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Sample records for titanium hopkinson bar

  1. Strain localization during tensile Hopkinson bar testing of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moćko Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the analysis was to determine the strain localization for various specimen shapes (type A and type B according to PN-EN ISO 26203-1 standard and different loading conditions, i.e. quasi- static and dynamic. Commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Grade 5 were selected for the tests. Tensile loadings were applied out using servo-hydraulic testing machine and tensile Hopkinson bar with pre-tension. The results were recorded using ARAMIS system cameras and fast camera Phantom V1210, respectively at quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Further, specimens outline was determined on the basis of video data using TEMA MOTION software. The strain distribution on the specimen surface was estimated using digital image correlation method. The larger radius present in the specimen of type B in comparison to specimen of type A, results in slight increase of the elongation for commercially pure titanium at both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. However this effect disappears for Ti6Al4V alloy. The increase of the elongation corresponds to the stronger necking effect. Material softening due to increase of temperature induced by plastic work was observed at dynamic loading conditions. Moreover lower elongation at fracture point was found at high strain rates for both materials.

  2. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  3. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  4. Experiments and simulation of split Hopkinson Bar tests on sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, P D; Gould, P J; Wood, A D; Tyas, A

    2014-01-01

    Static triaxial cell data and Split Hopkinson Bar data has been generated for well controlled dry and wet sand under confined and unconfined conditions. This has demonstrated that the dry sand is rate independent in its behaviour, whereas the wet sand exhibits a strain rate dependency in its behaviour. Simulations have been performed with the Lagrangian hydrocode DYNA using a Porter-Gould equation of state (EOS) and Johnson-Holmquist type constitutive model. Comparison with the raw strain gauge data is qualitatively reasonable, although some of the details of the trace are not reproduced. Sensitivity studies have also been performed, which has demonstrated some deficiencies in the constitutive model, relating to wave-speed and definition of moduli in a granular material. This has given some insights into how the constitutive model should be improved and which future experimental tests will be required.

  5. Split-Hopkinson pressure bar tests on pure tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, Richard D.; Armstrong, Ronald W.; Williams, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Pure tantalum (Ta) was loaded in compression by a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) to strain rates from 450 to 6350 s -1 . The results are compared with SHPB data for commercial Ta and with predictions from the constitutive model for Ta developed by Zerilli and Armstrong (Z-A). The main conclusions are: (1) the flow stress versus log strain rate agree with the Z-A constitutive model and other reported data, (2) uniform strain exponents computed on a true stress-strain basis for pure Ta are somewhat greater than those determined from SHPB data for commercial Ta, and (3) in both cases the uniform strain exponents versus log strain rate are in good agreement with predictions from the Z-A constitutive model for strain rates above 1500 s -1 without a clear indication of dislocation generation

  6. Dynamic Increase Factors for High Performance Concrete in Compression using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Ngo, Tuan; Mendis, Priyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides dynamic increase factors (DIF) in compression for two different High Performance Concretes (HPC), 100 MPa and 160 MPa, respectively. In the experimental investigation 2 different Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars are used in order to test over a wide range of strain rates, 100 sec1...... to 700 sec-1. The results are compared with the CEB Model Code and the Spilt Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique is briefly de-scribed....

  7. Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky bar system – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwen Xia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB systems. Significant progress has been made on the quantification of various rock dynamic properties, owing to the advances in the experimental techniques of SHPB system. This review aims to fully describe and critically assess the detailed procedures and principles of techniques for dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson bars. The history and principles of SHPB are outlined, followed by the key loading techniques that are useful for dynamic rock tests with SHPB (i.e. pulse shaping, momentum-trap and multi-axial loading techniques. Various measurement techniques for rock tests in SHPB (i.e. X-ray micro computed tomography (CT, laser gap gauge (LGG, digital image correlation (DIC, Moiré method, caustics method, photoelastic coating method, dynamic infrared thermography are then discussed. As the main objective of the review, various dynamic measurement techniques for rocks using SHPB are described, including dynamic rock strength measurements (i.e. dynamic compression, tension, bending and shear tests, dynamic fracture measurements (i.e. dynamic imitation and propagation fracture toughness, dynamic fracture energy and fracture velocity, and dynamic techniques for studying the influences of temperature and pore water.

  8. Application of photon Doppler velocimetry to direct impact Hopkinson pressure bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, Lewis J., E-mail: ll379@cam.ac.uk; Jardine, Andrew P. [SMF Fracture and Shock Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion, and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently, these advantages are gained at the expense of all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the experimental determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. In this paper, we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using photon Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and the precision of measurements. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains in fully dense metals, and improvement for all strains in slow and non-equilibrating materials.

  9. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Bell, R.G. III; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125-fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical system. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two part study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. This paper reports the first part of the shock mitigating materials study. A study to compare three thicknesses (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 in.) of seventeen, unconfined materials for their shock mitigating characteristics has been completed with a split Hopkinson bar configuration. The nominal input as measured by strain gages on the incident Hopkinson bar is 50 fps at sign 100 micros for these tests. It is hypothesized that a shock mitigating material has four purposes: to lengthen the shock pulse, to attenuate the shock pulse, to mitigate high frequency content in the shock pulse, and to absorb energy. Both time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare the materials' achievement of these purposes

  10. High Strain Rate Testing of Rocks using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiessler, Ruprecht; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael; Nau, Siegfried; Hess, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic mechanical testing of rocks is important to define the onset of rate dependency of brittle failure. The strain rate dependency occurs through the propagation velocity limit (Rayleigh wave speed) of cracks and their reduced ability to coalesce, which, in turn, significantly increases the strength of the rock. We use a newly developed pressurized air driven Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB), that is specifically designed for the investigation of high strain rate testing of rocks, consisting of several 10 to 50 cm long strikers and bar components of 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 meters in length each. The whole set up, composed of striker, incident- and transmission bar is available in aluminum, titanium and maraging steel to minimize the acoustic impedance contrast, determined by the change of density and speed of sound, to the specific rock of investigation. Dynamic mechanical parameters are obtained in compression as well as in spallation configuration, covering a wide spectrum from intermediate to high strain rates (100-103 s-1). In SHPB experiments [1] one-dimensional longitudinal compressive pulses of diverse shapes and lengths - formed with pulse shapers - are used to generate a variety of loading histories under 1D states of stress in cylindrical rock samples, in order to measure the respective stress-strain response at specific strain rates. Subsequent microstructural analysis of the deformed samples is aimed at quantification fracture orientation, fracture pattern, fracture density, and fracture surface properties as a function of the loading rate. Linking mechanical and microstructural data to natural dynamic deformation processes has relevance for the understanding of earthquakes, landslides, impacts, and has several rock engineering applications. For instance, experiments on dynamic fragmentation help to unravel super-shear rupture events that pervasively pulverize rocks up to several hundred meters from the fault core [2, 3, 4]. The dynamic, strain

  11. Sensor calibration of polymeric Hopkinson bars for dynamic testing of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, Milena; Mancini, Edoardo; Lonzi, Barbara; Sasso, Marco

    2018-02-01

    Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing is one of the most common techniques for the estimation of the constitutive behaviour of metallic materials. In this paper, the characterisation of soft rubber-like materials has been addressed by means of polymeric bars thanks to their reduced mechanical impedance. Due to their visco-elastic nature, polymeric bars are more sensitive to temperature changes than metallic bars, and due to their low conductance, the strain gauges used to measure the propagating wave in an SHPB may be exposed to significant heating. Consequently, a calibration procedure has been proposed to estimate quantitatively the temperature influence on strain gauge output. Furthermore, the calibration is used to determine the elastic modulus of the polymeric bars, which is an important parameter for the synchronisation of the propagation waves measured in the input and output bar strain gate stations, and for the correct determination of stress and strain evolution within the specimen. An example of the application has been reported in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique. Different tests at different strain rates have been carried out on samples made of nytrile butadyene rubber (NBR) from the same injection moulding batch. Thanks to the correct synchronisation of the measured propagation waves measured by the strain gauges and applying the calibrated coefficients, the mechanical behaviour of the NBR material is obtained in terms of strain-rate-strain and stress-strain engineering curves.

  12. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 με peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 με peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold (-65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 με peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high

  13. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Rock Dynamic Test with Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of rock dynamic properties by split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was experimentally and numerically evaluated with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The effects of different diameters, different loading rates, and different propagation distances on wave dispersion of input bars in SHPB with rectangle and half-sine wave loadings were analyzed. The results show that the dispersion effect on the diameter of input bar, loading rate, and propagation distance under half-sine waveform loading is ignorable compared with the rectangle wave loading. Moreover, the degrees of stress uniformity under rectangle and half-sine input wave loadings are compared in SHPB tests, and the time required for stress uniformity is calculated under different above-mentioned loadings. It is confirmed that the stress uniformity can be realized more easily using the half-sine pulse loading compared to the rectangle pulse loading, and this has significant advantages in the dynamic test of rock-like materials. Finally, the Holmquist-Johnson-Concrete constitutive model is introduced to simulate the failure mechanism and failure and fragmentation characteristics of rock under different strain rates. And the numerical results agree with that obtained from the experiment, which confirms the effectiveness of the model and the method.

  14. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  15. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)

  16. Dynamic compressive properties obtained from a split Hopkinson pressure bar test of Boryeong shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minju; Cho, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang Gon; Park, Jaeyeong; Jeong, Myeong-Sik; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic compressive properties of a Boryeong shale were evaluated by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and were compared with those of a Hwangdeung granite which is a typical hard rock. The results indicated that the dynamic compressive loading reduced the resistance to fracture. The dynamic compressive strength was lower in the shale than in the granite, and was raised with increasing strain rate by microcracking effect as well as strain rate strengthening effect. Since the number of microcracked fragments increased with increasing strain rate in the shale having laminated weakness planes, the shale showed the better fragmentation performance than the granite at high strain rates. The effect of transversely isotropic plane on compressive strength decreased with increasing strain rate, which was desirable for increasing the fragmentation performance. Thus, the shale can be more reliably applied to industrial areas requiring good fragmentation performance as the striking speed of drilling or hydraulic fracturing machines increased. The present dynamic compressive test effectively evaluated the fragmentation performance as well as compressive strength and strain energy density by controlling the air pressure, and provided an important idea on which rock was more readily fragmented under dynamically processing conditions such as high-speed drilling and blasting.

  17. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125 fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two phase study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. The purpose of the first phase reported here is to examine the performance of a joint that consists of shock mitigating material sandwiched in between steel and to compare the performance of the shock mitigating materials. A split Hopkinson bar experimental configuration simulates this joint and has been used to study the shock mitigating characteristics of seventeen, unconfined materials. The nominal input for these tests is an incident compressive wave with 50 fps peak (1,500 micro var-epsilon peak) amplitude and a 100 micros duration (measured at 10% amplitude)

  18. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  19. Tensile Split Hopkinson Bar Technique: Numerical Analysis of the Problem of Wave Disturbance and Specimen Geometry Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panowicz Robert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.

  20. The defect structures and mechanical properties of Cu and Cu–Al alloys processed by split Hopkinson pressure bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jingmei; Yang, Kai; Xiong, Haiwu; Wu, Xiaoxiang; Zhu, Xinkun; Wen, Cuie

    2013-01-01

    Pure Cu, Cu-5 at%Al, Cu-10 at%Al and Cu-15 at%Al with different stacking fault energy (SFE) of 78, 37, 7 and 5 mJ/m 2 , respectively, were processed through split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) with the strain rate of 10 3 /sec. The influence of high strain rate on the evolution of microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu and Cu–Al alloys was investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that, the microstructures of Cu and Cu–Al alloys have been refined to the nano scale after deformed by SHPB, and with decreasing SFE, the average grain size decreases gradually from 72 to 40 nm, while the dislocation density increases from 0.55×10 14 to 4.4×10 14 m −2 and the twin density increases from 0.04% to 1.07%. The formation of deformation twins is an additional factor that contributes to the microhardness and strength of Cu and Cu–Al alloys except the solid solution strengthening effect. Cu-15 at%Al has the biggest strain hardening rate at larger strains due to its lowest SFE which results in the highest twin density. The results confirm that lower SFE improves both strength and strain hardening rate of materials

  1. Development of a Hopkinson Bar Apparatus for Testing Soft Materials: Application to a Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Peroni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in lightweight metallic foams for automotive, aerospace, and other applications has been observed in recent years. This is mainly due to the weight reduction that can be achieved using foams and for their mechanical energy absorption and acoustic damping capabilities. An accurate knowledge of the mechanical behavior of these materials, especially under dynamic loadings, is thus necessary. Unfortunately, metal foams and in general “soft” materials exhibit a series of peculiarities that make difficult the adoption of standard testing techniques for their high strain-rate characterization. This paper presents an innovative apparatus, where high strain-rate tests of metal foams or other soft materials can be performed by exploiting the operating principle of the Hopkinson bar methods. Using the pre-stress method to generate directly a long compression pulse (compared with traditional SHPB, a displacement of about 20 mm can be applied to the specimen with a single propagating wave, suitable for evaluating the whole stress-strain curve of medium-sized cell foams (pores of about 1–2 mm. The potential of this testing rig is shown in the characterization of a closed-cell aluminum foam, where all the above features are amply demonstrated.

  2. Characterization of adiabatic shear bands in the zirconium alloy impacted by split Hopkinson pressure bar at a strain rate of 6000 s−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, D.L.; Luan, B.F.; Liu, Q.; Chai, L.J.; Chen, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The adiabatic shear bands formed in the zirconium alloy impacted by split Hopkinson pressure bar at a strain rate of about 6000 s −1 were characterized systemically by means of a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscatter diffraction probe. The results show that the transformed bands were distinguished on the cross-section view of the impacted specimens, and the ultrafine and equiaxed grains formed in the transformed bands were confirmed. The gradient variation of the grains across the transformed bands from the boundary to the center of the bands was observed, and the grains at the center of the transformed bands were finer than other zones. Based on the characterization of the deformed microstructure adjacent to the transformed bands, the formation mechanism of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands was revealed, and the rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism should be responsible for the formation of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands. According to the collection of the cumulative misorientation at different strain levels, the formation and evolution process of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands were speculated. The microhardness measurements show that high microhardness value in the transformed bands was obtained because of the grain refining, and the large standard deviation of the microhardness at the center of the transformed bands was confirmed due to the gradient microstructural distribution in the bands.

  3. Comparison of the passivity between cast alloy and laser-welded titanium overdenture bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose; Givan, Daniel A; Broome, James C; Lemons, Jack E; McCracken, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit of cast alloy overdenture and laser-welded titanium-alloy bars by measuring induced strain upon tightening of the bars on a master cast as well as a function of screw tightening sequence. Four implant analogs were secured into Type IV dental stone to simulate a mandibular edentulous patient cast, and two groups of four overdenture bars were fabricated. Group I was four cast alloy bars and Group II was four laser-welded titanium bars. The cast alloy bars included Au-Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag-Au, Au-Ag-Cu-Pd, and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, while the laser-welded bars were all Ti-Al-V alloy. Bars were made from the same master cast, were torqued into place, and the total strain in the bars was measured through five strain gauges bonded to the bar between the implants. Each bar was placed and torqued 27 times to 30 Ncm per screw using three tightening sequences. Data were processed through a strain amplifier and analyzed by computer using StrainSmart software. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Significant differences were found between alloy types. Laser-welded titanium bars tended to have lower strains than corresponding cast bars, although the Au-Ag-Pd bar was not significantly different. The magnitudes of total strain were the least when first tightening the ends of the bar. The passivity of implant overdenture bars was evaluated using total strain of the bar when tightening. Selecting a high modulus of elasticity cast alloy or use of laser-welded bar design resulted in the lowest average strain magnitudes. While the effect of screw tightening sequence was minimal, tightening the distal ends first demonstrated the lowest strain, and hence the best passivity.

  4. A miniature Hopkinson experiment device based on multistage reluctance coil electromagnetic launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenkai; Huan, Shi; Xiao, Ying

    2017-09-01

    A set of seven-stage reluctance miniaturized Hopkinson bar electromagnetic launcher has been developed in this paper. With the characteristics of high precision, small size, and little noise pollution, the device complies with the requirements of miniaturized Hopkinson bar for high strain rate. The launcher is a seven-stage accelerating device up to 65.5 m/s. A high performance microcontroller is used to control accurately the discharge of capacitor sets, by means of which the outlet velocity of the projectile can be controlled within a certain velocity range.

  5. A miniature Hopkinson experiment device based on multistage reluctance coil electromagnetic launch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenkai; Huan, Shi; Xiao, Ying

    2017-09-01

    A set of seven-stage reluctance miniaturized Hopkinson bar electromagnetic launcher has been developed in this paper. With the characteristics of high precision, small size, and little noise pollution, the device complies with the requirements of miniaturized Hopkinson bar for high strain rate. The launcher is a seven-stage accelerating device up to 65.5 m/s. A high performance microcontroller is used to control accurately the discharge of capacitor sets, by means of which the outlet velocity of the projectile can be controlled within a certain velocity range.

  6. [Surgical fixation of rib fractures with clips and titanium bars (STRATOS System). Preliminary experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno De La Santa Barajas, Pablo; Polo Otero, María Dolores; Delgado Sánchez-Gracián, Carlos; Lozano Gómez, Manuel; Toscano Novella, Alberto; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, Julia; Leal Ruiloba, Sonsoles; Choren Durán, Maria L

    2010-09-01

    Rib fractures are very common in closed chest injuries. The majority of these patients suffer significant pain with movement and cough. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of titanium rib bars and clips in stabilising rib fractures. Twenty-two patients with rib fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation between 2008 and 2009. Indications for treatment were defined as; 1) Patients with unstable chest (13 patients), 2) Patients with pain or instability due to rib fractures (6 patients), and 3) Significant traumatic deformities of the chest wall (3 patients). Age, traumatic mechanism, chest and associated injuries, surgical data, complications and follow-up were prospectively analysed. The surgical technique is described. The majority of patients were extubated immediately after surgery. All patients with pain or instability showed a subjective improvement or disappearance of pain after the surgery. Four patients had a wound infection which had to be drained. After 3 months, 55% of the patients had returned to work or normal life. The results in each group are described. Open reduction with internal fixation of rib fractures is a good alternative. The use of titanium rib bars and clips give good clinical results, are easy to apply and have few complications. Copyright © 2010 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Complications with computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured titanium and soldered gold bars for mandibular implant-overdentures: short-term observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Wälchli, Julia; Kobel, Simone; Gholami, Hadi; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Implant-overdentures supported by rigid bars provide stability in the edentulous atrophic mandible. However, fractures of solder joints and matrices, and loosening of screws and matrices were observed with soldered gold bars (G-bars). Computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium bars (Ti-bars) may reduce technical complications due to enhanced material quality. To compare prosthetic-technical maintenance service of mandibular implant-overdentures supported by CAD/CAM Ti-bar and soldered G-bar. Edentulous patients were consecutively admitted for implant-prosthodontic treatment with a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular implant-overdenture connected to a rigid G-bar or Ti-bar. Maintenance service and problems with the implant-retention device complex and the prosthesis were recorded during minimally 3-4 years. Annual peri-implant crestal bone level changes (ΔBIC) were radiographically assessed. Data of 213 edentulous patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years), who had received a total of 477 tapered implants, were available. Ti-bar and G-bar comprised 101 and 112 patients with 231 and 246 implants, respectively. Ti-bar mostly exhibited distal bar extensions (96%) compared to 34% of G-bar (p overdentures supported by soldered gold bars or milled CAD/CAM Ti-bars are a successful treatment modality but require regular maintenance service. These short-term observations support the hypothesis that CAD/CAM Ti-bars reduce technical complications. Fracture location indicated that the titanium thickness around the screw-access hole should be increased. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Advances in the Systems and Processes for the Production of Gamma Titanium Aluminide Bars and Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Robert E.

    2017-12-01

    A historical look at the melt processing of gamma titanium aluminides is presented first, followed by recent advances in melting equipment design by Retech to produce 50-mm and 100-mm-diameter ingots up to 1000 mm long. Equipment design for the economical production of gamma titanium aluminide powder is then discussed. The focus in industry has shifted away from basic research to cost-effective production of these titanium alloys for aerospace and automotive engine applications.

  9. Dynamic tensile resistance of concrete-split Hopkinson bar test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Sharma, A.; Ozbolt, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. Compared to quasi-static loading, on meso and macro-scale concrete loaded by impact loading acts in a different way. First, there is a strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, ductility, and, second, there are

  10. Dynamic tensile resistance of concrete - Split hopkinson bar test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ožbolt, J.; Weerheijm, J.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. Compared to quasi-static loading, on meso and macro-scale concrete loaded by impact loading acts in a different way. First, there is a strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, ductility, and, second, there are

  11. [Utility of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Zheng, Yue-huan; Cao, Peng; Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Chang-hui; Lu, Jiong

    2011-06-07

    To test the nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar for the treatment of traumatic and osteoporotic vertebral body fracture. A Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar was implanted into the compressed fracture specimens through vertebral pedicle with the radiographic monitoring to reduce the collapsed endplate as well as distract the compressed vertebral fracture. Radiographic film and computed tomographic reconstruction technique were employed to evaluate the effects of reduction and distraction. A biomechanic test machine was used to measure the fatigue and the stability of deformation of fixation segments. Relying on the effect of temperature shape memory, such an assembly could basically reduce the collapsed endplate as well as distract the compressed vertebral fracture. And when unsatisfied results of reduction and distraction occurred, its super flexibility could provide additional distraction strength. A Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar may provide effective endplate reduction, restore the vertebral height and the immediate biomechanic spinal stability. So the above assembly is indicated for the treatment of traumatic and osteoporotic vertebral body fracture.

  12. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bedinger, George M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Titanium is a mineral commodity that is essential to the smooth functioning of modern industrial economies. Most of the titanium produced is refined into titanium dioxide, which has a high refractive index and is thus able to impart a durable white color to paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and titanium metal alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.Ilmenite and rutile are currently the principal titanium-bearing ore minerals, although other minerals, including anatase, perovskite, and titanomagnetite, could have economic importance in the future. Ilmenite is currently being mined from two large magmatic deposits hosted in rocks of Proterozoic-age anorthosite plutonic suites. Most rutile and nearly one-half of the ilmenite produced are from heavy-mineral alluvial, fluvial, and eolian deposits. Titanium-bearing minerals occur in diverse geologic settings, but many of the known deposits are currently subeconomic for titanium because of complications related to the mineralogy or because of the presence of trace contaminants that can compromise the pigment production process.Global production of titanium minerals is currently dominated by Australia, Canada, Norway, and South Africa; additional amounts are produced in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The United States accounts for about 4 percent of the total world production of titanium minerals and is heavily dependent on imports of titanium mineral concentrates to meet its domestic needs.Titanium occurs only in silicate or oxide minerals and never in sulfide minerals. Environmental considerations for titanium mining are related to waste rock disposal and the impact of trace constituents on water quality. Because titanium is generally inert in the environment, human health risks from titanium and titanium

  13. {11-bar 01} twin dislocation structures in evaporated titanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Fan, Xudong; Kasukabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of { 11-bar 01} interfacial twin dislocations in Ti thin films are reexamined. Computer simulations of the experimental images were obtained using atomic models deduced by Pond, Bacon and Serra (Phil Mag Letts, 1995). Two twin dislocations were analysed, with step heights of 4 x d(K 1 ) and 2 x d (K 1 ), where d(K 1 ) is the spacing of the { 11-bar 01 } planes. Reasonable agreement with the predicted structures was obtained at about 0.17nm resolution. 10 refs., 2 figs

  14. Stress transmission through Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel in impact compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, T; Doi, H; Kobayashi, E; Hamanaka, H; Tanabe, Y; Bonfield, W

    2000-06-01

    Impact stress transmission of Ti-Ni alloy was evaluated for biomedical stress shielding. Transformation temperatures of the alloy were investigated by means of DSC. An impact compression test was carried out with use of split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique with cylindrical specimens of Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel. As a result, the transmitted pulse through Ti-Ni alloy was considerably depressed as compared with those through titanium and stainless steel. The initial stress reduction was large through Ti-Ni alloy and titanium, but the stress reduction through Ti-Ni alloy was more continuous than titanium. The maximum value in the stress difference between incident and transmitted pulses through Ti-Ni alloy or titanium was higher than that through stainless steel, while the stress reduction in the maximum stress through Ti-Ni alloy was statistically larger than that through titanium or stainless steel. Ti-Ni alloy transmitted less impact stress than titanium or stainless steel, which suggested that the loading stress to adjacent tissues could be decreased with use of Ti-Ni alloy as a component material in an implant system. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  15. Fatigue limits of titanium-bar joints made with the laser and the electric resistance welding techniques: microstructural characterization and hardness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Morri, Alessandro; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Tebbel, Florian; Marchetti, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue behavior of the titanium bars is of utmost importance for the safe and reliable operation of dental implants and prosthetic constructions based on these implants. To date, however, only few data are available on the fatigue strength of dental prostheses made with electric resistance welding and laser welding techniques. This in-vitro study highlighted that although the joints made with the laser welding approach are credited of a superior tensile strength, joints made with electric resistance welding exhibited double the minimum fatigue strength with respect to the joints made with laser welding (120 vs 60 N).

  16. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...... and medical implants, personal care products, and foods. Despite being considered to be highly biocompatible relative to other metals, Ti is released in the presence of biological fluids and tissue, especially under certain circumstances, which seem to be more likely with regard to dental implants. Although...... most of the studies reviewed have important limitations, Ti seems not to penetrate a competent skin barrier, either as pure Ti, alloy, or as Ti oxide NPs. However, there are some indications of Ti penetration through the oral mucosa. We conclude that patch testing with the available Ti preparations...

  17. Temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of commercially pure titanium by the compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su Min; Seo, Song Won; Park, Kyoung Joon; Min, Oak Key

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Commercially Pure Titanium (CP-Ti) is investigated at high temperature Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) compression test with high strain-rate. Tests are performed over a temperature range from room temperature to 1000 .deg. C with interval of 200 deg. C and a strain-rate range of 1900∼2000/sec. The true flow stress-true strain relations depending on temperature are achieved in these tests. For construction of constitutive equation from the true flow stress-true strain relation, parameters for the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is determined. And the modified Johnson-Cook equation is used for investigation of behavior of flow stress in vicinity of recrystallization temperature. The modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is more suitable in expressing the dynamic behavior of a CP-Ti at high temperature, i.e. about recrystallization temperature

  18. Impact testing of polymer-filled auxetics using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, T.; Zlámal, P.; Jiroušek, O.; Falta, J.; Koudelka_ml., P.; Kytýř, D.; Doktor, T.; Valach, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 1700076. ISSN 1438-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : bridge decks * filled polymers * filling * honeycomb structures * impact testing * mechanical testing * Poisson ratio * polyurethanes Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adem.201700076/abstract

  19. Impact deformation behavior of duplex and superaustenitic stainless steels welds by split Hopkinson pressure bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shing-Hoa; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Woei-Shyan; Chen, Tao-Hsing; Wu, Chia-Chang; Lien, Charles; Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2009-12-01

    A considerable volume of γ phase increases in the fusion zone (weld metal) for two duplex stainless steels after a high-strain-rate impact. The strain-induced γ phase formation in the fusion zone results in local hardness variation depending on the strain rate. The α phase content in the fusion zone decreases as the impact strain rate increases for SAF 2205 DSS and SAF 2507 DSS. The results of the two-phase content measured by Ferritoscope correspond to that assessed by image analyses. In contrast, superaustenite stainless steel is unaffected by such an impact owing to its fully stable austenization. Impacted welds at a high strain rate of 5 × 103 s-1 reveal feather-like surface creases along the solidified curved columnar grain boundaries. The apparent surface creases are formed due to the presence of diffuse Lüders bands, which are caused by heavy plastic deformation in coarse-grain materials.

  20. An investigation of dynamic mechanical behaviour of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Chun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the high strain rate shear behaviour of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, a series of dynamic compression experiments has been performed by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB using Flat Hat-shaped specimen at room temperature. Macro true shear stress-true strain curves were obtained under different strain rate loading conditions at room temperature. The effects of strain hardening and strain rate hardening on the dynamic mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy were discussed. Results indicate that a The higher the strain rate, the higher the flow stress, therefore, the material has obvious strain rate hardening effect, b It is ductile failure for Ti6Al4V titanium alloy under quasi-static loading condition, c For dynamical tests, the values for true shear stress increase with increasing true strain till the maximum true shear stress, on the contrary, the values for true shear stress decrease with increasing the true strain after the maximum true shear stress and d The flow stress increases with increasing the true strain under quasi-static loading condition during the plastic deformation.

  1. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  2. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness at Elevated Temperatures With Application to the New Generation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Adiabatic shear behaviors in rolled and annealed pure titanium subjected to dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Lianjun; Chen, Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com; Jiang, Yanghui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Renke; Liu, Chuming

    2017-02-08

    The hat-shaped samples cut from rolled and annealed titanium plates were prepared to explore the adiabatic shear behaviors subjected to high-strain-rate deformation operated via Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The dynamic shear response calculation reveals that dynamic deformation processes of both state samples can be divided in similar three stages but rolled sample shows a higher susceptibility of adiabatic shear localization compared with the annealed one. Optical microscopy and electronic backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) were used to systematically analyze the microstructure and texture characteristics. The results show that adiabatic shear bands form in both state samples and rotational dynamic recrystallization (RDRX) occurs within shear area and results in the formation of ultrafine equiaxed grains. Furthermore, ultrafine equiaxed grains within adiabatic shear bands have the same texture feature that <11–20> direction and {10-10} plane parallel to macro local shear direction and shear plane respectively. In the deformation region around the shear band, {10–12} <–1011> tensile and {11–22} <11-2-3> compressive two types twins are observed in both state samples and {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more frequently observed in rolled sample. In the rolled sample, {10–12} <–1011> tensile twins are more likely to happen in the hat-brim side than the hat-body side due to the difference of stress state in two sides.

  4. Crack initiation life in notched Ti-6Al-4V titanium bars under uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue: synthesis based on the averaged strain energy density approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Meneghetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been analysed. To investigate the notch effect on the fatigue strength, pure bending, pure torsion and multiaxial bending-torsion fatigue tests have been carried out on specimens characterized by two different root radii, namely 0.1 and 4 mm. Crack nucleation and subsequent propagation have been accurately monitored by using the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique. Based on the results obtained from the potential drop technique, the crack initiation life has been defined in correspondence of a relative potential drop increase V/V0 equal to 1%, and it has been used as failure criterion. Doing so, the effect of extrinsic mechanisms operating during crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact, friction and meshing between fracture surfaces, is expected to be reduced. The experimental fatigue test results have been re-analysed by using the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a structural volume having radius R0 and surrounding the notch tip. Finally, the use of the local strain energy density parameter allowed us to properly correlate the crack initiation life of Ti-6Al-4V notched specimens, despite the different notch geometries and loading conditions involved in the tests

  5. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  6. Formation of Gaps at the Specimen-Bar Interfaces in Numerical Simulations of Compression Hopkinson Bar Tests on Soft, Nearly Incompressible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    MISSISSIPPI MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A RAJENDRAN 201 CARRIER HALL UNIVERSITY MS 38677 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO ...extrapolation of the data given in Aihaiti and Hemley (10); the authors attribute this data to Dana Dattlebaum at Los Alamos National Laboratory...region bordering the centerline, about 6–8 specimen lengths back from the S-IB interface. From 164.2 to164.6 s (figures 19 and 20), the pressure

  7. Titanium ; dream new material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Kim Seung Eon; Heoon, Yong Taek; Jung, Hui Won

    2001-11-01

    The contents of this book are history of Titanium, present situation of Titanium industry, property of Titanium alloy, types of it, development of new alloy of Titanium smelting of Titanium, cast of Titanium and heat treatment of Titanium, Titanium alloy for plane, car parts, biological health care, and sport leisure and daily life, prospect, and Titanium industrial development of Titanium in China.

  8. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  9. Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeto, Dewey; Woo, C.K.; Horowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

  10. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  11. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  12. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  13. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  14. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  15. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  16. Hanging off a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, F.; Walmink, W.; Toprak, C.; Bongers, Bert; Graether, E.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with

  17. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  18. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  19. Four bars inn; Four bars inn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The name Four Bars Inn puns on four drinking bars and four bars on a musical score. It is a public house sited on the busy St. Mary Street, Cardiff, England. During my stay in that town, I often attended the regular jam session that opened at the bar at nine o`clock every Monday evening. A jam session is an event in which any amateur player, and a professional artist occasionally, is allowed to come on the stage freely and to play jazz, the participation fee as low as 300-yen. It is an occasion that provides a friendly meeting of man and woman, young and old, everyone carrying a pint of ale. Senior people happily talking to young ones aged like their grandchildren certainly presents a heart-warming scene, which we scarcely encounter in Japan. The affection that the British entertain toward their domestic furnishings relayed down through many a generation may lead to their respect for senior citizens. I heartily look forward detecting like scenes some day at drinking spots in Japan where the consumption-happy days are over. (NEDO)

  20. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  1. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available used, the following forms of titanium are produced: titanium sponge, sintered electrode sponge, powder, molten titanium, electroplated titanium, hydride powder, and vapor-phase depos- ited titanium. Comparing the economics of alter- native...-up for producing titanium via the Kroll process is approximately as follows: ilmenite ($0.27/kg titanium sponge); titanium slag ($0.75/kg titanium sponge); TiCl4 ($3.09/kg titanium sponge); titanium sponge raw materials costs ($5.50/kg titanium sponge); total...

  2. Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...

  3. Living with others inside the self: decolonising transplantation, selfhood and the body politic in Nalo Hopkinson's Brown Girl in the Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Donna

    2016-12-01

    This article examines anxieties concerning organ transplantation in Nalo Hopkinson's prize-winning novel Brown Girl in the Ring (1998). The main focus is how this novel re-imagines subjectivity and selfhood as an embodied metaphor for the reconfiguring of broader sociopolitical relations. In other words, this article analyses the relationship between the transplanted body and the body politic, arguing that a post-transplant identity, where there is little separation between donor and recipient, is the foundation for a politics based on responsibility for others. Such a responsibility poses a challenge to the race and class segregation that is integral to the post-apocalyptic world of Hopkinson's novel. Transplantation is not a utopian vision of an egalitarian society coming together in one body; rather, this biotechnological intervention offers a potentially different mode of thinking what it means to work across race, class and embodied division, while always recalling the violence that might facilitate so-called medical progress. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  5. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  6. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  7. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  8. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  9. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  10. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  11. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  12. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  13. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark ...

  14. Dynamics of a stellar bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a prolate bar have been studied by means of a three-dimensional computer model. The bar pattern rotates in the sense of the total angular momentum. The mean particle motion is a rapid streaming in the direction of pattern rotation as seen from a frame that rotates with the bar. Rotation rates that would be inferred from observation are significantly (2--3 times) faster than the pattern rotation speed. Velocity dispersions are anisotropic with the largest component along the bar. Particles oscillate in the bar potential significantly faster than pattern rotation: typical oscillation frequencies are around ω/sub z/=ω/sub y/=6Ω and ω/sub x/=3Ω where z is the direction of angular momentum, x lies along the bar, and Ω is the pattern angular velocity. About 25% of the star orbits are near 2:2:1 resonance with the slow motion along the bar. Particle motion is highly ordered in the bar:the ratio t=T/sub mean//vertical-barWvertical-bar is 0.21--0.24. Observable properties are described; where comparisons can be made, observable properties are in agreement with observations of brightness contours, velocity fields, and velocity dispersions. The bar has nearly exponential density profiles

  15. Ukola Club. Bar americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu, J. R.

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available En la calle de Serrano, aprovechando un semisótano dedicado a otro negocio anteriormente, se ha instalado un bar americano, de cuyo interior ofrecemos algunos pormenores. Se han cuidado, especialmente, las condiciones acústicas, resueltas por medio de un techo de escayola perforada, con vitrofib en su parte superior, y paredes de madera, que contribuyen a darle un ambiente cálido y acogedor. El soporte de hierro laminado existente en el centro del local, cuya supresión hubiera sido costosa, se ha revestido con lajas de mármol que le convierten en un elemento decorativo.

  16. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  17. K-bar-mesic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    New nuclei 'K-bar-Mesic Nuclei' having the strangeness are described. At first it is shown that the strongly attractive nature of K-bar N interaction is reasoned inductively from consideration of the relation between Kaonic hydrogen atom and Λ (1405) which is an excited state of hyperon Λ. The K-bar N interactions are reviewed and summarized into three categories: 1. Phenomenological approach with density dependent K-bar N interaction (DD), relativistic mean field (RMF) approach, and hybrid of them (RMF+DD). 2. Boson exchange model. 3. Chiral SU(3) theory. The investigation of some light K-bar-nuclei by Akaishi and Yamazaki using phenomenological K-bar N interaction is explained in detail. Studies by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) approach are also presented. From these theoretical researches, the following feature of K-bar-mesic nuclei are revealed: 1) Ground state is discrete and bound by 100 MeV or more. 2) Density is very high in side the K-bar-mesic nuclei. 3) Strange structures develop which are not seen in ordinary nuclei. Finally some recent experiments to explore K-bar-mesic nuclei are reviewed. (S. Funahashi)

  18. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  19. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  20. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  1. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 3 Rationale – Titanium Cost Build-up Material Cost Ilmenite $0.27/kg Ti sponge Titanium slag $0.75/kg Ti Sponge TiCl4 and TiO2 $3....10/kg Ti Sponge Ti Sponge raw materials costs $5.50/kg Ti Sponge Total Ti Sponge cost $9-$11/kg Ti Sponge Ti ingot $15-17/kg Ti Aluminium $1.7/kg Al Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting...

  2. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  3. Chitosan patterning on titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert Chirivella, Eduardo; Pérez Feito, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Ribeiro, Sylvie; Correia, Daniela; González Martin, María Luisa; Manero Planella, José María; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in medical implants because of their excellent properties. However, bacterial infection is a frequent cause of titanium-based implant failure and also compromises its osseointegration. In this study, we report a new simple method of providing titanium surfaces with antibacterial properties by alternating antibacterial chitosan domains with titanium domains in the micrometric scale. Surface microgrooves were etched on pure titanium disks at i...

  4. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  5. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...

  6. Low energy bar pp physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, C.; Crowe, K.

    1989-02-01

    A detailed investigation of proton-antiproton interactions at low energy has become feasible with the commissioning of the LEAR facility in 1983. We shall shortly review the status of bar pp annihilation at rest and the physics motivations for second generation experiments with the Crystal Barrel detector. This type of detector would be adequate for the study of both Kp and bar pp interactions on an extracted beam of the KAON Factory. We shall conclude with a few remarks on the physics opportunities with bar p's at the KAON Factory which, in our opinion, will not be covered by the present LEAR facility. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Possible heavy tetraquarks qQq-barQ-bar, qqQ-barQ-bar and qQQ-barQ-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Chen Xiaolin; Deng Weizhen; Zhu Shilin

    2007-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a qcq-barc-bar tetraquark and using its mass as input, the authors perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections. (authors)

  8. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  9. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  10. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  11. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  12. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  13. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  14. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  15. RELATING BOTTOM QUARK MASS IN DR-BAR AND MS-BAR REGULARIZATION SCHEMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The value of the bottom quark mass at Q = M Z in the (bar D)(bar R) scheme is an important input for the analysis of supersymmetric models with a large value of tan β. Conventionally, however, the running bottom quark mass extracted from experimental data is quoted in the (bar M)(bar S) scheme at the scale Q = m b . We describe a two loop procedure for the conversion of the bottom quark mass from (bar M)(bar S) to (bar D)(bar R) scheme. The Particle Data Group value m b # bar M# # bar S#(m b # bar M# # bar S#) = 4.2 ± 0.2 GeV corresponds to a range of 2.65-3.03 GeV for m b # bar D# # bar R#(M Z )

  16. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  17. Simulation of Texture Evolution during Uniaxial Deformation of Commercially Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoyi, B.; Debta, M. K.; Yadav, S. K.; Sabat, R. K.; Sahoo, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of texture in commercially pure (CP) titanium during uniaxial tension and compression through VPSC (Visco-plastic self-consistent) simulation is reported in the present study. CP-titanium was subjected to both uniaxial tension and compression upto 35% deformation. During uniaxial tension, tensile twin of \\{10\\bar{1}2\\}\\unicode{x003C;}\\bar{1}011\\unicode{x003E;} type and compressive twin of \\{11\\bar{2}2\\}\\unicode{x003C;}11\\bar{2}\\bar{3}\\unicode{x003E;} type were observed in the samples. However, only tensile twin of \\{10\\bar{1}2\\}\\unicode{x003C;}\\bar{1}011\\unicode{x003E;} type and compressive twin of type was observed in the samples during uniaxial compression. Volume fractions of the twins were increased linearly as a function of percentage deformation during uniaxial tension. Whereas, during uniaxial compression the twinning volume fraction was increased up to 20% deformation and then decreased rapidly on further increasing the percentage deformation. During uniaxial tension, the general t-type textures were observed in the samples irrespective of the percentage deformation. The initial non-basal texture was oriented to split basal texture during uniaxial compression of the sample. VPSC formulation was used for simulating the texture development in the material. Different hardening parameters were estimated through correlating the simulated stress-strain curve with the experimental stress-strain data. It was observed that, prismatic slip \\{10\\bar{1}0\\}\\unicode{x003C;}11\\bar{2}0\\unicode{x003E;} operated as the primary deformation mode during uniaxial tension whereas basal slip \\{0001\\}\\unicode{x003C;}11\\bar{2}0\\unicode{x003E;} acquired the leading role during deformation through uniaxial compression. It was also revealed that active deformation modes were fully depending on percentage deformation, loading direction, and orientation of grains.

  18. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay $\\bar\\Lambda \\to \\bar p\\pi^+$

    OpenAIRE

    BES collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample of $58\\times10^6J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the $\\bar\\Lambda$ decay parameter $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}$ for $\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p \\pi^+$ is measured using about 9000 $J/\\psi\\to\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p \\bar p \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}(\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p\\pi^+)=-0.755\\pm0.083\\pm0.063$, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  19. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  20. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  1. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modulation in magnetic exchange interaction, core shell structure and Hopkinson's peak with chromium substitution into Ni0.75Co0.25Fe2O4 nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday Bhasker, S.; Choudary, G. S. V. R. K.; Reddy, M. V. Ramana

    2018-05-01

    The ever growing applications and ever evolving challenges of magnetic nano particles has been motivating the researchers from various disciplines towards this area of magnetic nano particles. Cation substitutional effect on the magnetic structure of the nanoparticles forms a crucial aspect in their applications. Here the environmentally benign auto combustion method was employed to synthesize chromium substituted nickel cobalt ferrite (Ni0.75Co0.25Fe2-xCrxO4; x = 0, 0.10, 0.15) nano particles, from aqueous metal nitrate solutions. Chromium substitution has shown its effect on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Ni0.75Co0.25Fe2O4. Structural and phase analysis of the prepared samples show increased phase purity of ferrite sample with increasing Cr substitution. The TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) image confirms the nano size of the particles, EDS (Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) has supported the stoichiometry of the prepared samples and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic) analysis confirms the spinel structure and also suggests cation redistributions with chromium substitution. VSM (Vibrational Sample Magnetometer) is used to study the magnetic properties through magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loop and magnetic Hopkinson effect. All samples show hysteresis and show reduction in magnetic properties with increase in chromium content. The thermo magnetic study shows Hopkinson peak(s) in the magnetization vs. temperature (M-T) graph and also shows variation in the nature of Hopkinson peak with chromium substitution. Possible reasons for the changes in the nature of the peak are discussed.

  3. Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-02-01

    In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH 2 resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750 degree C. 18 refs. 1 fig

  4. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  5. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  6. Fabricating CAD/CAM Implant-Retained Mandibular Bar Overdentures: A Clinical and Technical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Ling Goo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical and technical aspects in the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with knife-edge ridge at the mandibular anterior edentulous region, using implant-retained overdentures. The application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM in the fabrication of the overdenture framework simplifies the laboratory process of the implant prostheses. The Nobel Procera CAD/CAM System was utilised to produce a lightweight titanium overdenture bar with locator attachments. It is proposed that the digital workflow of CAD/CAM milled implant overdenture bar allows us to avoid numerous technical steps and possibility of casting errors involved in the conventional casting of such bars.

  7. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  8. Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    A steam generator tube support structure comprises expandable antivibration bars positioned between rows of tubes in the steam generator and attached to retaining rings surrounding the bundle of tubes. The antivibration bars have adjacent bar sections with mating surfaces formed as inclined planes which upon relative longitudinal motion between the upper and lower bars provides a means to increase the overall thickness across the structure to the required value. The bar section is retained against longitudinal movement in take-up assembly whereas the bar section is movable longitudinally by rotation of a nut. (author)

  11. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...

  12. Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states in chiral SU(3) quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Zhang Min; Zhang Zongye

    2007-01-01

    We study the masses of Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states with J PC =0 ++ , 1 ++ , 1 +- and 2 ++ in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q(q') is the light quark (u,d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 1 ++ and [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 2 ++ (n=u,d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the bq(b-bar)(q-bar)' system. (authors)

  13. Effect of strain rate and stress triaxiality on tensile behavior of Titanium alloy Ti-10-2-3 at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh, E-mail: ravindranadh@dmrl.drdo.in; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-06-14

    In this study, Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) has been employed to investigate the dynamic tensile flow behavior of Ti-10-2-3 alloy at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. The combined effect of stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature and on the tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated. Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive and fracture models were developed based on high strain rate tensile data. A modified Johnson–Cook model was established and proved to have high accuracy. A comparative assessment has been done to confirm the accuracy of modified J–C model based on finite element method (FEM). The improved model provides better description on the influence of equivalent plastic strain rate and temperature on the plastic flow. The simulation results proved to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  14. Catalytic properties of a titanium-antimony oxide system in oxidative ammonolysis of propylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkovets, G.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Andrushkevich, T.V.; Aleshina, G.I.; Nikoro, T.A.; Ravilov, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    The catalytic properties of titanium-antimony oxide system in oxidative ammonolysis of propylene at 450/sup 0/C depended both on the catalyst and the reactant compositions. Stable and high (75-80Vertical Bar3<) selectivities for acrylonitrile and high activities were observed over catalysts containing 5-60 mole Vertical Bar3< Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ with 2Vertical Bar3< propylene and 3Vertical Bar3< ammonia in air at Vertical Bar3; 70Vertical Bar3< conversions. The selectivities of the catalysts for acetonitrile and acrolein did not exceed 5 and 1Vertical Bar3<, respectively. At high ammonia and propylene contents in the reaction mixture and over individual TiO/sub 2/ or Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ catalysts, the reaction selectivity shifted toward deep oxidation products. These findings were attributed to the reducing effect of propylene and ammonia at high concentrations on the active components of the catalyst, a solid solution of Sb in TiO/sub 2/ containing 5-7 mole Vertical Bar3< of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and a chemical compound with TiSb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ composition.

  15. Improved Processing of Titanium Alloys by Metal Injection Moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidambe, A T; Figueroa, I A; Todd, I; Hamilton, H

    2011-01-01

    The commercially pure (CP-Ti) and Ti6Al4V (Ti-64) powders with powder size of sub 45-micron were mixed with a water soluble binder consisting of a major fraction of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG), a minor fraction of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and some stearic acid as surfactant. The pelletised mix was injection-moulded into standard tensile bar specimens and then subjected solvent debinding by water leaching and thermal debinding in an argon atmosphere. The titanium compacts were then subjected to sintering studies using the Taguchi method. The results of the oxygen impurity levels of the sintered parts are presented in this paper. Titanium parts conforming to Grade 2 requirements were achieved for CP-Ti whilst those conforming to Grade 5 were achieved for Ti-64.

  16. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  17. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  18. CP asymmetries in B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l and untagged B-bar s, Bs → φ( → K+K-) l-bar l decays at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeth, Christoph; Hiller, Gudrun; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b → s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ∼ d , B d → K*( → K 0 π 0 ) l-bar l and B-bar s , B s → φ( → K + K - ) l-bar l decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experimental studies are promising for (super) flavor factories and at hadron colliders.

  19. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  20. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  1. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  3. Derivation of asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, K.; Oneda, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the origin of the observed approximate Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule is the presence of an asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule which exists among certain two-body hadronic weak matrix elements, involving especially the ground-state hadrons

  4. Mechanochemistry of titanium oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemistry represents an alternative route in synthesis of nanomaterials. Mechanochemical routes are attractive because of their simplicity, flexibility, and ability to prepare materials by solid state reactions at room temperature. The aim of this work is the mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured titanium oxides of different composition starting from mixtures of Ti and TiO2, TiO and TiO2 or Ti2O3 and TiO2. Emphasis is on the Magneli phases Ti4O7 and Ti5O9 because their mixture is commercially known as EBONEX material. The materials prepared were characterized by XRPD, TG/DTA analysis, SEM and optical microscopy. Titanium monoxide and several Magneli oxides, Ti4O7, Ti5O9 and Ti6O11, are successfully prepared. The results are very interesting because the EBONEX materials were prepared at lower than usual temperature, which would decrease the effective cost of production.

  5. Wear evaluation of flank in burins of high speed steel modified with titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Caballero, J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    This report shows the results obtained researching the flank wearing resistance performed by the high-speed steel (HSS) burins without any surface treatment (reference substrate) and others with surface treatment based on Titanium ions. The flank wearing was carried out by means of an industrial process by chip removal with repetitive tests of dry finished turning of AISI/SAE 1045 steel bars. The useful service life of the burins was evaluated according to ISO 3685:1993, and it was found that the burins treated with Titanium ions showed an increase in the flank wearing resistance with respect to the ones used as reference.

  6. Terminal solid solubility of hydrogen in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroldi, J.P.; Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abraham David

    2003-01-01

    A Research and Development program to build a data base is currently under progress to support the local titanium fabrication. In the present work the temperature of the Terminal Solid Solubility on dissolution (TSSd) and precipitation (TSSp) of titanium hydrides in the Ti α-phase were both measured in the same thermal cycle with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The local titanium producer (FAESA) provided ASTM grade 1 pure Ti bars of about 2,5 cm in diameter. Samples weighting between 50 to 200 mg were cut with a diamond disc and the parallelepiped faces were all carefully ground with SiC papers, then picked in a HNO 3 plus HF aqueous solution and finally dried out with ethanol and hot air. Pairs of (TSSd, TSSp) values for α + δ → α and α → α + δ transformation temperatures in titanium were determined with the same calorimetric procedure already used to calculate the TSS values in zirconium. Data were taken from the same sample during the heating up and cooling down cycle of the second calorimeter run made with the same rate of 20 C degrees / minute. The Cathodic Charging technique was used to charge the samples at different hydrogen concentrations between the 'as fabricated' value and the concentration corresponding to the eutectoid temperature. A mixture of glycerin and phosphoric acid in a 2:1 ratio and a current density of 0,05 to 0,1 Amp/cm 2 were applied to different samples during 24 to 96 hours to get a wide range of hydrogen concentrations. A homogenization heat treatment at 400 C degrees for 45 minutes -made at open air in an electric furnace- was applied to each sample to dissolve the massive hydrides at the sample surfaces and diffuse them into the bulk of the sample. The hydrogen concentration of each sample was measured after the final calorimetric run using the Extraction Method in Liquid State under an inert atmosphere using a Leco RH-404 model Hydrogen Determinator. The experimental data follows a linear relationship -with a

  7. Production of n-bar's and Sigma-bar+-'s in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.; Buchanan, C.; Nodulman, L.; Poster, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Morehouse, C.C.; Vannucci, F.

    1979-01-01

    The production of antineutrons and charged Sigma-bar's in e + e - annihilations has been measured at √s +- production between 4 and 7 GeV is consistent with simple expectations for charmed-baryon production. A search for the decays Lambda-bar - /sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - and Sigma-baratsup asteriskat/sub c//Sigma-bar/sub c/ → Lambda-bar - /sub c/π +- yields no significant peaks. An upper limit, at the 90% confidence level, of sigmaatsub Lambda-baratc-italicB (Lambda-bar/sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - ) < 56 pb is set

  8. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  9. Industrial experience with titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B M; Shoesmith, D W

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author) 83 refs., 17 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  11. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  13. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Although organized and presented by joining process, many of the observations made and relationships developed, particularly those regarding the weldability and welding metallurgy of gamma titanium...

  14. Study of the reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ at 3.6 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Atherton, Henry W; Moebes, J P; Quercigh, Emanuele

    1974-01-01

    The reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ are studied at an incident momentum of 3.6 GeV/c in a 35.4 event/$\\mu$ b experiment performed in the CERN 2m HBC. Total and differential cross sections are presented. The polarization of the hyperons is measured as a function of $t$ and for the reaction $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$ the complete spin correlation matrix is given. (23 refs).

  15. Influence of deformation conditions on texture formation and ductility in titanium alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekun, A.M.; Kushakevich, S.A.; Adamesku, R.A.; Khmelinin, Yu.F.; Beresnev, B.I.; Shishmintsev, V.F.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of hot pressing parameters on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of bars from titanium alloys VT1-0, VT5-1, (α-alloys) and VT3-1 (α+ν-alloy) has been investigated. Mechanical testing of samples has been performed under hydrostatic pressure from 200 to 800 MPa. It is shown that the temperature, deformation degree and type of the structure obtained exert a slight effect on mechanical properties of bars. The texture heterogeneity is more pronounced in α-alloys. It has been found that hydrostatic pressure during sample tensile testing improves their ductility characteristics

  16. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  17. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  18. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy...

  19. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    comparison of the one-dimensional bridge hydraulic routines from: HEC - RAS , HEC -2, and WSPRO. Davis, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 4 Jackson Bar Training Structure Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp and...Leroy Gage), a previously constructed HEC -2 model, and a previously constructed WES physical model from 1987. Three alternatives were modeled in an

  20. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  2. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  3. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  4. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  5. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (I), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high I) or as a barlens structure (at low I). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  6. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  7. Corrosion resistant properties and weldabilities of ASTM Grade 12 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, Yoshikatsu; Itoh, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    Plates, sheets, bars, wires and thinner seam-welded tubings were manufactured from large-scaled ingot of ASTM Grade 12 alloy (Ti-0.8Ni-0.3Mo). The processability of G-12 alloy has proved almost similar to that of conventional commercially pure titanium grades. It has been clarified that the G-12 alloy showed several advantageous features: Chlorides-Crevice corrosion resistance of the alloy was almost equals to G-7 and Pd0/TiO 2 coated titanium, and the maximum allowable stress was able to be designed higher than that of commercially pure titanium. This alloy has been in applications also offers where such environments as seawater, brines and moist chlorine, various oil refinery and chemical industries, and others. (author)

  8. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  9. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  10. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  11. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  12. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  13. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  14. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Department of Materials and Manufacturing Process, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran. 15875-1744, Iran ... Titanium diboride is a hard refractory material with a high melting point ... (λ = 1⋅540598 Å) radiation. Morphology of the ...

  15. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  16. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  17. Test of bar window with internal bars free from the glass surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    A sealed glazing unit with 3 horisontal and 3 vertical bars and a reference glazing without bars have been tested in a guarded hotbox. The difference in measured heat loss coefficient between the two test objects is a measure of the thermal influence of the bars. The difference in heat loss...

  18. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  19. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  20. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500 0 C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150 0 C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  1. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  2. Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi, [Unknown

    We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of Ωb=1.98+0.04 -0.08 Ωo, where Ω0 is the local circular

  3. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  4. Why Are Some Galaxies Not Barred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kanak; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Although more than two-thirds of star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, some galaxies remain unbarred, occupying the upper half of the Hubble tuning fork diagram. Numerical simulations almost always produce bars spontaneously, so it remains a challenge to understand how galaxies sometimes prevent bars from forming. Using a set of collisionless simulations, we first reproduce the common result that cold stellar disks surrounding a classical bulge become strongly unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations, leading to the rapid formation of spiral structure and bars. However, our analyses show that galaxy models with compact classical bulges (whose average density is greater than or comparable to the disk density calculated within bulge half-mass radii) are able to prevent bar formation for at least 4 Gyr even when the stellar disk is maximal and having low Toomre Q. Such bar prevention is the result of several factors such as (a) a small inner Lindblad resonance with a high angular rate, which contaminates an incipient bar with x 2 orbits, and (b) rapid loss of angular momentum accompanied by a rapid heating in the center from initially strong bar and spiral instabilities in a low-Q disk; in other words, a rapid initial rise to a value larger than ∼5 of the ratio of the random energy to the rotational energy in the central region of the galaxy.

  5. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  6. Influence of Diamondlike Carbon Coating of Screws on Axial Tightening Force and Stress Distribution on Overdenture Bar Frameworks with Different Fit Levels and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Bacchi, Atais; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the axial tightening force applied by conventional and diamondlike carbon (DLC)-coated screws and to verify, through three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA), the stress distribution caused by different framework materials and prosthetic screws in overdenture frameworks with different misfit levels. The axial tightening force applied by the screw was evaluated by means of a titanium matrix connected to a load cell. Conventional titanium or DLC-coated screws were tightened with a digital torque wrench, and the load values were recorded. The values were applied in an FEA to a bar-clip attachment system connected to two 4.0 × 11-mm external-hexagon titanium implants placed in an anterior edentulous arch. DLC-coated and conventional screws were modeled with their respective axial forces obtained on the experimental evaluation for three bar framework materials (titanium, nickel-chromium, and cobalt-chromium) and three levels of misfit (100, 150, and 200 μm). Von Mises stresses for prosthetic components and maximum principal stress and microstrains (maximum principal strains) for bone tissue were measured. The mean force applied by the conventional screw was 25.55 N (± 1.78); the prosthetic screw coated with a DLC layer applied a mean force of 31.44 N (± 2.11), a statistically significant difference. In the FEA, the DLC screw led to higher stresses on the framework; however, the prosthetic screw suffered lower stress. No influence of screw type was seen in the bone tissue. Titanium frameworks reduced the stress transmitted to the bone tissue and the bar framework but had no influence on the screws. Higher misfit values resulted in an increased stress/strain in bone tissue and bar framework, which was not the case for retention screws.

  7. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  8. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  9. Characterization of Bars Induced by Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Martinez-Valpuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.

  10. Charmonium and bottomonium in bar pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.

    1993-12-01

    In this talk, I presented some examples of data from the CDF collaboration on J/ψ, χ, ψ' and Γ production. Such data are used to test models of production dynamics and for the understanding of rates for b quark production. I am not a member of the CDF experiment and showed their data with permission as an interested and impressed spectator. Data from D0 may be found in the talk of D. Denisov. As a complement to this data from the highest energy accelerator experiment, operating at √ bar s= 1.8 TeV, I also showed data from Fermilab experiment E760 on masses, widths, states and branching ratios in the Charmonium system, obtained by studying resonant formation of c bar c states in p bar p annihilation at √ bar s = m(c bar c)

  11. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a steam generator for a nuclear power plant comprising a shell, a plurality of tubes having a U-shaped configuration arranged in successive columns within the shell. The tubes are adapted to heat feedwater flowing around the outside of the tubes by the flow of hot reactor coolant within the tubes, and antivibration bars any vibrations of the tubes as a result of steam between the columns of tubes. The improvement described here comprises means for varying the thickness of the antivibration bars to fit substantially the actual space between the columns of tubes comprising first and second bars, with at least one bar being movable, and with at least one mating inclined surface between the first and second bars

  12. Thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorev, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of the theory and practical application of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys are presented. On the basis of the systematic investigations developed are the methods of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys, established are the optimum procedures and produced are the bases of their industrial application with an account of alloy technological peculiarities and the procedure efficiency. It is found that those strengthening methods are more efficient at which the contribution of dispersion hardening prevails over the strengthening by phase hardening

  13. A Study of (bar B)0 --> D(*)0 (bar K)(*)0 Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented evidence for the decay (bar B) 0 --> D* 0 (bar K) 0 as well as new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays (bar B) 0 --> D 0 (bar K) 0 and D 0 (bar K)* 0 . Their measurements are in agreement with the expectation derived from a cited reference and with previous measurements. They use the central value of their measurement for B((bar B) 0 --> (bar D) 0 K* 0 ) and obtain τ < 0.8 at the 90% C.L. from a central value of τ = 0.4 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.2 (syst.). The main contribution to the systematic uncertainty is from the estimated peaking background since most systematic uncertainties on the branching fractions cancel in the ratio

  14. Formation of q bar q resonances in the bar NN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of q bar q resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the bar NN system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q bar q states into bar NN pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author's analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f 4 (2050) (I G J PC = 0 + 4 ++ ), ρ 5 (2240) (I G J PC = 1 + 5 -- ), and f 6 (2510) (I G J PC = 0 + 6 ++ ) to the processes of two-meson bar NN annihilation (bar pp → ππ, bar KK, hor-ellipsis) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  16. The bar in NGC 4596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The SBa galaxy NGC 4596 is characterized on the basis of CCD photometry obtained with a broad red filter on the 61-cm telescope at Whipple Observatory during January 1986 and long-slit CCD spectra obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO in May 1988 and with the MMT in March 1989. The results are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. Three components are identified: (1) an oblate spheroidal bulge with true ellipticity 0.26 and luminosity 4.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, (2) a 10.0 x 2.6-kpc rectangular bar with luminosity 6.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, and (3) a lens of constant intensity with luminosity 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities out to a distance of 8.7 kpc. The characteristic slowdown time is calculated as 6-20 Gyr, and the velocity field is shown to deviate less from circular rotation than predicted by a simple dynamical model in which the disk kinematics are derived from an n-body simulation (Sparkle and Sellwood, 1987) and the bulge is assumed to be an oblate isotropic rotator. 31 refs

  17. Research and Development of Some Advanced High Temperature Titanium Alloys for Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jian-ming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some advanced high temperature titanium alloys are usually selected to be manufactured into blade, disc, case, blisk and bling under high temperature environment in compressor and turbine system of a new generation high thrust-mass ratio aero-engine. The latest research progress of 600℃ high temperature titanium alloy, fireproof titanium alloy, TiAl alloy, continuous SiC fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite and their application technology in recent years in China were reviewed in this paper. The key technologies need to be broken through in design, processing and application of new material and component are put forward, including industrial ingot composition of high purified and homogeneous control technology, preparation technology of the large size bar and special forgings, machining technology of blisk and bling parts, material property evaluation and application design technique. The future with the continuous application of advanced high temperature titanium alloys, will be a strong impetus to the development of China's aero-engine technology.

  18. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  19. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lin; Wang Yangwei; Xu Xin; Liu Chengze

    2015-01-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy...

  20. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  1. Bar Formation in Milky Way type Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyachenko E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many barred galaxies, possibly including the Milky Way, have cusps in their centers. There is a widespread belief, however, that the usual bar instability, which occurs in bulgeless galaxy models, is impossible for cuspy models because of the presence of the inner Lindblad resonance for any pattern speed. At the same time, there is numerical evidence that the bar instability can form a bar. We analyze this discrepancy by performing accurate and diverse N-body simulations and calculating the normal modes. We show that bar formation in cuspy galaxies can be explained by taking into account the disk thickness. The exponential growth time is moderate (about 250 Myr for typical current disk masses, but it increases considerably (by a factor of two or more if the live halo and bulge are substituted by a rigid halo/bulge potential; the pattern speeds remain almost the same. Normal mode analysis with different disk mass favors a young bar hypothesis, according to which the bar instability has saturated only recently.

  2. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  3. Determining vertical bar Vub vertical bar from the B-bar→Xulν-bar dilepton invariant mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of the lepton pair in inclusive semileptonic B-bar→X u lν-bar decay yields a model independent determination of vertical bar V ub vertical bar. Unlike the lepton energy and hadronic invariant mass spectra, nonperturbative effects are only important in the resonance region, and play a parametrically suppressed role when dΓ/dq 2 is integrated over q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 , which is required to eliminate the B-bar→X c lν-bar background. We discuss these backgrounds for q 2 slightly below (m B -m D ) 2 , and point out that instead of q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 =11.6 GeV 2 , the cut can be lowered to q 2 > or approx. 10.5 GeV 2 . This is important experimentally, particularly when effects of a finite neutrino reconstruction resolution are included

  4. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  5. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; A Iglič; Mazare, A; Schmuki, P; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Mozetič, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO 2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO 2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO 2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  6. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  7. What makes the family of barred disc galaxies so rich: damping stellar bars in spinning haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    We model and analyse the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0-0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes - spherical, oblate, and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution that is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) the vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J - this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) bars in λ > 0.03 haloes have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  8. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-01-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis

  9. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  10. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  12. New results from Fermilab E866 (NuSea) for d-bar/u-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenhower, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermilab dimuon experiment 866/NuSea measured Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Over 370,000 Drell-Yan muon pairs were recorded. From these data, the ratio of anti-down (d-bar) to anti-up (u-bar) quark distributions in the proton sea is determined over a wide range in Bjorken-x. A strong x dependence is observed in the ratio d-bar/u-bar, showing substantial enhancement of d-bar with respect to u-bar for x < 0.2. The results presented here for the full data sets confirm previously published results from E866 and are compared with parametrizations of parton distribution functions calculated both before and after the publication of the high-mass E866 data

  13. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR. By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  14. Practical, Reliable Error Bars in Quantum Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Precise characterization of quantum devices is usually achieved with quantum tomography. However, most methods which are currently widely used in experiments, such as maximum likelihood estimation, lack a well-justified error analysis. Promising recent methods based on confidence regions are difficult to apply in practice or yield error bars which are unnecessarily large. Here, we propose a practical yet robust method for obtaining error bars. We do so by introducing a novel representation of...

  15. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  16. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  17. Configurating computer-controlled bar system

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštaršič, Nejc

    2010-01-01

    The principal goal of my diploma thesis is creating an application for configurating computer-controlled beverages dispensing systems. In the preamble of my thesis I present the theoretical platform for point of sale systems and beverages dispensing systems, which are required for the understanding of the target problematics. As with many other fields, computer tehnologies entered the field of managing bars and restaurants quite some time ago. Basic components of every bar or restaurant a...

  18. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  19. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Abbott, B.K.; Breon, A.B.; Clark, A.R.; Dow, S.; Fan, Q.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L.T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Lynch, G.; Levi, M.; Luft, P.; Luo, L.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Barni, D.; Brenna, E.; Defendi, I.; Forti, A.; Giugni, D.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Vaniev, V.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P.F.; Perazzo, A.; Re, V.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Dutra, F.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rampino, G.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Tritto, S.; Vitale, R.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Daudo, F.; Girolamo, B. Di; Gamba, D.; Giraudo, G.; Grosso, P.; Romero, A.; Smol, A.; Trapani, P.; Zanin, D.; Bosisio, L.; Ricca, G. Della; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Rastelli, C.; Vallazza, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Hast, C.; Potter, E.P.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Eppich, A.; Hale, D.; Hall, K.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Turri, M.; Wilder, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Walsh, J.; Zobernig, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is designed to provide the high-precision vertexing necessary for making measurements of CP violation at the SLAC B-Factory PEP-II. The instrument consists of five layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and has been installed in the BaBar experiment and taking colliding beam data since May 1999. An overview of the design as well as performance and experience from the initial running will be presented

  20. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  1. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  2. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  3. Uranium fluorides analysis. Titanium spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Titanium determination in uranium hexafluoride in the range 0.7 to 100 microgrammes after transformation of uranium fluoride in sulfate. Titanium is separated by extraction with N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine, reextracted by hydrochloric-hydrofluoric acid. The complex titanium-N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine is extracted by chloroform. Spectrophotometric determination at 400 nm [fr

  4. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  7. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891, shall...

  9. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  10. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  11. Photoelastic analysis of mandibular full-arch implant-supported fixed dentures made with different bar materials and manufacturing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparolli, Danilo; Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Pupim, Denise; Macedo, Ana Paula; Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti; Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello de

    2017-12-01

    To compare the stress distribution of mandibular full dentures supported with implants according to the bar materials and manufacturing techniques using a qualitative photoelastic analysis. An acrylic master model simulating the mandibular arch was fabricated with four Morse taper implant analogs of 4.5×6mm. Four different bars were manufactured according to different material and techniques: fiber-reinforced resin (G1, Trinia, CAD/CAM), commercially pure titanium (G2, cpTi, CAD/CAM), cobalt‑chromium (G3, Co-Cr, CAD/CAM) and cobalt‑chromium (G4, Co-Cr, conventional cast). Standard clinical and laboratory procedures were used by an experienced dental technician to fabricate 4 mandibular implant-supported dentures. The photoelastic model was created based on the acrylic master model. A load simulation (150N) was performed in total occlusion against the antagonist. Dentures with fiber-reinforced resin bar (G1) exhibited better stress distribution. Dentures with machined Co-Cr bar (G3) exhibited the worst standard of stress distribution, with an overload on the distal part of the posteriors implants, followed by dentures with cast Co-Cr bar (G4) and machined cpTi bar (G2). The fiber-reinforced resin bar exhibited an adequate stress distribution and can serve as a viable alternative for oral rehabilitation with mandibular full dentures supported with implants. Moreover, the use of the G1 group offered advantages including reduced weight and less possible overload to the implants components, leading to the preservation of the support structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The titanium oxide phi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, D. C.; Davis, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    The phy system of titanium oxide has been studied in emission in the near-infrared, with the Fourier transform spectrometer at a resolution of 8000,000. Approximately 3000 lines from 25 bands of this system have been identified, including all five 0-0 and 0-1 bands corresponding to the five natural titanium isotopes. Eleven vibrational levels have been observed, and all bands have been rotationally analyzed. Band intensities are agreement with known isotopic abundances and calculated Franck-Condon factors.

  13. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  14. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  16. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  17. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  18. Shock and Microstructural Characterization of the α-ω Phase Transition in Titanium Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Jones, David R.; Addessio, Francis L.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Saavedra, Ramon A.; Martinez, Daniel T.; Cerreta, Ellen K.

    2017-12-01

    A multicrystal comprised of a small number of large crystals of high-purity titanium and a [0001] oriented high-purity single crystal titanium sample were shock loaded using gas gun plate impact experiments. Tests were performed at stresses above the α {-}ω phase transition stress (for high-purity polycrystalline specimens) to observe the behavior of oriented crystals under similar conditions. Post-mortem characterization of the shocked microstructure was conducted on the single crystal sample to measure textures, and quantify phases and twinning. The apparent activation of plastic and transformation mechanisms was dependent upon crystal orientation. Specifically, the [0001] crystal showed a higher Hugoniot elastic limit than the [10\\bar{1}0] or [3\\bar{1}\\bar{4}4] orientations. The slope of velocity as a function of time was lower in the [0001] orientation than the other orientations during plastic deformation, indicating sluggish transformation kinetics for the α to ω phase transition for the [0001] oriented crystal. Microtexture measurements of a recovered [0001] oriented single crystal revealed the presence of retained ω phase after unloading, with orientations of the constituent phase fractions indicative of the forward α → ω transition, rather than the reverse ω → α transition, suggesting that the material never achieved a state of 100% ω phase.

  19. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  20. Studying W‧ boson contributions in \\bar{B} \\rightarrow {D}^{(* )}{{\\ell }}^{-}{\\bar{\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Wei, Bin; Sheng, Jin-Huan; Wang, Ru-Min; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Belle collaboration reported the first measurement of the τ lepton polarization P τ (D*) in \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {τ }-{\\bar{ν }}τ decay and a new measurement of the rate of the branching ratios R(D*), which are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. These could be used to constrain the New Physics (NP) beyond the SM. In this paper, we probe \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } (ℓ = e, μ, τ) decays in the model-independent way and in the specific G(221) models with lepton flavour universality. Considering the theoretical uncertainties and the experimental errors at the 95% C.L., we obtain the quite strong bounds on the model-independent parameters {C}{{LL}}{\\prime },{C}{{LR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RL}}{\\prime },{g}V,{g}A,{g}V{\\prime },{g}A{\\prime } and the specific G(221) model parameter rates. We find that the constrained NP couplings have no obvious effects on all (differential) branching ratios and their rates, nevertheless, many NP couplings have very large effects on the lepton spin asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } decays and the forward–backward asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell }. So we expect precision measurements of these observables would be researched by LHCb and Belle-II.

  1. H-bar and H-bar + production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comini, P; Hervieux, P-A

    2013-01-01

    The production and cooling of the H-bar + ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure g-bar , the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. H-bar + ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of H-bar + ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave – Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the H-bar excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the H-bar production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest H-bar + production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of H-bar + could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  2. Advances in cost effective processing of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recently an industry expert pointed out that one of the greatest hindrances to the growth of titanium usage has been the low percentage of material usable in the final product. Due to the extensive processing, forming, and machining operations typically performed on titanium, yield losses are high. This is especially true in aerospace applications where most titanium is used. In engine components, the start to finish ratio, known as the buy to fly ratio, is often as high as 7 to 1. This can be illustrated by looking at the use of titanium in Pratt and Whitney engines. In the JT-8D-217 used on Boeing's 737-200, the titanium buyweight is 5,385 pounds, whereas the finished titanium, flyweight is just 758 pounds. This start to finish ratio is 7.1:1, giving titanium 17.0% of total engine weight. (orig.)

  3. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  4. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  5. On structural recrystallization in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaev, D.A.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Shtejnberg, M.M.; Ul'yanov, V.G.; AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-01-01

    The effect of preliminary superfast quenching on structural changes at inverse α→β transformation in titanium is studied. Cooling at rates more than 10 4 deg/s results in grain refining at succeeding annealing in β- and α- regions. The obtained effect is explained by additional phase transformation-induced hardening conditioned by decrease of the transformation point at superfast cooling

  6. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, K.O.; Kostyuk, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T 2 B, TiB, TiB 2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  7. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  8. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  9. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  10. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  11. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  12. Selective versus routine patch metal allergy testing to select bar material for the Nuss procedure in 932 patients over 10years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Gaffar, Sheema; Kelly, Robert E; Kuhn, M Ann; Frantz, Frazier W; McGuire, Margaret M; Paulson, James F; Kelly, Cynthia S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of patch metal allergy testing to select bar material for the Nuss procedure. An IRB-approved (11-04-WC-0098) single institution retrospective, cohort study comparing selective versus routine patch metal allergy testing to select stainless steel or titanium bars for Nuss repair was performed. In Cohort A (9/2004-1/2011), selective patch testing was performed based on clinical risk factors. In Cohort B (2/2011-9/2014), all patients were patch tested. The cohorts were compared for incidence of bar allergy and resultant premature bar loss. Risk factors for stainless steel allergy or positive patch test were evaluated. Cohort A had 628 patients with 63 (10.0%) selected for patch testing, while all 304 patients in Cohort B were tested. Over 10years, 15 (1.8%) of the 842 stainless steel Nuss repairs resulted in a bar allergy, and 5 had a negative preoperative patch test. The incidence of stainless steel bar allergy (1.8% vs 1.7%, p=0.57) and resultant bar loss (0.5% vs 1.3%, p=0.23) was not statistically different between cohorts. An allergic reaction to a stainless steel bar or a positive patch test was more common in females (OR=2.3, pbar allergies occur at a low incidence with either routine or selective patch metal allergy testing. If selective testing is performed, it is advisable in females and patients with a personal or family history of metal sensitivity. A negative preoperative patch metal allergy test does not preclude the possibility of a postoperative stainless steel bar allergy. Level III Treatment Study and Study of Diagnostic Test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Re-study of the contribution of scalar potential and spectra of cc-bar, bb-bar and bc-bar(b-bar c) families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Li Xueqian

    2012-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the role of the scalar potential which appears at the loop level is much smaller than that of the vector potential and is in fact negligible. But the situation is different for QCD, one reason is that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and second the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce a sizable scalar potential. In this work, we study phenomenologically the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonia, bottomonia and bc-bar (b-bar c) families. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonia and bottomonia spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of not only the charmonia and bottomonia families, but also the bc-bar family. We also consider the Lamb shift of the spectra. (authors)

  14. Note: CO₂-mineral dissolution experiments using a rocking autoclave and a novel titanium reaction cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Gemma; Rochelle, Christopher A; Wallis, Humphrey C; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Yardley, Bruce W D

    2014-08-01

    A novel titanium reaction cell has been constructed for the study of water-rock-CO2 reactions. The reaction cell has been used within a direct-sampling rocking autoclave and offers certain advantages over traditional "flexible gold/titanium cell" approaches. The main advantage is robustness, as flexible cells are prone to rupture on depressurisation during gas-rich experiments. The reaction cell was tested in experiments during an inter-laboratory comparison study, in which mineral kinetic data were determined. The cell performed well during experiments up to 130 °C and 300 bars pressure. The data obtained were similar to those of other laboratories participating in the study, and also to previously published data.

  15. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  16. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  17. Precracking of round notched bars. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-02-01

    Precracking round notched bars is the first step before fracture mechanics testing. This report gives an overview of the different techniques described in the literature. Difficulties generally encountered are linked to the crack length determination and the creation of eccentric cracks. As the compliance technique is often used, a detailed study of the stress intensity factor and the compliance of the precracked bar under bending and tension is presented. Comparison with finite element calculations is made to validate the proposed analytical formulation. Finally a practical way for precracking is described

  18. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  19. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, David C.; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W.; Shah, Amisha J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  20. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  1. A bar coding system for environmental projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.B.; Hunt, B.J.; Burgess, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents BeCode systems, a bar coding system which provides both nuclear and commercial clients with a data capture and custody management program that is accurate, timely, and beneficial to all levels of project operations. Using bar code identifiers is an essentially paperless and error-free method which provides more efficient delivery of data through its menu card-driven structure, which speeds collection of essential data for uploading to a compatible device. The effects of this sequence include real-time information for operator analysis, management review, audits, planning, scheduling, and cost control

  2. Analysis of titanium content in titanium tetrachloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Shanshan; Guan, Duojiao; Wang, Jianyu; Tang, Meiling

    2018-03-01

    Strontium titanate, barium titan and lead titanate are new type of functional ceramic materials with good prospect, and titanium tetrachloride is a commonly in the production such products. Which excellent electrochemical performance of ferroelectric tempreature coefficient effect.In this article, three methods are used to calibrate the samples of titanium tetrachloride solution by back titration method, replacement titration method and gravimetric analysis method. The results show that the back titration method has many good points, for example, relatively simple operation, easy to judgment the titration end point, better accuracy and precision of analytical results, the relative standard deviation not less than 0.2%. So, it is the ideal of conventional analysis methods in the mass production.

  3. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  4. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  5. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  6. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  7. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  8. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  9. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  10. QCD corrections to leptonic and hadronic observables from p bar p→W+X→ bar τντX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Reno, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    We set up a formalism for calculating the O(α s ) corrections to the process p bar p→W + X→ bar τν τ X with spin-correlated τ decays to leptons and mesons. Our results are applicable to Monte Carlo integration, which allows easy construction of any desired observable at next-to-leading-log level, and the possibility to include experimental cuts. Our results are applied explicitly to the decay modes τ→ bar ν τ bar eν e , bar τ→ bar ν τ π + , and bar τ→ bar ν τ π + π 0 ; other decay modes may be included in a straightforward fashion. We show results for transverse momentum and rapidity variables in leading-log and next-to-leading-log approximations; the leptonic observables are compared to similar observables from direct W→ bar eν e

  11. Titanium gettering in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Grassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Campbell, G.

    1980-08-01

    The application of mild titanium gettering in the Doublet III tokamak has led to a significant improvement in the obtainable operating regimes and discharge parameters for all of the many plasma cross-sectional shapes studied. With gettering, low-Z impurities and radiated power are greatly reduced. The maximum line averaged electron density has increased 50% (anti n/sub e max/ approx. 1 x 10 20 /m 3 ), corresponding to a Murakami coefficient of nearly 6

  12. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  13. Analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium electrowinning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available larger market. The authors have tested this route experimentally, but could not produce pure titanium. The failure of electrowinning pure, molten titanium has been interpreted in terms of the analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium...

  14. Research and Development on Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-10-31

    information concerning the runs made * * In order to check the general operation of the train and furnace, a number of qualitative runs were made. These runs... General Technique. * . . * * . 109 The Analysis of Titanium . . . . ... ... 112 Notes and Comments, . . . .. . .. . . . 113 The Results from Vacuum...described in this report are as follows: 1. Arc ielting Titanium-Base Alloys. 2. Evaluation of Experimental Titanium-Base Alloys. 3. Investigation of

  15. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  16. Production of titanium from ilmenite: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-12-01

    The general principles for beneficiation of titanium ores are reviewed and the specific processes used in individual units in various countries are discussed. This is followed by a critical evaluation of various current and potential reduction methods for the production of titanium metal from the processed concentrates. Finally, the report outlines a research program for the development of a commercially viable alternative method for the production of titanium metal.

  17. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  18. Cranioplasty with individual titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishinov, S.; Stupak, V.; Sadovoy, M.; Mamonova, E.; Koporushko, N.; Larkin, V.; Novokshonov, A.; Dolzhenko, D.; Panchenko, A.; Desyatykh, I.; Krasovsky, I.

    2017-09-01

    Cranioplasty is the second procedure in the history of neurosurgery after trepanation, and it is still relevant despite the development of civilization and progress in medicine. Each cranioplasty operation is unique because there are no two patients with identical defects of the skull bones. The development of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technique opened up the possibility of direct implant printing of titanium, a biocompatible metal used in medicine. This eliminates the need for producing any intermediate products to create the desired implant. We have produced 8 patient-specific titanium implants using this technique for patients who underwent different decompressive cranioectomies associated with bone tumors. Follow-up duration ranged from 6 to 12 months. We observed no implant-related reactions or complications. In all cases of reconstructive neurosurgery we achieved good clinical and aesthetic results. The analysis of the literature and our own experience in three-dimensional modeling, prototyping, and printing suggests that direct laser sintering of titanium is the optimal method to produce biocompatible surgical implants.

  19. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    In the present study, the machinability of titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6A1-7Nb, and free-cutting brass was evaluated using a milling machine. The metals were slotted with square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting force and the rotational speed of the spindle were measured. The cutting forces for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were higher and that for brass was lower than that for titanium. The rotational speed of the spindle was barely affected by cutting. The cross sections of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb chips were more clearly serrated than those of titanium, which is an indication of difficult-to-cut metals. There was no marked difference in the surface roughness of the cut surfaces among the metals. Cutting force and the appearance of the metal chips were found to be useful as indices of machinability and will aid in the development of new alloys for dental CAD/CAM and the selection of suitable machining conditions.

  20. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  1. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  2. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  3. Appcelerator Titanium patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollentine, Boydlee

    2013-01-01

    The book takes a step-by-step approach to help you understand CommonJS and Titanium architecture patterns, with easy to follow samples and plenty of in-depth explanations If you're an existing Titanium developer or perhaps a new developer looking to start off your Titanium applications "the right way", then this book is for you. With easy to follow examples and a full step-by-step account of architecting a sample application using CommonJS and MVC, along with chapters on new features such as ACS, you'll be implementing enterprise grade Titanium solutions in no time. You should have some JavaSc

  4. Criterion of titanium aviation alloy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasyunas, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    The most significant statistic mechanical characteristics are presented of titanium as compared with those of aluminium and steel. Based on these data one can draw conclusions as to the advantages and disadvantages of titanium. High chemical activity and diffusivity of titanium place limitations on the use of its alloys. Despite the promising features of a needle-like structure, specifications still keep relying on a globular structure, which is explained by the easeiness of the production. Titanium is expensive, sometimes its cost may by a factor of 20 exceed that of other aviation materials

  5. Titanium. Properties, raw datum surface, physicochemical basis and fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmata, V.A.; Petrun'ko, A.N.; Galitskij, N.V.; Olesov, Yu.G.; Sandler, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the nowadays science and technology achievements the complex of titanium metallurgy problems comprising raw material base, physico-chemical basis and fabrication technique, properties and titanium usage fields is considered for the first time. A particular attention is given to raw material base, manufacturing titanium concentrates and titanium tetrachloride, metallothermal reduction, improvement of metal quality. Data on titanium properties are given, processes of titanium powder metallurgy, scrap and waste processing, problems of economics and complex raw material use are considered

  6. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  7. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  8. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  9. The vapour phase deposition of boron on titanium by the reaction between gaseous boron trichloride and titanium metal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.J.; Shelton, R.A.J.

    1965-03-01

    The reaction, between boron trichloride vapour and titanium has been investigated in the temperature range 200 - 1350 deg. C. It has been found that an initial reaction leads to the formation of titanium tetrachloride and the deposition of boron on titanium, but that except for reactions between 900 and 1000 deg. C, the system is complicated by the formation of lower titanium chlorides due to secondary reactions between the titanium and titanium tetrachloride

  10. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  11. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  12. Mirrlees MB430 has 23 bar bmep potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Nominally rates at 1000 bhp per cylinder, the new Mirrlees Blackstone MB430 diesel engine with 430 mm bore and 480 mm stroke runs at 600 rev/min under bmep of 21 bar. Initially the engine has been released at 19 bar with the prospect of uprating to 23 bar bmep in due course. The performance testing of the engine is discussed.

  13. Investigation into brittle failure of some starter bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the cause and consequences of an observed brittle behaviour of some starter bars on a construction site in the Netherlands. A few bars suddenly failed when they were bent in order to align them. For the investigation firstly a batch of starter bars that

  14. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  15. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  16. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  18. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  19. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  20. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  1. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunuan

    2002-01-01

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) L max at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  2. Low temperature study of nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.

    2005-05-01

    By low temperature neutron diffraction method was studied structure in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide from room temperature up to 12K. It is found of low temperature phase in titanium carbide- TiC 0.71 . It is established region and borders of this phase. It is determined change of unit cell parameter. (author)

  3. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Saha; K. T. Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  4. Appcelerator Titanium business application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presented in easy to follow, step by step recipes, this guide is designed to lead you through the most important aspects of application design.Titanium developers who already have a basic knowledge of working with Appcelerator Titanium but want to further develop their knowledge for use with business applications

  5. Mineral resource of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Titanium is hip - at least when it comes to airplanes and jewelry. Known for its high strength-to weight ratio and its resistance to corrosion, titanium and its alloys can also be found in everything from knee replacements to eyeglass frames to baseball bats to fighter planes.

  6. Thermoexpanded graphite modification by titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semko, L.S.; Gorbik, P.P.; Chujko, O.O.; Kruchek, Ya.Yi.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Orans'ka, O.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    A method of the synthesis of thermoexpanded graphite (TEG) powders coated by titanium dioxide is developed. The conversion of n-buthylorthotitanate into TiO 2 on the TEG surface is investigated. The optimal parameters of the synthesis and the structure of titanium dioxide clusters on the TEG surface are determined

  7. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhe; Green, Michael; Just, Michael; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been long regarded as one of the more promising photocatalysts to remove environmental pollution and to generate hydrogen from water under sunlight irradiation via photocatalysis. TiO 2 is environmentally benign and thus is considered a ‘green’ catalyst. In this review we present a short introduction to the physical and electronic properties of TiO 2 , its photocatalytic mechanisms, and some recent examples of various TiO 2 materials used for photocatalysis; these examples include 0, 1, 2, 3D, faceted, defected, composited, and hydrogenated TiO 2 materials. (topical review)

  9. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. PMID:28788113

  10. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  11. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  12. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  13. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  14. Ceramic bar impact experiments for improved material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Proud, W.G.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related to uncertainties in understanding the dominant failure mechanisms as a function of different stress states imposed in bar impacts. Free surface velocity of the far end of the target AD998 bar were measured using a VISAR in a series of bar-on-bar impact experiments at nominal impact speeds of 100 m/s, 220 m/s, and 300 m/s. Velocity history data at an impact of 100 m/s show the material response as elastic. At higher impact velocities of 200 m/s and 300 m/s the velocity history data suggest an inelastic material response. A high-speed (Imacon) camera was employed to examine the fracture and failure of impactor and target bars. High speed photographs provide comprehensive data on geometry of damage and failure patterns as a function of time to check the validity of a particular constitutive material model for AD998 alumina used in numerical simulations of fracture and failure of the bars on impact

  15. Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr

  16. SHEARING STRENGTH TEST OF ORTOPEDIC TITANIUM ALLOY SCREW PRODUCED IN THE PROCESS OF 3D TECHNOLOGY PRINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Ruszniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present dissertation is the assessment of technical shear resistance (technological shear of orthopedic screw made of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, produced using incremental technology in the process of 3D printing process. The first part of the work presents incremental techniques in production engineering. The second part of the present work contains specification of the 3D printing process of samples as well as the description of the used material. The fundamental part of the article is composed out of endurance tests for orthopaedic screws as well as the analysis of the obtained results and conclusions. The method of incremental production SLM using SLM 280HL metal printer was used during the technological process. The resistance tests were performed using ZWICK/ROELL Z150 machines. Identical endurance trials were performed for monolithic bars made of titanium alloys (of bar core size made on a wire electric discharge machine Sodick SL600Q for comparative purposes. The obtained test results enabled comparative assessment of the value of shear resistance Rt in the conditions of technological shear. According to the performed tests, the shear resistance Rt of orthopaedic screws is nearly 33% lower than of monolithic bars of the same core size.

  17. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Kolarov, A.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (L n bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), g ij;k = 0 and f j i = e φ · g j i (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((V n bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V 4 -spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V 4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V 4 -spaces

  18. Titanium oxide fever; De titaniumoxidekoorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J. [Afdeling Luchtkwaliteit, GGD Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [Dutch] Een van de maatregelen om de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren is het aanbrengen van fotokatalytische stoffen waarmee NOx kan worden afgevangen op bijvoorbeeld wegdek of op geluidsschermen langs wegen. Over het effect van titaniumoxidehoudende straatklinkers en hierop aangebrachte coatings verscheen in mei 2011 het rapport 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands'. Dit artikel gaat over de manier waarop de effectiviteit in het hiervoor genoemde onderzoek is bepaald. Kunnen titaniumoxidehoudende klinkers en coatings inderdaad NOx afvangen?.

  19. Adsorption of hydrogen in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez R, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the absorption of hydrogen in titanium plates using a constant volume system has been realized. The changes of temperature and pressure were used to monitor the progress of the absorption. A stainless steel vacuum chamber with volume of 4,333 cm 3 was used. A titanium sample of 45 x 5.4 x 0.3 cm was located in the center of the chamber. The sample was heated by an electrical source connected to the system. The sample was preconditioned with a vacuum-thermal treatment at 10 -6 mbar and 800 Centigrade degrees for several days. Absorption was observed at room temperature and also at higher temperatures. The room temperature absorption was in the pressure range of 1.0 x 10 3 to 2.5 x 10 3 mbar, and other absorptions were from 180 to 630 Centigrade degrees at 3.5 x 10 -1 to 1.3 x 10 3 mbar. It was found that the gas absorbed was function of the vacuum-thermal pre-conditioned treatment, pressure and temperature. When the first absorption was developed, additional absorptions were realized in short time. We measured the electrical resistivity of the sample in the experiments but we could not see important changes due to the absorption. (Author)

  20. Adhesive-Bonded Tab Attaches Thermocouples to Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical strength of titanium-alloy structures that support thermocouples is preserved by first spotwelding thermocouples to titanium tabs and then attaching tabs to titanium with a thermosetting adhesive. In contrast to spot welding, a technique previously used for thermocouples, fatigue strength of the titanium is unaffected by adhesive bonding. Technique is also gentler than soldering or attaching thermocouples with a tap screw.

  1. Tin and tin-titanium as catalyst components for reversible hydrogen storage of sodium aluminium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jia Fu; Shik Chi Tsang [University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). Surface and Catalysis Research Centre, School of Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the effects of adding tin and/or titanium dopant to sodium aluminium hydride for both dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation reactions during their reversible storage of molecular hydrogen. Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) measurements show that the dehydrogenation kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4} are significantly enhanced upon doping the material with 2 mol% of tributyltin hydride, Sn(Bu)3H but the tin catalyst dopant is shown to be inferior than titanium. On the other hand, in this preliminary work, a significant synergetic catalytic effect is clearly revealed in material co-doped with both titanium and tin catalysts which shows the highest reversible rates of dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation (after their hydrogen depletion). The re-hydrogenation rates of depleted Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} evaluated at both 9.5 and 140 bars hydrogen are also found to be favourable compared to the Ti/NaAlH{sub 4}, which clearly suggest the importance of the catalyst choice. Basing on these results some mechanistic insights for the catalytic reversible dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation processes of Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} are therefore made. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Search for narrow structures in pp-barπ+ and Λp-bar+- systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Foley, K.J.; Goldman, J.H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D.P.; Wheeler, C.D.; Willen, E.H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (GAMMA - p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp-barπ + or Λp-barπ +- . This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from approx.10 nb at 2.3 GeV to approx.40 nb at 2.8 GeV

  3. Mechanical properties and fracture of titanium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koketsu, Hideyuki; Taniyama, Yoshihiro; Yonezu, Akio; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Takemoto, Mikio; Nakayama, Gen

    2006-01-01

    Titanium hydrides tend to suffer fracture when their thicknesses reach a critical thickness. Morphology and mechanical property of the hydrides are, however, not well known. The study aims to reveal the hydride morphology and fracture types of the hydrides. Chevron shaped plate hydrides were found to be produced on the surface of pure titanium (Grade 1) and Grade 7 titanium absorbing hydrogen. There were tree types of fracture of the hydrides, i.e., crack in hydride layer, exfoliation of the layer and shear-type fracture of the hydride plates, during the growth of the hydrides and deformation. We next estimated the true stress-strain curves of the hydrides on Grade 1 and 7 titanium using the dual Vickers indentation method, and the critical strain causing the Mode-I fine crack by indentation. Fracture strength and strain of the hydrides in Grade 1 titanium were estimated as 566 MPa and 4.5%, respectively. Those of the hydride in Grade 7 titanium were 498 MPa and 16%. Though the fracture strains estimated from the plastic instability of true stress-strain curves were approximately the half of those estimated by finite element method, the titanium hydrides were estimated to possess some extent of toughness or plastic deformation capability. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biyu; Shi, Bi; Sun, Danhong; Chen, Yaowen; Shelly, Dennis C

    2007-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound on titanium tanning of leather were investigated. Either 20 or 40 kHz ultrasound was applied to the titanium tanning of pigskins. Five different treatment conditions were carried out and the effects were examined, such as leather shrinkage temperature (T(s)), titanium content and titanium distribution in the leather. Overall heat loading was carefully controlled. Results showed that 20 kHz ultrasound effectively improves titanium agent penetration into the hide and increases the leather's shrinkage temperature. Doubling the frequency to 40 kHz produced negligible enhancements. An impressive 105.6 degrees C T(s) was achieved using 20 kHz ultrasound pretreatment of the tanning liquor followed by 20 kHz ultrasound in the tanning mixture (liquor plus pigskins) in a special salt-free medium. Finally, using a unique ultrasonic tanning drum with 26.5 kHz ultrasound, the T(s) reached a record level of 106.5 degrees C, a value not achieved in conventional (no ultrasound) titanium tanning. The ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather are judged to make a superior mineral tanned leather.

  5. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  6. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D 7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches

  7. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  8. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  9. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  10. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  11. Corrosion behaviour and galvanic coupling of titanium and welded titanium in LiBr solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Garcia-Garcia, D.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion resistance and galvanic coupling of Grade 2 commercially pure titanium in its welded and non-welded condition were systematically analyzed in LiBr solutions. Galvanic corrosion was evaluated through two different methods: anodic polarization (according to the Mixed Potential Theory) and electrochemical noise (using a zero-resistance ammeter). Samples have been etched to study the microstructure. The action of lithium chromate as corrosion inhibitor has been evaluated. Titanium and welded titanium showed extremely low corrosion current densities and elevated pitting potential values (higher than 1 V). The results of both methods, anodic polarization and electrochemical noise, showed that the welded titanium was always the anodic element of the pair titanium-welded titanium, so that its corrosion resistance decreases due to the galvanic effect

  12. On the use of titanium hydride for powder injection moulding of titanium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrenoo-Morelli, E.; Bidaux, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Titanium and titanium-based alloys are excellent materials for a number of engineering applications because of their high strength, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, non magnetic characteristic and biocompatibility. The current processing steps are usually costly, and there is a growing demand for net-shape solutions for manufacturing parts of increasing complexity. Powder injection moulding is becoming a competitive alternative, thanks to the advances in production of good quality base-powders, binders and sintering facilities. Titanium hydride powders, have the attractiveness of being less reactive than fine titanium powders, easier to handle, and cheaper. This paper summarizes recent advances on PIM of titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 powders, including shape-memory NiTi alloys. (author)

  13. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  14. Isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Singh, J.P.; Tuval, E.; Weiss, I.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminide has received considerable attention in recent years from the automotive industry as a potential material for making rotating and reciprocating components to produce a quieter and more efficient engine. The objectives of this study were to identify processing routes for the manufacture of automobile valves from gamma titanium aluminide. The issues considered were microstructure and composition of the material, and processing parameters such as deformation rates, temperatures, and total deformation. This paper examines isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide in order to develop a processing window for this type of material

  15. Chemistry of titanium, zirconium and thorium picramates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.S.; Agrawal, S.P.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Picramates of titanium, zirconium and thorium are prepared by treating the aqueous sulphate, chloride and nitrate solutions with sodium picramate. Micro-analysis, colorimetry and spectrophotometry are used to establish the compositions (metal : ligand ratio) of these picramates as 1 : 2 (for titanium and zirconium) and 1 : 4 (for thorium). IR studies indicate H 2 N → Me coordination (where Me denotes the metal). A number of explosive properties of these picramates point to the fact that the zirconium picramate is thermally more stable than the picramates of titanium and thorium. (orig.) [de

  16. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  17. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  18. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  19. Gentamicin-Eluting Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Grown on the Ultrafine-Grained Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Sima Hashemi; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials is the most appropriate choices for the applications as orthopedic and dental implants. In this regard, ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium with an enhanced mechanical properties and surface energy has attracted more attention. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes grown on the titanium could enhance bone bonding, cellular response and are good reservoirs for loading drugs and antibacterial agents. This article investigates gentamicin loading into and release from the TiO 2 nanotubes, grown on the UFG compared to coarse-grained (CG) titanium substrate surfaces. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was employed to produce the UFG structure titanium. TiO 2 nanotubes were grown by the anodizing technique on both UFG and CG titanium substrate surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed TiO 2 nanotube growth on the surface. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis results show that the amount of gentamicin load-release in the anodized UFG titanium sample is higher than that of CG one which can be explained in terms of thicker TiO 2 nanotube arrays layer formed on UFG sample. Moreover, the anodized UFG titanium samples released the drug in a longer time than CG (1 day for the UFG titanium vs. 3 h for the CG one). Regarding wettability analysis, anodized UFG titanium sample showed more enhanced hydrophilicity than CG counterpart. Therefore, the significantly smaller grain size of pure titanium provided by the ECAP technique coupled with appropriate subsequent anodization treatment not only offers a good combination of biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties but also it provides a delayed release condition for gentamicin.

  20. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  1. Leaching of Titanium and Silicon from Low-Grade Titanium Slag Using Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longsheng; Wang, Lina; Qi, Tao; Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Weijing

    2018-05-01

    Acid-leaching behaviors of the titanium slag obtained by selective reduction of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were investigated. It was found that the optimal leaching of titanium and silicon were 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The titanium and silicon in the titanium slag were firstly dissolved in the acidic solution to form TiO2+ and silica sol, and then rapidly reprecipitated, forming hydrochloric acid (HCl) leach residue. Most of the silicon presented in the HCl leach residue as floccules-like silica gel, while most of the titanium was distributed in the nano-sized rod-like clusters with crystallite refinement and intracrystalline defects, and, as such, 94.3% of the silicon was leached from the HCl leach residue by alkaline desilication, and 96.5% of the titanium in the titanium-rich material with some rutile structure was then digested by the concentrated sulfuric acid. This provides an alternative route for the comprehensive utilization of titanium and silicon in titanium slag.

  2. Synthesis of Titanium Oxycarbide from Titanium Slag by Methane-Containing Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jie; Fatollahi-Fard, Farzin; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2018-02-01

    In this study, reaction steps of a process for synthesis of titanium oxycarbide from titanium slag were demonstrated. This process involves the reduction of titanium slag by a methane-hydrogen-argon mixture at 1473 K (1200 °C) and the leaching of the reduced products by hydrofluoric acid near room temperature to remove the main impurity (Fe3Si). Some iron was formed by disproportionation of the main M3O5 phase before gaseous reduction started. Upon reduction, more iron formed first, followed by reduction of titanium dioxide to suboxides and eventually oxycarbide.

  3. Titanium disilicide formation by sputtering of titanium on heated silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, M.; Blackstone, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have sputter deposited titanium on bare silicon substrates at elevated temperatures. We find that at a substrate temperature of about 515 °C titanium silicide is formed due to the reaction of the titanium with the Si. The resistivity of the silicide is about 15 μΩ cm and it is not etchable in a selective titanium etch. This process can have applications in low-temperature, metal-oxide-semiconductor self-aligned silicide formation for very large scale integrated

  4. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  5. Erbium diffusion in titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Basse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The diffusivity of erbium in the anatase phase of titanium dioxide (TiO2 has been studied for various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1, 000 °C. Samples of TiO2, with a 10 nm thick buried layer containing 0.5 at% erbium, were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently heat treated. The erbium concentration profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, allowing for determination of the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients. These were found to follow an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of ( 2.1 ± 0.2 eV. X-ray diffraction revealed that the TiO2 films consisted of polycrystalline grains of size ≈ 100 nm.

  6. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, R.

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s -1 and β-bar 795.10 -5 , have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons γ β-bar/β 1.23 and the generation time Λ 59.10 -6 s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [fr

  7. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Brózda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  8. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  9. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  10. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  11. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  12. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mon method is the deposition of bioactive ceramic mate- rials on the metal ... tion of nanoparticle layer, including carbon nanoparti- ... Coatings made of CNTs provide implants with .... reaches composite of CNT built into titanium oxide formed.

  13. Titanium Brazing for Structures and Survivability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doherty, Kevin J; Tice, Jason R; Szewczyk, Steven T; Glide, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    .... While welding is the typical joining method for titanium, vacuum brazing is an option in areas that are difficult to access for welding as well as areas near other nonmetallic materials, such as ceramics...

  14. Titanium application to power plant condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, the growth of operating performance and construction plan of titanium-tubed condensers in thermal and unclear power plants has been very impressive. High-quality, thinner welded titanium tubes used for cooling tubes, matching design specifications of condensers, have been stably supplied through mass production. It now can be said that various technical problems for titanium-tubed condensers have been solved, but data on operating performance in large-scale commercial plants are still scarce, and site-by-site information needs be exchanged more frequently and on a larger scale. Projects to replace existing condenser cooling tubes with those of corrosion-resistant titanium have been actively furthered, with the only remaining barrier to full employment being cost effectiveness. It is hoped that condenser and tube manufacturers will conduct more joint value analyses

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R. C.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study (1) the basic electrochemical behavior of titanium in acid chloride solutions and (2) the response of the metal to dynamic straining in the same evironment. The aim of this group of experiments was to simulate, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions which exist at the tip of a crack. One of the foremost theories proposed to explain the propagation of stress corrosion cracks is a hydrogen embrittlement theory involving the precipitation of embrittling titanium hydrides inside the metal near the crack tip. An initial survey of the basic electrochemical literature indicated that surface hydrides play a critical role in the electrochemistry of titanium in acid solutions. A comprehensive analysis of the effect of surface films, particularly hydrides, on the electrochemical behavior of titanium in these solution is presented.

  16. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  17. Titanium Nanocomposite: Lightweight Multifunction Structural Material

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to research and develop lightweight metal matrix nanocomposites (MMnC) using a Titanium (Ti) metal matrix. Ti MMnC will crosscut the advancement of both...

  18. Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskawiec, J.; Michalik, R.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)

  19. Interfacial reactions between titanium and borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saha, S.K.; Goldstein, J.I. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1992-12-31

    Interfacial reactions between melts of several borate glasses and titanium have been investigated by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A thin titanium boride interfacial layer is detected by XPS after short (30 minutes) thermal treatments. ASEM analyses after longer thermal treatments (8--120 hours) reveal boron-rich interfacial layers and boride precipitates in the Ti side of the interface.

  20. Lubrication for hot working of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotlib, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The isothermal lubrication of the following composition is suggested, wt. %: aluminium powder 4-6, iron scale 15-25, vitreous enamel up to 100. The lubricant improves forming and decreases the danger of the metal fracture when titanium alloys working. It is advisable to use the suggested lubrication when stamping thin-walled products of titanium alloys at the blank temperature from 700 to 1000 deg C [ru

  1. Friction Welding of Titanium and Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi, HASUI; Yoichi, KIRA; Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd.

    1985-01-01

    Titanium-steel is a combination of dissimilar materials, which are difficult to weld in general, owing to inevitable formation of brittle intermetallic compounds. A prominent feature of friction welding process is ability to weld dissimilar materials in many kinds of combinations. This report deals with friction weldabilily of pure titanium and S25C steel, which are 12 mm in diameter. Main results are summarized as follows; (1) Suitable welding conditions to obtain a sound weld, which has a j...

  2. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...... study is carried out regarding the influence of the number of periods at various frequencies within a semi-infinite bar, stop bands are illustrated at certain periodic intervals within the structure. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz. Results from both...

  3. ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.

  4. A young person's game: immersion and distancing in bar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Thomas; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city that had a high density of bars and busy tourism industry. A total of 12 participants took part in focus groups (FGs) and seven in individual interviews. Four themes were identified in a thematic analysis. The central depiction of bar work was of an initial immersion in an intensive lifestyle characterised by heavy drinking, with subsequent distancing from the extremes of the lifestyle. The participants affiliated strongly with the bar work occupational identity, which included alcohol use in group scenarios for drinking during work, after work and on time off. The bar work lifestyle was most intense in the 'superpub' environment, characterised by permissive staff drinking norms and reported stress. Although an important identity, bar work was ultimately a transient role. The findings are considered in relation to research on occupation-specific stress and alcohol use, social identity and developmental needs in young adulthood.

  5. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  6. Real-time Grill Bar Occupation: Archiving Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The project explores the unregarded function of the classic Danish grill bar, currently disappearing due to processes of gentrification. Despite its unassuming appearance, the grill bar is a vital place for social interaction and coexistence on an informal basis.Its architecture, often referred......’, conducted at the Aarhus School of Architecture. Engaging Through Architecture: “Real time Grill Bar Occupation wants to engage with the audience and questions the role of the architect (and architecture itself) in relation to the social dimension of the city – more specifically the seemingly banal function...... of the typical Danish grill bar as a vital place of social co-existence and informal interaction”....

  7. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  8. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method of installing tubular anti-vibration bars into a tube bundle of a steam generator wherein the tube bundle comprises rows of tubes, with the anti-vibration bars received between adjacent rows of the tube bundle for stabilizing the tubes against vibration. The anti-vibration bars are first inserted between adjacent rows of the tube bundle and a pressurized fluid is then introduced into the anti-vibration bars which are thus expanded into contact with the tubes of the adjacent rows for support

  9. Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of BFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhou, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have the advantages of corrosion resistance, high strength, light weight, good dielectric properties, and they are new type of green reinforced alternative material. In order to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, the tensile strength of basalt fiber bars was necessary to be studied. The diameters of the basalt fiber bars were compared by means of uniaxial tensile test in this article. Then the stress-strain curve can be drawn out. The results show that the stress - strain curve of BFRP bars present straight line relation, and there is no sign before failure; there is no yield platform on the stress-strain curve of BFRP bars, which are typical brittle material;the tensile strength of BFRP bars is about 3 times higher than that of ordinary steel bars. and the elastic modulus is about 1/5 of that of ordinary steel; the ultimate tensile strength of BFRP bars varies little with the increase of diameter, but there exist some differences in modulus values.

  10. Hyperon polarisation in the reaction p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X

    CERN Document Server

    Pomp, S; Bröders, R; Bunker, B; Dennert, H; Eisenstein, R E; Eyrich, W; Fischer, H; Franklin, G; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Harris, P; Hauffe, J; Hertzog, D; Johansson, T; Jones, T; Kilian, K; Kraft, R A; Meyer, C; Oelert, W; Quinn, B; Röhrich, K; Rössle, E; Sachs, K; Schmitt, H; Schumacher, R; Sefzick, T; Stinzing, F; Tayloe, R; Todenhagen, R; Traneus, E; Wirth, S

    2000-01-01

    Data from the p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X reaction, collected by the PS185 experiment at antiproton momenta around 1.44 GeV/c, 1.66 GeV/c and 1.77 GeV/c, have been analyzed and the LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar polarisations have been extracted. The events are classified as quasi-free or non-quasi-free and it is found that the polarisations for LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar differ in the latter case. Such an effect comes from differences in the interaction of the outgoing LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar with the residual nucleus and the measurement constitutes the first information on LAMBDA-bar interaction with nuclear matter.

  11. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Vahey, B.R. [Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, 925 W 34 St, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Pimenta, A.L., E-mail: andrea@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Biologia, ERRMECe, Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2, Av. Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy, Pontoise (France); Integrated Laboratories Technologies (InteLab), Dept. Chemical and Food Engineering (EQA), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml{sup −1}), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  12. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D.; Vahey, B.R.; Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S.; Pimenta, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml −1 ), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10 2 CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10 2 CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  13. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  14. CP violation in hyperon decays: the case p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, N.; He, X.G.; Landua, R.; Ohlsson, S.; Steger, H.; Valencia, G.; Fischer, H.; Geyer, R.; Hertzog, D.; Kolo, B.; Miller, J.P.; Rohrich, K.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the experimental status of CP violation and of the phenomenology of hyperon non-leptonic decays. Updated information on the estimate of CP-violating observable in these decays is presented. An experimental programme is outlined, which aims to pursue the search for direct CP violation in hyperon-antihyperon decays by means of the reaction p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π + pπ - . The experiment as well as analysis methods are described. Alternative approaches employing hyperons are also discussed. 54 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  15. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  16. p-bar p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-01-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos do Jordao on January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of p-bar p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to make a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on back of the envelope estimates. Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. (author)

  17. /bar p/p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  19. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected.

  20. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  1. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  2. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that ∼50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar Ω p , while three (33%) do not.

  3. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  4. The effect of titanium surface treatment on the interfacial strength of titanium – Thermoplastic composite joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Yibo; de Rooij, Matthijn; Grouve, Wouter; Akkerman, Remko

    2017-01-01

    Co-consolidated titanium – carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite hybrid joints show potential for application in aerospace structures. The strength of the interface between the titanium and the thermoplastic composite is crucial for the strength of the entire hybrid joint. Application of a

  5. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Gauer, Tobias; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants. Zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line-distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. While titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium-zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting.

  6. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  7. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  8. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  9. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  11. Alcohol Service Practices: A Survey of Bar and Restaurant Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result from illegal sales to intoxicated patrons at bars and restaurants. We surveyed bar/restaurant managers about their practices in reducing illegal sales to intoxicated patrons. We found that managers were confident that they could refuse service to intoxicated customers but were less likely to have…

  12. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.png" class="documentimage" >

  13. STELLAR, GAS, AND DARK MATTER CONTENT OF BARRED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo, E-mail: b.cervantes@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  14. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  15. The X-Bar Theory of Phrase Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, Andras; Pullman, Geoffrey K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a formalization of the content of X-bar theory reveals very little substance in its claims. Six conditions that encapsulate X-bar theory are discussed: lexicality, succession, uniformity, maximality, centrality, and optionality. (50 references) (JL)

  16. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies I. The atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R; Ehle, M; Harnett, J I; Haynes, R F; Shukurov, A M; Sokoloff, D D; Thierbach, M

    2002-01-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30 arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, \\Lambda, related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with \\Lambda, I \\propto \\Lambda^0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a lon...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Postinfective physeal bars – MRI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic physeal bar due to a Salter Harris IV fracture – T1 weighted (a) and gradient echo (b) .... the tilted growth arrest and recovery lines and for detecting fatty marrow ... Physeal bars are more common in the lower than upper.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  19. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  20. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-10-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7 mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large resistance and small capacitance on the amorphous TiO2-x surface, illuminated a red LED for 37 ms after it was charged with 1 mA at 10 V. The fabricated device showed no dielectric breakdown up to 1,100 V. Based on this approach, further advances in the development of amorphous titanium-dioxide supercapacitors might be attained by integrating oxide ribbons with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  1. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la

  3. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  4. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la cinetique par des equations dependant purement du

  5. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  6. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes anti-vibrations bars structurally supporting tubes carrying high-temperature coolant in a steam generator, the antivibration bars being disposed between adjacent rows of tubes and expanded from a rest state to an expanded state as pressure is applied to the interior of the anti-vibration bars, each of the anti-vibration bars being configured as a hollow member of a rectangular shape. The rectangular shape comprising a pair of opposing wall lengths and a pair of opposing wall widths, each of the wall lengths have a thickness greater than that of the wall widths to facilitate expansion of the opposing wall lengths away from each other and into contact respectively with tubes of adjacent rows, the wall lengths having sufficient rigidity to resist deformation as the bars are expanded to their expanded state so that the wall lengths make a line contact with their respective tubes

  7. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments in Inclusive Semileptonic Decays (bar B) → Xc (ell)-(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present results for the moments of observed spectra in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays to charm hadrons (bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν). Moments of the hadronic-mass and the combined mass-and-energy spectra for different minimum electron or muon momenta between 0.8 and 1.9 GeV/c are obtained from a sample of 232 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-meson factory at SLAC. We also present a reevaluation of the moments of electron-energy spectra and partial decay fractions B((bar B) → X c e - (bar ν)) for minimum electron momenta between 0.6 and 1.5 GeV/c based on a sample of 51 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events. The measurements are used for the extraction of the total decay fraction, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |V cb |, the quark masses m b and m c , and four heavy-quark QCD parameters in the framework of a Heavy-Quark Expansion (HQE). We find B((bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν)) = (10.64 ± 0.17 ± 0.06)% and |V cb | = (42.05 ± 0.45 ± 0.70) x 10 -3 .

  8. Measurements of σ(e+e- hadrons) and B(ψ →(3770) DD-bar, non-DD-bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Gang

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of the cross sections for inclusive hadronic event production in e + e - annihilation at the energies of 3.650, 3.6648, and 3.773 GeV and measurements of the branching fractions for ψ(3770) → D 0 D b ar 0 , D + D - , DD-bar, and for ψ(3770) → non-DD-bar. (author)

  9. Colloidal Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Suslov, Sergey; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of colloidal plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles are examined with an eye on their photothermal and photocatalytic applications via transmission electron microscopy and optical transmittance measurements. Single crystal titanium nitride cubic nanoparticles with an average ...

  10. Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.

    1981-01-01

    Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating

  11. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  12. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Based Ceramic Coatings Deposited on Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Titanium based ceramic films are increasingly used as coating materials because of their high hardness, excellent wear resistance and superior corrosion resistance. Using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques, the electrochemical properties of different coatings deposited on different steels under different conditions were examined in this study. Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), titanium diboride (TiB2), and titanium boronitride with different boron concentrations (TiBN-1&2) w...

  14. Corrosion of titanium and titanium alloys in spent fuel repository conditions - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho-Mantila, I.; Haenninen, H.; Aaltonen, P.; Taehtinen, S.

    1985-03-01

    The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed in Finnish bedrock. The canister of spent fuel in waste repository is one barrier to the release of radionuclides. It is possible to choose a canister material with a known, measurable corrosion rate and to make it with thickness allowing corrosion to occur. The other possibility is to use a material which is nearly immune to general corrosion. In this second category there are titanium and titanium alloys which exhibit a very high degree of resistance to general corrosion. In this literature study the corrosion properties of unalloyed titanium, titanium alloyed with palladium and titanium alloyed with molybdenum and nickel are reviewed. The two titanium alloys own in addition to the excellent general corrosion properties outstanding properties against localized corrosion like pitting or crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatique of titanium seem not to be a problem in the repository conditions, but the possibilities of delayed cracking caused by hydrogen should be carefully appreciated. (author)

  15. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  16. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  17. Structural strength of core graphite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Futakawa, M.

    1987-01-01

    A HTR core consists of fuel, hot plenum, reflector and thermal barrier blocks. Each graphite block is supported by three thin cylindrical graphite bars called support post. Static and dynamic core loads are transmitted by the support posts to the thermal barrier blocks and a support plate. These posts are in contact with the blocks through hemispherical post seats to absorb the relative displacement caused by seismic force and the difference of thermal expansion of materials at the time of the start-up and shutdown of a reactor. The mixed fracture criterion of principal stress and modified Mohr-Coulomb's theory as well as the fracture criterion of principal stress based on elastic stress analysis was discussed in connection with the application to HTR graphite components. The buckling fracture of a support post was taken in consideration as one of the fracture modes. The effect that the length/diameter ratio of a post, small rotation and the curvature of post ends and seats exerted on the fracture strength was studied by using IG-110 graphite. Contacting stress analysis was carried out by using the structural analysis code 'COSMOS-7'. The experimental method, the analysis of buckling strength and the results are reported. The fracture of a support post is caused by the mixed mode of bending deformation, split fracture and shearing fracture. (Kako, I.)

  18. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  19. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  20. Spectroscopy and titanium gettering in SPHEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.; Giroud, C.; Summers, H.; Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon

    1994-01-01

    SPHEX is a spheromak wherein the toroidal and poloidal currents are generated and sustained by direct current injection from a Marshall gun, and organised by the effect of magnetic relaxation. In the past it has not achieved high temperature (Langmuir probes indicate a flat profile of about 20 eV), and this was thought to be due to radiation from impurities originating in the Marshall gun. For this paper, titanium has been applied to the plasma-facing surface of the flux conserver in an attempt to reduce impurity levels and plasma density. Calibrated spectrometers were used to measure plasma properties and impurity levels, both before and after application of titanium. The titanium is also found to have a surprisingly large effect on the magnetic properties, which gives some evidence regarding the relaxation mechanism. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800 0 C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350 0 C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo

  2. Environmental effects in titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental effects on titanium aluminide alloys are potentially of great importance for engineering applications of these materials, although little has been published to date on such effects. The primary emphasis in this paper is on hydrogen effects, with a brief reference to oxygen effects. Hydrogen is readily absorbed at elevated temperature into all the titanium aluminide compositions studied to date, in amounts as large as 10 at.%, and on cooling virtually all this hydrogen is precipitated as a hydride phase or phases. The presence of these precipitated hydride plates affects mechanical properties in ways similar to what is observed in other hydride forming materials, although effects per unit volume of hydride are not particularly severe in the titanium aluminides. Microstructure, and thus thermal and mechanical history, plays a major role in controlling the severity of hydrogen effects

  3. Enthalpy of formation of titanium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhachinskij, V.V.; Chirin, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    The values given in the literature for the enthalpy of the formation of titanium diboride, as obtained experimentally and by theoretical estimation, range between -32 and -74.4 kcal/mol. In this paper the authors use the method of direct synthesis from elements in a Calvet calorimeter to determine the enthalpy of formation, ΔHsub(f) 0 , sub(298), of titanium diboride with the composition Tisub(1.000+-0.002)Bsub(2.056+-0.006)Csub(0.009)Nsub(0.003), which was found to be -76.78+-0.83 kcal/mol. They calculate that ΔHsub(f,298) (TiBsub(2.056)=-76.14+-0.85 kcal/mol. The procedure employed makes it possible to carry out the titanium diboride synthesis reaction with the calorimeter at room temperature

  4. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  5. A xylophone bar magnetometer for micro/pico satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Hervé; Niyonzima, Innocent; Rochus, Pierre; Rochus, Véronique

    2010-10-01

    The Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), "Centre Spatial de Liège" (CSL), "Laboratoire de Techniques Aéronautiques et Spatiales" (LTAS) of University of Liège, and the Microwave Laboratory of University of Louvain-La-Neuve (UCL) are collaborating in order to develop a miniature version of a xylophone bar magnetometer (XBM) using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The device is based on a classical resonating xylophone bar. A sinusoidal current is supplied to the bar oscillating at the fundamental transverse resonant mode of the bar. When an external magnetic field is present, the resulting Lorentz force causes the bar to vibrate at its fundamental frequency with an amplitude directly proportional to the vertical component of the ambient magnetic field. In this paper we illustrate the working principles of the XBM and the challenges to reach the required sensitivity in space applications (measuring magnetic fields with an accuracy of approximately of 0.1 nT). The optimal dimensions of the MEMS XBM are discussed as well as the constraints on the current flowing through the bar. Analytical calculations as well as simulations with finite element methods have been used. Prototypes have been built in the Microwave Laboratory using silicon on insulator (SOI) and bulk micromachining processes. Several methods to accurately measure the displacement of the bar are proposed.

  6. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  7. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  8. Titanium Isotopes Provide Clues to Lunar Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2012-05-01

    The idea that the Moon formed as the result of the giant impact of a Mars-sized impactor with the still-growing Earth explains two central facts about the Earth-Moon system: its total angular momentum (Earth's spin and the Moon's orbital motion), and the sizes of the metallic cores of the Earth (large) and Moon (tiny). This gives cosmochemists some confidence in the hypothesis, but they would greatly appreciate additional compositional tests. One undisputed point is the identical abundance of the three oxygen isotopes in Earth and Moon. Junjun Zhang and colleagues at the University of Chicago (USA) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) have added another isotopic system to the cosmochemical testing tool kit, titanium isotopes. They find that the ratio of titanium-50 to titanium-47 is identical in Earth and Moon to within four parts per million. In contrast, other solar system materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, vary by considerably more than this-- up to 150 times as much. The identical oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions in Earth and Moon are surprising in light of what we think we know about planet formation and formation of the Moon after a giant impact. The variations in oxygen and titanium isotopes among meteorite types suggest that it is unlikely that the Moon-forming giant impactor would have had the same isotopic composition as the Earth. Simulations show that the Moon ends up constructed mostly (40-75%) from the impactor materials. Thus, the Moon ought to have different isotopic composition than does Earth. The isotopes might have exchanged in the complicated, messy proto-lunar disk (as has been suggested for oxygen isotopes), making them the same. However, Zhang and colleagues suggest that this exchange is unlikely for a refractory element like titanium. Could the impact simulations be greatly overestimating the contributions from the impactor? Was the mixing of building-block materials throughout the inner solar system much less than

  9. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on

  10. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  11. The Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    BIŠĆAN, VLATKA; LUETIĆ, VIKTORIJA

    2012-01-01

    Titanium metal is silver-grey color and high gloss, the ninth element of the abundance in the Earth’s crust, and can be found in meteorites. It has a low electrical conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Since titanium has a great passivity, its physical property is a high level of corrosion resistance to most mineral acids and chlorides. It has mechanical properties such as steel, has a high melting temperature and is light. Since it is highly resistant to corrosion it is app...

  12. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  13. Local heating with titanium nitride nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Ndukaife, Justus C.; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible.......We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible....

  14. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  15. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.

    1969-01-01

    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  16. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  17. {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; ONeill, J.J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Schaffner, S.F.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Mukhin, Y.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Freyberger, A.; Gibaut, D.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; and others

    1997-09-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}, making the first observation of {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}. We present the cross section for {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} as a function of the {gamma}{gamma} center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Direct dynamic synthesis of nanodispersed phases of titanium oxides upon sputtering of electrodischarge titanium plasma into an air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu.; Nikitin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the possibility of directly synthesizing nanodispersed crystalline phases of titanium dioxides with rutile and anatase structures in a hypervelocity jet of electroerosion plasma generated by a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with titanium electrodes are presented. A powder product containing nanosized polymorphic phases of titanium dioxide with a spherical shape of particles has been manufactured.

  19. Shock waves in P-bar target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.

  20. Shock waves in P-bar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed

  1. Hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and its alloys - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho-Mantila, I.; Haemaelaeinen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement data of titanium and its alloys is reviewed. Especially the results obtained in spent nuclear fuel repository conditions with commercially pure titanium and TiCode-12 alloy are examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of titanium are not much affected by hydrogen when tested by smooth specimens. Much greater effects can be expected with notched fracture mechanics specimens. However, only limeted data is available. Hydrogen distribution in titanium is affected by stress, alloy composition and temperature gradients. In order to model the hydrogen-induced crack growth in titanium much more mechanistic work is needed especially to understand the behaviour of hydrogen in crack tip stress field. (author)

  2. Structure and properties of Titanium for dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greger

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes manufacture of nano-structural titanium, its structure and properties. Nano-titanium has higher specific strength properties than ordinary (coarse-grained titanium. Nano-titanium was produced by the equal-channel angular pressing (ETAP process. The research it self was focused on physical base of strengthening and softening processes and developments occurring at the grain boundaries during the ECAP process at half-hot temperature. Strength of nano-titanium varies around 960 MPa, grain size around 300 nm.

  3. Rough surfaces of titanium and titanium alloys for implants and prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforto, E.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Salito, A.; Crestou, C.; Caillard, D.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and/or covered by metallic or ceramic rough layers after being submitted to sand blasting. The goal of these treatments is to improve the surface roughness and consequently the osteointegration, the fixation, and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments has been studied and correlated to their mechanical behavior. As-treated/covered and mechanically tested surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analyses performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mainly in cross-section, reveal the degree of adherence and cohesion between the surface layer and the substrate (implant). We observed that, although the same convenient surface roughness was obtained with the two types of process, many characteristics as structural properties and mechanical behavior are very different

  4. Rapid PMR determination of hydrogen in titanium hydride and dehydrogenated titanium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'enko, V.S.; Demidenko, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance (PMR) enables determining hydrogen quantitatively in titanium hydride and dehydrogenated titanium powders without destroying the specimen and is also more informative than high-temperature extraction methods. PMR provides data on the electron-nuclear interactions and the activation energies for hydrogen diffusion while also providing conclusions on the forms and positives of the hydrogen in the lattice and the binding to the metal atoms. The authors have developed a rapid method for determining hydrogen in titanium hydride and dehydrogenated titanium powders which reduces the analysis time and improves the metrological characteristics. The authors use a YaMR-5535 spectrometer working at 40 MHz upgraded for use with hydrogen in solids. The authors used specimens of mass about 2 g ground to 0.1 mm powder

  5. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  6. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  7. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ribbed steel bars used in Nigeria's structural concrete practice to relevant ... cases of structural failure have recently become frequent, especially ... Page 4 ..... Nwabuokei S.O.(2007) “The Nigerian Steel Industry: Delta Steel Company.

  8. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  9. What is the peak stress in ceramic bar impacts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S.J.; Bedford, A.

    2000-01-01

    The bar impact experiment has been extensively used to characterize the high strain rate properties of high strength ceramics. In particular, alumina AD-99.5 has been widely studied; both stress gauge and VISAR bar impact data are available for this material. We have performed plate-on-bar impact experiments using this material in some novel configurations. An interface was introduced in the target bar (by cutting it) in the zone where the material fails by axial splitting. Such experiments resulted in a dramatic drop in the peak stress measured in the experiment, when compared to experiments with no interface. We show that the damage kinetics in tension influence these measurements. Since the peak stress is dependent on the damage kinetics we conclude that the measurement cannot be correlated to some intrinsic strength of the ceramic

  10. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  11. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    At the COMPASS experiment $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles are produced with high statistics in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes of 160 GeV/c polarized muons. Since both, beam and target, are polarized, various studies on the $\\Lambda$ polarization are possible. We present results on the longitudinal polarization transfer from muons to $\\Lambda$ hyperons produced by scattering off an unpolarized isoscalar target and preliminary results on the transverse $\\Lambda$ polarization with a transversely polarized proton target. The $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization can be studied by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. The longitudinal spin transfers to $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$. The $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$ dependences of $\\Lambda$ polarization are compatible with zero, while $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization tends to increase with $x_{F}$. Info...

  12. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.

    1999-10-01

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  13. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION OF THE MASS FUNCTION CAST BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of scientifically grounded technical decisions, the whole set of which has enabled to create technological processes of production of high-quality cast bars of mass appointment is offered.

  15. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G.; Morales, L.B.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo t abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  16. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  18. Study of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel welds (AISI 321) may exhibit a serious form of intercrystalline cracking during service at high temperature. This type of cracking, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to ageing: a fine and abundant intragranular Ti(C,N) precipitation appears near the fusion line and modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. This study aims to better know the accused mechanism and to succeed in estimating the risk of such cracking in welded junctions of 321 stainless steel. To analyse this embrittlement mechanism, and to assess the lifetime of real components, different HAZ are simulated by heat treatments applied to the base material which is submitted to various cold rolling and ageing conditions in order to reproduce the HAZ microstructure. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and ageing on the titanium carbide precipitation, on the mechanical (tensile and creep) behaviour of the resulting material and on its stress relief cracking sensitivity. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the mechanism and that ageing do not favour crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. The role of this precipitation is also discussed. Moreover, a creep damage model is identified by a local approach to fracture. Materials sensitive to stress relief cracking are selected. Then, creep tests are carried out on notched bars in order to quantify the intergranular damage of these different materials; afterwards, these measurements are combined with calculated mechanical fields. Finally, it is shown that the model gives good results to assess crack initiation for a compact tension (CT) specimen during relaxation tests, as well as for a notched tubular specimen tested at 600 deg. C under a steady torque. (author)

  19. Titanium electroplating of copper in molten salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Denis

    1985-01-01

    After a bibliographical survey on electroplating in molten salt media and on the electrolytic production of titanium, the author explains the reasons for the choice of the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic mix as solvent. He recalls the main properties which are used, and describes the conventional and convolutional processing of data obtained by linear volt-amperometry. He presents the electrolyte preparation mode which takes into account the existence of titanium ions with intermediate oxidation degree, and the reactivity of titanium with oxygenated species. Experimental results are discussed. Then, after the study of the mechanism of reduction of trivalent titanium into titanium on molybdenum (intermetallic diffusion is here negligible), he reports the study of this mechanism on copper (it is a more complicated situation, due to combinations between titanium and copper). The effect of different parameters (electrolyte purity, current density, electrode potential and temperature) is interpreted in order to identify optimal conditions for titanium electroplating of copper [fr

  20. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  1. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION TITANIUM-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acyclic alkenes and intramolecular pathway on dicarbonyl compounds to yield ... Table 1, substituted benzofurans 2a-g were obtained in good yield and in the .... The titanium-induced synthesis of benzofurans has proved to be the method of ...

  3. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  4. Manufacture of titanium and zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, F.; Hanslik, T.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described of manufacturing titanium and zirconium hydrides by hydrogenation of said metals characterized by the reaction temperature ranging between 250 to 500 degC, hydrogen pressure of 20 to 300 atm and possibly by the presence of a hydride of the respective metal. (V.V.)

  5. Titanium impregnated borosilicate zeolites for epoxidation catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, Jan; Vitvarová, Dana; Lupínková, Lenka; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 28-34 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0819 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : borosilicate * titanium impregnation * epoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  6. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium has fired the imagination of engineers and designers for decades by its ‘ideal’ combination of high strength, low density and good corrosion resistance. However, its application has unfortunately been limited to those niche markets where...

  7. Evaluating the Johanson theory for titanium powder

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available . In this study, the Johanson theory was used to determine the rolling parameters of titanium powder. Preliminary results of the nip angle, nip pressures and maximum horizontal pressures of the mill for the powder rolled on a 55mm diameter roll with roll gap sizes...

  8. Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure

  9. Thermochemically active iron titanium oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Miller, James E.

    2018-01-16

    A thermal oxidation-reduction cycle is disclosed that uses iron titanium oxide as the reactive material. The cycle may be used for the thermal splitting of water and/or carbon dioxide to form hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide. The formed compounds may be used as syngas precursors to form fuels.

  10. Obtention of titanium and zirconium metallic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.R.G.; Rover, C.F.S.; Amaral, F.L.L.

    1988-01-01

    The development works of techniques and equipments for titanium and zirconium sponges obtention are mentioned. The Kroll Process used for the sponges production is described, consisting in the reduction of the metal tetracloride with magnesium in an inert atmosphere of helium or argon. (C.G.C.) [pt

  11. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  12. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  13. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  14. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  15. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  16. KLM's boric acid reclamation system (BARS). An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96-97 percent. BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. Within the scope of the project, a variety of contaminated process stream and mixed radwaste sources have been evaluated at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station. The design of an advanced prototype BARS as an optimized process alternative was the result of KLM's initial Phase 1 SBIR program with the DOE in 1984 and 1985

  17. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  18. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  19. Resorbable versus titanium plates for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Gill, Karanjot S

    2017-10-04

    Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and the length of time required for their degradation and the possibility of foreign body reactions. This review compares the use of titanium versus bioresorbable plates in orthognathic surgery and is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2007. To compare the effects of bioresorbable fixation systems with titanium systems used during orthognathic surgery. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 20 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 20 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 January 2017); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov; searched 20 January 2017), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (searched 20 January 2017) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing bioresorbable versus titanium fixation systems used for orthognathic surgery in adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. Clinical heterogeneity between the included trials precluded pooling of data, and only a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials, involving 103 participants, one comparing titanium with resorbable plates and screws and

  20. Porous titanium bases for osteochondral tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, Adam B.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Georgescu, Maria S.; Howard, Daniel R.; Saunders, Reuben A.; Yu, William T.; Klein, Robert W.; Napolitano, Anthony P.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of osteochondral grafts may offer a cell-based alternative to native allografts, which are in short supply. Previous studies promote the fabrication of grafts consisting of a viable cell-seeded hydrogel integrated atop a porous, bone-like metal. Advantages of the manufacturing process have led to the evaluation of porous titanium as the bone-like base material. Here, porous titanium was shown to support the growth of cartilage to produce native levels of Young’s modulus, using a clinically relevant cell source. Mechanical and biochemical properties were similar or higher for the osteochondral constructs compared to chondral-only controls. Further investigation into the mechanical influence of the base on the composite material suggests that underlying pores may decrease interstitial fluid pressurization and applied strains, which may be overcome by alterations to the base structure. Future studies aim to optimize titanium-based tissue engineered osteochondral constructs to best match the structural architecture and strength of native grafts. Statement of Significance The studies described in this manuscript follow up on previous studies from our lab pertaining to the fabrication of osteochondral grafts that consist of a bone-like porous metal and a chondrocyte-seeded hydrogel. Here, tissue engineered osteochondral grafts were cultured to native stiffness using adult chondrocytes, a clinically relevant cell source, and a porous titanium base, a material currently used in clinical implants. This porous titanium is manufactured via selective laser melting, offering the advantages of precise control over shape, pore size, and orientation. Additionally, this manuscript describes the mechanical influence of the porous base, which may have applicability to porous bases derived from other materials. PMID:26320541

  1. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  2. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c\\bar c)$ with a W or a Z in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS searches for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c\\bar c$ pair, produced in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson. The analyzed data correspond to $36.1\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of $13\\,\\text{TeV}$ proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18\\ \\text{(stat.)}^{+0.21}_{-0.19}\\ \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c\\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio of $2.7\\,\\text{pb}$.

  3. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c \\bar c)$ with a $W$ or a $Z$ Boson in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS search for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c \\bar c$ pair, produced in association with $W$ or $Z$ bosons. The analyzed data correspond to 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18 \\text{(stat.)} ^{+0.21}_{-0.19} \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c \\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio.

  4. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  5. The d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a pion cloud model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, J.; Christiansen, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    We study the d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a model approach in which hadronic fluctuations of the nucleon are generated through gluon splitting and recombination mechanisms. Within this framework, it is shown that the d -u asymmetry of the proton is consistently described by including only nucleon fluctuations to |πN> and |πΔ> bound states. Predictions of the model closely agree with the recent experimental data of the E-866/Nu Sea Collaboration. (author)

  6. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  7. The high-bar and low-bar back-squats: A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Brown, Scott R; Helms, Eric R; Duncan, J Scott; Storey, Adam G

    2017-02-08

    No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15.3 kg; age: 27.7 ± 3.8 years) performed the LBBS, HBBS, and both LBBS and HBBS (respectively) up to and including 100% 1RM. Small to moderate (d = 0.2-0.5) effect size differences were observed between the powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters in joint angles and Fv, although none were statistically significant. However, significant joint angle results were observed between the experienced powerlifters/weightlifters and the recreationally trained group. Our findings suggest that practitioners seeking to place emphasis on the stronger hip musculature should consider the LBBS. Also, when the goal is to lift the greatest load possible, the LBBS may be preferable. Conversely, the HBBS is more suited to replicate movements that exhibit a more upright torso position, such as the snatch and clean, or to place more emphasis on the associated musculature of the knee joint.

  8. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter of the... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil...

  9. Rapid prototyped porous nickel–titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Hoffmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While calcium phosphate–based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel–titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel–titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel–titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel–titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel–titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel–titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold’s pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel–titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used

  10. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  11. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  12. Low-temperature growth of (2 1-bar 1-bar 0) ZnO nanofilm on NaCl (0 0 1) surface by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanofilm of the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) surface was prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. The nanofilm was prepared on NaCl (0 0 1) surface at 200 o C to produce nearly pure (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO texture and the orientation relationship was determined and the interface discussed. Transmission electron microscopy lattice images were used to find the interface formed between ZnO nanocrystals. The ZnO nanocrystals coalesced to form a straight (0 1 -bar 1 -bar 2) interface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO surface showed only a near-band-edge UV emission peak.

  13. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-04-28

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness. No Drawings

  14. Relationship between surface properties (roughness, wettability) of titanium and titanium alloys and cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsonnet, L.; Reybier, K.; Jaffrezic, N.; Comte, V.; Lagneau, C.; Lissac, M.; Martelet, C.

    2003-01-01

    Cell attachment and spreading to titanium-based alloy surfaces is a major parameter in implant technology. In this paper, substratum surface hydrophobicity, surface free energy, interfacial free energy and surface roughness were investigated to ascertain which of these parameters is predominant in human fibroblast spreading. Two methods for contact angle measurement were compared: the sessile drop method and the captive bubble two-probe method. The relationship between surface roughness and the sessile drop contact angles of various engineered titanium surfaces such as commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti), titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and titanium-nickel (NiTi), was shown. Surface free energy (SFE) calculations were performed from contact angles obtained on smooth samples based on the same alloys in order to eliminate the roughness effect. SFE of the surfaces have been calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and Van Oss (VO) approaches with the sessile drop method. The OW calculations are used to obtain the dispersive (γ d ) and polar (γ p ) component of SFE, and the VO approach allows to reach the apolar (γ LW ) and the polar acid-base component (γ ab ) of the surface. From captive bubble contact angle experiments (air or octane bubble under water), the interfacial free energy of the different surfaces in water was obtained. A relationship between cell spreading and the polar component of SFE was found. Interfacial free energy values were low for all the investigated surfaces indicating good biocompatibility for such alloys

  15. Titanium oxide nanocoating on a titanium thin film deposited on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cummings, F.R. [University of the Western Cape, Electron Microscopy Unit, Physics Department, Bellville 7535, Cape Town (South Africa); Turco, S. Lo; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milano, Italy Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2016-03-31

    Thin films of titanium were deposited on a glass substrate using electron beam evaporator. Femtosecond laser pulses were focused on the surface of the films, and the samples were scanned while mounted on the motorized computer-controlled motion stage to produce an areal modification of the films. X-ray diffraction of the laser-patterned samples showed evidence of the formation of a γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} with a monoclinic phase. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry simulation showed that there is an increase in the oxygen concentration as the average laser fluence is increased. Time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry analysis showed an even distribution of the titanium and oxygen ions on the sample and also ionized molecules of the oxides of titanium were observed. The formation of the oxide of titanium was further supported using the UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which showed that for 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} fluence, the laser-exposed film showed the electron transfer band and the d–d transition peak of titanium was observed at lower wavelengths. - Highlights: • γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} formed using femtosecond laser. • Fluence and oxygen relation were studied. • Nanoflakes of γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} were observed under HRSEM.

  16. A new method for production of titanium vapor and synthesis of titanium nitride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Sergey N.; Melnik, Yury A.; Metel, Alexander S.; Volosova, Marina A.

    2018-03-01

    It is proposed to synthesize on machine parts and cutting tools wear-resistant titanium nitride coatings with the help of the hollow-cathode glow discharge, a molybdenum crucible for titanium evaporation being used as the anode of the discharge and a process vacuum chamber being used as the hollow cathode. The research revealed that at the anode surface area less than a critical value S* = (2m/M)1/2S, where S is the area of the chamber walls, m is the mass of electrons and M is the mass of ions, the anode fall of potential is positive and grows from ˜50 V at argon pressure p = 0.2 Pa to ˜2 kV at p = 0.02 Pa. At the discharge current I = 0.6 A electrons accelerated by the anode fall of 0.9 kV transport into the crucible with the inner diameter of 12 mm the power of ˜0.54 kW, which allows the titanium evaporation and the coating deposition rate of 5 µm·h-1 on a substrate distanced from the crucible at 100 mm. After the argon is replaced with the nitrogen, titanium nitride coating without titanium droplets is synthesized the deposition rate amounting to about the same value.

  17. Unstoppable brane-flux decay of (D6)-bar branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, UniversityH. [Institutionen för Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala (Sweden); Gautason, F.F. [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riet, T. Van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.University Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-03-27

    We investigate p (D6)-bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K×M D6 charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g{sub s}p is large, the (D6)-bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p/M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6)-bar branes and (D3)-bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3)-bar branes.

  18. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  19. 700 bar hydrogen cylinder design, testing and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight and high pressure cylinders for compressed hydrogen storage are essential components for fuel cell vehicles. Storage volume and mass are two key considerations. Current on-board hydrogen storage systems are based on a maximum pressure of 350 bar. While 350 bar systems are excellent solutions for many applications, some situations required higher storage densities due to space restrictions. As a result significant research and development work has been expended by cylinder manufacturers, systems providers, testing agencies and automotive manufacturers to develop 700 bar systems to reduce storage volume. Dynetek Industries Ltd has proactively developed a range of 700 bar storage cylinders based on a seamless aluminum liner over wrapped with a carbon fiber composite. This paper presents the challenges and processes involved in the design, testing and certification of the Dynetek Industries Ltd 700 bar cylinder. The paper also provides reasoning for further volume and mass optimization of compressed hydrogen cylinders by incorporating realistic cylinder usage parameters into standards. In particular the overly conservative fill life requirement for cylinders will be examined. (author)

  20. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  1. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  2. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF K YIELDS πν(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KETTELL, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental program for the study of the rare kaon decays, K → πν(bar ν) is summarized. A review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus of the world-wide kaon program is the two golden modes: K + → π + ν(bar ν) and K L o ν(bar ν). The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K + → π + ν(bar ν) events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe ∼10 Standard Model events, and the CKM experiment should observe ∼100 SM events by the end of this decade. Limits on the neutral analog K L o → =π o ν(bar ν) have been set by KTeV and within the next couple of years will be pushed by E391a. Measurements of the branching ratio should be made within the next 10 years by KOPIO, with a goal of ∼50 events, and at the JHF, with a goal of up to 1000 events

  4. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  5. Microstructure evolution of titanium after tensile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Jędrychowski, M.; Tarasiuk, J; Wronski, M.; Baczmanski, A.; Bacroix, B.

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative behavior of titanium T40 during tensile loading with a special emphasis on the presence of deformation twins in the observed microstructures is described. The samples for tensile tests were cut out from the rolled titanium sheet along the rolling and transverse directions. Several microstructure maps were determined using Electron Backscatter Diffraction technique (EBSD). These data were used to obtain crystallographic textures, misorientation distributions, grain size, twin boundary length, grain orientation spread, low and high angle boundary fractions and Schmid and Taylor factors. The deformation mechanisms and microstructure characteristics are different in the samples stretched along rolling and transverse directions. A strong appearance of tensile twins was observed in the samples deformed along transverse direction. On the other hand, more frequent subgrain formation and higher orientation spread was observed in the sample deformed along rolling direction, which caused’‘orientation blurring’ leading to an increase of grain size with deformation, as determined from OIM analysis.

  6. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  7. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  8. Titanium implants in irradiated dog mandibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of osseointegrated titanium implants has been a great benefit to selected cancer patients who otherwise would not be able to wear conventional and/or maxillofacial prostheses. Cognizant of the risk of osteoradionecrosis, we used an animal model to seek experimental evidence for successful osseointegration in bone irradiated to tumoricidal levels. Five healthy male beagle dogs received 60 gray to a previously edentulated and healed area of the right hemimandible. The left hemimandible was kept as a nonirradiated control. After 9 months, titanium implants were placed and allowed an additional 5 1/2 months to osseointegrate. At that time, block specimens were obtained, radiographed, photographed, and analyzed histologically. Although statistical significance cannot be attached to the results, osseointegration was achieved in half of the irradiated specimens

  9. Characterization of titanium alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reytier, M.; Kircher, F.; Levesy, B.

    2002-01-01

    Titanium alloys are employed in the design of superconducting magnet support systems for their high mechanical strength associated with their low thermal conductivity. But their use requires a careful attention to their crack tolerance at cryogenic temperature. Measurements have been performed on two extra low interstitial materials (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI and Ti-6Al-4V ELI) with different thickness and manufacturing process. The investigation includes the tensile properties at room and liquid helium temperatures using smooth and notched samples. Moreover, the fracture toughness has been determined at 4.2 K using Compact Tension specimens. The microstructure of the different alloys and the various fracture surfaces have also been studied. After a detailed description of the experimental procedures, practical engineering characteristics are given and a comparison of the different titanium alloys is proposed for cryogenic applications

  10. Titanium(IV), zirconium, hafnium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Titanium can exist in solution in a number of oxidation states. The titanium(IV) exists in acidic solutions as the oxo-cation, TiO 2+ , rather than Ti 4+ . Zirconium is used in the ceramics industry and in nuclear industry as a cladding material in reactors where its reactivity towards hydrolysis reactions and precipitation of oxides may result in degradation of the cladding. In nature, hafnium is found together with zirconium and as a consequence of the contraction in ionic radii that occurs due to the 4f -electron shell, the ionic radius of hafnium is almost identical to that of zirconium. All isotopes of thorium are radioactive and, as a consequence of it being fertile, thorium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle. The polymeric hydrolysis species that have been reported for thorium are somewhat different to those identified for zirconium and hafnium, although thorium does form the Th 4 (OH) 8 8+ species.

  11. Biofunctionalization of titanium for dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hanawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is an important and predominant technique for obtaining biofunction in metals for biomedical use including dentistry. One surface modification technique is a process that changes the surface composition, structure, and morphology of a material, leaving the bulk mechanical properties intact. A tremendous number of surface modification techniques to improve the hard tissue compatibility of titanium have been developed. Hydroxyapatite layer, titanium oxide layer, and calcium titanate layer with various morphologies are deposited using electrochemical treatment including micro-arc oxidation. Also, surface modification layers without hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate are chemically formed that accelerate bone formation. Other approach is the immobilization of biofunctional molecules such as poly(ethylene glycol to the metal surface to control the adsorption of proteins and adhesion of cells, platelets, and bacteria. In the case of immobilization of biomolecules such as collagen and peptide, bone formation and soft tissue adhesion are improved.

  12. Characterization of the titanium Kβ spectral profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C T; Smale, L F; Kinnane, M N; Illig, A J; Kimpton, J A; Crosby, D N

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have Kα and Kβ characteristic radiation possessing complex asymmetric spectral profiles. Instrumental broadening normally encountered in x-ray experiments shifts features of profiles used for calibration, such as peak energy, by many times the quoted accuracies. We measure and characterize the titanium Kβ spectral profile. The peak energy of the titanium Kβ spectral profile is found to be 4931.966 ± 0.022 eV prior to instrumental broadening. This 4.5 ppm result decreases the uncertainty over the past literature by a factor of 2.6 and is 2.4 standard deviations from the previous standard. The spectrum is analysed and the resolution-free lineshape is extracted and listed for use in other experiments. We also incorporate improvement in analysis applied to earlier results for V Kβ. (paper)

  13. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  14. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  15. Precipitated nanosized titanium dioxide for electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, S.A. [Joint Department of Electrochemical Energy Systems, 38A Vernadsky Ave., 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, 13 Gen. Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Lisnycha, T.V. [Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, 13 Gen. Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Chernukhin, S.I. [Joint Department of Electrochemical Energy Systems, 38A Vernadsky Ave., 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2011-02-15

    Two types of titanium dioxide samples precipitated from aqueous solutions of titanium tetrachloride are investigated. Crystalline materials are obtained by means of neutralization of TiCl{sub 4} with the solution of an alkali metal hydroxide. The change of the order of mixing leads to amorphous materials. The evolution of the samples upon the thermal treatment is characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and porosity studies. The application of crystalline TiO{sub 2} as an electrode material in lithium-ion 2016 sample cells enable one to yield specific currents up to 3350 mA g{sup -1}. On the other hand, the thermal treatment of initially amorphous materials does not lead to complete crystallization, and the presence of amorphous TiO{sub 2} is well seen as the so-called capacity behavior of cyclic voltammetry curves. (author)

  16. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. Preparation procedure for spherical titanium powders by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Jin Yuping; Ye Gaoying

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the single-factor method for the study of spherical titanium powder preparation process. Titanium powders with excellent sphericity can be prepared through controlling and regulating the radio frequency plasma anode working current and voltage, central gas flow rate, sheath gas flow rate, powder-carrying gas flow rate, negative ventilation pressure and powder feed rate, etc. Spheroidization of titanium powders with a size of (17.0±2.0) μm is performed by radio frequency plasma technology. With the increase of negative ventilation pressure, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly and then decreases rapidly at the turning point around 1800 Pa. With the rate of powder feed increasing, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly. When the powder feed rate is greater than 90.0 g/min, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders reduces rapidly as the powder feed rate increases. (authors)

  18. A search for bar νe appearance from stopped π+ and μ+ decay at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a recent search for bar ν e appearance from stopped π + → μ + ν μ and μ + → e + ν e bar ν μ decay made by the LAMPF experiment E645. The appearance of bar ν e may occur from bar ν μ → bar ν e , ν e → bar ν eL , or ν μ → bar ν eL oscillations. Appearance may also occur from rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay, which is allowed by a multiplicative lepton charge conservation law. The neutrino energies range from E ν = 0 to 52.8MeV. The neutrino detector, which is located 26.1 meters from the neutrino source, consists of a segmented liquid scintillator and proportional drift tube central detector surrounded by both active and passive shielding. The central detector detects bar ν e through the bar ν e p → ne + Charge Current (CC) reaction, which is signaled by the direct detection of the final state positron and neutron. The hydrogen-rich liquid scintillators act as free proton targets for the bar ν e p CC reaction. The neutrons are detected through radiative neutron capture on gadolinium. He finds no evidence for bar ν e appearance in the first year of running. New limits on the bar ν μ , ν e , ν μ yields bar ν e oscillation parameters and the rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay branching ratio are presented

  19. Three-body charmful baryonic B decays B-bar→D(D*)NN-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Haiyang; Yang Kweichou

    2002-01-01

    We study the charmful three-body baryonic B decays B-bar→D ( * ) NN-bar: the color-allowed modes B-bar 0 →D ( * )+ np-bar and the color-suppressed ones B-bar 0 →D ( * )0 pp-bar. While the D* + /D + production ratio is predicted to be of order 3, it is found that D 0 pp-bar has a similar rate as D* 0 pp-bar. It is pointed out that B-bar 0 →D(D*)NN-bar are dominated by the nucleon vector current or by vector meson intermediate states, whereas B-bar 0 →D 0 pp-bar proceeds mainly via the exchange of the axial-vector intermediate state a 1 (1260). The study of the NN-bar invariant mass distribution in general indicates a threshold baryon pair production; that is, a recoil charmed meson accompanied by a low mass baryon pair except that the spectrum of D 0 pp-bar has a hump at large pp-bar invariant mass m pp-bar ∼3.0 GeV

  20. Impact of the Lok-bar for High-precision Radiotherapy with Tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Makoto; Monzen, Hajime; Tamura, Mikoto; Kubo, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hanaoka, Kohei; Okumura, Masahiko; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2018-05-01

    Patient immobilization systems are used to establish a reproducible patient position relative to the couch. In this study, the impact of conventional lok-bars for CT-simulation (CIVCO-bar) and treatment (iBEAM-bar) were compared with a novel lok-bar (mHM-bar) in tomotherapy. Verification was obtained as follows: i. artifacts in CT images; ii. dose attenuation rate of lok-bar, compared to without lok-bar; and iii. dose differences between the calculated and measured absorbed doses. With the CIVCO-bar, there were obvious metal artifacts, while there were nearly no artifacts with the mHM-bar. The mean dose attenuation rates with the mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar were 1.31% and 2.28%, and the mean dose difference was 1.55% and 1.66% for mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar. Using the mHM-bar reduced artifacts on the CT image and improved dose attenuation are obtained. The lok-bar needs to be inserted as a structure set in treatment planning with tomotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.