTi arch wires with rectangular cross section in the absence of saliva with extended incubation time. Conclusions: The adherence of mutans streptococci in saliva coated wires seems to be low. At increased incubation time, rectangular cross section arch wire showed an increased number of adhering bacteria with less effect on different gauges of the arch wire.

  14. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  15. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. I. Fully and partially open eruptions of flux ropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for the enormous energy release of magnetars during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole-dominated background fields. Nevertheless, it is hard to generate fully open magnetic eruptions for multipolar background fields. Given the observational importance of the multipolar magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetar surface, it would be worthwhile to explore the possibility of the alternative eruption approach in multipolar background fields. Fortunately, we find that flux ropes may give rise to partially open eruptions in the multipolar fields, which involve only partial opening of background fields. The energy release fractions are greater for cases with central-arcaded multipoles than those with central-caved multipoles that emerged in background fields. Eruptions would fail only when the centrally caved multipoles become extremely strong.

  16. The structure of an earthward propagating magnetic flux rope early in its evolution: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Möstl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a magnetic signature associated with the leading edge of a bursty bulk flow observed by Cluster at −19 RE downtail on 22 August 2001. A distinct rotation of the magnetic field was seen by all four spacecraft. This event was previously examined by Slavin et al. (2003b using both linear force-free modeling as well as a curlometer technique. Extending this work, we apply here single- and multi-spacecraft Grad-Shafranov (GS reconstruction techniques to the Cluster observations and find good evidence that the structure encountered is indeed a magnetic flux rope and contains helical magnetic field lines. We find that the flux rope has a diameter of approximately 1 RE, an axial field of 26.4 nT, a velocity of ≈650 km/s, a total axial current of 0.16 MA and magnetic fluxes of order 105 Wb. The field line twist is estimated as half a turn per RE. The invariant axis is inclined at 40° to the ecliptic plane and 10° to the GSM equatorial plane. The flux rope has a force-free core and non-force-free boundaries. When we compare and contrast our results with those obtained from minimum variance, single-spacecraft force-free fitting and curlometer techniques, we find in general fair agreement, but also clear differences such as a higher inclination of the axis to the ecliptic. We further conclude that single-spacecraft methods have limitations which should be kept in mind when applied to THEMIS observations, and that non-force-free GS and curlometer techniques are to be preferred in their analysis. Some properties we derived for this earthward– moving structure are similar to those inferred by Lui et al. (2007, using a different approach, for a tailward-moving flux rope observed during the expansion phase of the same substorm.

  17. Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Ropes as Agents Connecting Solar Eruptions and Geomagnetic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.; Ishibashi, H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the solar wind structure for 11 cases that were selected for the campaign study promoted by the International Study of Earth-affecting Solar Transients (ISEST) MiniMax24 Working Group 4. We can identify clear flux rope signatures in nine cases. The geometries of the nine interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IFRs) are examined with a model-fitting analysis with cylindrical and toroidal force-free flux rope models. For seven cases in which magnetic fields in the solar source regions were observed, we compare the IFR geometries with magnetic structures in their solar source regions. As a result, we can confirm the coincidence between the IFR orientation and the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) for six cases, as well as the so-called helicity rule as regards the handedness of the magnetic chirality of the IFR, depending on which hemisphere of the Sun the IFR originated from, the northern or southern hemisphere; namely, the IFR has right-handed (left-handed) magnetic chirality when it is formed in the southern (northern) hemisphere of the Sun. The relationship between the orientation of IFRs and PILs can be taken as evidence that the flux rope structure created in the corona is in most cases carried through interplanetary space with its orientation maintained. In order to predict magnetic field variations on Earth from observations of solar eruptions, further studies are needed about the propagation of IFRs because magnetic fields observed at Earth significantly change depending on which part of the IFR hits the Earth.

  18. Potential Magnetic Field around a Helical Flux-rope Current Structure in the Solar Corona

    OpenAIRE

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the potential magnetic field associated with a helical electric line current flow, idealizing the near-potential coronal field within which a highly localized twisted current structure is embedded. It is found that this field has a significant axial component off the helical magnetic axis where there is no current flow, such that the flux winds around the axis. The helical line current field, in including the effects of flux rope writhe, is therefore more topologically complex tha...

  19. On the Characteristics of Footpoints of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes during the Eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the footpoints of four erupted magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that appear as sigmoidal hot channels prior to the eruptions in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high temperaure passbands. The simultaneous Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations disclose that one footpoint of the MFRs originates in the penumbra or penumbra edge with a stronger magnetic field, while the other in the moss region with a weaker magnetic field. The significant deviation of the axis of the MFRs from t...

  20. Evolving Playable Content for Cut the Rope through a Simulation-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    and such an agent is not always readily available. We discuss this prob- lem in the context of the physics-based puzzle game Cut the Rope, which features continuous time and state space, mak- ing several approaches such as exhaustive search and reactive agents inefficient. We show that a deliberative Prolog...... in this paper is likely to be useful for a large variety of games with similar characteristics....

  1. A novel mechanical design of broken rope protection device for enhancing the safety performances of overhead manned equipment in coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanical design of the broken rope protection device is proposed to enhance the safety performances of the overhead manned equipment. According to the operating characteristics and functional requirements of the overhead manned equipment, a three-dimensional mechanical model of the broken rope protection device was redesigned. Based on the known parameters of the mechanical model, the stress and strength of the main components are readjusted using the statics characteristics of finite element analysis. To ensure the reliability of the control system of the broken rope protection device, the process of people’s falling, the response performance of the tension sensor, and the signal extraction of the broken rope are analyzed under different loading and unloading speeds. The working principle of the broken rope protection device is expounded in detail. The experimental results showed that better effect is obtained by the new broken rope protection device, which is characterized by good durability, low investment, and high reliability.

  2. Solar Prominences Embedded in Flux Ropes: Morphological Features and Dynamics from 3D MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  3. The sagging rope sign in achondroplasia - different from Perthes' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingade, Viraj U. [Korea University, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Song, Hae-Ryong [Korea University, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo [Korea University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Oh, Chang-Wug [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Daegu (Korea); Hong, Jun-Seok [Ansan Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University, Ansan, Gyeonggi do (Korea)

    2006-12-15

    The sagging rope sign is a radio-opaque line, seen on radiographs of the hips, with Perthes' disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause and importance of this sign in achondroplasia, and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes' disease. Serial radiograms, along with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 achondroplasic patients. Forty-two achondroplasic patients, reported at our institute (for routine outpatient consultation, spine surgeries, deformity corrections, limb-lengthening procedures) were included in this study. There were 26 males and 16 females. The sign was observed bilaterally, in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads, with presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang, seen on 3-D CT scan, corresponded to the sagging rope sign on radiographs. Presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from Perthes' disease, and its presence does not carry a bad prognosis in achondroplasia. (orig.)

  4. Characteristics and Geoeffectiveness of Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Joon; Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Dae-Young; Choi, Cheong-Rim; Kim, Rok Soon; Cho, Kyungsuk; Choi, Kyu-Cheol; Kim, Jaehun

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes, often observed during intervals of interplanetary coronal mass ejections, have long been recognized to be critical in space weather. In this work, we focus on magnetic flux rope structure but on a much smaller scale, and not necessarily related to interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Using near-Earth solar wind advanced composition explorer (ACE) observations from 1998 to 2016, we identified a total of 309 small-scale magnetic flux ropes (SMFRs). We compared the characteristics of identified SMFR events with those of normal magnetic cloud (MC) events available from the existing literature. First, most of the MCs and SMFRs have similar values of accompanying solar wind speed and proton densities. However, the average magnetic field intensity of SMFRs is weaker ( 7.4 nT) than that of MCs ( 10.6 nT). Also, the average duration time and expansion speed of SMFRs are 2.5 hr and 2.6 km/s, respectively, both of which are smaller by a factor of 10 than those of MCs. In addition, we examined the geoeffectiveness of SMFR events by checking their correlation with magnetic storms and substorms. Based on the criteria Sym-H database than used in previous studies, all these previously known features are now firmly confirmed by the current work. Accordingly, the results emphasize the significance of SMFRs from the viewpoint of possible triggering of substorms.

  5. [Vehicle-assisted suicide with a nylon rope causing complete decapitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blässer, Katharina; Tatschner, Thomas; Bohnert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The present case deals with the unusual suicide method of a 36-year-old man who fastened one end of a nylon rope to a tree, guided the other end into a van through the open tailgate and placed the loop round his neck. Then he stepped on the accelerator. Before, he had marked the point on the ground where the rope would tighten. As the rope tightened complete decapitation occurred at a speed of about 35 km/h. Autopsy showed a nearly circular abrasion zone around the site of transection slightly ascending towards the nape, a fracture of the cervical spine between the 3rd and 4th vertebra and a fracture of the thoracic spine between the 7th and 8th vertebra. The test for air embolism of the heart was positive. Macroscopically, no evidence of blood aspiration was found. Histological investigation showed general anaemia and minor blood aspiration in the lungs. Wound morphology was largely in line with the injury patterns described after decapitation in the literature. However, our results differed in that blood aspiration was discernible only under the microscope and there was a second fracture of the spine. Decapitation as a suicide method is an expression of enormous autoaggression and is categorized as a "hard" suicide method. It is used predominantly by men and its occurrence in the spectrum of suicidal actions is rare. Police investigations revealed that the man had led a sort of double life with a sexually motivated background and had suffered from depressive episodes.

  6. SOLAR PROMINENCES EMBEDDED IN FLUX ROPES: MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DYNAMICS FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofsíca de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  7. Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Counseling Combined with Music Skipping Rope Exercise on Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Lee, Bo Gyeong; Choi, Hee Won; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effects of a transtheoretical model (TTM) based exercise counseling offered with music skipping rope exercise on components of the TTM (stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy), body mass index, glucose, and lipid profile of overweight/obese children in Korea. This study used a nonequivalent pretest and posttest experimental study design. A total of 75 overweight/obese children participated in the study. Eight sessions of exercise counseling combined with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks were offered for children in the experimental group, while one session of exercise counseling with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks was offered for children in the control group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and 6 months after the intervention. After the intervention, self-efficacy significantly improved among children in the experimental group (p = .049), while these children maintained their baseline BMI at 6-month follow-up (p > .05). Among children in the control group, BMI significantly increased (p effective in maintaining BMI and improving self-efficacy of overweight/obese children. The TTM-based counseling combined with exercise classes has potential to control weight among overweight/obese children, while involvement of parents and children in the development of the theory-based intervention may generate further benefits regarding health and well-being of overweight/obese children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiang-Dong; Peng, Yu-Xing; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Gong, Xian-Sheng; Yu, Zhang-Fa; Mi, Zhen-Tao; Xu, Chun-Ming

    2017-06-09

    Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope's tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear.

  9. Wire fixation osteosynthesis for the emergency treatment of patients with mandible fractures: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Oré Acevedo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, titanium plates and screws are the gold standard osteosynthesis treatment of facial bone fractures. Techniques considerer obsoletes like surgical wires osteosynthesis are not used anymore, but it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of using wire for the treatment of cases in emergency, and in which we do not have immediately available sterile implants such as plates and screws. Objectives: Describe the mandibular osteosynthesis with surgical wire as an acceptable surgical treatment when plates and screws are not avaliable. Description: Three cases of patients with mandible fractures were presented, treated on emergency with wire. Two cases were the gunshot injuries and the remaining one suffered a recreational accident. Which required immediate treatment due to the magnitude of the damage, bone exposure and persistence of active bleeding. Conclusions: The use of surgical wire for the treatment of mandibular fractures should not be ignored and is a good alternative for situations where titanium plates and screws are not available due to economic reasons or access. The surgical outcome is stable and allows restoring partially mandibular anatomy and function looking forward a future reconstruction.

  10. Corrosion resistant properties and weldabilities of ASTM Grade 12 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, Yoshikatsu; Itoh, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    Plates, sheets, bars, wires and thinner seam-welded tubings were manufactured from large-scaled ingot of ASTM Grade 12 alloy (Ti-0.8Ni-0.3Mo). The processability of G-12 alloy has proved almost similar to that of conventional commercially pure titanium grades. It has been clarified that the G-12 alloy showed several advantageous features: Chlorides-Crevice corrosion resistance of the alloy was almost equals to G-7 and Pd0/TiO 2 coated titanium, and the maximum allowable stress was able to be designed higher than that of commercially pure titanium. This alloy has been in applications also offers where such environments as seawater, brines and moist chlorine, various oil refinery and chemical industries, and others. (author)

  11. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera

    2012-01-01

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  12. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  13. The Effects of the Rope Jump Training Program in Physical Education Lessons on Strength, Speed and VO[subscript 2] Max in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Nebahat; Acar, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of rope-jump training program in physical education lessons on strength, speed and VO[subscript 2] max in 10-12 year old boys. 240 male students; rope-jump group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120) participated in the study. Rope-Jump group continued 10 weeks of regular physical education and sport…

  14. Ropes parks as a way of increase of the motor activity of students [Verevochnye parki kak sredstvo povysheniia dvigatel'noj aktivnosti uchashchejsia molodezhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozіna Zh.L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and physiological reasons of attractiveness of rope parks are considered for studying young people. 25 sources of network are analysed in the Internet. The questionnaire of 52 visitors of rope park is conducted (youths in age 16-19 years. It is set that overcoming of rope obstacles helps to get the necessary physical loading. Also to get feelings, characteristic for the extreme types of sport. It is found out that overcoming of rope obstacles helps people to be delivered from fear before difficulties and agitation before important events.

  15. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  16. What does determine the sign of core in Magnetic Flux Rope structures of the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper primarily examines the key factors being involved in precisely determining the sign of the core field in a magnetic flux rope (MFR like structure embedded in the tailward plasma flow associated with the Earth's magnetotail. Magnetic flux ropes are frequently detected by satellites moving smoothly northwards (upwards or southwards (downwards and crossing almost the whole plasma sheet; the sign of the rope's core is associated with the local tail's motion: If the tail is bending to an upward or downward direction, then the sign of the rope's core, being essentially an intense By deviation, will be positive or negative correspondingly. On the basis of this observational finding, a major question concerns the mechanism by which the tail's motion is dictated. The reconnection process acting in the tail will obviously produce symmetric structures of MFRs (with respect to the neutral sheet plane; therefore, the detected organized asymmetry may be an additional indication in the whole magnetotail' s dynamics. Moreover, we discuss the issue of the core's sign in cases without any significant magnetotail's motion. A model interpreting the diagnosed behavior is introduced: Once a tailward ion jet is produced in a thinned plasma sheet, it might form clockwise or counterclockwise ion vortices (i.e., loop-like ion currents providing the "magnetic core" with the appropriate sign. The crucial role of the interplanetary By deviation of the magnetic field (IMF is scrutinized and taken into account. The whole model is tested under the condition of long-lasting extraordinary events characterized by a persistent-intense By deviation with a duration up to 34 min. This work, based on Geotail single-satellite measurements, is not a statistical one; it is a first approach allowing the reconstruction of measurements in the whole range of the magnetotail's deflections, from negligible up to stronger significant magnetotail movements, and should be therefore

  17. Improved multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors produced by the titanium-bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Itoh, K.; Kamata, K.; Moriai, H.; Tada, N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a titanium addition to the bronze matrix of superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires have been investigated. The titanium addition to the matrix remarkably increases the Nb 3 Sn growth rate and the high-field, critical current density of the wire. An overall critical-current density of 3.8 . 10 4 A/cm 2 at 15 T has been obtained for the multifilamentary Nb/Cu-7.5 at.% Sn-0.4 at.% Ti wire with 4.7 μm-diameter 31 x 331 cores. The anisotropy in the critical current with respect to the field direction becomes larger with increasing aspect ratio of the rectangular-shaped multifilamentary wires. A 9.5 mm wide and 1.8mm thick Nb/Cu-7.5Sn-0.4Ti conductor with 5 μm-diameter 349 x 361=125 989 cores has been successfully fabricated on an industrial scale. This conductor carries a superconducting current of over 1300 A at 16.5 T. The newly developed Ti-bronze Nb 3 Sn conductor makes it feasible to generate a field of proportional 15 T in a large diameter bore. (orig.)

  18. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Department of Materials and Manufacturing Process, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran. 15875-1744, Iran ... Titanium diboride is a hard refractory material with a high melting point ... (λ = 1⋅540598 Å) radiation. Morphology of the ...

  19. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500 0 C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150 0 C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  20. Mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwire used in the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Xin-hua; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chun-bo; Yan, Kuo; Guo, Yong-liang

    2013-01-01

    As the only active component in final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the activation of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires is one of the factors that affect the torque expression. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nickel-titanium wire used in the final treatment phase in simulated oral environments to forecast the treatment outcomes. The mechanical properties of 171 thermal nickel-titanium wires of 0.35 mm (0.014-in) in diameters with different deflection of 40 mm in length were investigated with three-point bending test. The samples were divided into 2 groups: as-received and bended groups. In the bended group, samples were divided into 7 subgroups according to the amounts of deflection and named by the canine angulations (-25°, -19°, -13°, -7°, -1°, +5°, +11°). The deflection of wires was made by inserting the wires into the deep tunnel of Tip-Edge Plus brackets positioned in plaster casts with different canine angulations to mimic the use of nickel-titanium wires in the final treatment phase. Immersed the bended group in artificial saliva (pH 6.8) and preserved at 37.0°C. Eight durations of incubation were tested: 1 to 8 weeks. Three analogous samples of each group and subgroups were tested per week. Stiffness (YS:E) and the load-deflection characteristics of unloading plateau section were obtained. Significant changes in specific mechanical properties were observed in long-term immersed and large deflected wires compared with as-received groups. Both immersion time and deflection affected the mechanical properties of wires in the simulated oral environment, and the two factors had synergistic effect. In groups -25°, -19° and -13°, stiffness (YS:E) increased then decreased and average plateau force and ratio of variance decreased then increased correspondingly at specific time. In the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium wire are associated with the